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Q DEFINE/ EXPLAIN TERMS THE FOLLOWING

::
1. IMPORTANCE OF NERVOUS SYSTEM :
 Our nervous system controls all other systems of our body.
It allows you to be aware of your environment & controls all that your body does.
Without it you cannot see, feel, smell & think. Neither can we tie our shoelace, eat lunch or write.
The NERVOUS SYSTEM is made up of BRAIN, SPINAL CORD & miles of NERVES.

2. SENSORY NERVES : The nerves which bring messages from sensory organs to brain or spinal cord are called
SENSORY NERVES .

3. MOTOR NERVES: The nerves which carry ‘orders’ from brain or spinal cord to muscles or glands are called MOTOR
NERVE .

4. MIXED NERVES : The nerves which carry messages to brain as well as bring orders from the brain are called MIXED
NERVE .
The CONNECTING NERVE CELLS pass signals b/w the sensory nerve cells & motor nerve cells. These nerve cells
are in the brain and spinal cord.
5. REFLEX ACTION : The actions which are automatic & we do not have to think before doing them. These actions are
called REFLEX ACTION .
Example ::---- > Blinking of eyes , watering of mouth , etc.

6. OPTIC NERVE : A sensory nerve that connects the eye to the brain.

7. PUPIL : The PUPIL , which looks like a black spot, is an opening through which light enters the lens.

8. IRIS : The coloured circle in the eyes is the IRIS.

9. CORNEA : A circular , transparent area in the front portion of the eye is called CORNEA.

10. CEREBRUM :  The largest part of the brain is the CEREBRUM.
 It controls the working of our eyes . ears , nose and tongue. Also controls our voice.
 CEREBRUM leads to consciousness, storage of memory of information.
 CEREBRUM receives messages from our sense organs & decides what the body should do.

11. CEREBELLUM :  It coordinates the action of muscles & make them work together.
 It helps us to balance our body and keeps us in an upright position.

12. MEDULLA :  It connects the brain to the spinal cord.
It controls involuntary actions like the movements of the lungs and the heart.
 The medulla is active even when we sleep.
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13. FORCE : A pushing or pulling of an object.
Example ::---- > Move an stationary object , Stop a moving object , etc.






14. MUSCULAR FORCE : When we push , pull or lift something we apply muscular force.
15. GRAVITATIONAL FORCE : The force or the pulling of objects towards the earth is GRAVITY. This force is called
GRAVITATIONAL FORCE.
16. FRICTIONAL FORCE: The Force which slows down a moving object & also enable us to move.
17. ELASTIC FORCE: The tendency of an object to regains its original position is called ELASTICITY. The force which is
applicable in this is called ELASTIC FORCE.
Example ::---- > Rubber band ,etc.
18. MECHANICAL FORCE : Most simple machines make use of mechanical force.
Example ::---- > A pair of scissors.
19. UPTHRUST / BUOYANT FORCE : The upward push of water on Floating object is called UPTHRUST.
Example ::---- > Block of wood floating on water ,etc.

20. SIMPLE MACHINES : are the told which makes our work easier and faster by apply force on convenient point.
Example ::---- > Lever, Inclined plane , Wheel & axle , Pulley & screw , etc.

21. LEVER: A LEVER consists of the rod free to move about its fixed point.
LOAD: The weight lifted by the person is LOAD.
FULCRUM: The small stone supports the rod . The point at which the rod touches the stone is fixed and do not move. It
is called FULCRUM.
EFFORT: The force applied to the weight to move is called EFFORT.



FIRST - CLASS LEVER : When the fulcrum is between the load and effort.


SECOND - CLASS LEVER: When the load is between the Fulcrum & the effort.
THIRD – CLASS LEVER: When the effort is between the fulcrum &the load.

22. INCLINED PLANE: An inclined plane is a slope which makes work easier.
Example ::---- > When workers have to load or unload a Truck they use PLANK OF WOOD as an inclined plane ., In
hospitals and buildings inclined planes called RAMPS are provided next to staircases ,etc

23. PULLEY: A small wheel with a groove around its outer edge. Groove can hold a rope is used to lift objects.


A pulley together with a chain or a rope is used to lift objects.
There are 2 types of pulley:
(A) Fixed pulley : used in wells..
(B) Movable pulley : used in flagpoles...

24. WHEEL & AXLE: A WHEEL & AXLE is a simple machine consisting of a wheel attached to a rod (axle).

25. SCREW: A SCREW is a simple machine used to hold things tightly together. A screwjack ( bigger screw ) are used to lift
cars & heavy objects.

26. ENERGY: ENERGY is an ability to do work. ENERGY is everywhere in nature—sunlight, wind, plants & animals . We
use energy everyday.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF ENERGY ::::----->
# MECHANICAL ENERGY: is the energy which possessed by an object due to its motion or due to its position.

# SOLAR ENERGY: is a renewable sources of energy and also non- polluting available us from sun .

# GEOTHERMAL ENERGY: The word GEOTHERMAL = GEO (EARTH) + THERMAL (HEAT).
So, GEOTHERMAL ENERGY is heat from within the earth & also a renewable source of energy.

# WIND ENERGY: Wind Energy is renewable , widely distributed , clean & non- polluting, environmental friendly
used mainly to generate electricity.

# HYDRO POWER (WATER ENERGY) : Is mainly used to generate electricity from water source.
It is used thousands of years ago to turn a paddle wheel to grind grain.

#HEAT ENERGY: Heat is a form of energy used for a lot of things like warming our homes , cooking food .Heat
energy we use come from burning fuels like coal, kerosene, & petrol .

# LIGHT ENERGY : Light is a nature’s way of transferring energy through space. Example: bulbs, tubelights, candle
etc.

#SOUND ENERGY : SOUND is vibration transmitted through a solid, liquid, or gas.
SOUND is produced when a force causes an object or a substance to vibrate.
EX: Music systems, radios etc.

#ELECTRICAL ENERGY : Is the movement of electrical charge.
Electrical charges moving through a wire is called ELECTRICITY.
Ex: home appliances like tv, washing machine, etc.

27. LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY ::
Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed. Energy just changes from one form to another. The total energy of an
object never decreases or increases.
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28. ATMOSPHERE : The thick blanket of air that surrounds our planet is called ATMOSPHERE.
The ATMOSPHERE is held around the earth by earth’s gravity.
The ATMOSPHERE is a mixture of gases.
The ATMOSPHERE also prevents meteors from hitting the surface of earth.
The Oxygen present in ATMOSPHERE supports life.










29. LAYERS OF ATMOSPHERE ::

(a.) TROPOSPHERE:----> This is the first layer above the earth’s surface. (10 km above surface)
 This is the layer in which clouds are formed.
 QUES --> Why climbers to MT. EVEREST take air in cylinders with them for breathing?
SOL:: because in troposphere, air get very thin higher up & breathing is difficult.

(b.) STRATOSPHERE:---> This is the second layer.( extends from 10km to 50km above earth surface)
 Many jet aircraft fly in this layer.
 OZONE LAYER (25 to 30km from earth surface) is present in this layer which can absorb harmful ultraviolet rays
from the sun which prevent us from skin cancer. (region called OZONOSPHERE)
(c.)MESOSPHERE---> This is the third layer. (upto height of about 80 km)
 Meteorites or small rocks moving about in space burn out in this layer and therefore, do not reach surface of the
earth.
(d.)THERMOSPHERE:---> This is the fourth layer. Space Shuttle move about in this layer.(80-700Km)
(e.)EXOSPHERE---> This is the fifth layer of the atmosphere. (>700km)
Here the Earth’s gravity is extremely weak.
30. COMPOSI TI ON OF ATMOSPHERE::---->

The air we breathe contains various gases.
Clean air consists of about 78% nitrogen , 21% oxygen & less than 1%argon , co
2
(Carbondioxide) & other gases.
OXYGEN:: The most important gas for the survival of human beings is oxygen. Oxygen is needed for Burning also.
NITROGEN:: Plants get this nitrogen with the help of bacteria in the soil. Nitrogen is also added to soil by using
chemical fertilizers. Animals get nitrogen from plants , meat & fish.
CARBON DIOXIDE :: Carbon dioxide is an important gas for plants . Plants prepare food from with the help of Carbon
dioxide, water & sunlight. The process is called PHOTOSYNTHESIS.
OTHER GASES :: Traces of other gases such as Hydrogen , ozone , helium , neon , argon & krypton are also present in
the air.
Neon is used in Electric bulb. Argon is used to produce the colourful glow in glass tubes.
WATER VAPOUR :: Water vapour is formed because of the evaporation of water from the surface of water bodies like
seas, rivers & lakes.
 HUMIDITY: The amount of water vapour present in the air is called Humidity.







31. PROPERTIES OF AIR :----->
Air has weight.

Air takes up space.
Air exerts pressure in all the directions.
EX:: syringe , etc.

32. IMPORTANCE OF WATER ::----->
Water is an important source for our survival too. We need water to drink when we are thirsty.
Plants too cannot live without water.
Water is also needed for cooking , bathing , working , & construction work.
The Purest form of Natural water is RAINWATER.
INSOLUBLE IMPURITIES which can be seen , SOLUBLE IMPURITIES which cannot be seen….

(A) REMOVAL OF INSOLUBLE IMPURITIES : (Sedimentation , decantation , Filtration)

I. SEDIMENTATION & DECANTATION :

Sedimentation is the process of settling down of heavy solids (particles) in a mixture of a liquid & an
insoluble solid.

Decantation is the removal of the clear layer of the liquid without disturbing the settled solids.

ACTIVITY: Take a mixture of soil & water.
Allow to mix & stand for few minutes.
The heavier soil paryicles settles down at bottom called SEDIMENTATION.
Now carefully drain the clean water into another beaker called DECANTATION.

II. FILTRATION :

Filtration is the process by which very fine insoluble solids can be separated from a liquid-solid mixture by passing it
through a suitable porous material.




(B) REMOVAL OF SOLUBLE IMPURITIES ::(Distillation)
The process of changing water or any other liquid to vapour by heating is called Evaporation.




DISTILLATION :
Distillation is a process of removing dissolved impurities from water.

PROCESS:  First of all take impure water in a round bottom flask .
 Heat the water.
 Water will start Evaporating & converts into Water Vapours.
When these Water Vapours pass through Tube surrounded by Cold Water , they Condense & convert
Into Droplets.
These are then collected in beaker & This Water is free from all impurities.


PURIFICATION OF DRINKING WATER ::
In large Towns, the water supplied to public is Purified & Filtered before being piped for domestic use.

# Three Methods are mainly used for treatment of water :


SEDIMENTATION:
STEP 1. Water collected in large open tanks is left undisturbed for a few days.
STEP 2. Heavier particles sink to bottom.
STEP 3. Air & sunlight kill many Harmful Bacteria.
STEP 4. Chemical like ALUM also added to purify the water.

FILTRATION: After SEDIMENTATION, the water is filtered through a clean sandbed to remove finer suspended
particles.

CHLORINATION: Water is then Disinfected with a very small quantity of CHLORINE GAS to kill Bacteria.
This water is now safe for Drinking.



33. OTHER METHODS TO PURIFY WATER:
i. Boil water for atleat 10 minutes.
ii. Use Water Filter to store drinking water.
iii. Add POTTASIUM PERMAGANATE Crystals to wells for killing germs.
# Underground water from deep springs & deep wells is usually free from insoluble impurities & Safe to Drink.
34. SATELLITE: A Satellite is an object which revolves around a planet.
Moon is the only Natural satellite of the Earth about 3,84,400 km away from the earth.

QUES Why does a moon shine?
Ans:: It does not have its own light , but shines because it reflects the light of the sun that falls on it.

Ques It is smaller than sun though it appears to be of the same size?
Ans:: Because the mon is closer to us than the sun.

35. SURFACE OF THE MOON & ATMOSPHERE ::

SURFACE: Surface of the moon is rough & uneven made of great plains & huge mountains.
There are big round hollows called CRATERS on the Moon formed when METEORITES fall on suface of Moon.
The surface of the moon is is scarred with millions of Craters & is covered with Dark Grey Dust.

ATMOSPHERE: There is no Air & Water (No Life) on the moon.
The MOON’s Gravity is 1/6 ( one-sixth ) of the Gravity of the EARTH.
In absence of AIR , no SOUND can be heard on the moon.
The sky is always bleak & no clouds to hide the sun.

36. PHASES OF MOON :
PHASES:: The different shapes of the moon, as visible from the EARTH are called its PHASES.


37. ECLIPSES OF THE MOON & THE SUN ::

a. ECLIPSES: Eclipses are nothing but the shadows of the EARTH & the MOON.
b. LUNAR ECLIPSE: When moon moves into the Dark Shadows of the EARTH & donot receive any Sunlight.
This is called Eclipse of the Moon OR LUNAR ECLIPSE.

 TOTAL LUNAR ECLIPSE: When the moon is completely in the dark shadow of the Earth, it is called TOTAL
LUNAR ECLIPSE.
 PARTIAL LUNAR ECLIPSE: Whenthe moon is only partly hidden by the dark shadow of the Earth, it is
called PARTIAL LUNAR ECLIPSE.
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c. SOLAR ECLIPSE: When people in the shadow of the moon cannot see the sun, it is an Eclipse of the Sun OR
SOLAR ECLIPSE.


 TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE:: When the Sun is completely hidden behind the shadow of the Moon, it is
called TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE.
 PARTIAL SOLAR ECLIPSE:: When the shadow of the Moon hides only a part of the sun, it is called
PARTIAL SOLAR ECLIPSE.

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38. TIDES: Although the moon’s gravity is very weak, it has a noticable effect on the Earth.
It pulls the waters of the Seas & Oceans of the Earth, causing TIDES.
HIGH TIDES: The water of the seas & oceans , on the side of the Earth facing the Moon , is attracted Upwards.
This attraction causes HIGH TIDES.
LOW TIDES: In the areas between the two high tides the water form LOW TIDES.

39. ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE: are man-made objects which revolve around the Earth just as the moon does.

FIRST MAN-MADE SATELLITE: SPUTNIK – 1 By Rusiian scientists. (1957).
FIRST MAN GO INTO SPACE: Major YURI GAGARIN (12, April , 1961)
FIRST WOMEN TO GO INTO SPACE VALENTINA TERESHKOVA
FIRST WHO STEPPED ON MOON  NEIL ARMSTRONG & EDWIN ALDRIN stepped on the moon surface, while
third Artronaut , MICHEAL COLLINS remained in the spacecraft to circle the
moon & keep in touch with the Earth.
FIRST INDIAN SATELLITE  ARYABHATA (1975)
OTHER INDIAN SATELLITE: INSAT 1A, CARTOSAT-2A(REMOTE SENSING
SATELLITE).

QUES How are these satellites useful to mankind??
# USES OF ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES::
1. COMMUNICATION SATELLITES: Satellites which send messages from one country to another.
Ex: television programmes, etc.
2. WEATHER SATELLITES: take pictures of the movements of clouds & help us in Weather
Forecasting.
3. ASTRONOMERS use satellites to take special measurements of our Solar system, Stars & Galaxies.



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ALL THE BEST
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