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INTEGRALS 93

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13.
}
cosec
2
ax dx = –
a
1
cot ax + c. If a = 1, then
}
cosec
2
x dx = –cot x + c.
14.
}
e
ax
dx =
a
e
ax
+ c. If a = 1, then
}
e
x
dx = e
x
+ c.
15.
}
a
mx
dx =
a log m
a
e
mx
+ c. If m = 1, then
}
a
x
dx =
a log
a
e
x
+ c.
16.
}
2 2
x a
1
÷
dx = sin
–1
a
x
+ c. If a = 1, then
}
2
x 1
1
÷
dx = sin
–1
x + c.
17.
}
2 2
x a
1
+
dx =
a
1
tan
–1
a
x
+ c. If a = 1, then
}
2
x 1
1
+
dx = tan
–1
x + c.
18.
}
2 2
a x x
1
÷
dx =
a
1
sec
–1
a
x
+ c. If a = 1, then
}
1 x x
1
2
÷
dx = sec
–1
x + c.
19.
}
2 2
1
a x +
dx = log
2 2
x a x + +
+ c. 20.
}
2 2
a x
1
÷
dx= log
2 2
x x a + ÷
+ c.
21.
}
2 2
a x
1
÷
dx =
a x
a x
log
a 2
1
+
÷
+ c. 22.
}
2 2
x a
1
÷
dx =
x a
x a
log
a 2
1
÷
+
+ c.
23.
}
2 2
x a ÷
dx =
2
x
2 2
x a ÷
+
2
a
2
sin
–1
a
x
+ c.
24.
}
2 2
x a +
dx =
2
x
2 2
x a +
+
2
a
2
log
2 2
x a x + +
+ c.
25.
}
2 2
a x ÷
dx =
2
x
2 2
a x ÷

2
a
2
log
2 2
x x a + ÷
+ c.
5.3 METHODS OF INTEGRATION
(i) Integration by Substitution (or change of independent variable) :
If the independent variable x in
}
f(x) dx be changed to t, then we substitute x = | (t)
i.e., dx = |‘(t) dt
}
f(x) dx =
}
f(|(t))|’(t) dt
which is either a standard form or is easier to integrate.
(ii) Integration by parts :
If u and v are the differentiable functions of x then
}
u. v dx = u
}
vdx –
}

]

¸

|
.
|

\

}
vdx u
dx
d
dx.
How to choose Ist and IInd functions:
(a) If the two functions are of different types take that function as Ist which comes first
in the word ILATE where I stands for inverse circular function, L stands for logarithrmic
function A stands for Algebratic function, T stands for trigonometric function and E
stands for exponential function.
(b) If both functions are algebratic take that function as Ist whose differential coefficient
is simple.
(c) It both functions are trigonometrical take that function as IInd whose integral is
simpler.
(d) Successive integration by parts : Use the following formula
}
uvdx = uv
1
– u’v
2
+ u”v
3
– u’” v
4
+ ......... .........+ (–1)
n–1
u
n –1
v
n
+ (–1)
n
}
u
n
v
n
dx.
where u
n
stands for nth differential coefficient of u w. r. t. x and v
n
stands for n th integral of v
w. r. t. x.
cancellation of Integrals : i.e.
}
e
x
{(f(x) + f’(x)} dx = e
x
f(x) + c.
INTEGRALS 95
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find l and m by comparing the coefficients of sin x and cos x and split the integral into sum of
two integrals as l
}
dx + m
} r
r
D
D of . c . d
= lx + m ln | D
r
| + c
Rule for (v) : Express the numberator as
l(D
r
) + m (d.c. of D
r
) + n, find l, m, and n by comparing the coefficients of sin x, cos x and
constant term and split the integral into sum of three integrals as
l
}
dx + m
} r
r
D
D of . c . d
dx + n
}
r
D
dx
= lx + m ln | D
r
| + n
}
r
D
dx
and to evaluate
}
r
D
dx
proceed by
the method to evaluate rule (i), (ii) and (iii).
Integrals of the form Type V :
(i)
}


4 2 4
2 2
a kx x
dx a x
+ +
+
(ii)
}


4 2 4
2 2
a kx x
dx a x
+ +
÷
where k is a constant, + ve, –ve or zero.
Rule for (i) and (ii) : Divide above and below by x
2
then putting (i) t = x –
x
a
2
i.e., dt =
|
|
.
|

\

+
2
2
x
a
1
dx and dt =
|
|
.
|

\

÷
2
2
x
a
1
dx
then the questions shall reduce to the form
}
2 2
c t
dt
+
or
}
2 2
c t
dt
÷
Remember :
(i)
}
4 2 4
2
a kx x
dx x
+ +
=
2
1
}


4 2 4
2 2
x kx x
dx a x
+ +
+
+
2
1
}


4 2 4
2 2
a kx x
dx a x
+ +
÷
(ii)
}

4 2 4
dx
x kx a + +
=
2
a 2
1
}


4 2 4
2 2
x kx x
dx a x
+ +
+

2
a 2
1
}


4 2 4
2 2
a kx x
dx a x
+ +
÷
(iii)
}

n
2
k x
dx
+
=

1 n
2
k x 2 n 2 k
x
÷
+ ÷
+

2 n 2 k
3 n 2
÷
÷
}

1 n
2
k x
dx
÷
+
Integrals of the form Type VI :
(i)
}
b ax B Ax
dx
+ +
(ii)


2
dx
Ax Bx C ax b + + +
(iii)
}


2
dx
Ax B ax bx c + + +
(iv)
}

2 2
dx
Ax Bx c ax bx c + + + +
Rule for (i) and (ii) : Put ax + b = t
2
Rule for (iii) : Put Ax + B =
t
1
Rule for (iv) : Put
2
2
ax bx c
Ax Bx C
+ +
+ +
= t
2
(iv) Integration by partial fraction :
Form of the Rational Function Form of the Partial Fraction
1.
b x a x
q px
÷ ÷
+
, a = b
b x
B
a x
A
÷
+
÷
INTEGRALS 97
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Ex.1 Find f( x) , if
( i) f’( x) = ( x – 1)
3
and f( 2) + f( – 2) = 0
( ii) f’( x) = a ( cos x + sin x ) , f( 0)
= 9 and f
|
|
\ .
2
π
= 15
Sol. (i) Here, f ’(x) = (x – 1)
3
f(x) =
}
(x–1)
3
dx =
4
1
(x – 1)
4
+
C
f(2) =
4
1
(2 – 1)
4
+ C = =
4
1
+ C
Given that f(2) + f(–2) = 0, we have
¬
4
1
+ C +
4
81
+ C = 0 ¬
4
82
+ 2C
= 0 ¬ 20.5 + 2C = 0
¬ C = – 10.25
Hence, from (1) we have
f(x) =
4
1
(x – 1)
4
– 10.25 =
4
1
[(x – 1)
4

41]
(ii) Here, f ’(x) = a (cos x + sin x)
f(x) =
}
a (cos x + sin x)dx
= a
}
cos x dx + a
}
sin x dx
= a sin x – a cos x + C
...(1)
f(0) = 9 = a×0 – a×1+C ...(2) ¬ C–
a=9
and f
|
.
|

\
t
2
=15 = a×1 – a × 0 + C ¬
a+C =15
From (2) and (3), we have a = 3, C = 12
Hence, from (1), we have f(x)=3(sin x–cos
x)+12
Ex.2 I ntegrate the following functions w.r.t.
x :
( i)
( )
2
1 logx
x
+
( ii)
( ) ( )
2
x 1 x logx
x
+ +
( iii) x
x 2 +
Sol. (i) Put 1 + log x = y. Then,
x
1
dx = dy
So, I =
}

x
x log 1
2
+
dx
¬
}
y
2
dy =
3
y
3
+ C =

3
x log 1
3
+
+ C
(ii) Put x + log x = y. Then,
|
.
|

\

+
x
1
1
dx = dy
¬
|
.
|

\
+
x
1 x
dx = dy
So, I =
}

x
x log x 1 x
2
+ +
dx
=
}
y
2
dy =
3
y
3
+ C =

3
x log x
3
+
+ C
(iii) Put x + 2 = y. Then, dx = dy
So, I =
}
x
2 x +
dy =
}
2
1
y 2 y ÷
dy
¬
} ) y 2 y (
2
1
2
3
÷
dy =
}
2
1
2
3
y ) 2 dy y ( ÷
dy
¬ C y
3
2
. 2 y
5
2
3
2
2
5
+ ÷ =
C 2 x
3
4
2 x
5
2
2
3
2
5
+ + ÷ +
Ex.3 Find : ( i)
}
cos
3
x dx ( ii)
}
1 sinxdx −
Sol. (i) We have cos
3
x =
4
1
(cos 3x
+ 3 cos x)
}
cos
3
x dx =
4
1
}
cos 3x dx +
4
3
}
cos xdx
=
4
1
3
x 3 sin
+
4
3
sinx + C =
12
1
sin3x +
4
3
sinx
+ C
(ii) We have
x sin 1÷
=
2
x
cos
2
x
sin 2
2
x
sin
2
x
cos
2 2
÷ |
.
|

\

+
SOLVED PROBLESM
INTEGRALS 99
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Thus,
) 2 x )( 1 x (
1
+ +
=
1 x
1
+
+
2 x
1
+
÷
¬
}
+ + ) 2 x )( 1 x (
dx
=
} }
+
÷
+
dx
2 x
1
dx
1 x
1
= log | x+1 | – log | x+2 | + C =
log
2 x
1 x
+
÷
+C
Ex.7 Fi nd : ( i )
2
3x 1
dx
( x 2)

+

( ii)
2
x
dx
(x-1) )(x+2)
}
Sol. (i) Let
2
) 2 x (
1 x 3
+
÷
÷
2 x
A
+
+
2
) 2 x (
B
+
Then, 3x – 1 ÷ A(x + 2) + B
Comparing coefficients of x and the con-
stant terms on both sides, we get
3 = A and –1 = 2A + B ¬ A = 3 and B =
– 7
Thus,
} } }
+
÷
+
=
+
÷
dx
) 2 x (
7
dx
2 x
3
dx
) 2 x (
1 x 3
2 2
= 3
log |x + 2| – 7
.
) 2 x (
1
+
+ C
(ii) Let
) 2 x ( ) 1 x (
x
2
+ ÷
÷
1 x
A
÷
+
2
) 1 x (
B
÷
+
2 x
C
+
Then x = A (x – 1) (x + 2) + B(x + 2) + C (x + 1)
2
x = A (x
2
+ x – 2) + B (x + 2) + C (x
2
– 2x + 1)
Comparing coefficients of x
2
, x and the con-
stant terms on both sides, we get
0 = A + C; 1 = A + B – 2C ; 0 = –2A + 2B
+ C
¬ A =
9
2
; B =
3
1
; C =

9
2
Thus, dx
) 2 x ( ) 1 x (
x
2 }
+ ÷
=
} } }
+
÷
÷
+
÷
dx
2 x
9
2
dx
) 1 x (
3
1
dx
1 x
9
2
2
=
9
2
log |x – 1| –
) 1 x ( 3
1
÷

9
2
log |x + 2|
+ C
=
9
2
log
2 x
1 x
+
÷

) 1 x ( 3
1
÷
+ C
Ex.8 Find : ( i)
-1
x sin xdx
}
( ii)
-1
xcos xdx
}
Sol. (i) Put x = sin t so that d x = cos t .
dt So,
} }
=
÷
dt t cos . t . t sin dx x sin x
1
=
}
dt t 2 sin . t
2
1
=
¸ , ¸ ,
} } }
÷ dt dt t 2 sin . 1 dt t 2 sin . t
2
1
=

]

¸

+
÷
}
dt
2
t 2 cos
2
t 2 cos
. t
2
1
=–
C
2
t 2 sin
.
4
1
t 2 cos . t
4
1
+ +
= C t sin 1 t sin
4
1
) t sin 2 1 ( . t
4
1
2 2
+ ÷ + ÷
= C x 1 x
4
1
x sin ) 1 x 2 (
4
1
2 1 2
+ ÷ + ÷
÷
(ii) Put x = cos t so that dx = – sin t
dt So,
dt t sin . t . t cos dx x cos x
1
} }
÷ =
÷
=
}
÷ dt t 2 sin t
2
1
=
C
2
t 2
sin .
4
1
t 2 cos . t
4
1
+ ÷ (Using (1)
give below)
=
4
1
t(2 cos
2
t – 1) –
4
1
t cos 1
2
÷ . cos
t + C =
4
1
(2x
2
– 1) cos
–1
x –
4
x
2
x 1÷ + C
Ex.9 Find : ( i)
2
1 1
- dt
logx
(logx)



¸ ]
}
( ii)
x
sin4x- 4
e dx
1- cos4x
|
|
\ .
}
Sol. (i) Let log x = t. Then x = e
t
and
x
dx
= dt dx
) x (log
1
x log
1
2 }

]

¸

÷ =
dx e
t
1
t
1
t
2 }
|
|
.
|

\

÷
=
}
= +
t
1
) t ( f where , dt ) t ( ’ f ) t ( f [ e
t
= e
t
. f(t)+C
INTEGRALS 101
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Q.1. Evalute : (i)
}
÷
dx
x cot x ec cos
x ec cos
(ii)
}
+
dx
x cos . x sin
x cos x sin
2 2
6 6
(iii)
}
+ dx x 3 cos 1
Q.2 Evalute : (i)
dx
x 2 cos 1
x 2 sin
tan
1
}
|
.
|

\

+
÷
(ii)
dx ) x tan x (sec tan
1
}
+
÷
,
2
x
2

t
< <
t
Q.3 (i) If f'(x) = sin2x + cos3x + 5, f(0) =
2
3
, find (x)
(ii) If f'(x) = a sinx + b cos x and f'(0) = 4, f(0) = 3,
|
.
|

\
t
2
f
= 5, find f(x)
(iii) The gradient of a curve is given by
2
3
2x
x
= ÷ . The curve passes through (1,1). Find its
equation.
(iv) The gradient of a curve is 6x
2
– 2ax + a
2
. The curve passes through the point (0, 0) and (1,
8). Find a.
Q.4 Evaluate : (i)
}
dx x 3 sin x 2 sin x sin
(ii)
}
dx x 3 tan x 2 tan x tan
Q.5 Evaluate : (i)
sin(x a)
dx
sinx
÷
}
(ii)
dx
) a x sin(
x sin
}
÷
( i i i )
dx
) b x sin( ) a x sin(
1
}
÷ ÷
Q.6 Evalute : (i)
dx
e e
1
x x
}
÷
+
(ii)
dx
x x
1
3 / 1 2 / 1
}
+
Q.7 Evaluate : (i)
dx
) x cos b a (
x 2 sin
2
}
+
(ii)
dx
) a x sin( x sin
1
3
}
+
, a = nt,
z ne
Q.8 Evalute : (i)
}
+
+ dx ) x 1 ( log
) x 1 (
(ii)
}
÷
dx
x
x sin
2
1
Q.9 Evaluate : (i)
}
dx x sec
3
(ii)
dx
x cos x sin
x cos x sin
1 1
1 1
} ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
+
÷
Q.10 Evaluate : (i)
dx ) x (log sin
}
(ii)
dx bx cos e
ax
}
Q.11 Evaluate :
}
+
÷
dx
x 1
x 1
Q.12 Evaluate : (i)
}
o +
o ÷
dx
) x ( sin
) x ( sin
(ii)
}
+
÷
dx
x a
x a
Q.13 Evaluate : (i)
}
+ + ÷ dx 1 x x ) 2 x 3 (
2
(ii)
}
+ ÷ ÷ dx 3 x 4 x ) 5 x 2 (
2
Q.14 Evaluate : (i)
1
dx
3 4cosx +
}
(ii)
}
+ +
dx
x sin x cos 1
x cos
(iii)
}
+ +
dx
x cos x sin 2 3
1
Q.15 Evaluate : (i)
}
+
dx
x cot 1
1
(ii)
}
+
+
dx
x sin 2 x cos 3
x cos 2 x sin 3
Q.16 Evaluate : (i)
dx
) 4 x ( ) 1 x (
1
2 2
}
+ +
(ii)
dx
) 3 x ( ) 1 x (
x 2
2 2
}
+ +
(iii)
dx
) 4 x ( ) 1 x (
2 x
2 2
2
}
+ +
+
UNSOLVED PROBLEMS
EXERCISE – I
INTEGRALS 103
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Q.1 (i) Evaluate dx
x cos x sin
x sin
2 /
0
7 7
7
}
t
+
. (ii) dx ) x 2 x (
3
0
2
}
+ as limit of a sum. [C.B.S.E.
2000]
Q.2 (i) dx
3 x 4 x
1 x 2
2
}
+ +
+
(ii) dx x sin
4
}
. (iii) dx
x cos x
x 2 sin 1
2 }
+
+
(iv) dx x sin x
1
}
÷
.
[C.B.S.E. 2000]
Q.3 (i) dx x sin x 7 sin
}
. (ii) dx
3 x 2 x 2
3 x 4
2
}
÷ +
+
(iii) dx ) x 1 ( log
2
}
+ . (iv)
dx
) 2 x )( 1 x (
1 x
}
÷ +
÷
.[C.B.S.E. 2001]
Q.4 (i) Evaluate as the limit of a sum dx ) 3 x (
2
0
2
}
+ . (ii) Evaluate dx
x sin 1
x
0
}
t
+
. (iii) dx
x cos 1
x sin x
0
2 }
t
+
.
[C.B.S.E. 2001]
Q.5 (i) dx bx cos e
ax
}
. (ii) dx
) 1 x )( 1 x (
x
2 }
+ +
(iii)
}
+ + + 2 x 1 x
dx
(iv)
}
+ ÷ 8 x 4 x
dx
2
.[C.B.S.E.
2002]
Q.6 (i) Evaluate dx x cos
2 /
0
2
}
t
. (ii) Prove that t = +
}
t
2 dx ) x cot x tan (
2 /
0
.
(iii) Prove . 2 log
8
d ) tan 1 ( log
4 /
0
}
t
t
= u u + (iv) Evaluate
dx
x
1
x
1
e
2
1
2
x
}

]

¸

÷
.
[C.B.S.E. 2002]
Q.7 (i)
}
x sec
3
(ii) dx
) x 1 (
x tan
2
1
}
+
÷
. (iii)
}
+
÷
÷
x sin 1
x sin 1
tan
1
dx.
(iv)
}
÷ + ) x 2 3 )( 2 x (
dx x
. [C.B.S.E. 2003]
Q.8 (i) . 0 dx ) x (tan log . x 2 sin
2 /
0
=
}
t
(ii) Prove that dx
x a
x a
a
a
}
÷
+
÷
= at.
(iii) Evaluate dx x sin log . x 2 cos
2 /
4 /
}
t
t
. (iv) dx
x cos x sin
x sin
2 /
0
2
}
t
+
[C.B.S.E. 2003]
BOARD PROBLES
EXERCISE – II
INTEGRALS 105
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Q.19 (i) dx
x tan 3
x sec
2
}
+
(ii)
x
x 2x
e
dx
5 4e e ÷ ÷
}
(iii)
dx
) 2 x (
e ) 4 x (
3
x
}
÷
÷
(iv)
dx x sin x
1
}
÷
[C.B.S.E. 2009]
Q.20 (i) dx
e e
e
0
x cos x cos
x cos
}
t
÷
+
(ii) dx ) x 2 sin log x sin log 2 (
2 /
0
}
t
÷ (iii)
dx
x sin b x cos a
dx x
0
2 2 2 2 }
t
+
[C.B.S.E. 2009]
Q.21 (i)
}
÷ dx ) x 4 7 ( sec
2
(ii)
x 2
dx
(x 2) (x 3)
+
÷ ÷
}
[C.B.S.E. 2010]
Q.22 (i) dx x sin
2 /
2 /
5
}
t
t ÷
(ii) dx
3 x 4 x
x 5
2
1
2
2
}
+ +
[C.B.S.E. 2010]
Q.23
6x 7
dx
(x 5)(x 4)
+
÷ ÷
}
[C.B.S.E. 2011]
Q.24 Evaluate : (i)
/2
0
x sinx
dx
1 cosx
t
+
+
}
(ii)
/3
/6
dx
1 tanx
t
t
+
}
[C.B.S.E. 2011]
Q.25 Evaluate (i)
}
÷
÷
2
1
3
dx x x
. (ii)
}
t
+
0
2
dx
x cos 1
x sin x
[C.B.S.E. 2012]
Q.26 Evaluate (i)
dx
x 1
x sin x
2
1
}
÷
÷
(ii)
dx
) 3 x ( ) 1 x (
1 x
2
2
+ ÷
+
[C.B.S.E. 2012]
Q.27 Evaluate :
[C.B.S.E. 2013]
}
o ÷
o ÷
cos x cos
2 cos x 2 cos
dx
Evaluate :
}
+ +
+
3 x 2 x
2 x
2
dx
Q.28 Evaluate :
[C.B.S.E. 2013]

}
+ 3 x x
dx
5
Q.29 Evaluate :
[C.B.S.E. 2013]
dx
e 1
1
2
0
x sin }
t
+
INTEGRALS 107
www.thinkiit.in
c
1 x 2 x
1 x 2 x
log
2 4
1
x 2
1 x
tan
2 2
1
2
2 2
1
+

]

¸

+ +
+ ÷
÷
|
|
.
|

\

÷
÷
(ii) c
x 3
1 x
tan
3
1
2
1
+

]

¸

÷
÷
(iii)
1
1 tanx 1
tan c
2 2tanx
÷
| ÷
+
|
\ .
18. (i) e
2
e
2
÷ (ii)
1
2
÷
t
(iii)
) b a ( ab 2 +
t
(iv)
2 2
1
log

]

¸

÷
+
) 2 5 ( 2
1 5
19. (i) cos a–cos b (ii)
2
e 15
8
+
(iii) 14 (iv) 36 21. (i)
4
t

2
1
(ii) 0 22.
12
t
23. (i) 4 (ii) 2e–2 (iii) 4 (iv)
2
19
24. (i) 66 (ii)
10
13
(iii) 2 (iv) 4 25. (i) –
2
1
log (
2
– 1)
(ii) t (iii) t |
.
|

\

÷
t
1
2
(iv)
2 4
t
log
|
|
.
|

\

÷
+
1 2
1 2
(v)
4
2
t
26. (i)
4
t
(ii)
4
t
(i ii)
2 log
8
t
(i v) 0 (v)
) 2 n )( 1 n (
1
+ +
(vi) 0
EXERCISE – 2 (BOARD PROBLEMS)
1. (i)
4
t
(ii) 18 2. (i) 2 c 3 x 4 x ) 2 x ( log 3 3 x 4 x
2 2
+

]

¸

+ + + + ÷ + + (ii)
32
1
[12x – 8 sin 2x+sin
4x]+c
(iii) log (x + cos
2
x)+c (iv)
2
x
2
sin
–1
x +
4
x
2
x 1÷

4
1
sin
–1
x + c 13. (i) t/2 (ii) t/12
16. (i) t
1
2
t |
÷
|
\ .
(ii)
4
2
t
(iii)
2 2
t
log (
2
+ 1) (iv)
2
t
– log 2 17. (i)
2
93
(ii)
4
2
t
(iii)
15
16
2
18.
(i)
2
t
(ii)
4
t
(iii)
2 5
3
(iv)
3
20
3. (i)
16
x 8 sin
12
x 6 sin
÷
+ c
(ii) 2
2 2
1 1 3
2x 2x 3 log x x x
2 2
2

+ ÷ + + + + ÷


¸ ]
(iii) x log (1 + x
2
) – 2(x – tan
–1
x) + c (iv)
3
2
log(x + 1) +
3
1
log (x – 2) + c 4. (i)
3
26
(ii) t (iii)
4
2
t
5. (i)
2 2
ax
b a
e
+
[a cos bx + b sin bx] + c (ii)
4
1
log (x
2
+ 1) +
2
1
tan
–1
x –
2
1
log (x + 1)
(iii)
3
2
log (x + 2)
3/2

3
2
log(x + 1)
3/2
+ c (iv)
2
1
tan
-1
x 2
2
÷ |
|
\ .
6. (i)
4
t
(iv) e
2
e
2
÷
7. (i) sec x tan x + log (secx + tan x) (ii)
x 1
x tan
1
+
÷
+
2
1
[log (1 + x) + tan
–1
x –
2
1
log (1 + x
2
)] + c (iii)
4
x t

4
x
2
+ c