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Venezuela

(
i
/ˌv ɛ n ə z ˈw e ɪlə / VEN -uh- ZWALE -uh, locally: [βene swela] ˈ ), officially called
the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
[1]
(Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela
[re puβlia βoliβa ˈ ˈ ɾ !ana "e βene swela] ˈ ), is a country on the northern coast of South
#$erica% &enezuela's territory covers around (1),**+ s,uare ilo$etres (-+-,.*1 s, $i)
with an esti$ated population of /(,10+,)-/% &enezuela is considered a state with
e1tre$ely hi2h 3iodiversity, with ha3itats ran2in2 fro$ the #ndes $ountains in the west
to the #$azon 4asin rainforest in the south, via e1tensive llanos plains and 5ari33ean
coast in the center and the 6rinoco 7iver 8elta in the east%&enezuela is a$on2 the $ost
ur3anized countries in 9atin #$erica:
[)][;]
the vast $a!ority of &enezuelans live in the
cities of the north, especially in the capital, 5aracas, which is also the lar2est city% Since
the discovery of oil in the early /0th century, &enezuela has 3een one of the world's
leadin2 e1porters of oil and has the lar2est oil reserves% <reviously an underdeveloped
e1porter of a2ricultural co$$odities such as coffee and cocoa, oil ,uicly ca$e to
do$inate e1ports and 2overn$ent revenues% =he 1(.0s oil 2lut led to an e1ternal de3t
crisis and a lon2>runnin2 econo$ic crisis, which saw inflation pea at 100? in 1(() and
poverty rates rise to ))? in 1((+
[.]
as (3y 1((.) per capita @8< fell to the sa$e level as
1()-, down a third fro$ its 1(;. pea%
[(]
=he recovery of oil prices after /001 3oosted the
&enezuelan econo$y and facilitated social spendin2, althou2h the fallout of the /00.
2lo3al financial crisis saw a renewed econo$ic downturn%
ABS=67C
Au$an ha3itation of &enezuela could have co$$enced at least 1+,000 years a2o fro$
which period leaf>shaped tools, to2ether with choppin2 and plano>conve1 scrapin2
i$ple$ents, have 3een found e1posed on the hi2h riverine terraces of the 7io <edre2al in
western &enezuela%
[1*]
9ate <leistocene huntin2 artifacts, includin2 spear tips, have 3een
found at a si$ilar series of sites in northwestern &enezuela nown as DEl Fo3oD:
accordin2 to radiocar3on datin2, these date fro$ 1-,000 to ;,000 45%
[1+]
Bt is not nown
how $any people lived in &enezuela 3efore the Spanish 5on,uest: it $ay have 3een
around a $illion people,
[1)]
and in addition to today's indi2enous peoples included 2roups
such as the #uaG, 5a,uetio, Hariche and =i$oto>cuicas% =he nu$3er was reduced after
the 5on,uest, $ainly throu2h the spread of new diseases fro$ Europe%
[1)]
=here were two
$ain north>south a1es of pre>5olu$3ian population, producin2 $aize in the west and
$anioc in the east%
[1)]
9ar2e parts of the llanos plains were cultivated throu2h a
co$3ination of slash and 3urn and per$anent settled a2riculture%
[1)]
@E6@7#<AC
&enezuela is located in the north of South #$erica: 2eolo2ically its $ainland rests on the
South #$erican <late% Bt has a total area of (1),**+ s,uare ilo$etres (-+-,.*1 s, $i)
and a land area of ../,0+0 s,uare ilo$etres (-*0,+)0 s, $i), $ain2 it the --rd lar2est
country% =he territory it controls lies 3etween latitudes 0I and 1-IJ, and lon2itudes +(I
and ;*IK%Shaped rou2hly lie an inverted trian2le, the country has a /,.00 $
(1,;00 $i) coastline in the north, which includes nu$erous islands in the 5ari33ean Sea,
and in the northeast 3orders the northern #tlantic 6cean% Host o3servers descri3e
&enezuela in ter$s of four fairly well>defined topo2raphical re2ions: the Haracai3o
lowlands in the northwest, the northern $ountains e1tendin2 in a 3road east>west arc
fro$ the 5olo$3ian 3order alon2 the northern 5ari33ean coast, the wide plains in central
&enezuela, and the @uiana hi2hlands in the southeast% he northern $ountains are the
e1tre$e northeastern e1tensions of South #$erica's #ndes $ountain ran2e reach% <ico
4olLvar, the nation's hi2hest point at *,(;( $ (1),--+ ft), lies in this re2ion% =o the south,
the dissected @uiana Ai2hlands contains the northern frin2es of the #$azon 4asin and
#n2el Malls, the world's hi2hest waterfall as well as tepuis, lar2e ta3le>lie $ountains%
=he country's center is characterized 3y the llanos, which are e1tensive plains that stretch
fro$ the 5olo$3ian 3order in the far west to the 6rinoco 7iver delta in the east% =he
6rinoco, with its rich alluvial soils, 3inds the lar2est and $ost i$portant river syste$ of
the country: it ori2inates in one of the lar2est watersheds in 9atin #$erica% =he 5aronL
and the #pure are other $a!or rivers%&enezuela 3orders 5olo$3ia to the west, @uyana to
the east, and 4razil to the south% 5ari33ean islands such as =rinidad and =o3a2o,
@renada, 5uraNao, #ru3a and the 9eeward #ntilles lie near the &enezuelan coast%
&enezuela has territorial disputes with @uyana (for$erly Onited Pin2do$), lar2ely
concernin2 the Esse,ui3o area, and with 5olo$3ia concernin2 the @ulf of &enezuela% Bn
1.(+, after years of diplo$atic atte$pts to solve the 3order dispute, fro$ &enezuela, the
dispute over the Esse,ui3o 7iver 3order flared up, it was su3$itted to a DneutralD
co$$ission (co$posed of 4ritish, #$erican and 7ussian representatives and without a
direct &enezuelan representative), which in 1.(( decided $ostly a2ainst &enezuela's
clai$%
[-+]
&enezuela's $ost si2nificant natural resources are petroleu$ and natural 2as,
iron ore, 2old and other $inerals% Bt also has lar2e areas of ara3le land and water%Bn recent
decades, lo22in2, $inin2, shiftin2 cultivation, develop$ent, and other hu$an activities
have posed a $a!or threat to &enezuela's wildlife: 3etween 1((0 and /000, 0%*0? of
forest cover was cleared annually%
[*.]
Bn response, federal protections for critical ha3itat
were i$ple$ented: for e1a$ple, /0? to --? of forested land is protected%
[**]
=he country
has a 3iosphere reserve that is part of the Korld Jetwor of 4iosphere 7eserves: five
wetlands are re2istered under the 7a$sar 5onvention%
[+0]
Bn /00-, ;0? of the nation's
land was under conservation $ana2e$ent in over /00 protected areas, includin2 *-
national pars%
[+1]
&enezuela's *- national pars include 5anai$a Jational <ar,
Horrocoy Jational <ar and Hochi$a Jational <ar%
59BH#=E
&enezuela is entirely located in the tropics over the E,uator to around 1/I J% Bts cli$ate
varies fro$ hu$id low>elevation plains, where avera2e annual te$peratures ran2e as hi2h
as -+ I5 ((+%0 IM), to 2laciers and hi2hlands (the páramos) with an avera2e yearly
te$perature of . I5 (*)%* IM)% #nnual rainfall varies 3etween *-0 $$ (1)%( in) in the
se$iarid portions of the northwest to over 1,000 $$ (-(%* in) in the 6rinoco 8elta of the
far east and the #$azonian Fun2le in the south% =he precipitation level is lower in the
period fro$ Jove$3er to #pril and later in the year fro$ #u2ust to 6cto3er% =hese
periods are referred to as Aot>Au$id and 5old>8ry seasons% 6ther charasteristic of the
cli$ate is this variation throu2hout the country 3y the e1istence of a $ountain ran2e
called D5ordillera de la 5ostaD which crosses the country fro$ east to west% =he $a!ority
of the population lives in these $ountains%
[/+]
=he country falls into four horizontal
te$perature zones 3ased pri$arily on elevation, havin2 =ropical, 8ry, =e$perate with
8ry Kinters, and <olar (#lpine tundra) cli$ates, a$on2st others%
[-)][-;][-.]
Bn the tropical
zoneQ3elow .00 $eters / /,)/+ feetQte$peratures are hot, with yearly avera2es
ran2in2 3etween /) and /. I5 (;.%. and ./%* IM)% =he te$perate zone ran2es 3etween
.00 and /,000 $eters (/,)/+ and ),+)/ ft) with avera2es fro$ 1/ to /+ I5 (+-%) to
;; IM): $any of &enezuela's cities, includin2 the capital, lie in this re2ion% 5older
conditions with te$peratures fro$ ( to 11 I5 (*.%/ to +1%. IM) are found in the cool zone
3etween /,000 and -,000 $eters (),+)/ and (,.*- ft), especially in the &enezuelan #ndes,
where <astureland and per$anent snowfield with yearly avera2es 3elow . I5 (*) IM)
cover land a3ove -,000 $eters ((,.*- ft) in the pRra$os%=he hi2hest te$perature
recorded was */ I5 (10. IM) in Hachi,ues,
[-(]
and the lowest te$perature recorded was
S11 I5 (1/ IM), it has 3een reported fro$ an uninha3ited hi2h altitude at <Rra$o de
<iedras 4lancas (HGrida state),
[*0]
even thou2h no official reports e1ist, there is
nowled2e of lower te$peratures in the $ountains of the Sierra Jevada de HGrida%
5OBSBJE
he &enezuelan cuisine, one of the $ost varied in the re2ion, reflects the cli$atic contrasts
and cultures coe1istin2 in &enezuela% #$on2 the$ are hallaca, pa3ellTn criollo, arepas,
pisca andina, tararL de chivo, !alea de $an2o, and fried ca$i2uanas%
=7#JS<67=
&enezuela is connected to the world pri$arily via air (&enezuela's airports include the
Si$Tn 4olLvar Bnternational #irport near 5aracas and 9a 5hinita Bnternational #irport
near Haracai3o) and sea (with $a!or sea ports at 9a @uaira, Haracai3o and <uerto
5a3ello)% Bn the south and east the #$azon rainforest re2ion has li$ited cross>3order
transport: in the west, there is a $ountainous 3order of over /,/1- ilo$etres (1,-;+ $i)
shared with 5olo$3ia% =he 6rinoco 7iver is navi2a3le 3y ocean2oin2 vessels up to *00
ilo$etres (/+0 $i) inland, and connects the $a!or industrial city of 5iudad @uayana to
the #tlantic 6cean%&enezuela has a li$ited national railway syste$, which has no active
rail connections to other countries: the 2overn$ent of Au2o 5hRvez has invested
su3stantially in e1pandin2 it%
[citation needed]
Several $a!or cities have $etro syste$s: the
5aracas Hetro has 3een operatin2 since 1(.-% =he Haracai3o Hetro and &alencia Hetro
were opened $ore recently% &enezuela has a road networ of nearly 100,000 ilo$etres
()/,000 $i) in len2th, placin2 the country around *+th in the world:
[))]
around a third of
roads are paved%
4B68B&E7SB=C
&enezuela lies within the Jeotropic ecozone: lar2e portions of the country were
ori2inally covered 3y $oist 3roadleaf forests% 6ne of seventeen $e2adiverse countries,
[*1]
&enezuela's ha3itats ran2e fro$ the #ndes $ountains in the west to the #$azon 4asin
rainforest in the south, via e1tensive llanos plains and 5ari33ean coast in the center and
the 6rinoco 7iver 8elta in the east% =hey include 1eric scru3lands in the e1tre$e
northwest and coastal $an2rove forests in the northeast%
[/+]
Bts cloud forests and lowland
rainforests are particularly rich%
[*/]
#ni$als of &enezuela are diverse and include
$anatees, #$azon river dolphins, and 6rinoco crocodiles, which have 3een reported to
reach up to )%) $ (// ft) in len2th% &enezuela hosts a total of 1,*1; 3ird species, *. of
which are ende$ic%
[*-]
B$portant 3irds include i3ises, ospreys, in2fishers,
[*/]
and the
yellow>oran2e &enezuelan =roupial, the national 3ird% Jota3le $a$$als include the
@iant #nteater, !a2uar, and the capy3ara, the world's lar2est rodent% Hore than half of
&enezuelan avian and $a$$alian species are found in the #$azonian forests south of
the 6rinoco%
[**]
Mor the fun2i, an account was provided 3y 7%K%@% 8ennis
[*+]
which has
3een di2itized and the records $ade availa3le on>line as part of the 5y3ertruffle
7o3i2alia data3ase%
[*)]
=hat data3ase includes nearly -,(00 species of fun2i recorded fro$
&enezuela, 3ut is far fro$ co$plete, and it is liely that the true total nu$3er of fun2al
species already nown fro$ &enezuela is hi2her% =he true total nu$3er of fun2al species
occurrin2 in &enezuela, includin2 species not yet recorded, is liely to 3e far hi2her,
2iven the 2enerally accepted esti$ate that only a3out ;? of all fun2i worldwide have so
far 3een discovered%
[*;]
#$on2 plants of &enezuela, over /+,000 species of orchids are found in the country's
cloud forest and lowland rainforest ecosyste$s%
[*/]
=hese include the flor de mayo orchid
(Cattleya mossiae), the national flower% &enezuela's national tree is the araguaney, whose
characteristic lushness after the rainy season led novelist 7T$ulo @alle2os to na$e it
[l]a primavera de oro de los araguaneyes (the golden spring of the araguaneyes)%
&enezuela is a$on2 the top twenty countries in ter$s of ende$is$%
[*.]
#$on2 its
ani$als, /-? of reptilian and +0? of a$phi3ian species are ende$ic%
[*.]
#lthou2h the
a$ount of availa3le infor$ation is still very s$all, a first effort has 3een $ade to
esti$ate the nu$3er of fun2al species ende$ic to &enezuela: 1--* species of fun2i have
3een tentatively identified as possi3le ende$ics of the country%
[*(]
So$e -.? of the over
/1,000 plant species nown fro$ &enezuela are uni,ue to the country%
[*.]
S<67=
4ase3all,3aset3all,f1racin2
6rinoco delta
, pa3ellTn criollo
Venezuela has some of the best exotic location that ideal to be used as
tourist attractions. Venezuela located at the northwest tip of South
America, with a long coastline of 2!! "ilometers. #ountain range runs
across the north and south, while the middle of Venezuela is a lowland.
$ere are exotic tourist attractions worth %isiting in Venezuela.
1. Caracas
&aracas is the capital of Venezuela and is a bustling cit' of nearl' ( million
residents. Speed', progressi%e and multi)ethnic, the cit' o*ers a good
range of museums, excellent restaurants and nightlife. +ra%elers ma'
begin their tour of the cit' in ,laza -oli%ar, the heart of downtown. +he
&atedral, the .o%ernment ,alace and &it' $all is located on the side of
the s/uare. 0n the cit' center and the &apitolio 1acional &asa 1atal de
-oli%ar, where the famous liberator Simon -oli%ar was born.
2. Margarita island
#argarita island of %ast stretches of coastline. #argarita 0sland is part of
the &aribbean islands which lie d the east of the capital &aracas. 2ld
white church, a beautiful palace, and the mar"et combined with a %ariet'
of food outlets scattered in e%er' corner of the island. So, %isitors should
not worr' if 'ou feel hungr'.
3. Los Llanos
0f 'ou want to see lots of wildlife and see the sights of rural Venezuela,
3ust come to 4os 4lanos. +his place reall' exotic feast for the e'es.
4. Canaima National Park
&anaima 1ational ,ar" has an area of 5!,!!! s/uare "ilometers and is
located in southeastern Venezuela that borders -razil and .u'ana,
precisel' in the state of -oli%ar. +his par" was established 6une 72, 7892
and is the second largest national par" in the countr' after ,arima)
+apirapeco.
5. Morrocoy
0n #orroco', tourists can see the blue waters of the coral in the middle of
the beach combined with beautiful scener' and wildlife that li%e around it.
$owe%er, the main area is #orroco' 1ational ,ar" which was built
between the Village and Village &hichiri%iche +ucacas. +his place is perfect
for nature lo%ers.
6. Angel Falls
Angel :alls is the tallest waterfall in the world with a height of 7!!2
meters. +his waterfall is located in the &anaima 1ational ,ar", -oli%ar. +he
waterfall is 78 times higher than 1iagara :alls.