You are on page 1of 10

What causes Floods?

Damage caused by flooding
Flooding occurs most commonly from heavy rainfall when natural watercourses do not have the capacity
to convey excess water. However, floods are not always caused by heavy rainfall. They can result from
other phenomena, particularly in coastal areas where inundation can be caused by a storm surge
associated with a tropical cyclone, a tsunami or a high tide coinciding with higher than normal river
levels. Dam failure, triggered for example by an earthquake, will result in flooding of the downstream
area, even in dry weather conditions.
ther factors which may contribute to flooding include!
• volume, spatial distribution, intensity and duration of rainfall over a catchment"
• the capacity of the watercourse or stream network to convey runoff"
• catchment and weather conditions prior to a rainfall event"
• ground cover"
• topography" and
• tidal influences
What is a Flood?
# simple definition of flooding is water where it is not wanted. #nother, more comprehensive definition
of a flood is!
A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land
areas from overfow of inland or tidal waters from the unusual and rapid accumulation or
runof of surface waters from any source.
$n %ovember &'((, the #ustralian )overnment introduced a standard definition of flood for certain
insurance policies. The announcement was part of the )overnment*s response to the recommendations in
the %atural Disaster $nsurance +eview report.
The standard definition will apply when an insurer offers flood cover for a home building, home contents,
small business or strata title insurance policy. For this purpose a flood is defined as!
The covering of normally dry land by water that has escaped or been released from the
normal confnes of: any lake, or any river, creek or other natural watercourse, whether or
not altered or modifed or any reservoir, canal, or dam.
Floods can have both positive and negative impacts. They can bring welcome relief for people and
ecosystems suffering from prolonged drought, but also are estimated to be the most costly natural disaster
in #ustralia.
,very year in #ustralia, floods cause millions of dollars damage to buildings and critical infrastructure,
such as roads and railways as well as to agricultural land and crops. They also disrupt business and can
affect the health of communities. -etween (./0 and &''1, the average direct annual cost of flooding has
been estimated at #2300 million 4-ureau of $nfrastructure, Transport and +egional ,conomics analysis
of the ,mergency 5anagement #ustralia database 6.
The losses due to flooding vary widely from year to year and are dependent on a number of factors such
as the severity of a flood and its location. The most costly year for floods was (.07, when events resulted
in a total cost of #2&.. billion 4-ureau of Transport and +egional ,conomics, &''( 6.
Talking about Floods
The use of consistent terminology is important for improving the quality and consistency of flood
information. )eoscience #ustralia uses the following flood related terms when talking about floods and
flood research.
Where do Floods occur?
Severe flooding on roads
+eproduced with permission from ,5#
+iverine flooding occurs in relatively low8lying areas ad9acent to streams and rivers. $n the extensive flat
inland regions of #ustralia, floods may spread over thousands of square kilometres and last several
weeks, with flood warnings sometimes issued months in advance. $n the mountain and coastal regions of
#ustralia flooding can happen rapidly with a warning of only a few hours in some cases.
The )reat Dividing +ange which extends along the length of eastern #ustralia provides a natural
separation between the longer and slower westerly flowing rivers and the shorter, faster easterly flowing
coastal rivers. $n some cases natural blockages at river mouths, including storm surge and high tides, may
also cause localised flooding of estuaries and coastal lake systems.
Flash floods can occur almost anywhere there is a relatively short intense burst of rainfall such as during
a thunderstorm. #s a result of these events the drainage system has insufficient capacity or time to cope
with the downpour. #lthough flash floods are generally localised, they pose a significant threat because
of their unpredictability and normally short duration.
The -ureau of 5eteorology maintains the #ustralia +ainfall and +iver :onditions which contains up8
to8date rainfall and river information for all catchments within #ustralia.
Principal types and causes
Areal (rainfall related)
Floods can happen on flat or low8lying areas when the ground is saturated and water either cannot run off
or cannot run off quickly enough to stop accumulating. This may be followed by a river flood as water
moves away from the floodplain into local rivers and streams.
Floods can also occur if water falls on an impermeable surface, such as concrete, paving or fro;en
ground, and cannot rapidly dissipate into the ground.
<ocalised heavy rain from a series of storms moving over the same area can cause areal flash flooding
when the rate of rainfall exceeds the drainage capacity of the area. =hen this occurs on tilled fields, it
can result in a muddy flood where sediments are picked up by run off and carried as suspended matter or
bed load.
+iver flows may rise to floods levels at different rates, from a few minutes to several weeks, depending
on the type of river and the source of the increased flow.
>low rising floods most commonly occur in large rivers with large catchment areas. The increase in flow
may be the result of sustained rainfall, rapid snow melt, monsoons, or tropical cyclones. <ocalised
flooding may be caused or exacerbated by drainage obstructions such as landslides, ice, or debris.
+apid flooding events, including flash floods, more often occur on smaller rivers, rivers with steep
valleys or rivers that flow for much of their length over impermeable terrain. The cause may be localised
convective precipitation 4intense thunderstorms6 or sudden release from an upstream impoundment
created behind a dam, landslide, or glacier.
Dam8building beavers can flood low8lying urban and rural areas, occasionally causing some damage.
Estuarine and coastal
Flooding in estuaries is commonly caused by a combination of sea tidal surges caused by winds and low
barometric pressure, and they may be exacerbated by high upstream river flow.
:oastal areas may be flooded by storm events at sea, resulting in waves over8topping defences or in
severe cases by tsunami or tropical cyclones. # storm surge, from either a tropical cyclone or an
extratropical cyclone, falls within this category.
Urban fooding
?rban flooding is the inundation of land or property in a built environment, particularly in more densely
populated areas, caused by rainfall overwhelming the capacity of drainage systems, such as storm sewers.
#lthough sometimes triggered by events such as flash flooding or snowmelt, urban flooding is a
condition, characteri;ed by its repetitive and systemic impacts on communities, that can happen
regardless of whether or not affected communities are located within formally designated floodplains or
near any body of water.
There are several ways in which stormwater enters properties! backup through
sewer pipes, toilets and sinks into buildings" seepage through building walls and floors" the accumulation
of water on property and in public rights8of8way" and the overflow from water bodies such as rivers and
:atastrophic flooding is usually associated with ma9or infrastructure failures such as the collapse of a
dam, but they may also be caused by damage sustained in an earthquake or volcanic eruption. >ee
outburst flood.
Pri"ary e!ects
The primary effects of flooding include loss of life, damage to buildings and other structures, including
bridges, sewerage systems, roadways, and canals.
Floods also frequently damage power transmission and sometimes power generation, which then has
knock8on effects caused by the loss of power. This includes loss of drinking water treatment and water
supply, which may result in loss of drinking water or severe water contamination. $t may also cause the
loss of sewage disposal facilities. <ack of clean water combined with human sewage in the flood waters
raises the risk of waterborne diseases, which can include typhoid, giardia, cryptosporidium, cholera and
many other diseases depending upon the location of the flood.
Damage to roads and transport infrastructure may make it difficult to mobilise aid to those affected or to
provide emergency health treatment.
Flood waters typically inundate farm land, making the land unworkable and preventing crops from being
planted or harvested, which can lead to shortages of food both for humans and farm animals. ,ntire
harvests for a country can be lost in extreme flood circumstances. >ome tree species may not survive
prolonged flooding of their root systems
#econdary and long$ter" e!ects
,conomic hardship due to a temporary decline in tourism, rebuilding costs, or food shortages leading to
price increases is a common after8effect of severe flooding. The impact on those affected may cause
psychological damage to those affected, in particular where deaths, serious in9uries and loss of property
?rban flooding can lead to chronically wet houses, which are linked to an increase in respiratory
problems and other illnesses.
?rban flooding also has significant economic implications for affected
neighborhoods. $n the ?nited >tates, industry experts estimate that wet basements can lower property
values by ('8&1 percent and are cited among the top reasons for not purchasing a home.
#ccording to
the ?.>. Federal ,mergency 5anagement #gency 4F,5#6, almost 7' percent of small businesses never
reopen their doors following a flooding disaster.
EFFECT# F D+?)HT >T+,>> % T+,,> #%D <#%D>:#C, C<#%T>
@ Crint D :lose A
<etEs blame ,l %iFo or <a %iFa for something else. During times of drought, trees and landscape plants often
show the effects of the hot, dry weather. The drought of (... and &''' has had an impact on plants in Texas. To
put into perspective the effect severe drought can have on plants, consider the following facts. )reen plants
normally have a moisture content of (&1G 8 &''G or more. However, during severe and prolonged drought, the
moisture content of live, woody plants can drop below (''G. %ot only is this very harmful to trees, it
contributes to extreme conditions for forest and range fires.
=ater deficits in trees have an adverse effect on many of the treeEs growth processes. >evere water stress will
in9ure trees and may kill them. $n addition, stressed trees are more vulnerable to insect and disease pests when
compared to a healthy tree. Hardwood trees display numerous symptoms related to water stress. =ilting of
leaves is a common indication of water stress. =ilting can be classified as incipient, temporary, or permanent.
$ncipient wilting is not readily noticeable, but it can change to temporary wilting which is characteri;ed by
visible drooping of the leaves during the day. #t night the plant will rehydrate and recover from temporary
wilting. During prolonged dry periods, temporary wilting can change to permanent wilting where the plant does
not recover during the overnight period. Cermanently wilted plants may recover when water is added to the soil,
but prolonged permanent wilting usually kills most species of plants. Heep in mind there is great variation in
wilting among different tree species and different types of soils. $n addition to wilting, leaves may curl or warp,
become crinkly, turn brown along the edges 4scorch6, turn yellow, turn brown, andIor fall from the tree.
Cine trees normally donEt JwiltJ from drought stress. Cine trees usually retain their needles for about two years.
During dry periods, the second year needles 4located away from the tips of the branches6 will turn yellow and
begin to drop from the tree prematurely. $t is common to see pine trees with yellow or red second year needles
during summer droughts. <andowners and homeowners should not be alarmed if they observe this condition.
The tree is definitely drought stressed, but is probably all right considering the dry conditions.
>tressed pine trees may be attacked by pine bark beetles, usually one or more of the three species of engraver
beetles 4$ps spp6. These insects fly to a weakened or stressed pine tree and attack by boreing through the bark.
They feed and lay their eggs between the bark and the wood. nce the needles on a pine tree turn red, the tree is
dead, and there is nothing that can be done to save it. Hardwood or broadleaved trees such as oaks, maples,
hickories, etc., will not be attacked by pine bark beetles, but drought will take its toll on these trees, too.
Through a process called transpiration, plants will release considerable amounts of water vapor through tiny
leaf openings called stomata. =hen adequate soil moisture is available, temperatures are not too high, and
humidity is not too low, transpiration will occur during most of the day. ?nder normal conditions, transpiration
is lowest during the hottest part of the day, greatest in the morning and late afternoon, and ceases at night. =hen
soil water becomes limited, the plant will try to conserve water by closing the stomata in the leaves. -ut when
the stomata are closed for extended periods of time, transpiration ceases and this causes photosynthesis to stop
and the plant stops growing. $f this goes on long enough, the plant will die. Clants try to protect themselves
from water loss by closing stomata, slowing or stopping growth, and by prematurely dropping their leaves. $t is
common to see leaves falling from trees in mid8 summer during dry years.
$mmediate effects of drought on hardwood trees are usually obvious, but delayed effects also occur. =hen
unfavorable growth conditions are present now, growth for the coming year is often affected. Clants store food
reserves and prepare for the next growing season during the current growing season. For instance, buds for next
yearEs growth will be set during the current summer. The effects of the drought of (... and &''' will carryover
to the next growing season, and maybe beyond.
<ack of water also affects radial growth of trees 4diameter growth6. #s a tree grows in diameter, each year it
will produce a growth ring that consists of springwood 4earlywood6 and summerwood 4latewood6. The width of
tree growth rings is greatly affected by the availability of water. During dry years, little radial growth occurs
and the annual growth ring will be narrow. -ecause severe droughts adversely affect trees in many ways, radial
growth often will be reduced for the current year and maybe even one or more subsequent years. >cientists can
study the growth rings of old trees and determine rainfall patterns for years past. This science is called
The general health of a tree depends a lot on where it is growing. -ottomland areas tend to be one of the most
favorable sites for trees. There is usually adequate moisture coupled with deep, fertile soils. >ites that generally
are not ideal for good tree health are ridges where shallow, eroded soils usually occur. +ocky soils and soils that
may be chemically incorrect 4especially pH or soil acidityIalkalinity6 for plant growth tend to be stressful to
trees. ,ven the direction a slope or hillside faces can affect tree health. >outh and west facing slopes tend to be
hotter and drier and trees generally do not grow as well as on north and east slopes.
>oils with a high clay content will hold water much better than sandy soils. Trees growing in clay soils tend to
be shallow rooted and may be more severely impacted by prolonged drought than trees growing on loamy or
sandy soils where roots will grow deeper. 5ost of a treeEs feeder roots that absorb moisture and nutrients are
located in the upper (&8(7 inches of the soil. =hen a clay soil dries out, the impact on the tree can be great
since the tree is not JaccustomedJ to sending roots deep into the soil for moisture and nutrients.
Drought8stressed trees may exhibit signs of dieback or decline. This may be the treeEs way of coping with a
stressful situation. $f the roots are unable to supply enough moisture and nutrients to the crown of the tree, the
crown will usually begin to die back to bring the treeEs crown and root system into a more favorable balance. $t
should be mentioned that it is often difficult to determine if a tree has died from drought stress or has simply
become dormant and appears to be dead. Two simple tests can be done to help determine if a drought8stressed
tree is alive or possibly dead. First, collect some small twigs about one8eighth inch in diameter and try to break
the individual twigs. $f they snap and break like dead, dry twigs it could mean the tree has died. n the other
hand, if the twigs bend and donEt break with a snap, the tree may still be alive. >econd, use your fingernail to
scrape bark from a small twig or branch. $f the tissue under the bark is green and moist, the tree may still be
alive. To be absolutely sure the tree is not dead, wait until the next spring to see if it sprouts a new crop of
During times of drought, the best thing for trees and plants is water. Homeowners should consider watering
valuable shade trees 4pine or hardwood6 and other landscape plants to lessen the stress from drought and heat.
Thoroughly water the ground area beneath the branches in the evening or early morning. #bout one to four
inches of water should be applied" a light sprinkling is not of much value. To measure the amount of water
applied, place a rain gauge or tall drinking glass in the sprinkler pattern. =hen there is one to four inches of
water in the gauge or glass, the tree should be adequately watered. =ithout rainfall, watering should be done
about every (' days.
!rom "ikipedia, the free encyclopedia
!or other uses, see #rought $disambiguation%.
#ry earth in the &onoran desert, 'e(ico.
Drought is an extended period when a region receives a deficiency in its water supply, whether
atmospheric, surface or ground water. # drought can last for months or years, or may be declared after as
few as (1 days.
)enerally, this occurs when a region receives consistently below average precipitation.
$t can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region. #lthough
droughts can persist for several years, even a short, intense drought can cause significant damage
harm to the local economy.
Crolonged drought has caused cause mass migrations and humanitarian
5any plant species, such as cacti, have adaptations such as reduced leaf area and waxy cuticles to
enhance their ability to tolerate drought. >ome others survive dry periods as buried seeds. >emi8
permanent drought produces arid biomes such as deserts and grasslands.
5ost arid ecosystems have
inherently low productivity.
A 'ongolian ga)elle dead due to drought.
Ceriods of droughts can have significant environmental, agricultural, health, economic and social
consequences. The effect varies according to vulnerability. For example, subsistence farmers are more
likely to migrate during drought because they do not have alternative food sources. #reas with
populations that depend on as a ma9or food source are more vulnerable to famine.
Drought can also reduce water quality, because lower water flows reduce dilution of pollutants and
increase contamination of remaining water sources. :ommon consequences of drought include!
• #iminished crop growth or yield productions and carrying capacity for livestock
• #ust bowls, themselves a sign of erosion, which further erode the landscape
• #ust storms, when drought hits an area sufering from desertifcation and erosion
• !amine due to lack of water for irrigation
• *abitat damage, afecting both terrestrial and a+uatic wildlife
• *unger, drought provides too little water to support food crops.
• 'alnutrition, dehydration and related diseases
• 'ass migration, resulting in internal displacement and international refugees
• /educed electricity production due to reduced water fow through hydroelectric
• &hortages of water for industrial users
• &nake migration, which results in snakebites
• &ocial unrest
• "ar over natural resources, including water and food
• "ildfres, such as Australian bushfres, are more common during times of drought
and even death of people.
Drought is a normal, recurring feature of the climate in most parts of the world. $t is among the earliest
documented climatic events, present in the ,pic of )ilgamesh and tied to the biblical story of KosephEs
arrival in and the later ,xodus from #ncient ,gypt.
Hunter8gatherer migrations in .,1'' -: :hile have
been linked to the phenomenon,
as has the exodus of early humans out of #frica and into the rest of the
world around (31,''' years ago.
A &outh #akota farm during the #ust 6owl, 4370
5odern people can effectively mitigate much of the impact of drought through irrigation and crop
rotation. Failure to develop adequate drought mitigation strategies carries a grave human cost in the
modern era, exacerbated by ever8increasing population densities.
'ain page: 8ategory:#roughts
=ell8known historical droughts include!
• 4355 9ndia killing between :-5,555 to 7.:- million.
• 43:4;:: &oviet <nion in which over - million perished from starvation due to drought
• 43:2;75 =orthwest 8hina resulting in over 7 million deaths by famine.
• 4370 and 43>4 &ichuan ?rovince 8hina resulting in - million and :.- million deaths
• The 4331;:553 'illenium #rought in Australian led to a water supply crisis across
much of the country. As a result many desalination plants were built for the frst time
$see list%.
• 9n :550, &ichuan ?rovince 8hina e(perienced its worst drought in modern times with
nearly 2 million people and over 1 million cattle facing water shortages.
• 4:;year drought that was devastating southwest "estern Australia, southeast &outh
Australia, @ictoria and northern Tasmania was Avery severe and without historical
• 9n :544, the &tate of Te(as lived under a drought emergency declaration for the
entire calendar year. The drought caused the 6astrop fres.
The Darfur conflict in >udan, also affecting :had, was fueled by decades of drought" combination of
drought, desertification and overpopulation are among the causes of the Darfur conflict, because the #rab
-aggara nomads searching for water have to take their livestock further south, to land mainly occupied
by non8#rab farming people.
#pproximately &.7 billion people live in the drainage basin of the Himalayan rivers.
$ndia, :hina,
Cakistan, -angladesh, %epal and 5yanmar could experience floods followed by droughts in coming
decades. Drought in $ndia affecting the )anges is of particular concern, as it provides drinking water and
agricultural irrigation for more than 1'' million people.
The west coast of %orth #merica, which
gets much of its water from glaciers in mountain ranges such as the +ocky 5ountains and >ierra %evada,
also would be affected.
Afected areas in the western &ahel belt during the :54: drought.
$n &''1, parts of the #ma;on basin experienced the worst drought in ('' years.
# &3 Kuly &''/
article reported =oods Hole +esearch :enter results showing that the forest in its present form could
survive only three years of drought.
>cientists at the -ra;ilian %ational $nstitute of #ma;onian
+esearch argue in the article that this drought response, coupled with the effects of deforestation on
regional climate, are pushing the rainforest towards a Jtipping pointJ where it would irreversibly start to
die. $t concludes that the rainforest is on the brink of being turned into savanna or desert, with
catastrophic consequences for the worldEs climate. #ccording to the ==F, the combination of climate
change and deforestation increases the drying effect of dead trees that fuels forest fires.
#rought afected area in Barnataka, 9ndia in :54:.
-y far the largest part of #ustralia is desert or semi8arid lands commonly known as the outback. # &''1
study by #ustralian and #merican researchers investigated the desertification of the interior, and
suggested that one explanation was related to human settlers who arrived about 1',''' years ago.
+egular burning by these settlers could have prevented monsoons from reaching interior #ustralia.
Kune &''B it became known that an expert panel had warned of long term, maybe irreversible, severe
ecological damage for the whole 5urray8Darling basin if it did not receive sufficient water by ctober
#ustralia could experience more severe droughts and they could become more frequent in the
future, a government8commissioned report said on Kuly /, &''B.
#ustralian environmentalist Tim
Flannery, predicted that unless it made drastic changes, Certh in =estern #ustralia could become the
world*s first ghost metropolis, an abandoned city with no more water to sustain its population.
long #ustralian 5illennial drought broke in &'('.
+ecurring droughts leading to desertification in ,ast #frica have created grave ecological catastrophes,
prompting food shortages in (.B78(.B1, &''/ and &'((.
During the &'(( drought, an estimated 1','''
to (1',''' people were reported to have died,
though these figures and the extent of the crisis are
$n February &'(&, the ?% announced that the crisis was over due to a scaling up of relief
efforts and a bumper harvest.
#id agencies subsequently shifted their emphasis to recovery efforts,
including digging irrigation canals and distributing plant seeds.
$n &'(&, a severe drought struck the western >ahel. The 5ethodist +elief L Development Fund 45+DF6
reported that more than (' million people in the region were at risk of famine due to a month long heat
wave that was hovering over %iger, 5ali, 5auritania and -urkina Faso. # fund of about M&',''' was
distributed to the drought8hit countries.
Ancient 'eso;American civili)ations may have amplifed droughts by deforestation.
)enerally, rainfall is related to the amount 4determined by air temperature6 of water vapour carried by
regional atmosphere, combined with the upward forcing of the air mass containing that water vapour. $f
these combined factors do not support precipitation volumes sufficient to reach the surface, the result is a
drought. This can be triggered by high level of reflected sunlight and above average prevalence of high
pressure systems, winds carrying continental, rather than oceanic air masses, and ridges of high pressure
areas from behaviors which prevent or restrict the developing of thunderstorm activity or rainfall over
one certain region. ceanic and atmospheric weather cycles such as the make drought a regular recurring
feature of the #mericas along the 5idwest and #ustralia.
Human activity can directly trigger exacerbating factors such as over farming, excessive irrigation,

deforestation, and erosion adversely impact the ability of the land to capture and hold water.
these tend to be relatively isolated in their scope, activities resulting in global climate change are
expected to trigger droughts with a substantial impact on agriculture
throughout the world, and
especially in developing nations.
verall, global warming will result in increased world rainfall.
#long with drought in some areas, flooding and erosion will increase in others. Caradoxically, some
proposed solutions to global warming that focus on more active techniques, solar radiation management
through the use of a space sunshade for one, may also carry with them increased chances of drought.
*ydrological drought: &hip stranded by the retreat of the Aral &ea.
#s a drought persists, the conditions surrounding it gradually worsen and its impact on the local
population gradually increases. Ceople tend to define droughts in three main ways!
4. 'eteorological drought is brought about when there is a prolonged period with less
than average precipitation. 'eteorological drought usually precedes the other kinds
of drought.
:. Agricultural droughts are droughts that afect crop production or the ecology of the
range. This condition can also arise independently from any change in precipitation
levels when soil conditions and erosion triggered by poorly planned agricultural
endeavors cause a shortfall in water available to the crops. *owever, in a traditional
drought, it is caused by an e(tended period of below average precipitation.
7. *ydrological drought is brought about when the water reserves available in sources
such as a+uifers, lakes and reservoirs fall below the statistical average. *ydrological
drought tends to show up more slowly because it involves stored water that is used
but not replenished. Cike an agricultural drought, this can be triggered by more than
Dust a loss of rainfall. !or instance, Ba)akhstan was recently awarded a large amount
of money by the "orld 6ank to restore water that had been diverted to other nations
from the Aral &ea under &oviet rule.
&imilar circumstances also place their largest
lake, 6alkhash, at risk of completely drying out.
Protection and relief
"ater distribution on 'arshall 9slands during El =iFo.
>trategies for drought protection, mitigation or relief include!
• #ams ; many dams and their associated reservoirs supply additional water in times
of drought.
• 8loud seeding ; a form of intentional weather modifcation to induce rainfall.
• #esalination ; of sea water for irrigation or consumption.
• #rought monitoring ; 8ontinuous observation of rainfall levels and comparisons with
current usage levels can help prevent man;made drought. !or instance, analysis of
water usage in Gemen has revealed that their water table $underground water level%
is put at grave risk by over;use to fertili)e their Bhat crop.
8areful monitoring of
moisture levels can also help predict increased risk for wildfres, using such metrics
as the Beetch;6yram #rought 9nde(
or ?almer #rought 9nde(.
• Cand use ; 8arefully planned crop rotation can help to minimi)e erosion and allow
farmers to plant less water;dependent crops in drier years.
• Hutdoor water;use restriction ; /egulating the use of sprinklers, hoses or buckets on
outdoor plants, flling pools, and other water;intensive home maintenance tasks.
• /ainwater harvesting ; 8ollection and storage of rainwater from roofs or other
suitable catchments.
• /ecycled water ; !ormer wastewater $sewage% that has been treated and purifed for
• Transvasement ; 6uilding canals or redirecting rivers as massive attempts at
irrigation in drought;prone areas.