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Exam Choice





2009

TRIAL HIGHER SCHOOL
CERTIFICATE
EXAMINATION


Physics





General Instructions

• Reading time – 5 minutes
• Working time – 3 hours
• Write using black or blue pen
• Draw diagrams using pencil
• Approved calculators may be
used

• Write your student number in the
space provided

Student Number























Total marks – 100

Section I Pages 2 - 20

75 marks
This section has two parts, Part A and Part B

Part A – 15 marks
• Attempt Questions 1-15
• Allow about 30 minutes for this part

Part B – 60 marks
• Attempt Questions 16-30
• Allow about 1 hour and 45 minutes for this part

Section II Pages 21 - 28

25 marks
• Attempt ONE Question from Questions 31-35
• Allow about 45 minutes for this section

2
Section I
75 marks

Part A – 15 marks
Attempt Questions 1-15
Allow about 30 minutes for this part


Use the multiple-choice answer sheet.

Select the alternative A,B,C or D that best answers the question. Fill in the response oval
completely.

Sample: 2 + 4 = (A) 2 (B) 6 (C) 8 (D) 9

A B C D


If you think you have made a mistake, put a cross through the incorrect answer and fill in the
new answer.


A B C D


If you change your mind and have crossed out what you consider to be the correct answer,
then indicate the correct answer by writing the word correct and drawing an arrow as follows.


A B C D

correct
















3
1 The escape velocity from a planet is 8.0 x 10
3
m s
-1
. Which of the lists shown below
contains factors which would all affect the value of the escape velocity?

(A) planet’s radius, planet’s mass, the value of G (the universal gravitational
constant)

(B) planet’s radius, direction of launch, planet’s rotation

(C) the value of G (the universal gravitational constant), mass of launched object,
planet’s mass

(D) mass of launched object, planet’s radius, direction of launch



2 Which of the following statements best describes how a satellite is kept in place once
it is in its orbit around the Earth?

(A) The rotation of the Earth helps to maintain the satellite’s momentum.

(B) The rocket thrusters on the satellite keep it moving in a circle.

(C) Gravity provides all the force necessary to maintain the satellite’s orbital
motion.

(D) Earth’s orbit around the Sun provides enough motion for the satellite to keep in
orbit.



3 Particle accelerators are used to increase the speed of very small particles to close to
the speed of light. The particles are then smashed into each other.

The purpose of using a particle accelerator is to:

(A) allow the particles to attain very great kinetic energy.
(B) try to give the particles a speed greater than the speed of light.
(C) decrease the length of the particles.
(D) slow down the passing of time for the particles.



4
4 A plot of the values of potential difference across and current through an ohmic
resistor is made on axes as shown below.






A line of best fit is drawn so that the value of the resistance can be found. The most
appropriate line of best fit is labelled:


(A) A
(B) B
(C) C
(D) D


A
B
C
D
5
5 In which of the following cases is a current being induced in the moving wire at that
instant?


(A) (B)
B B
X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X
v v
X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X
length of straight wire loop of wire



(C) (D)

B B
X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X
v
X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X
length of straight wire loop of wire




6 One of the reasons back EMF is desirable is because it:


(A) reduces the voltage needed to run a motor.
(B) limits the speed of a motor preventing it from rotating too fast.
(C) increases the resistance of the coils in the motor.
(D) helps a motor begin to rotate when started.


v
6
7 This question refers to the simplified flow chart below representing the steps involved
in the generation and transmission of electricity to the final user.








The process occurring at “X” is:

(A) converting the electricity to alternating current.
(B) increasing the power of the electricity.
(C) decreasing the frequency of the electricity.
(D) increasing the voltage of the electricity.


8 In which of the following induction cooktop arrangements would heat be generated
most effectively?

(A) (B)



copper pan copper pan


DC DC AC AC




(C) (D)



aluminium pan aluminium pan


DC DC AC AC



power
station

X
trans-
mission
lines

Y

end
user
7
9 Which voltage output was produced by a generator having a device that connects the
brushes to the rotor coils that looks like the device shown here?







(A)
+
voltage


t


-

(B)
+

voltage

t



-

(C)
+

voltage

t


-

(D)
+

voltage
t



-

8
10 A student conducted a first hand investigation carefully following a valid procedure.
The results of the investigation showed that the student’s hypothesis was not correct.

The least appropriate conclusion that the student may come to is that the:


(A) student’s original assumption in the hypothesis might need changing.

(B) results of the investigation were not recorded correctly.

(C) procedure must have had hidden flaws.

(D) investigation must be repeated until results which match the hypothesis are
eventually obtained.




11 A stream of electrons is being fired through a long, narrow vacuum glass tube, with 25
mC of charge passing through the tube per second. A second glass vacuum tube is
placed next to the first tube with alpha particles moving through the tube, as shown.



- + 1
st
tube
cathode anode


2
nd
tube
alpha
particle
source



The investigation is conducted where there is no gravity.

The path the alpha particles could be expected to curve toward is:

(A) down the page

(B) up the page

(C) into the page

(D) out of the page



electrons
alpha particles
9
12 Early investigations into the nature of cathode rays were inconclusive. Whether the
cathode rays were waves or particles was disputed mainly because:


(A) of observations of their speed.
(B) of the fact that they could travel through a vacuum.
(C) they could not be deflected by an electric field.
(D) they cast shadows of such shapes as a Maltese cross.



13 Measurements of the period T of a mass m oscillating up and down on the end of a
spring were plotted on a graph shown below.





The formula which links the period T with the mass m is:
m
T=2
k
π where k is
known as the spring constant.

The value of the spring constant for the spring used in this investigation is closest to:

(A) 300 N m
-1
(B) 30 N m
-1
(C) 1.3 N m
-1
(D) 0.7 N m
-1



10
14 Early semiconductor devices were made from germanium, despite it not being the
most suitable material for the purpose. This was due to:

(A) there being no other material discovered at the time.
(B) alternative materials being too difficult to obtain in a sufficiently pure form.
(C) alternative materials being too rare in the earth’s crust.
(D) the alternative materials being too heavy to use in portable devices.



15 Which diagram best represents the arrangement of the conducting electrons as they
move through the lattice of a superconducting material from left to right?














11
Part B – 60 marks
Attempt Questions 16-30
Allow about 1 hour and 45 minutes for this part.

Answer the questions in the spaces provided.
Show all relevant working in questions involving calculations.


Question 16 (3 marks)

The weights of several masses were measured on the surface of a newly discovered
planet, called Asila. The results are shown in the graph below.



(a) Identify a reason for the graph being a straight line.

……………………………………………………………………………........

……………………………………………………………………………........


(b) On the above graph, draw the expected line of best fit if the mass of Asila
was exactly twice its present value and all other factors remained the same.



Marks























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Question 17 (6 marks)

A projectile is launched from the surface of the Moon so that it will land 20.0 km
away exactly 40.0 s after being launched.
Gravitational acceleration on the Moon is 1.6 m s
-2
.

(a) Calculate the projectile’s initial horizontal speed.

……………………………………………………………………………......

…………………………………………………………………………….......

…………………………………………………………………………….......


(b) Find the projectile’s initial vertical speed.

…………………………………………………………………………….......

…………………………………………………………………………….......

…………………………………………………………………………….......


(c) Describe how the angle of launch for this projectile would be different to the
angle of launch for a projectile on Earth that is designed to travel the same
horizontal distance. Give a reason for your answer.

…………………………………………………………………………….......

…………………………………………………………………………….......

…………………………………………………………………………….......

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Question 18 (2 marks)

Describe two ways in which the orbital decay of a low Earth orbit satellite could be
minimised.

…………………………………………………………………………….......

…………………………………………………………………………….......

…………………………………………………………………………….......

Marks






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Question 19 (5 marks)

The Michelson-Morley experiment attempted to measure the relative velocity of the
Earth through the aether without success.

With the aid of a diagram, explain why the Michelson-Morley experiment apparatus
was rotated through 90
0
in an attempt to observe the effect of the aether wind.


















Question 20 (3 marks)

Astronauts aboard the spaceship Platypus are travelling at 0.900c to visit a planet
which is exactly 10.0 light years away, measured from the Earth.

(a) To an observer on Earth watching the Platypus through a telescope, how
long will this one-way trip take?

…..………………………………………………………………………......

…………………………………………………………………………….....


(b) How much time will have elapsed onboard the Platypus by the time they
reach the planet?

…………………………………………………………………………….....

…………………………………………………………………………….....

…………………………………………………………………………….....

…………………………………………………………………………….....
Marks





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Question 21 (4 marks)

The motor effect can be demonstrated in the laboratory in many ways.

(a) With the aid of a diagram, describe one way in which you have
demonstrated the motor effect.







……………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………..


(b) Explain the observations made when the motor effect was demonstrated.

……………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………..



Question 22 (4 marks)

“Without the presence of back emf, an electric motor would either spin so fast it
would destroy itself, or simply burn out”.

Assess the accuracy of this statement by referring to Lenz’s Law and the production
of back emf in electric motors.

……………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………..

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Marks
Question 23 (5 marks)

“We live in a society that totally relies upon alternating current electrical energy.”

With reference to this statement, describe how our society would be different from
today’s if Thomas Edison’s electrical distribution system had become the dominant
form of electrical energy for its distribution and use.


…………………………………………………………………………….

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Question 24 (3 marks)

A transformer is constructed with 400 turns on the coil attached to the electrical
input and 50 turns on the coil attached to the output. The input is 200 V AC, with a
current of 25.0 A. Assume the transformer is 100% efficient.

Find the output current of this transformer.



INPUT OUTPUT




200 V AC

400 turns 50 turns

……………………………………………………………………………..

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Question 25 (2 marks)

Outline two transformations of electrical energy into other forms of useful energy
within the home and/or industry.

……………………………………………………………………………..

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……………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………..

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Question 26 (5 marks)

Only in the last few years have cathode ray tube televisions been superseded by flat
screen technology.

Three electron guns are used in colour televisions to fire electrons at the screen of
the cathode ray tube.

(a) Outline the role of the electrodes in the electron guns.

……………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………..


(b) Find the magnitude of the force on an electron that has a speed of
6.5 x 10
3
m s
-1
in the cathode ray tube when a magnetic field of intensity
4.0 x 10
-2
T is perpendicular to the direction of the velocity of the
electron.

……………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………..


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Question 27 (4 marks)

Compare the features of the wave model of light with the features of the particle
model of light when the models are used to describe the reasons for differences
between blue light and red light.

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Question 28 (7 marks)

Pure silicon is not suitable for use in semiconductor devices due to its high
resistance.

(a) Describe the two ways in which silicon is treated in order to alter its
electrical properties to make it suitable for use in solid state devices.

……………………………………………………………………………..

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Question 28 continues on page 19
19

Question 28 (continued)

(b) Discuss reasons why solid state devices quickly replaced thermionic
devices in electronic circuits.

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Question 29 (3 marks)

When gathering information from secondary sources it is necessary to evaluate the
source in a number of ways.

List three distinct aspects of a source evaluation you have undertaken when
gathering secondary information.

……………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………

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Question 30 (5 marks)

Two identical metal discs were suspended on strings as shown in the diagram
below. The discs each have a bar magnet placed on a spinning axle placed
underneath them. Disc B on the right is cooled to below its critical temperature.

Marks




(a) Compare the motion of the two discs, A and B once the magnets begin to
spin.

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(b) Explain the motion of either disc once the magnet begins to spin.

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(c) Identify one practical application of an arrangement such as that shown.

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21
Section II


25 marks
Attempt ONE question from Questions 31-35

Allow about 45 minutes for this section

Answer the question in a writing booklet.
Show all relevant working in questions involving calculations.





Pages

Question 31 Geophysics………………………………… 22

Question 32 Medical Physics…………………………… 23-24

Question 33 Astrophysics……………………………….. 25

Question 34 From Quanta to Quarks……………………. 26-27

Question 35 The Age of Silicon………………………… 28
























22

Question 31 Geophysics (25 marks)


(a) (i) Describe the type of data that was obtained by Newton’s investigations
using pendulums that led to his proposal for the shape of the Earth.

(ii) Identify the shape of the Earth.

(iii) Discuss how Newton’s data led him to his proposal for the shape of the
Earth.


(b) Most reflective surfaces do not reflect all of the incident radiation. With the
aid of a diagram, explain how this can reveal information about the reflecting
surface. Give a specific example in your response.


(c) (i) Compare the methods of seismic reflection and seismic refraction by
giving examples of situations in which they would prove useful.

(ii) Outline how seismic methods have revealed information about the
structure of Earth’s core.

(iii) Identify the apparatus used to detect seismic waves used in
geophysical techniques.


(d) The theory of plate tectonics was ridiculed by many scientists when it was
first proposed several decades ago. However, it is now widely accepted.
Analyse ways in which the theory of plate tectonics has been tested and
validated over the years.


(e) Geophysical methods are used in a wide variety of applications which benefit
our society. Explain the benefits of geophysical methods in a number of
named applications.












Marks



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23

Question 32 Medical Physics (25 marks)


(a) (i) Compare the situations in which ultrasound A scans and B scans would
be used.

(ii) Describe how the Doppler effect is used in ultrasound to reveal
information regarding blood flow through the heart.


(b) A doctor chooses to order an X-ray image in order to help make a medical
diagnosis. In another diagnosis, a CAT scan is ordered. Compare two likely
situations in which the different imaging techniques would be used, giving
reasons for the choices made by the doctor.


(c) The following two images are an X-ray image (left) and a bone scan image
(right). Both procedures seem to give similar results.



X-ray image bone scan

(i) Outline the procedure followed when a bone scan is obtained.

(ii) Outline one advantage and one disadvantage of bone scans compared to
X-rays.

(iii) Identify one difference between PET scans and other imaging
techniques.


(d) (i) Describe how the properties of spin of protons can be altered so that a
signal is given off during a MRI procedure.

(ii) Explain what is meant by the term “T1 relaxation time” as applied to
MRI procedures.



Question 32 continues on page 24
Marks



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Question 32 (continued)


(e) “The use of medical physics is largely taken for granted throughout the
developed world. Its large cost is balanced by the number of lives it saves.
However, similar amounts of money would save many more lives if used to
provide basic medical procedures in third world countries.”

With reference to the statement above, justify the use of medical physics.




Marks








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25

Question 33 Astrophysics (25 marks)

(a) (i) Explain why telescopes are built with a large primary mirror despite the
extra cost involved.

(ii) Identify the meaning of the astronomical term “seeing”.

(iii) Identify two methods by which the resolution and/or sensitivity of a
ground-based observatory can be improved.


(b) Compare the distance units of the parsec and the light-year by describing how
they are defined and explain why they are both considered as being earth-
dependent measurements.


(c) (i) Intensity-wavelength graphs of two stars are shown below.


star A
intensity





star B


wavelength

Outline two ways in which the stars’ light outputs differ. Give reasons.

(ii) Identify a possible source of a continuous spectrum of light.

(iii) Outline why the spectra of most stars are not continuous.


(d) Many models, theories and laws in Physics are tested in simple investigations.

(i) Describe an investigation you performed that demonstrated the use of
filters for photometric measurements in astronomy.

(ii) Compare your investigation with the actual use of filters or their modern
day equivalent in modern astronomy.


(e) Elements heavier than hydrogen and helium are thought to have been produced
in stars. Discuss the production of the known elements inside stars by fusion.
Marks


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26
Marks
Question 34 From Quanta to Quarks (25 marks)

(a) (i) Define Bohr’s postulates.

(ii) Identify one way in which Bohr’s postulates were an advance on the
Rutherford model of the atom.

(iii) Describe two features of spectral lines which cannot be explained by
Bohr’s atomic model.


(b) Interference patterns produced by diffraction gratings were used as evidence of
the wave nature of light. Reflective diffraction grating patterns can be seen by
observing a CD or DVD.


source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Interference-colors.jpg

With the aid of diagrams, show how waves behave as they pass through or are
reflected off a diffraction grating and then produce an interference pattern.


(c) (i) Outline the relative contributions of electrostatic, gravitational and
nuclear forces in keeping the nucleus of atoms intact.

(ii) Outline the properties of the strong nuclear force to explain why it has
practically no influence between everyday objects.

(iii) Describe the contents of the universe if the nuclear forces did not exist.








Question 34 continues on page 27


2

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27

Question 34 (continued)


(d) Throughout modern Physics there are stories of how models, theories and laws
have been tested and validated. Chadwick’s discovery of the neutron was greatly
assisted by the application of conservation laws.

Describe how conservation laws in Physics played a role in Chadwick’s
discovery of the neutron.


(e) “The Manhattan Project represented a major turning point in society from which
there is no turning back.”

Assess this statement with reference to the outcomes of the Manhattan Project.

































Marks







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28

Question 35 The Age of Silicon (25 marks)

(a) (i) Outline the needs that led to the invention of the integrated circuit.

(ii) Identify one electronic difference between a single transistor and an
integrated circuit.

(iii) Describe two distinct applications of integrated circuits in modern
electronics.


(b) By identifying the similarities and differences between electronic analogue and
digital systems, assess the advantages of electronic digital systems. Give specific
examples in your answer.


(c) (i) Identify two examples of input transducers.

(ii) Describe the differences between a negative coefficient thermistor and a
positive coefficient thermistor.

(iii) Explain how a refrigerator is able to maintain a narrow temperature
range using a thermistor.


(d) Draw a circuit diagram that shows the function of a relay that allows a large
current from an AC source to flow through a load and a small LED to turn on
when this current is supplied.


(e) A circuit is to be constructed using logic gates. There are three inputs, A, B and
C. A truth table for the circuit is shown below.


Input A Input B Input C Output
0 0 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 1
1 0 0 1
0 1 1 1
1 1 0 1
1 1 1 0


(i) Draw a circuit diagram using only logic gates AND, OR or inverter gates
that would give the truth table above. Label each gate symbol used.

(ii) Describe the function of the logic gates mentioned.
Marks


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2

Exam Choice
2009 Physics Trial HSC examination. Marking Guidelines and model Answers.
Section I A Multiple Choice
1 2 3 4 ! " # 9 10 11 12 13 14 1
A C A C $ $ % % C % A C $ $ A
Section 1 $
1! a&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
Appropriate reason for graph’s straight, i.e. linear relationship between W & mass 1
Weight is proportional to mass within any constant gravitational field such as on the surface of a planet.
1! )&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
Gradient of new line is twice the original A! passes through the origin 2
Gradient of new line is twice the original "# passes through the origin 1
1" a&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
$orrect e%uation with correct substitution A! answer to & significant figures 2
$orrect answer but incorrect number of sig figs used 1
&
' ()
'*.* )*
+*.*
,.** )* m s
x
x
x u t
x
u
t
∆ =  

=

=
= ᄡ
1" )&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
$orrect answer with units given 2
Appropriate e%uations identified with subse%uent error-s. in substitution 1
('
y
+*.*
* -back to the ground.
a )./ m s
0
y
t s
y
u
=
∆ =
= −
=
'
'
'
()
)
'
)
* +*.* )./ +*.*
'
)
)./ +*.*
'
+*.*
&' m s
y y
y
y
y u t a t
u
u
∆ = +
= + ∂ − δ
ᄡ ᄡ
=
=
1" c&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
$orrect answer with correspondingly appropriate reasoning given 2
$orrect answer supplied with incorrect or no reasoning 1
1he angle of the launch on 2arth must be greater than on the Moon. 1he initial hori3ontal component of the launch velocity will be the same
-to cover '*.* km in +*.* s. but to stay in flight on 2arth, a much greater vertical component of launch velocity is re%uired as gravitational
acceleration on 2arth is greater than on the Moon.
1#
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1wo suitable methods are identified 2
A suitable method is identified 1
)
As orbital decay is caused by air friction, a satellite could be made more streamlined to reduce friction by reducing surface area in the
direction of motion A! the satellite could be placed in a slightly higher orbit where less air e4ists to cause friction.
19
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1horough e4planation supplied supported by a clear diagram 4
A description of the reason for the rotation of the apparatus given with little or no support from a
diagram
3
A description of the M(M e4periment including rotation of the apparatus is provided 2
An aspect of the M(M e4periment identified 1
1he time taken for a ray of light moving into the aether wind and back will be slightly longer than the same ray moving perpendicular to the
same aether wind. 1his is at the heart of the physics of the M(M e4periment. 1iming such a ray to the necessary precision is not possible, but
splitting one ray into two at right angles and then re(combining them will produce an interference pattern which would be seen to change as
the direction of the rays relative to the aether wind changed by rotating the apparatus.. 5t is this rotation of the apparatus that would enable
any detection of the effect of the aether wind on the speed of light.
mirror )
source ray half(silvered mirror aether wind
mirror '
interferometer
whole apparatus can be rotated through 6*
*
20 a&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
$orrect answer given 1
distance
time7
speed
)*.* light years
*.6 c
)).) years
=
=
20 )&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
$alculation-s. performed correctly with correct answer given 2
8artial calculation, i.e. either step, performed correctly 1
As the 8latypus is travelling at *.6**c, observers onboard will measure the distance they need to travel to the planet shortened due to length
contraction9
( )
'
'
'
'
'
)
*.6**c
)*.* )
c
)*.* ) *.6**
+.&/ light years
v o
v
l l
c
= −
= −
= −
=
so that the time taken onboard is9
distance
time 7
speed
+.&/ light years
*.6**c
+.:+ years
=
=
21 a&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
Motor effect demonstration is described clearly, with reference to the motor effect and with a diagram
which assists the description given
2
An appropriate demonstration of the motor effect is outlined 1
e.g. A wire is passes through a horseshoe magnet. When the current is turned on the wire is seen to move, "# a strip of aluminium foil has a
horseshoe magnet placed around it and when a current flows, the foil moves "# a metal disc is suspended on a string and when a bar magnet
on a stick is rotated directly beneath it, the disc spins.
e.g. diagram of wire through magnet9
'
I
1he wire is observed to move or ;ump upwards when the current is switched on.
21 )&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1horough e4planation of the observation in <')a is provided= motor effect is described in the conte4t of
the demonstration in <')a
2
General description of the motor effect is given with interaction between current and magnetic field
identified
1
5n the diagram in ')a, application of the right(hand palm rule gives the direction of force on that part of the wire within the magnetic field as
being upwards. $onventional current, shown as >5?, is in the same direction as the motion of -imaginary. positive charges in the wire. When
the current is switched on, this is verified by observing the upwards motion of the wire.
22
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
• @tatement is assessed correctly
• induced 2MA in the coils of a motor described correctly
• Ben3’s law referred to correctly in relation to the direction of 2MA induced in the coils of a
motor
• role of back 2MA in a motor, limiting its speed A! preventing coil burn(out is described
4
#ole of back 2MA in a motor is described but no or poor assessment of statement 3
1wo aspects listed above are given 2
"ne aspect listed above is given 1
As the coils of a motor rotate within the magnetic field of the stator, 2MA is induced in them. Cy Ben3’s law, the direction of this induced
2MA is opposite to that which is giving rise to the 2MA D hence the term >back? 2MA. 1he magnitude of this back 2MA is proportional to
the speed of rotation of the motor D hence it limits the speed of the motor D if the motor rotated too fast the back 2MA would cancel the
supplied 2MA and the motor would have no tor%ue D and slow down. As the back 2MA opposes the supply 2MA the current through the
coils of the motor is reduced so that they will not burn out. Eence the statement’s assertions are accurate.
23
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
#esponse shows evidence of a thorough knowledge and understanding of the differences and similarities
between 2dison and Westinghouse’s electrical distribution systems and the impacts on our society of
widespread A$ electricity distribution
4*
@everal aspects of electricity distribution A! limitations of !$ distribution is described with correct
reference to 2dison’s !$ system
3
2ither the benefits of A$ or the limitations of !$ is described 2
• An aspect of A$ electrical distribution identified, "#
• a limitation of !$ electrical distribution identified, "#
• an aspect of our society’s widespread use of electricity identified
1
"ur society today relies on the distribution of huge amounts of electrical energy to all but the most remote communities from power stations
built close to the source of the energy from which the electricity is produced, usually coal or hydro(electric dams. 1hese power stations are
relatively efficient and are able to be sited outside of main population centres, transmitting the electricity by stepping up the voltage to
minimise losses in the wires by using transformers. 1ransformers do not operate on !$, so 2dison’s distribution system would have re%uired
the siting of power generators close to the end users, i.e. within cities and towns. 1he changing of the supplied voltage to homes and industry
from around ))*F would be much more difficult than it is at present, limiting the variety of uses that we have today from a few volts in
computers and battery chargers to thousands of volts in cathode ray tubes and fluorescent lights.
24
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
Coth steps in calculation performed correctly to obtain correct answer 3
"ne step in calculation performed correctly and conse%uence of )**G efficiency is identified 2
"ne step in calculation attempted with correct e%uation selected but subse%uent incorrect substitution
"#
1he conse%uence of )**G efficiency is identified
1
&
+
S
p
s
s
p
n
n
n
n
'** ,*
+**
', F
p
s
p
s
V
V
V
V
=
=

=
=
s p
s s p p
p p
s
s
As 8 8 -)**G efficient., we get9
F5 F 5
F 5
5
F
'** ',.*
',
'** amps
=
=
=
=
=
2
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1wo appropriate energy transformations identified 2
"ne appropriate energy transformation is identified 1
@ample answers may include9
• motor9 electric  kinetic
• light9 electric  light
• speakers9 electric  sound
• toaster9 electric  heat
etc
2! a&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1he roles of both the cathode and the anode individually and together are described 2
1he role of the electron gun in general, or the electrodes in general, is described 1
1he cathode provides a source of electrons. 5t is usually heated to allow the electrons to be released more easily. 1he electrons are attracted
towards the anode by the force of the electric field between the two electrodes which have a potential difference of many thousands of volts
between them. 1he accelerated electrons continue on towards the screen of the 1F.
2! )&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
$orrect substitution with correct answer A! correct unit given 3
$orrect substitution with correct answer, no unit given 2
$orrect e%uation selected with a subse%uent error 1
F = qvBsinθ where H7*, sinθ=*= so9
F = )./ 4 )*
()6
4 /., 4 )*
&
4 +.* 4 )*
('
7 +.)/ 4 )*
()I

2"
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1horough e4planation showing evidence of a deep understanding of the nature of light for both wave
and particle models and their relationship to the e4planation
4
$omparison of the wave and particle models in terms of fre%uency and photon energy provided 3
A correct comparison of the fre%uency or wavelength of red and blue light given 2
A difference between red and blue light is identified, i.e. fre%uency or wavelength 1
Wave model9 blue light has a shorter wavelength and higher fre%uency electromagnetic wave than red light, which travel at the same speed.
8article model9 A photon of blue light has greater energy, given by 27hf, than a photon of red light.
2# a&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1he nature of doping and its results are thoroughly e4plained for both p( and n(type 3
Coth types of doping are described 2
!oping is identified 1
8ure silicon has a very small percentage of a Group & element such as Coron added to it which produces electron >holes? within its lattice
structure. 1his alters silicon’s electrical properties as it allows holes to migrate, acting as positive charge carriers, when electrons ;ump into
the hole. Group , elements can be introduced in very small percentages which introduces an e4tra electron into the lattice. 1hese electrons
can easily migrate, as they are not involved in the chemical bonding between silicon atoms.
2# )&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1he advantages of solid state over thermionic devices is thoroughly discussed and related to their uses 4
@olid state devices are compared to thermionic devices in terms which clearly indicate the advantages of
the former
3
@everal propertiesJcharacteristics of both solid state A! thermionic devices are identified 2
A propertyJcharacteristic of either solid state "# thermionic devices is identified 1
+
@olid state devices are smaller, more robust, re%uire less power, are far more reliable and begin to operate immediately when compared to
thermionic devices. 1hermionic devices were made from glass vacuum tubes, thus were not robust, were bulky and re%uired a lot of power to
heat the cathode. 1hey broke down regularly. Ksed in communications such as on aircraft for radios, the advantages of solid state devices
made them far more desirable and were %uickly adopted for all of these reasons.
29
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1hree distinct aspects of a source evaluation are identified 3
1wo distinct aspects of a source evaluation are identified 2
An aspect of a source evaluation is identified 1
#eliability9 is the source reputable0
!ate of publication9 is the source up to date0
Accuracy9 is the information repeatedJthe same as elsewhere0
30 a&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1he motion of the discs are compared 1
Coth discs will begin to spin in the same direction as the spinning magnets. !isc $ will spin faster than disc A.
30 )&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1he cause of the discs motion is e4plained in a logical and se%uential way 3
1he cause of the discs motion is described -i.e. cause and effect is lacking. 2
An aspect of the cause of the discs motion is identified 1
1he rotation of the magnet produces a changing flu4 through the metal disc. 1he changing flu4 induces currents known as eddy currents D
circular currents, to flow within the metal disc. 1hese eddy currents produce a magnetic fields which oppose the magnetic field from the
spinning magnet, creating a force on the disc. 1he force results in tor%ue on the disc so the disc spins in the same direction as the magnet.
30 c&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
A practical application is identified 1
e.g. a motor drive that doesn’t transmit vibration= an induction motor= etc
@ection ' "ptions
31 , -eophysics
a& .i/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
$orrect answer is described 2
An aspect of the data is identified 1
1he period of a pendulum of e4actly known length was used to provide information to calculate the value of >g?
a. .ii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
$orrect answer supplied 1
Geoid
a& .iii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
$lear discussion of the issues with relevant reference to ewton’s analysis 2
An aspect of ewton’s analysis is identified 1
ewton used the fact that the value of >g? is reduced with increase distance from the centre of the 2arth, i.e. increased radius. Fariations
between measurements taken at different locations were used to deduce the shape of the 2arth.
)&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1horough e4planation with relevant e4ample and useful diagram showing evidence of a deep
understanding of the issue
4
24planation provided but diagram or e4ample is poor or not provided 3
5ssue described 2
An aspect of the issue is identified 1
,
incident reflected
radiation radiation
With knowledge of the incident radiation, measurement of the reflected radiation wavelengths are used to compare with the incident
radiation. @ubstances and chemicals absorb or reflect certain -known. wavelengths, such as o3one in the atmosphere absorbs KF
wavelengths.
c& .i/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
Coth seismic reflection and refraction are compared with relevant e4amples of their applications
provided
2
$omparison of the two techni%ues is described 1
Aor information on seismic reflection and refraction techni%ues and their applications, see, for e4ample9
www.enviroscan.comJhtmlJ seismic L re0raction LversusLrefl.html
www.geophysics.co.ukJmets&.html
@eismic reflection is used when there e4ists a clear boundary between sub(surface materials, e.g. rock and oil= oil and gas= rock and gas. A
reflected seismic signal’s intensity gives an indication as to the nature of the boundary. 1he time taken for the reflected signal provides
information as to the depth of the boundary which can then be test(drilled with good knowledge of what was to be e4pected. @eismic
refraction is used when the density of rocks varies, e.g. a mineral deposit has a higher density than surrounding strata and will cause the
refraction of a seismic signal which can then be inferred and test drilling for further e4ploration as to the nature of the deposit can be
performed.
c& .ii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
@eismic methods relevant to revealing the structure of earth’s core are described and related 2
A relevant seismic method is outlined "#
the structure of earth’s core is described
1
1he detection of 8 and @ waves from earth%uakes is made by seismometers in almost every country in the world. 1he 8 waves from a large
earth%uake can be detected right around the globe as these waves can travel through the li%uid outer core region. 1he time taken for the
arrival at various locations can be used to calculate the path taken by the 8 waves. @ -shear. waves cannot propagate through li%uid. 1he
e4clusion 3one for @ waves gives geologists an indication of the si3e of the 2arth’s li%uid outer core.
c& .iii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
$orrect answer 1
Geophone
1&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1he evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics is described thoroughly and it is related to how it
supports the theory=
2vidence is analysed to show how plate tectonics has been validated as a scientific theory
4*
@everal pieces of evidence supporting plate tectonics is described 3
@everal pieces of evidence supporting plate tectonics are identified "# one piece of evidence is
described
2
"ne piece of evidence for plate tectonics identified 1
2vidence can include9 sea floor spreading= mid(ocean ridges= symmetrical geomagnetic anomalies in sea floor rock either side of mid(ocean
ridges= matching coastlines, matching fossil records, matching geological strata etc on opposite sides of mid(ocean ridges= plate boundary
geology, including subduction 3ones, ocean trenches= fault 3ones= mountain(building 3ones and associated volcanic and earth%uake activity.
All of these separate pieces of evidence support the theory of plate tectonics. More recently, accurate measurements of the relative motion of
plates has been made so that today, the theory is held in high regard by the scientific community.
e&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
@everal various and different geophysical methods are described and their benefits to society are
e4plained thoroughly
*!
@everal geophysical method are described "# one geophysical method is described with its benefits to
society e4plained
3*4
A geophysical method is described "# several geophysical methods are identified 2
A geophysical method is identified 1
/
e.g. @eismology D the study of earth%uakes, is leading towards the ability to predict ma;or earth%uakes and to warn inhabitants and authorities
ahead of time, perhaps saving thousands of lives.
Gravimetry D the study of earth’s gravitational field and its variations, leading to the discovery of mineral deposits -including lead, silver
and 3inc, or oil and gas. worth billions of dollars without having to drill random e4ploration
32 Me1ical Physics
a& .i/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
@ituations compared with evidence of knowledge A and C scans 2
2ither A or C scan techni%ue application identified 1
e.g. an A scan can be used in ophthalmology to detect abnormality in eye tissue= it is a one(dimensional scan that displays a spike on the
e4aminer’s screen when an echo is received giving information about the distance and material.
a b scan can be used again in ophthalmology but it gives a bright spot on the display, commensurate with the intensity of the reflected signal,
see for e4ample9http9JJwww.%ub.ac.ukJeduJniesuJphysicsJmedicalJusfolderJbscans).html
a& .ii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
Application of !oppler effect is described thoroughly for this application 3
!oppler ultrasound techni%ue is described in general 2
A feature of the !oppler effect is identified 1
5n !oppler scans, the ultrasound waves which are reflected from the moving blood -through the heart. are returned with slightly different
fre%uencyJwavelength. 1he difference is measured and used to calculate the speed of the moving blood which can then be colour(coded on a
monitor. Abnormalities in the bloodflow are %uickly detected using this method.
)&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1he techni%ues are compared both functionally and by their applicability in actual described e4amples 4
M(ray and $A1 scan applications are described and compared using actual e4amples 3
M(ray and $A1 scan applications are compared 2
2ither M(ray or $A1 scan techni%ues have a specific application identified 1
An M(ray produces a ' dimensional -flat. image, applicable for a comparatively uncomplicated imaging need such as a broken bone or chest
screening. A $A1 scan will compute a three dimensional image, re%uired in the need for such an image of an organ or internal mass,
although sub;ecting the patient to a higher level of radiation, thus avoided as much as possible in the young.
c& .i/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
8rocedure is outlined in full 2
An aspect of a bone scan procedure is identified 1
A bone scan is performed when a radioactive gamma emitting dye is in;ected into the patient and the dye is taken up by the bone
biologically. A gamma camera is used to form an image of the bone.
c& .ii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
An advantage A! a disadvantaged outlined 2
"ne advantage "# disadvantage outlined 1
A bone scan shows areas which are more biologically active, where a greater concentration of dye is evident by the brighter area on the
image. M(rays only show the structure of the bone. M(rays take less time to produce and are cheaper.
c& .iii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
A relevant difference between 821 scans and other imaging techni%ues identified 1
1he way in which the gamma radiation is produced, by the annihilation of a positron and an electron, is different to other techni%ues which
have either e4ternally(sourced penetrating radiation -or sound. or the radiation is produced from radioactive decay.
1& .i/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
Manipulation of proton spin and how a signal is emitted is described thoroughly 3
Manipulation of proton spin is described 2
An aspect of proton spin is identified 1
8roton spin can be aligned parallel or anti(parallel to a strong e4ternal magnetic field. When this field is switched off, the protons >rela4?
back to their normal spin states, emitting a pulse of radio waves as they do. 1he magnetic field is re(applied and the process repeated.
1& .ii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1he term is e4plained fully 2
I
1) rela4ation time is outlined 1
1) rela4ation time refers to the time taken for protons aligned to a magnetic field to >rela4? back to their normal spin state, emitting a pulse
of radio wave electromagnetic radiation in the process.
e&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1he use of medical physics is ;ustified in a well(balanced, logical and clearly espoused response
showing evidence of a deep understanding of the nature of medical physics and its applications and
benefits
*!
1he nature of medical physics is described using references to its applications and an attempt to ;ustify
its use is made
3*4
@everal aspects of medical physics, including applications, are identified 2
An application of medical physics is identified 1
1he use of medical physics is limited to the general populations of the richer nations in the world where its use has become e4pected and
routine. 1he diagnosis, treatment and cure of many illnesses, diseases and medical situations such as pregnancy, in;uries etc which ultimately
prevents premature death and e4tends the %uality and length of life in these countries has directly benefited their economies and societies to
the e4tent that they are able to now e4tend aid in ever(increasing ways, including medical, to poorer nations. Medical technology may lead to
cures for diseases like malaria which could benefit poorer as well as richer countries and should therefore be pursued for the good of the
citi3ens of both rich and poor countries.
33 Astrophysics
a& .i/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
$lear e4planation with reference to both resolution and sensitivity 2
#eference made to one of resolution or sensitivity "# both factors identified 1
Sample ans2er
1he surface area of a collecting mirror is proportional to the s%uare of its diameterJradius, which in turn is proportional to the light collecting
ability of the mirror D its sensitivity. 1he resolution of the telescope is proportional to the diameter of the mirror.
a& .ii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1erm is identified correctly 1
Sample ans2er
>@eeing? is the term used by astronomers when referring to the blurring or distorting effect of the atmosphere on the image obtained.
a& .iii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1wo methods identified 2
"ne method identified 1
1wo of9 adaptive optics= active optics, interferometry.
)&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
Coth terms defined and compared accurately with 2arth(dependent natures clearly identified 3*4
2ither term defined including 2arth(dependent nature "# both terms defined 2
2ither term defined 1
A parsec is about & N light years. 5t is the distance that a star with a paralla4 angle of ) arcsecond is from earth, a measurement wholly
dependent upon the radius of 2arth’s orbit around the @un. A light year is the distance light travels in one 2arth year in a vacuum D again
dependent on the length -and definition. of a year on 2arth.
c& .i/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1wo differences given 2
"ne difference given 1
@tar A is more luminous -radiates more light. and has a bluer colour than @tar C.
c& .ii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
A correct source is identified 1
An incandescent globe -or any other very hot ob;ect..
c& .iii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
A clear outline of a typical star’s spectrum formation is provided 2
A typical star’s spectrum is identified 1
:
While the very hot core of a star produces a continuous spectrum, the outer regions of the star, known as its atmosphere, contain atoms, ions
and molecules which absorb certain wavelengths from the continuous spectrum. 1hese same wavelengths are re(emitted in all directions and
produce dark lines at those wavelengths when the star’s light is viewed through a spectroscope.
1& .i/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
An appropriate investigation is described in full with the role of filters related to astronomy 3
An appropriate investigation is described 2
An appropriate investigation is identified "# a use of filters in astronomy is identified 1
Clue and red coloured filters were, in turn, placed in front of the light(gathering sensor of a light meter or light(probe attached to a data
logger. Bight sources such as a globe, a sodium vapour lamp and fluorescent lights had their light intensity measured through both filters,
ensuring that the same distance from the source and same sensor was used for both measurements. 1he difference between the two light
intensity measurements was related to the colour of the source.
1& .ii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
5nvestigation is compared to the modern(day e%uivalent of the use of filters 2
Modern(day use of filters or their e%uivalent is identified 1
A typical colour inde4 measurement of a star is the blue magnitude minus the yellow -visual. magnitude. Clue and yellow filters have now
been replaced by the use of $$!s which can record the intensities of light at different wavelengths so a colour inde4 can be computed faster
and with more accuracy.
e&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
A thorough discussion, including the outline of the process of the9
• proton(proton chain=
• $" cycle
• supernova e4plosions to produce elements heavier than Ae
is provided showing evidence of a deep understanding of nucleosynthesis in stars.
*!
A discussion of nucleosynthesis, including the outline of two of9
• proton(proton chain
• $" cycle
• supernove e4plosions
is provided
3*4
@everal process or aspects of stellar nucleosynthesis are identified 2
A process or aspect of the synthesis of elements in stars is identified 1
1he proton(proton chain allows the step(wise combination of + protons to form a helium nucleus -plus energy, positrons and neutrinos. in the
relatively cool -O)/ million P. core of stars. 1he $" cycle uses carbon as a catalysts in another stepwise reaction to do, overall, e4actly
what the proton(proton chain does D convert + protons into a helium nucleus. 1his process occurs in hotter cores -Q )/ million P.. "nce the
hydrogen fuel becomes depleted, further fusion processes occur in red giants in layers rather like onion layers D Ee into $ and further
processes to produce all the elements up to Ae. Eeavier elements cannot be produced as the fusion process for them is not sustainable, being
endothermic. Eowever within the enormously energetic e4plosion of a supernova, these fusion processes can occur and all of the natural
elements -or more precisely their nuclei. are formed D much of which is then scattered throughout the surrounding part of the gala4y.
34 3rom 4uanta to 4uar's
a& .i/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
Cohr’s three postulates are defined 2
"ne postulate is defined or two are identified 1
). 2lectrons can orbit the nucleus only in fi4ed energy levels or orbitals.
'. 2lectrons in these orbitals do not radiate energy.
&. 2lectrons can ;ump between orbitals by absorbing energy -;ump up. or releasing energy in the form of a photon -;ump down..
a& .ii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
An advance on #utherford’s model is identified 1
e.g. electrons could orbit without losing energy and spiralling into the nucleus
a& .iii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1wo appropriate une4plainable features described 2
"ne une4plainable feature described or two identifies 1
Any two of9
• 1he Reeman 2ffect D splitting of spectral lines when the source is sub;ected to a magnetic field=
• the relative intensities of the spectral lines D some lines are more intense than others=
6
• unable to predict the spectra of larger atoms D now known to be due to the complicated nature of orbitals in such atoms=
• hyperfine spectral lines D very fine lines resolved upon close e4amination of a single line.
)&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
!iffraction patterns are e4plained with the aid of a suitable diagram 3*4
!iffraction and its cause is described 2
1he nature of diffraction is identified 1
!iffraction patterns are observed from surfaces such as $!s and !F!s due to the closely spaced tracks etched into these discs. At certain
angles of reflection, particular wavelengths of light undergo constructive interference so that colours are seen from these positions.
white light
c& .i/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1he three forces relative contributions are outlined 2
1he role of two or three of the forces is identified "# the relative contribution of two of the forces is
outlined
1
2lectrostatic forces e4ert repulsion forces between the closely(spaced protons in the nucleus. Attractive gravitational forces are not sufficient
to overcome these repulsion forces. 1he strong nuclear force, which only acts over very small distances such as those found between protons
in a nucleus, provides the necessary attractive force to hold the nucleus intact and give it its stability.
c& .ii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1he properties of the strong nuclear force are outlined in conte4t 2
A property of the strong nuclear force is identified 1
Although a very significant attractive force over the distances found within a nucleus of an atom -and being limited to distances of less then
the diameter of a nucleon., the strong nuclear force e4erts no discernible influence between individual atoms or molecules and therefore has
no effect at these distances.
c& .iii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
$ontents described 1
"nly the simplest atom D hydrogen, having a lone proton as the nucleus, would e4ist throughout the universe as the electrostatic repulsion
between protons would prevent larger nuclei form forming and remaining stable.
1&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1he role of conservation laws in $hadwick’s discovery D including momentum and energy, are
described
4*
A relevant conservation law is described and another identified "# the role of one conservation law in
$hadwick’s discovery is described
3
1wo relevant conservation laws are identified or one law described 2
A relevant conservation law is identified 1
$hadwick discovered the neutron, a difficult to detect particle due to its neutral charge, using the conservation laws of momentum and
energy. 5n )6&', $hadwick fired alpha particles at Ceryllium. Ee observed that paraffin wa4, when held up behind the beryllium target,
emitted protons -as paraffin is a proton(rich substance.. @omething was coming from the beryllium and striking the paraffin to cause the
proton emissions. 5nitially, it was suggested that gamma rays were responsible, but $hadwick found that this was not possible as the laws of
conservation of momentum and of energy did not hold for the gamma(ray model. What did fit was a particle with a mass about e%ual that of
a proton, but without charge. 1his was found from observing the motion of the emitted protons from the paraffin and the motion of the
original alpha particles into the beryllium. 1he particle was subse%uently named the neutron.
e&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
Assessment of the statement is made with close analysis of the statement by discussing the Manhattan
pro;ect’s outcomes in both short and long term views.
*!
1he Manhattan 8ro;ect is described, including its outcomes and impacts 3*4
@everal aspects Manhattan 8ro;ect are identified 2
An aspect of the Manhattan 8ro;ect is identified 1
1he outcome of the Manhattan 8ro;ect D the first atomic bombs, led directly to the nuclear arms race and to the rapid increase in knowledge
of the energy contained within the atom. 1his rapid increase in the knowledge of nuclear fission and fusion reactions was used in weaponry
after WW 55 and in the development of nuclear power. 1he international arms race, including the period known as the $old War, saw a
protracted stand(off between the K@A and K@@# ( nations with the ability to produce nuclear weapons in their thousands. "nce the
Manhattan 8ro;ect achieved its aims, the e4istence of nuclear weapons could not be reversed, and over /* years later, despite numerous non(
proliferation treaties and attempts to ban nuclear weapons, they still e4ist in the armaments of many nations. 1he statement is correct in
)*
asserting that the Manhattan 8ro;ect was a ma;or turning point in society and in that there was no turning back. 1his has been shown by
history.
3 The A(e o0 Silicon
a& .i/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
At least two separate needs are outlined 2
A need is identified 1
1he need for smaller devices that were also more powerful -in computational ability. drove the development of integrated circuits.
a& .ii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
"ne electronic difference identified 1
A single transistor can only amplify a single signal or behave as a switch. An integrated circuit can do more comple4 electronic tasks.
a& .iii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1wo distinct functions are identified 2
"ne function is identified 1
e.g. computational algorithms= memory storage
)&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
!igital and analogue systems are compared with specific e4ample used and advantage-s. of the digital
system identified
4
!igital and analogue systems are identified and compared 3
A digital A! an analogue system is identified 2
A digital "# an analogue system is identified 1
!igital systems operate in binary code using only >*? or >)?, off or on. 24amples include computers, the internet, $!s, !F!s, digital 1F,
mobile phones, fa4 machines etc. !igital information can be stored electronically in memory chips and can be easily manipulated in $8Ks.
Analogue systems are prone to distortion and interference to a much greater e4tent than digital systems. Multiple4ing D the sharing of one
fre%uency by multiple users, is only possible with digital systems making them far more efficient users of bandwidth and available
fre%uencies such as in mobile phone communications.
c& .i/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
1wo e4amples of input transducers given 2
"ne e4ample of an input transducer given 1
e.g. light meter= thermistor
c& .ii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
!ifference described clearly 1
A positive coefficient thermistor increases its resistance as temperature increases while a negative coefficient thermistor decreases its
resistance as temperature increases.
c& .iii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
24planation given which includes the role of the thermistor. 2
1he role of the thermistor is identified 1
A thermistor in the fridge monitors the temperature of the fridge. 5t is connected to a switching circuit so that as the resistance of the
thermistor increases -for a Sve coeeficient. to a pre(set value, the switch is triggered to turn >on? and start the fridge’s compressor motor.
When the thermistor’s resistance reaches another pre(set value, the switching circuit turns the motor off so the fridge does not get too cold.
1&
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
$omplete circuit diagram showing all components 4*
A partial circuit diagram is shown with two components incorrect or with a fundamental flaw in the
circuit
3
@everal circuit components shown 2
"ne component is shown 1
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e& .i/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
A correct circuit diagram given 4
1wo logic gate symbols identified correctly A! one gate used correctly 2*3
"ne logic gate symbol identified correctly 1
58K1@ And and
1
2 "K18K1
3
e& .ii/
Mar'in( Criteria Mar's
Aunction of two logic gates described 2
"ne logic function described correctly 1
Sample ans2er
A!9 both inputs must be >on? for output to be >on?
A!9 the opposite output of an A! gate9 output is >off? only if both inputs are >on?
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