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“Commercial Geography deals with the Production, Transportation, and exchange of useful
“Commercial Geography is that study which makes the trader aware of the places where the surplus
products are grown, where they can be brought to market and how a convenient transport can be
arranged for the product.” SIR DUDLEY STAMP

Commercial Geography is a specialized subject and part of Economic Geography which deals with :
i. Production & distribution of Raw Materials over the earth‟s surface.
ii. Manufacturing or Industrial Production of Raw Materials.
iii. Distribution of the manufactured or finished goods to the market by means of transportation.
iv. Consumption by the Consumer

“Economic Geography is a branch of Human Geography which is concerned with the location, productivity
and potential use of natural resources and man‟s economic achievement in terms of production and
consumption in the light of his environment.

How would you differentiate between Economic Geography & Commercial Geography ?

Economic Geography is a branch of Human Geography which deals with the economic activities of man in
relation to his environment whereas Commercial Geography is a part of Economic Geography which deals
with the exploitation of raw materials over the earth‟s surface, it‟s manufacturing and distribution of finished
products to the market by means of transport and ultimately it‟s consumption by the consumer.

Q1 What are the Four spheres that surround the Earth ?

The Four spheres of the Earth are :
i. Atmosphere The sphere of Air Climate : Precipitation, Gases, Dust Particles, Winds
ii. Lithosphere The sphere of rock or land Land Masses: Continents, Soils, Rocks & Minerals
iii. Hydrosphere The sphere of water Water Bodies: Oceans, Seas, Rivers, Lakes, & Streams
iv. Biosphere The sphere of life Animal Kingdom & Plant Kingdom

Q2 What are the elements of Climate that make up climate?
Elements that make up the Climate are :
i. Precipitation (Rainfall, Snowfall, Hail, Fog, Dew).
Chapter 1 Units 11 - 13 -Definitions

Chapter 2 Units 14 - 17 - Environment

ii. Temperature
iii. Pressure
iv. Water Vapors
v. Dust ParticlesWinds
vi. Clouds
vii. Sunshine

What the Factors that Affect Climate ?

Factors that affect Climate are :
1. Distance from the Equator
2. Distance from the Sea
3. Altitude ( Height above Sea-Level)
4. Direction of Winds
5. Mixing of Cold & Warm Ocean Currents
6. Nearness to Forests

Q3 What are the two types of Environment ? List the elements of the both Environment ?

There two types of Environment are (i ) The Physical Environment (ii)The Non-Physical Environment


1. Location * Insular * Peninsular * Continental
2. Climate * Precipitation * Temperature * Pressure * Winds
3. Relief * Mountains * Plateaus * Plains
4. Depression * Rivers * Lakes * Seas * Oceans * Deserts
1. Soil * Texture * Color * Structure * Minerals, * Humus Content
2. Plant Kingdom * Xerophytes *Grasslands * Forests
3. Animal Kingdom * Vertebrates * Invertebrates)
8. Geology (Structure of the Earth) Minerals

1. Races of Mankind * Negroid * Mongoloid * Caucasoid
2. Culture * Customs & Traditions * Behavior * Religion * Ideas & Beliefs
3. Social Environment * Living Styles * Communities * Human Settlements
2. Economic Environment * Employment * Education * Health * Wealth * Income
5. Political Environment * Government Infra-structure * Boundaries
6.Political Environment * Government Infra-structure * Boundaries

Q4 What is meant by Relief ? Name the three types and the basis of its classification ?

“Relief refers to the elevated land above sea-level”.
There are three types of relief classified on the basis of altitude (height above sea-level), slope and surface

1. Plains 2 Plateaus 3 Mountains

Q5 How would you describe a Plain or Lowland and it’s characteristics?

“A Plain is a low natural elevation of the earth surface rising 600‟ from the sea level with a gentle slope and a
flat top surface”. Plains are suitable for almost any economic and commercial activity. It is ideal for Agriculture,
Transportation (construction of roads, and railways), Trade, Commerce and Industry

Q6 How would you describe a Plateau / Upland Tableland and it’s characteristics?

“A Plateau is a wide table land, mainly high level area of elevated land rising 1500‟ above sea-level with a Its top
is flat like a table, therefore, sometimes referred to “Table Land” or “Upland”. Plateaus are suitable for mining
activity, generally, because there is a dearth of minerals underneath and sometime fertile enough for
agricultural activities. It‟s flat surface allows the construction of roads and railways.

Q7 How would you describe a Mountain or Highland and it’s characteristics?

“A Mountain is a very high level area of elevated land rising many thousand feet above sea-level with very steep
slopes. Its highest point, the „mountain top‟ is referred to a “Peak”. Mountains are also called Highlands.

On the mountain slopes where the soil is fertile and rainfall enough, a special type of commercial farming
referred to “Terrace Farming” is practiced. Crops like tea and coffee are cultivated. Mountains are the main site
for mining activity.

Q1 Define the Economic Activities of man ?

“Economic Activities are those activities where man makes his every effort to satisfy his basic needs and wants
such as Food, Shelter, and Clothing in order to survive or make a living”

Q2 Define Commercial Activities of man ?

“All those activities of man which contribute to the regional and international trade of commercial significance
are regarded as Commercial Activities”.
Subsistence activities of non-commercial significance are excluded from commercial activities.
(Source : Dr Ahsanullah)
Q3 What are Primary Activities and its types ?

The primary activities of man involve the exploitation of natural resources and extraction of raw materials from
the earth‟s surface. Man works hand in hand with nature to produce the materials he needs for sustaining
growing human populations and raw materials for various industries.

Types and examples of Primary Economic & Commercial Activities ?
In Primary activities man exploits the earth‟s resources either on subsistence basis for survival or to extract
raw materials on a commercial basis as a source for the industry.

1. Primary Economic Activities are carried out on subsistence basis, such as :
i. Collecting and gathering fruits, nuts, wild honey and berries from the woods
ii. Subsistence Hunting, Subsistence Fishing, Subsistence Farming

2. Primary Commercial Activities involves modern and sophisticated technology, such as:
iii. Fishing on a large and commercial scale carried out mainly in north temperate regions.
iv. Agriculture involves cultivation of crops & rearing of animals on scientific basis
v. Lumbering involves the cutting down of trees to obtain commercial timber
vi. Mining involves the extraction of minerals from the earth surface.

Q4 What are Secondary Activities ?

Secondary Activities involves changing the form of primary products into a useful utility which may range from
simple handicraft production to manufacturing and processing industries.
Activities such as cooking, packing, assembling, fabricating, processing, refining, shaping, molding,
processing, and heavy manufacturing such as the automobile industry, construction industry, Iron & Steel
Industry all are examples of secondary activities.

Unit 4 – Economic & Commercial Activities

Q5 What are Tertiary Activities ?

Tertiary Activities are those activities which deal with the distribution of manufactured and finished goods to
the market by means of transportation. It involves the traders, retailers, wholesalers, and ultimately the

Q6 What are Quaternary Activities ?

Quaternary Activities represent people who render Services or are involved in some type of Profession.
Services include people working in banks, insurance companies, health services departments, or are engaged
in business, finance, education, and research activities.
Professions include doctors, engineers, scientists, writers, artists, lawyers, and administrators.

Q7 What are Quinary Activities ?

Quinary Activities include top management executives and high caliber personalities such as the CEO‟s of
multiple organizations, Research Scientists, Head of States, Financial advisors, and professional consultants
who provide strategic planning and problems services are the key decision makers. These high-order
analytical and managerial activities occur in large urban centers such as New York, London, and Tokyo.

Q1 Give the growth of world population through time from 8000 B.C. - Present
Modern man has lived on earth for one million years.
 In 8000 B.C. - Population growth was negligible, 5-8 million people inhabited the world.
 By 1 A.D. - Population increased to 300 Million
 By 1750 A.D. - Population grew to 800 Million
 In 1900 A.D. - Population rose to 1700 Million (1.7 Billion)
 In 1975 A.D. - Population of the world doubled to 3900 Million (3.9 Billion)
 On 12
October 1999 the U.N. declared that the world population has reached 6 Billion
Source : Textbook “Commercial Geography” by Fazle Karim Khan - 2009

Q2 Which areas of the worlds are sparsely populated ?
The sparsely populated regions of the world are the regions where the population density is less than 10
persons per square km. Areas adjacent to deserts, tropical Africa, drier margins of the Amazon Valley, plateaus
of Asia, North America and South America belong to this category. The physical environment of these regions
is difficult to live in, because of extreme climatic conditions (too hot, too cold, too wet or too dry) and rugged
topography. The resources are small and technology is low which are not likely to develop in the near future
and meet human needs. The regions are abode of few nomadic tribes people of these regions are hunters.
1. Too Hot Regions (Deserts)
The deserts of Sahara and Kalahari in Africa, Arabian, Gobi, Rajasthan and Thar deserts in Asia.
Atacama and Patanogia desert in South America, the Great Australian desert and the Californian desert in
North America

2. Too Cold Regions (Polar)
The Polar Lands of Antarctica and the Tundra in the Arctic are too cold live in.
3. Too Wet and humid Regions (Equatorial)
The extreme thick forests of the Amazon Basin in South America and Congo Basin in Africa are
inaccessible because of swampy and marshy conditions.
Unit 6 – Global Population

Q3 Which areas of the worlds are moderately populated ?
The moderately populated regions of the world are the regions where the population density is 11-100
persons per square km. found between the sparsely and densely populated regions. The wetter parts of the
Temperate Grasslands of U.S.A. (The Prairies), The Russian Federation (The Steppes), Australia (The Downs),
And the Pampas of Argentina are the main granaries of the world have a small population and shortage oflabor.
Moderate population density also occur in parts of Iran, China, Eastern Europe, eastern coast of Brazil,
Uruaguay, Paraguay, Southern parts of Russia, Afghanistan, Turkey, Syria, Qatar, Yemen, Central Asia,
Azerbaijan, and parts of Pakistan and India that have low technology.

Q4 Which areas of the world are densely populated ?
The densely populated regions of the world are the regions where the population density is 100 persons per
square km. or more. The coastal plains and alluvial valleys of South Asia and Southeast Asia, mainly China,
India, Pakistan, Indonesia, and Egypt in Africa have excellent agricultural lands are densely populated.
Western European Plains, Northeastern U.S.A. and adjoining parts of Canada also belong to this category.
Eastern and Mediterranean Europe with modern resources and advanced technology support large populations
The standard of living is high.

Q5 What are Push and Pull factors of migration ?
Migration can occur as result of push and pull factors.

Pull Factors are the reasons people want to move to an area or what pulls them to that area.
Better employment opportunities, more wealth, better services, good climate, Safer and less crime, political
stability, fertile land, lower risk from natural hazards and better standard of living.

Push Factors are the reasons people leave an area or why a person is pushed away from an area. E.g.
Unemployment, Lack of safety and security, High crimes, Crop failure, Drought, Flooding, Poverty, Political
Instability, War, Overpopulation, Low wages, Low standard of living, Extreme or poor climatic conditions,
Religious persecution,