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APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES 79

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APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES
4.1 Derivative as a rate measure
If y = f(x) is a function of x, then
dx
dy
or f ‘(x) represents the rate-measure of y with respect
to x.
(a) represents ) x ( ’ f or
dx
dy
0
x x
0
=
|
.
|

'
´
the rate of change of y w.r.t. x at x = x
0
.
(b) If y increases as x increases, then
dx
dy
is positive and if y decreases as x increases, then
dx
dy
is negative.
(c) Marginal Cost (MC) is the instantaneous rate of change of total cost with respect to the
number of items produced at an instant.
(d) Marginal Revenue (MR) is the instantaneous rate of change of total revenue with respect to
the number of items sold at an instant.
4.2 Tangents and normal
(a) To find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = f(x) at the given point P(x
1
, y
1
), proceed as
under :
(i) Find
dx
dy
from the given equation y = f(x).
(ii) Find the value of
dx
dy
at the given point P (x
1
, y
1
), let m =
1
1
y y
x x
dx
dy
=
=
|
.
|

'
´
.
(iii) The equation of the required tangent is y – y
1
= m (x – x
1
).
In particular, if =
1
1
y y
x x
dx
dy
=
=
|
.
|

'
´
does not exist, then the equation of the tangent is x = x
1
.
(b) To find the equation of the normal to the curve y = f(x) at the given point P(x
1
, y
1
), proceed as
under :
(i) Find
dx
dy
from the given equation y = f(x).
(ii) Find the value of
dx
dy
at the given point P(x
1
, y
1
).
(iii) If m is the slope of the normal to the given curve at P, then m = –
1
1
y y
x x
dx
dy
1
=
=
|
.
|

'
´
.
(iv) The equation of the required normal is y – y
1
= m (x – x
1
).
In particular if,
1
1
y y
x x
dx
dy
=
=
|
.
|

'
´
= 0, then the equation of the normal at P is x = x
1
; and if =
1
1
y y
x x
dx
dy
=
=
|
.
|

'
´
does not exist, then the equation of the normal at P is y = y
1
.
APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES 81
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(i) f is said to have a local (or relative) maxima at x = c (in D) iff there exists a positive
real number o such that f(c) > f(x) for all x in (c – o, c + o) i.e. f(c) > f(x) for all x in the
immediate neighbourhood of c, and c is called point of local maxima and f(c) is called
local maximum value.
(ii) f is said to have local (or relative) minima at x = d(in D) iff there exists some positive
real number o such that f(d) s f(x) for all x e (d – o, d + o) i.e. f(d) s f(x) for all x in the
immediate neighbourhood of d, and d is called point of local minima and f(d) is called local
minimum value.
Geometrically, a point c in the domain of the given function f is a point of local maxima
or local minima according as the graph of f has a peak or trough (cavity) at c.
(iii) a point (in D) which is either a point of local maxima or a point of local minima is called
an extreme point, and the value of the function at this point is called an extreme value.
(b) Critical (or turning) point
If f is a real valued function defined on D (subset of R), then a point c (in D) is called
a critical (or turning or stationary) point of f iff f is differentiable at x = c and f ‘(c) = 0.
(c) Point of inflection
A point P(c, f(c)) on the curve y = f(x) is called a point of inflection iff on one side of P the
curve lies below the tangent at P and on the other side it lies above the tangent at P. Thus,
a point where the curve crosses the tangent is called a point of inflection.
Theorem. A function f (or the curve y = f(x)) has a point of inflection at x = c iff f ‘(c) = 0, f
“(c) = 0 and f ‘“(c) = 0.
(d) Working rules for finding (absolute) maximum and minimum
If a function f is differentiable in [a, b] except (possibly) at finitely many points, then to find
(absolute) maximum and minimum values adopt the following procedure :
(i) Evaluate f(x) at the points where f ‘(x) = 0
(ii) Evaluate f(x) at the points where derivative fails to exist.
(iii) Find f(a) and f(b).
Then the maximum of these values is the absolute maximum and minimum of these values is
the absolute minimum of the given function f.
(e) Working rules to find points of local maxima and minima
1. Locate the points where the given function ‘f’ is likely to have extreme values :
(i) The points where the derivative fails to exist.
(ii) The turning (critical) points i.e. the points where the derivative is zero.
(iii) End points of the domain if f is defined in a closed interval [a, b].
These are the only points where f may have extreme values, let c be any one such
point.
2. If f ‘(c) does not exist but f ‘ exists in neighbourhood of c, then the following table
describes the behaviour of the function f at c :
x slightly < c slightly > c Nature of point
f ’(x) + ve – ve Maxima
f ’(x) – ve + ve Minima
3. If c is a turning point i.e. f ‘(c) exists and f ‘(c) = 0. Let n > 2 be the smallest positive
integer such that f
(n)
(c) = 0, then the following table describes the behaviour of the
function f at c :
APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES 83
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Ex.1 The radius of an air bubble is increas-
ing at the r ate of
2
1
cm/ s. At what
r ate i s the vol ume of the bubble in-
creasing when the radius is 1 cm ?
Sol. Let r cm be the radius of an air bubble
and V cm
3
be its volume. Then,
V =
3
4
tr
3
..........(i)
It is given that
dt
dr
=
2
1
cm/s
Now, from (i), we have
dt
dV
= 4tr
2
dt
dr
= 4tr
2
×
2
1
= 2tr
2
When r = 1 cm,
dt
dV
= 2t (1)
2
= 2t cm
3
/s
Thus, the rate of change of volumes of
the air bubble is 2t cm
3
/s.
Ex.2 A bal l oon, whi ch al ways r emai ns
spherical on inflation, is being inflated
by pumping in 900 cubic centimeters
of gas per second. Fi nd the rate at
whi ch the r adi us of the bal loon in-
creases when the radius is 15 cm.
Sol. Let r cm denote the radius of the spheri-
cal balloon and V be its volume. Then,
V =
3
4
tr
3
........(i)
It is given that
dt
dV
= 900 cm
3
/s
From (i), we have
dt
dV
= 4tr
2
dt
dr
¬
dt
dr
=
2
r 4
900
t
=
2
r
225
t
When r = 15 cm,
dt
dr
=
2
) 15 (
225
t
=
t
1
=
22
7
cm/s
Thus, the rate at which the radius of the
balloon increases is
22
7
cm/s, when r =
15 cm.
Ex.3 Fi nd the l east val ue of a such t hat
the f unction f given by f( x) = x
2
+ ax
+ 1 is strictly increasing in ( 1, 2) .
Sol. Here, f ‘(x) = 2x + a
Now, 1 < x < 2 ¬ 2 < 2x < 4
¬ 2 + a < 2x + a < 4 + a
....(1)
Now, f(x) is an increasing function, so f ‘(x)
> 0 for x e (1, 2)
¬ 2x + a > 0 for x e (1, 2)
¬ 0 < 2x + a for x e (1, 2)
¬ 0 s 2 + a [using (1)]
¬ a > –2
So, the least value of a is –2.
Ex.4 Prove that the function f gi ven by
f (x) = x
2
– x + 1 is neither strictly increas-
ing nor strictly decreasing in ( – 1, 1) .
Sol. We have, f(x) = x
2
– x + 1
¬ f ‘(x) = 2x – 1
The critical value of f(x) is
2
1
Case 1 When –1 < x <
2
1
In this case, –1<x<
2
1
¬ –3<2x – 1<0
¬ f ‘(x) < 0
Thus, f(x) is decreasing for –1 < x <
2
1
Case 2 When
2
1
< x < 1
In this case,
2
1
< x < 1 ¬ 1 < 2x < 2
¬ 0 < 2x – 1 < 1
Hence, f ‘(x) > 0
So, f(x) is increasing for
2
1
< x < 1
So, in the interval (–1, 1), f(x) is nei-
ther increasing nor decreasing.
SOLVED PROBLESM
APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES 85
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0
O M
A
Q
) sin b , cos ( P 0 0 o
A’
= a + a cos 0
Now, Area (A) of A'PQ =
2
1
(a + a cos 0) (2b
sin 0)
= ab sin 0 (1 + cos 0)
We shall now find for what value of 0 A is
maximum.
0 d
dA
= ab cos 0 (1 + cos 0) – ab sin
2
0
= ab cos0 + ab (cos
2
0 – sin
2
0)
= ab [cos0 + cos 20 ]
=
]

¸
0 0
2
cos
2
3
cos 2 ab
Equating
0 d
dA
to 0, we have
cos
2
30
cos
2
0
= 0
¬
0
2
3
cos =
0
or
2
cos
0
= 0
¬
2 2
3 t
=
0
or
2 2
t
=
0
¬
3
t
= 0
or 0 =t
But 0 < 0 <
2
t

3
t
= 0
Now,
] 2 sin 2 – sin [– ab
d
A d
2
0 0 =
0
2
0
2
3
2
2
3
– ab
d
A d
3
2
<

]

¸

÷ =

]

0 t
= 0
2
¬ A is maximum when 0 =
3
t
Maximum value of the area of the isosce-
les triangle

]

¸
t
+ |
.
|

'
´ t
=
3
cos 1
3
sin ab
= ab
|
.
|

'
´
+
|
|
.
|

'
´
2
1
1
2
3
4
3 3
= ab sq units.
Ex.10 Show that height of the cylinder of
greatest vol ume whi ch can be i n-
scribed in a right circular cone of height
h and semi-vertical angle α is one-third
that of the cone and the greatest vol-
ume of cylinder is
α π
2 3
tan h
27
4
Sol. Let ABC be the cone whose semi-vertical
angle is o.
AM = h
A cylinder is inscribed in it whose radius
LD of the base is r and height LM = h'.
From the figure, h' = AM – AL
= h – ¸ cot o ...(1)
Volume (V) of the cylinder is given by
’ h r V
2
t =
) cot h ( r
2
o ¸ ÷ t = . . . ( 2 )
M
B C
L D
o
A

) cot (– r ) cot h ( r 2
dr
dV
2
o t + o ¸ ÷ t =
= o t t¸ cot r 3 – h 2
2
) cot 3 h 2 ( r o ¸ ÷ t =
For max. or min. value of V, we must have
0
dr
dV
=
o = tan h
3
2
r
Now,
) cot 3 (– r ) cot 3 h 2 (
dr
V d
2
2
o t + o ¸ ÷ t =
o t t = cot r 6 – h 2
0 ) h 4 – h 2 (
dr
V d
tan h
3
2
r
2
2
< t =

]

o =
Thus, V is maximum, when r =
o tan h
3
2
From (1), we have
h
3
1
h
3
2
– h cot tan h
3
2
h ’ h = = o o ÷ =
Greatest volume of the cylinder = o = tan h
3
2
r
] V [
|
.
|

'
´
o o ÷ |
.
|

'
´
o t = cot tan h
3
2
h tan h
3
2
2
=
o t
t
2 3
tan h
2
4
APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES 87
www.thinkiit.in
Q.1 Find the intervals in which the function f(x) = x
3
– 6x
2
+ 9x + 15 is increasing or decreasing.
[C.B.S.E. 2000]
Q.2 Find the largest possible area of right angled triangle whose hypotenuse is 5 cm long.
[C.B.S.E. 2000]
Q.3 Using differentials, find the approximate value of 37 . 0 .[C.B.S.E. 2001]
Q.4 Find the intervals in which the function f(x) = 2x
3
– 9x
2
+ 12x + 30 is
(i) increasing (ii) decreasing.
[C.B.S.E. 2001]
Q.5 Using differentials, find approximate value of 26 . 0 .
[C.B.S.E. 2001]
Q.6 Show that the curves xy = a
2
and x
2
+ y
2
= 2a
2
touch each other.
[C.B.S.E. 2002]
Q.7 A window is in the form of rectangle above which there is semi-circle. If perimeter of window
is p cm, show that window will allow the maximum possible light only when the radius of semi-
circle is
4
p
+ t
cm.
[C.B.S.E. 2002]
Q.8 If y = x
4
+ 10 and x changes from 2 to 1.99. Find the approximate change in y.
[C.B.S.E. 2002]
Q.9 Show that rectangle of maximum area that can be inscribed in a circle of radius r is a
square of side r 2 .
[C.B.S.E. 2002]
Q.10 A balloon which always remains spherical is being inflated by pumping in gas at the rate of 900
cm
3
/sec. Find the rate at which the radius of balloon is increasing when radius of balloon is 15
cm. [C.B.S.E. 2003]
Q.11 A window is in the form of a rectangle surmounted by a semi-circle. If the perimeter of the window is
100 m, find the dimensions of the window so that maximum light enters through the window.
[C.B.S.E. 2003]
Q.12 A particle moves along the curve y =
3
2
x
3
+ 1. FInd the points on the curve at which y-
coordinate is changing twice as fast as x-coordinate.
[C.B.S.E. 2003]
Q.13 For the curve y = 4x
3
– 2x
5
, find all points at which tangent passes through origin.
[C.B.S.E. 2003]
Q.14 A square piece of tin of side 18 cm is to be made into a box without a top by cutting a square
piece from each corner and folding up the flaps. What should be the side square to be cut off
so that volume of the box be maximum ? Also find the maximum volume of the box.
[C.B.S.E. 2003]
Q.15 Find the intervals on which function f(x) =
2
x 1
x
+
is (i) Increasing (ii) Decreasing.
[C.B.S.E. 2003]
Q.16 Find the intervals in which the function f(x) = x
3
– 6x
2
+ 9x + 15 is
(i) increasing (ii) decreasing.
[C.B.S.E. 2004]
Q.17 Find equations of tangent and normal to the curve x = 1 – cos0, y = 0 – sin 0 at 0 =
4
t
.
[C.B.S.E. 2004]
Q.18 Find the intervals in which the function f(x) =
x
1 x 4
2
+
, x = 0 is
(i) increasing (ii) decreasing.
[C.B.S.E. 2004]
Q.19 Find the equation of tangent and normal to the curve y = x
2
+ 4x + 1 at the point whose x-
coordinate is 3.
[C.B.S.E. 2004]
BOARD PROBLES
EXERCISE – II
APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES 89
www.thinkiit.in
Q.39 Show that the height of cylinder of maximum volume that can be inscribed in a sphere
of radius R is
3
R 2
.
[C.B.S.E. 2006]
Q.40 Prove that volume of largest cone that can be inscribed in a sphere of radius R is
27
8
of the
volume of sphere.
[C.B.S.E. 2006]
Q.41 A wire of length 28 m is to be cut into two pieces. One of the pieces is to be made into a
square and the other into a circle. What should be the lengths of the two pieces so that the
combined area of the square and the circle is minimum.
[C.B.S.E. 2007]
Q.42 Find the point on the curve x
2
= 4y which is nearest to the point (–1, 2)
[C.B.S.E. 2007]
Q.43 Show that the right circular cone of least curved surface and given volume has an altitude
equal to 2 times the radius of the base.
[C.B.S.E. 2007]
Q.44 Show that the rectangle of maximum area that can be inscribed in a circle is a square.
[C.B.S.E. 2008]
Q.45 Show that the height of the cylinder of maximum volume that can be inscribed in a cone of
height h is
3
1
h.
[C.B.S.E. 2008]
Q.46 The length x of a rectangle is decreasing at the rate of 5 cm/minute and the width y is
increasing at the rate of 4 cm/minute. When x = 8 cm and y = 6 cm, find the rate of change
of (a) the perimeter, (b) the area of the rectangle.
[C.B.S.E. 2009]
Q.47 Find the intervals in which the function f given by f(x) = sin x + cos x, 0 s x s 2t,
is strictly increasing or strictly decreasing.
[C.B.S.E. 2009]
Q.48 If the sum of the lengths of the hypotenuse and a side of a right-angled triangle is given,
show that the area of the triangle is maximum when the angle between them is
3
t
.
[C.B.S.E. 2009]
Q.49 A manufacturer can sell x items at a price of Rs |
.
|

'
´
÷
100
x
5 each. The cost price of x items is Rs
|
.
|

'
´
+100
5
x
. Find the number of items he should sell to earn maximum profit.
[C.B.S.E. 2009]
Q.50 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = 2 x 3 ÷ which is parallel to the line 4x – 2y
+ 5 = 0.
[C.B.S.E. 2009]
Q.51 Find the intervals in which the function f given by f(x) = x
3
+
3
x
1
, x = 0 is
[C.B.S.E. 2009]
(i) increasing (ii) decreasing.
Q.52 Find the volume o the largest cylinder that can be inscribed in a sphere of radius r.
[C.B.S.E. 2009]
Q.53 A tank with rectangular base and rectangular sides, open at the top is to be constrcuted so
that its depth is 2 m and volume is 8 m
3
. If building of tank costs Rs 70 per sq. metre for the
base and Rs 45 per sq. metre for sides, what is the cost of least expensive tank ?
[C.B.S.E. 2009]
APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES 91
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ANSWER KEY
EXERCISE – 1 (UNSOLVED PROBLEMS)
2. 4m/min 4. In. (–·, 1) (3, ·), Dec. (1, 3) 5. In. (0, ·), Dec. (–1, 0)
6. In.
|
.
|

'
´ t t
2
,
4
, Dec.
|
.
|

'
´ t
4
, 0
9. tangent
t sin a
x
+
t cos b
y
= 1, normal ax sint – by cost = a
2
sin
4
t – b
2
cos
4
t
10. (0, 0) ; (1, 2) and (–1, –2) 12. 5.026 16.
81
R 32
3
t
17. side = 10 m depth =
2.5 m
18. (1, 3) 19. 50 items 20. speed = 30 km/hr.
EXERCISE – 2 (BOARD PROBLEMS)
1. Increasing in (–·, –1) (3, ·) and decreasing in (1, 3) 2.
4
25
sq. units 3. 0.683
5. 0.51 8. – 0.32 10.
22
7
cm/sec 11.
4
200
+ t
,
4
100
+ t
12.
|
.
|

'
´
3
5
, 1
,
|
.
|

'
´
÷
3
1
, 1
13. (0,0), (1,2) and (–1,–2) 14. 3 cm, 432 cm
3
15. Increasing in (–1, 1) and decreasing in (–·, –1)
(1, ·)
16. Increasing in (–·, –1) (3, ·) and decreasing in (1, 3)
17. y –
4
t
+
2
1
= 2 – 1
|
|
.
|

'
´
+ ÷
2
1
1 x , y –
4
t
+
2
1
=
1 2
1
÷
÷
|
|
.
|

'
´
+ ÷
2
1
1 x
18. Increasing in
|
.
|

'
´ ÷
· ÷
2
1
,

|
.
|

'
´
· ,
2
1
and decreasing in
|
.
|

'
´ ÷
0 ,
2
1

|
.
|

'
´
2
1
, 0
19. 10x – y – 8 = 0, x + 10y – 223 = 0 20. 10 cm
2
/s
21. Increasing in (–·, –2) (4, ·) and decreasing in (–2, 4) 22. 0.1924 23. 6 cm
3
/s
24.
3 4 9
3 144
+
cm,
3 4 9
324
+
cm 27. Increasing in (–·, –2) (3, ·) and decreasing in (–2, 3)
28. y –
3
4
5 = –
5 3
8
(x – 2) 29.
|
.
|

'
´
4
1
,
2
7
30. 4zx + 3y – 24 = 0
33. x + ( 2 + 1) y –
2
2 2 3 +

4
t

2
1
= 0 35.
b a
bc
÷
m/min. 36.
3
7
cm
2
/s
37. 3x – y – 2 = 0, x + 3y – 4 = 0 41. C =
4
28
+ t
t
, S =
4
112
+ t
42. (–2, 1) 46. (a) –2 cm/min
(b) 2 cm
2
/min
47. In.

]

'
´
t
t
|
.
|

¸
t
2 ,
4
5
4
, 0
, De. |
.
|

'
´ t t
4
5
,
4
49. 240 50. 48x – 24y = 23 51. In. (–·, –1) (1, ·), De. (–1, 1)
52.
3 3
R 4
3
t
53. Rs 1000 57. 2.16t 59. x =
11
) 3 6 ( 4 +
, y =
11
3 6 30 ÷
60.
3
8