CHAPTER 5: PERFORMANCE AND CONSTRAINT ANALYSIS
"The great liability of the engineer compared to men of other professions is that his works are
out in the open where all can see them. His acts, step by step, are in hard substance. He cannot bury his
mistakes in the grave like the doctors. He cannot argue them into thin air or blame the judge like the
lawyers. He cannot, like the architects, cover his failures with trees and vines. He cannot, like the
politicians, screen his shortcomings by blaming his opponents and hope the people will forget. The
engineer simply cannot deny he did it. If his works do not work, he is damned."
resident Herbert Hoover
5.1 DESIGN MOTIVATION
Aircraft performance analysis is the science of predicting what an aircraft can do; how fast and
high it can fly, how quickly it can turn, how much payload it can carry, how far it can go, and how short a
runway it can safely use for takeoff and landing. Most of the design requirements which a customer
specifies for an aircraft are performance capabilities, so in most cases it is performance analysis which
answers the question, “Will this aircraft meet the customer’s needs!
5.2 EQUATIONS OF MOTION
"igure #.$ shows the forces and geometry for an aircraft in a climb. %he fligh !"h "#gl$, γ, is
the angle between the hori&on and the aircraft’s 'elocity 'ector (opposite the relati'e wind.) %he angle of
attack, α, is defined between the 'elocity 'ector and an "i%&%"f %$f$%$#&$ li#$, which is often chosen as
the central a*is of the fuselage rather than the wing chord line. %he choice of the aircraft reference line is
arbitrary. %he designer is free to choose whate'er reference is most con'enient, pro'ided care is taken to
clearly specify this choice to all users of the aircraft performance data. %he h%'( "#gl$, αT, is the angle
between the thrust 'ector and the 'elocity 'ector. %his will not, in general, be the same as α, since the
thrust 'ector will not generally be aligned with the aircraft reference line.
γ
α
+
,
%
W
ori&on
.elati'e
Wind
α
%
Fig'%$ 5.1 F)%&$( )# "# Ai%&%"f i# " Cli*+
%he equations of motion for the aircraft in "igure #.$ are deri'ed by summing the forces on the
aircraft in two directions, one parallel to the aircraft’s 'elocity 'ector and one perpendicular to it. %hese
directions are con'enient because lift was defined in /hapter 0 as the component of the aerodynamic force
$10
which is perpendicular to the 'elocity 'ector, and drag was defined as the component parallel to 'elocity.
%he summation parallel to the 'elocity is2
!
∑
· ma · T cos α
Τ
− " − # sin γ (#.$)
where m is the aircraft’s mass and a is its instantaneous acceleration in the direction of the 'elocity 'ector.
%he product ma is equated to the sum of the forces on the aircraft in accordance with 3ewton’s 4econd
+aw of Motion, ! $ ma. %he acceleration perpendicular to the 'elocity 'ector is the centripetal
acceleration,
%
r
1
, where r is the radius of turn if the aircraft is turning. %he summation perpendicular
to 'elocity is2
!
⊥ ∑
·
%
r
1
· T sin α
Τ
+ & − # cos γ (#.1)
3ote that the abo'e summation assumes that all forces on the aircraft are in the 'ertical plane of the
drawing. %herefore, if the aircraft is turning, it is turning in the 'ertical plane (e.g. doing a loop.)
5quations (#.$) and (#.1) can be modified to apply to a 'ariety of aircraft maneu'ers and flight
conditions. "or instance, if the aircraft is in a di'e ( γ 6 7 ), the same equations still apply. "or many
aircraft, it is acceptable to assume that the thrust 'ector is appro*imately aligned with the 'elocity 'ector,
so that αT 8 7. %his simplifies (#.$) and (#.1) because sin αT · 7 and cos αT · 1. %his appro*imation will
be used in the remainder of the performance analyses discussed in this te*t.
A 'ery simple but e*tremely useful condition is that of ($",. l$/$l. '#"&&$l$%"$, fligh
(4+9"). "or 4+9", γ 8 7 and both components of acceleration are &ero, so (#.$) and (#.1) simplify to2
T 8 ", & $ # (#.0)
Methods for predicting the aerodynamic forces in (#.0) were discussed in /hapter :. "or the
purposes of this chapter, the aircraft weight will be gi'en as the sum of the aircraft empty weight, #e, the
weight of the fuel, #f, and the weight of the payload (including pilot and crew), #p2
# 8 #e ; #f ; #p (#.:)
Assume for analysis of aircraft that the acceleration of gra'ity is constant at <.= m>s
1
(01.1 ft>s
1
) and does
not 'ary significantly with altitude. %his lea'es thrust as the only quantity in (#.0) which has not been
discussed yet.
5.0 PROPULSION
%he production of thrust is a topic that could easily occupy an entire chapter and or e'en an
entire book. ?ts treatment here will be limited to the general concepts needed to predict aircraft
performance.
P%)!'l(i)# Ch)i&$(
%he aircraft designer has a wide range of choices for propulsion systems. 5ach one has
characteristics which make it most suitable for particular flight regimes. @ne of the characteristics of
$1:
most interest is the ratio of an engine’s sea le'el output to its own weight, T'&(#eng. Another is the
engine’s h%'( (!$&ifi& f'$l &)#('*!i)#, T'!), which is the ratio of rate of fuel consumption to thrust
output2
T'!)
#
T
f
·
(#.#)
T'!) is also frequently represented by the symbol ct. ?f fuel consumption rate has units of lb>hr and thrust
is in pounds, then T'!) has units of reciprocal hours. An engine which is deemed suitable for a
particular flight regime would ha'e a relati'ely high T'&(#eng and a relati'ely low T'!) in that regime.
"igures #.1 and #.0 show the 'ariation of T'&(#eng and T'!) with Mach number for se'eral types of
engines. "igure #.: shows common )!$%"i#g $#/$l)!$( (ranges of operating altitudes and Mach
numbers) of common engine types. 5ach engine type is described in more detail in the paragraphs below.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
0 1 2 3 4
Flight Mach Number
E
n
g
i
n
e
M
a
x
i
m
u
m
T
h
r
u
s
t
t
o
W
e
i
g
h
t
R
a
t
i
o
.ocket
.amAet
Afterburning %urbofan
Afterburning
%urboAet
%urboAet
+owBCypassB.atio %urbofan
ighBCypassB.atio %urbofan
%urboprop
Diston 5ngine > Dropeller
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0 1 2 3 4
Flight Mach Number
T
h
r
u
s
t
S
p
e
c
i
f
i
c
F
u
e
l
C
o
n
s
u
m
p
t
i
o
n
,
1
/
h
r
.ocket
.amAet
Afterburning %urbofan
Afterburning
%urboAet
%urboAet
+owBCypassB.atio %urbofan
ighBCypassB.atio %urbofan
%urboprop
Diston 5ngine > Dropeller
Fig'%$ 5.2 Ai%&%"f P%)!'l(i)# S($* Fig'%$ 5.0 Ai%&%"f P%)!'l(i)# S($*
Th%'(1)12$igh R"i)( 3A,"!$, f%)* Th%'(1S!$&ifi& F'$l C)#('*!i)# 3A,"!$,
R$f$%$#&$ 14 f%)* R$f$%$#&$ 14
$1#
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
80000
90000
100000
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
True irspee!, "nots
l
t
i
t
u
!
e
,
f
t
%urboB
prop
.ecip.
E Drop.
%urbofan
%urboAet
Afterburning
%urboAet
.amAet
.ocket
Mach Number
$.7 1.7 0.7 :.7
Fig'%$ 5.5 Ai%&%"f P%)!'l(i)# S($* O!$%"i#g E#/$l)!$( 3A,"!$, f%)* R$f$%$#&$ 24
Pi()# E#gi#$(
%he power plants of most aircraft from the days of the Wright brothers to the end of World War
?? were i#$%#"l &)*+'(i)# !i()# $#gi#$(. %hese de'ices produce power by mi*ing air and liquid fuel
as they are drawn into 'ariableB'olume chambers or &li#,$%(, then compressing and burning the
mi*ture. %he e*plosi'e increase in the pressure of the burned mi*ture is con'erted into power by allowing
the gas to push a !i()# or similar mo'eable wall of each chamber. %he motions of the pistons are
con'erted into rotary motion by linkages called &)##$&i#g %),( which push on a &%"#6 (h"f in much
the same way a bicyclist’s foot pushes on a bicycle pedal. "igure #.# illustrates the components and action
of a simple singleBcylinder piston engine. R)"% $#gi#$( achie'e the same effect, although their inner
workings are different. %hey ha'e essentially the same performance characteristics as piston engines.
"uel>Air Mi*ture
I#"6$ S%)6$ C)*!%$((i)# S%)6$ P)7$% S%)6$
5*haust Fases
E8h"'( S%)6$
Gal'e
Diston
/ylinder
/onnecting
.od
/rankshaft
4park Dlug
Fig'%$ 5.5 A Si#gl$1Cli#,$% R$&i!%)&"i#g Pi()# E#gi#$ P)7$% C&l$
%he power produced by a piston engine 'aries with the si&e and number of cylinders, the rate at
which the crank shaft rotates, and the density of the air it is using. 5ngine (h"f !)7$% ('H) ratings are
normally e*pressed as h)%($!)7$% ($ hp 8 ##7 ft lb>s) or kilowatts in standard sea le'el conditions at a
specified ma*imum rotation rate gi'en in %$/)l'i)#( !$% *i#'$ (.DM). ?n general, the (h"f !)7$%
"/"il"+l$ from a piston engine will be the sea le'el rated power adAusted for nonBstandard density, if the
engine is allowed to rotate at its rated RPM (the .DM at which it is designed to operate).
$1H
'Havail 8 'H'&
ρ
ρ
'&
(#.H)
%he power produced by a piston engine is con'erted into thrust by the !%)!$ll$%. %his de'ice is
composed of two or more +l",$( (really Aust small wings) attached to a central shaft. As the propeller is
rotated by the engine, the blades mo'e through the air like wings and create lift in a direction
perpendicular to their motion (parallel to the shaft). %he component of this lift created by the propeller
which is directed along the propeller shaft is thrust. %he concept is illustrated in "igure #.H
,irection of .otation
5ngine
ub
Clade
Clade 5lement
α
Gelocity ,ue to .otation of Dropeller
%otal Gelocity of
Clade 5lement
%
∞
Lif
D%"g
Th%'(
R$('l"#
A$%),#"*i&
F)%&$
C)*!)#$# )f R$('l"#
A$%),#"*i& F)%&$ 2hi&h
M'( +$ O/$%&)*$ +
E#gi#$ T)%9'$
Clade 5lement (Airfoil)
(A) 5ngine and Dropeller (C) Clade 5lement Feometry and Aerodynamic "orces
Fig'%$ 5.: P%)!$ll$% C)#fig'%"i)#. G$)*$% "#, F)%&$ Di"g%"*(
%he propeller is not $77I efficient at con'erting engine shaft power into thrust. A portion of the
engine’s power is used to o'ercome the aerodynamic drag (form drag, induced drag, and in some cases
wa'e drag) of the propeller blades. A &)#("# (!$$, !%)!$ll$% is designed so that the angle of attack or
!i&h of the blades can be adAusted to maintain a constant engine .DM. %his feature helps keep the
propeller’s efficiency high o'er a wider speed range. %he 'ariable pitch capability can also be used to
allow the engine to turn at its rated .DM, regardless of the aircraft’s speed. %he efficiency of the
propeller, η, is defined as2
η $ TH ( 'H (#.J)
where2
TH $ T
.
% (#.=)
is the h%'( !)7$% of the engine. /harts are usually a'ailable which gi'e propeller efficiency and>or
thrust as a function of air density, the aircraft’s 'elocity, and the engine .DM. When this type of data is
not a'ailable, assume η 8 7.< for a good constant speed propeller at the engine rated .DM and aircraft
speeds below 077 ft>s. %he a'ailable thrust of the engine>propeller combination is then gi'en by2
T* 8 'H'&
ρ
ρ
'&
η
%
(#.<)
T'%+);$ E#gi#$(
Dropellers become 'ery inefficient at high subsonic speeds, and no practical supersonic propellers
ha'e e'er been de'eloped. Dropulsion for the high subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flight regimes is
usually pro'ided by either turboAet or turbofan engines. %hese power plants produce thrust without using a
propeller. "igure #.J illustrates a schematic diagram of a typical turboAet engine. As shown in "igure #.J,
a turboAet engine takes air in through an i#l$ ,iff'($%. %he diffuser is designed so that its crossBsectional
area is greater at its downstream end. %his causes the 'elocity of the air flowing into the inlet to decrease
$1J
and its static pressure to increase. A &)*!%$(()% then increases the static pressure further as it deli'ers
the air to the &)*+'()% or +'%#$%. "uel is mi*ed with the air and burned in the combustor. %he hot
gases are e*hausted through a '%+i#$ which acts like a wind mill to e*tract power to turn the compressor
through a shaft. %hen the gases flow out of the engine through a #)<<l$ which causes them to accelerate
until the static pressure of the e*haust appro*imately equals the ambient air pressure.
Curner
/ompressor
%urbine
3o&&le
4haft
?nlet ,iffuser
5.= T'%+);$ E#gi#$ S&h$*"i&
Cecause of the energy which has been added to the air by the burning fuel, the 'elocity of the
gases e*iting the engine is much higher than the 'elocity of the air entering at the inlet, e'en though the
static pressures are nearly the same. According to 3ewton’s 4econd +aw, this rate of change in the flow
momentum can only occur if the engine is e*erting a net force on the air. Cy 3ewton’s %hird +aw, for the
action of the engine force on the air, there is an equal and opposite reaction force of the air on the engine.
4ince the air is accelerating to the rear, the reaction force is toward the front. %his reaction force is the
thrust generated by a Aet engine. ?t is proportional to the rate at which the momentum of the air flowing
through the engine is changing2
T $ m(%e  %
∞
+ (#.$7)
where mis the mass flow rate through the engine, %e is the 'elocity of the e*haust gases, and %
∞
is the
free stream 'elocity. 3ote that m in (#.$7) includes the fuel which flows through the engine, and its
initial 'elocity is &ero relati'e to the aircraft, not %
∞
. Also, if the pressure of the e*haust gases is not the
same as the pressure at the front of the engine, pressure thrust or drag is created. %hese two effects are
generally small and will be ignored in this discussion.
5quation #.= suggests how the thrust of a turboAet engine 'aries with altitude and 'elocity. As
altitude increases, density decreases. "or the same 'elocity and engine inlet geometry, m8 ρ*%
(5quation 0.$) also decreases. %herefore, ma*imum thrust 'aries with air density2
T T
* '&
'&
·
¸
¸
_
,
ρ
ρ
(#.$$)
As %
∞
increases, m
also increases. 4imple turboAet engines with fi*ed e*haust no&&les are
frequently designed so that when the engine is running at full power, the e*haust 'elocity is the speed of
sound, a (in the hot e*haust gases). /hanging %
∞
does not affect %e $ a, so (%e  %
∞
+ decreases. %he
net result of increasing mand decreasing (%e  %
∞
+ is that thrust stays appro*imately constant with
'elocity.
$1=
Af$%+'%#$%(
%he amount of energy which can be added to the gases flowing through a normal turboAet engine
is limited by the temperature which the gases may safely ha'e when they flow through the turbine.
5*cessi'e gas temperatures cause turbine blades to fatigue or deform and fail. owe'er, once the gases
ha'e passed through the turbine, it is possible to mi* more fuel with them and burn it to increase the
e*haust 'elocity. %he engine component which does this is called an "f$%+'%#$%. %he afterburner is not
as efficient in con'erting heat into kinetic energy as the main engine, so T!') increases when afterburner
is used. A typical afterburner might increase engine thrust at full throttle by #7I, but increase fuel flow
rate by $77I. "ull thrust from an afterburnerBequipped engine is called 7$ or *"8i*'* thrust when the
afterburner is operating and ,% or *ili"% thrust when the afterburner is off. "igure #.= illustrates a
turboAet engine with an afterburner.
Curner
ighBDressure
/ompressor
ighBDressure
%urbine
Afterburner "lameholders 3o&&le
Afterburner
+owBDressure
/ompressor
+owBDressure
%urbine
?nlet
Afterburner "uel ?nAectors
Fig'%$ 5.> S&h$*"i& )f " T'%+);$ E#gi#$ 7ih Af$%+'%#$%
%he turboAet engine in "igure #.= has two (!))l(. A spool is a compressor and turbine which
share a common shaft and therefore rotate at the same speed. %he spools rotate independently of each
other, so that in a correctly designed engine, each rotates at its best .DM. %his makes the engine more
efficient o'er a broader range of throttle settings, producing more thrust with a lower T'!).
Ket engines with afterburners generally ha'e 'ariable area e*haust no&&les. %his is because the
no&&le area required to get e*haust gas static pressure appro*imately equal to
∞
when the afterburner is
not working is significantly different than the e*it area required when it is on. %hese no&&les are also
typically shaped so that %e is greater than the speed of sound, and %e increases with increasing %
∞
during
afterburner operation. As a result (%e  %
∞
+ stays more nearly constant, and the increasing m with
increasing %
∞
causes thrust to also increase. %he limit to this steady increase with increasing flight
speed in afterburning turboAet engine thrust is typically caused by flow separation and>or shock wa'es
which occur at high Mach numbers in front of and inside the engine inlets. %hese flow disturbances cause
total pressure losses which reduce the engine thrust. ?nternal structural and temperature limits also play a
role in limiting the increase in afterburning turboAet thrust with increasing Mach number at low altitudes.
"igure #.< illustrates the 'ariation of wet and dry thrust with altitude and Mach number for a typical
afterburning turboAet. %he reduction in the slope of the thrust cur'e of this engine in afterburner at sea
le'el for , L 7.J# is likely due more to internal structural limits in the engine than inlet shock wa'e or
flow separation effects. A simple appro*imation for the 'ariation of afterburning turboAet thrust with
altitude and Mach number is gi'en by2
$1<
T T
* '&
'&
·
¸
¸
_
,
ρ
ρ
($  7.J ,
∞
) (#.$1)
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Mach Number, M
T
h
r
u
s
t
,
T
,
l
b
s
4ea +e'el
$7,777 ft
17,777 ft
07,777 ft
:7,777 ft
#7,777 ft
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Mach Number, M
T
h
r
u
s
t
,
T
,
l
b
s
4ea +e'el
$7,777 ft
17,777 ft
07,777 ft
:7,777 ft
#7,777 ft
(A) Military (,ry, 3onBAfterburning) (C) Ma*imum (Wet, Afterburning)
Fig'%$ 5.? V"%i"i)# )f Af$%+'%#i#g T'%+);$ Th%'( 7ih Ali',$ "#, M"&h N'*+$% 3A,"!$,
f%)* R$f$%$#&$ 04
T'%+)f"# E#gi#$(
%o reduce the T!') of a turboAet engine, one of the engine’s spools may be connected so that it
dri'es a larger compressor or f"# at the front of the engine. 4ome of the air drawn in and accelerated by
this fan does not flow through the engine &)%$ (compressor, combustor, and turbine). %he air from the fan
which does not flow through the core is called +!"(( "i%. %he ratio of the bypass mass flow rate to the
mass flow rate of the air flowing through the core is called the +!"(( %"i). A turbofan is more efficient
and therefore has a lower T'!) because it accelerates more air (bypass air in addition to core air) for the
same amount of fuel burned. %urbofan efficiency increases with increasing bypass ratio, but so does
engine si&e and weight. "igure #.$7 illustrates two types of turbofans. %he one on the left has a relati'ely
low bypass ratio, and all of its bypass air flows with the core air into an afterburner. %he turbofan on the
right has a much higher bypass ratio and no afterburner.
$07
"an
Curner
ighBDressure
/ompressor
ighBDressure
%urbine
+owBDressure %urbine
Afterburner
3o&&le
+owBDressure /ompressor
Cypass ,uct
"an
Curner
/ompressor
ighBDressure %urbine
+owBDressure %urbine
3o&&le
L)7 @!"(( R"i) 7ih Af$%+'%#$% High @!"(( R"i)
Cypass .atio 8 7.1 B $.7 Cypass .atio 8 1.7 B =.7
%4+ >Weng 8 H B $7 %4+ >Weng 8 : B H
%4"/,ry 8 7.= B $.0 %4"/ 8 7.# B 7.J
%4"/W5% 8 1.1 B 1.J
Fig'%$ 5.1A S&h$*"i&( "#, Ch"%"&$%i(i&( )f T7) T!i&"l T'%+)f"# E#gi#$(
%he 'ariation with altitude of the thrust of turbofans generally follows (#.$$). %he 'ariation with
Mach number depends in part on the bypass ratio. +owBbypassBratio turbofans beha'e much like
turboAets. ighBbypassBratio turbofans, on the other hand e*hibit a rapid decrease in ma*imum thrust
output with increasing 'elocity at low altitudes. "igure #.$$ compares thrust cur'es for an afterburning
turbofan with a bypass ratio of 7.J with those for a nonBafterburning turbofan with a bypass ratio of #.
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Mach Number, M
T
h
r
u
s
t
,
T
,
l
b
s
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Mach Number, M
T
h
r
u
s
t
,
T
,
l
b
s
4ea +e'el
$7,777 ft
17,777 ft
07,777 ft
:7,777 ft
#7,777 ft
4ea +e'el
$7,777 ft
17,777 ft
07,777 ft
:7,777 ft
(a) +ow Cypass .atio with Afterburner (b) igh Cypass .atio, 3o Afterburner
Fig'%$ 5.11 Th%'( C'%/$( f)% T7) T!$( )f T'%+)f"#( 3A,"!$, f%)* R$f$%$#&$( 5 "#, 54
3ote that the thrust cur'es in "igure #.$$(a) reach ma*imum 'alues at about M 8 $.H and then
begin to decrease. %his is due to shock wa'es which form inside and in front of the inlet, causing flow
separation and loss of total pressure. ?nlets can be designed to operate efficiently at a particular Mach
number in spite of the shock wa'es. At this ,$(ig# M"&h #'*+$%, the shock wa'es interact with the
shape of the inlet to achie'e the best possible conser'ation of total pressure as the flow slows down in the
$0$
inlet. 4ome inlets ha'e the capability to change their shape so that they operate efficiently o'er a much
wider range of Mach numbers. %his feature makes the inlets much more e*pensi'e, but it is essential for
aircraft which must fly efficiently abo'e , 8 1.7 or so. %he inlet for the engine of "igure #.$$(a) has a
fi*ed geometry with a design Mach number of about $.#. %hrust cur'es for the same engine with a
'ariable geometry inlet would e*tend to much higher Mach numbers before bending o'er. 3onB
afterburning and afterburning lowBbypassBratio turbofan thrust 'ariation may modeled with (#.$$) and
(#.$1) respecti'ely. %he 'ariation of highBbypassBratio turbofan thrust is appro*imated by2
T
,
T
* '&
'&
·
¸
¸
_
,
¸
¸
_
,
∞
7$ . ρ
ρ
(#.$0)
T'%+)!%)!(
A '%+)!%)! powerplant replaces the fan of the highBbypassBratio turbofan with a propeller. ?ts
operating characteristics at full power are similar to highBbypassBratio turbofans and it typically has a
lower T'!). owe'er, the turboprop loses thrust at high speeds more like a piston engine>propeller
powerplant. %hrustBtoBweight ratio for a turboprop is generally higher than for a piston engine, but T'!)
is usually higher also. %urboprops are usually designed so that the highBenergy air from the burners
e*pands almost completely to ambient static pressure in the turbines, so that almost all of the energy is
con'erted into shaft power. %herefore, the sea le'el ma*imum power ratings of turboprops are gi'en as
'H rather than thrust. Any additional thrust produced by a turboprop engine’s e*haust is included in the
sea le'el power rating at the rate of = 3 of thrust per kW (1.# pounds of thrust per horsepower). A
turboprop power rating corrected in this way is called an $ff$&i/$ (h"f !)7$% (.'H). %urboprop thrust
a'ailable may be appro*imated as2
T* 8 .'H'&
ρ
ρ
'&
¸
¸
_
,
η
%
∞
(#.$:)
R"*;$(
At 'ery high Mach numbers, the air which enters a Aet engine inlet is slowed and compressed so
much that the '%+)*"&hi#$% (compressor and turbine) is not really needed and may be eliminated. %he
resulting engine is little more than an afterburner connected to the inlet. %his de'ice is called a %"*;$,
because the air is compressed by %"* $ff$&. .am effect is the increased static pressure which results
when the air is slowed by the inlet. A ramAet can’t function at low speeds because the compression of air
in its inlet is not sufficient. %his requires ramAetBpowered aircraft to be accelerated to operating speed by
some other propulsion system. At Mach numbers abo'e about 0.7, howe'er, ramAets are more efficient
than afterburning turboAets, and they ha'e much higher thrustBtoBweight ratios.
R)&6$(
"or e*tremely high speeds and for space flight, rocket engines are used. %hese ha'e the
ad'antage of carrying their own o*idi&er with them, so that they do not ha'e to take in air at all. At such
high speeds, slowing the air enough to add fuel and burn it would result in impractically high pressures
and temperatures. @n the other hand, the requirement to carry o*idi&er adds significantly to the si&e and
weight of rocketBpowered 'ehicles. .ocket engines may be either solidBfueled or liquid fueled. 4olidB
fueled rockets are 'ery simple, quite like fireworks rockets. %he solid fuel contains its own o*idi&er. ?t is
placed in a container with a no&&le at one end. %he fuel is ignited at the no&&le end and burns inside the
container. %he hot gases are forced by their high pressure to flow out the no&&le at 'ery high speeds. %he
acceleration of the fuel>o*idi&er is an action of the engine for which the thrust force is the reaction. %his
force is largely independent of the 'ehicle’s flight 'elocity.
+iquidBfueled rockets are also quite simple, Aust a combustion chamber and no&&le, with pumps
and lines to supply the fuel and o*idi&er from storage tanks. %his makes the thrustBtoBweight ratio for
rocket engines quite high. T'!) is also quite high (about < >hr for liquidBfueled and $H >hr for solidB
fueled rockets, including both fuel and o*idi&er). %he high temperatures of rocket engine e*hausts make
it difficult to design 'ariable no&&les for them. With a fi*ed no&&le, rocket engines must be designed to
operate best at a particular altitude and Mach number. Derformance at other than the design conditions is
$01
often poor. %hese limitations make rocket engines practical for use only in spacecraft and e*tremely highB
speed aircraft.
Th%'( M),$l S'**"%
%able #.$ summari&es the equations which will be used in all performance calculations as models
for the 'ariation of thrust with density and Mach number or 'elocity. More detailed thrust, T'!), and
engine cycle models may be found in .eference H.
T"+l$ 5.1 Th%'( M),$l( f)% S$/$%"l P%)!'l(i)# C)#&$!(
%ype %hrust Model
Diston 5ngine>Dropeller
T* 8 'H'&
ρ
ρ
'&
η
%
∞
(#.<)
%urboprop
T* 8 .'H'&
ρ
ρ
'&
¸
¸
_
,
η
%
∞
(#.$:)
igh CypassB.atio %urbofan
(9se , 8 7.$ thrust for all , / 7.$) T
,
T
* '&
'&
·
¸
¸
_
,
¸
¸
_
,
∞
7$ . ρ
ρ
(#.$0)
%urboAet and +owBCypassB.atio %urbofan
,ry (3o Afterburner)
Wet (With Afterburner @perating)
T T
* '&
'&
·
¸
¸
_
,
ρ
ρ
(#.$$)
T T
* '&
'&
·
¸
¸
_
,
ρ
ρ
($  7.J ,
∞
) (#.$1)
3otes2
(#.<) and (#.$1) Assume ηp 8 7.<. 'H and .'H in ft lb>s or watts. 9se %
∞
8 $ for %
∞
8 7.
(#.$$) Galid only for ,
∞
6 7.<.
TSFC M),$l(
%he operating characteristics and limitations of propulsion systems which determine T'!) are
'ery comple*. owe'er, the T'!) cur'es in "igure #.0 show that for the maAority of a turboAet or
turbofan engine’s operating en'elope (as shown in "igure #.:), T'!) 'aries only mildly with Mach
number. Diston and turboprop engine T'!)s 'ary with Mach number, but !)7$% (!$&ifi& f'$l
consumption, the fuel flow required for a gi'en power output, remains relati'ely constant with Mach
number and with 'ariations in air temperature. Dower specific fuel consumption is usually called 0'!)
(for +%"6$ (!$&ifi& f'$l &)#('*!i)#) because it is measured as the +%"6$ !)7$% output for a gi'en fuel
flow. Crake power is measured by connecting the engine to a brake which absorbs power and measures
the engine’s torque and 1,. 4ince the propeller is not in'ol'ed in this measurement, propeller
efficiency must be included to determine fuel consumption for a gi'en thrust power output.
4mall 'ariations in T'!) and 0'!) with Mach number and air temperature will be ignored in
this te*t. Cecause of internal temperature and material strength limitations, a much more significant
'ariation of T'!) with air temperature occurs for turbine engines. T'!) 'alues for turbine engines
generally 'ary according to the following relationship2
c $ c
T
T
t t
'&
'&
(#.$#)
$00
3ote that the ratio of the square roots of the absolute temperatures in (#.$J) may also be e*pressed, using
(:.10) as the ratio of the speed of sound in ambient conditions to the standard sea le'el speed of sound2
c $ c
a
a
t t
'&
'&
¸
¸
_
,
(#.$H)
I#("ll$, Th%'( "#, TSFC
"or a 'ariety of reasons, the thrust produced by an engine is frequently less when it is installed in
an aircraft than when it is tested uninstalled. 4ome of the sources of this thrust loss include 'iscous losses
in the inlets, loss of momentum of cooling air, power and compressed air bleed requirements to run
engine accessories, etc. Whene'er possible, use installed sea le'el thrust and T'!) ratings supplied by
manufacturers as the reference 'alues for thrust and T'!) models. owe'er, if only uninstalled ratings
are a'ailable, decrease thrust and increase T'!) by 17I to appro*imate the installed 'alues. %his
correction only applies to turbine engines. All of the thrust and T'!) 'alues shown in "igures #.1, #.0,
#.<, and #.$$ are installed 'alues.
E8"*!l$ 5.1
A new afterburning lowBbypassBratio turbofan engine produces $#,777 lb of thrust in military
power and 11,777 lb of thrust in afterburner in static, sea le'el conditions. ?t’s T'!) for these conditions
is 7.= >hr in military power and 1.1 >hr in afterburner. What are its military and afterburner thrust and
T'!) at h 8 17,777 ft and , 8 7.=
4olution2 4ince only an altitude is specified, standard atmosphere conditions will be assumed. "rom the
standard atmosphere table, for an altitude of 17,777 ft, ρ 8 7.77$7HH slug>ft
0
and a 8 $70H.< ft>s. "or
military power, the thrust at 17,777 ft is gi'en by (#.$$)2
T T
* '&
'&
·
¸
¸
_
,
·
¸
¸
_
,
·
ρ
ρ
$# 777
7 77$7HH
7 7710JJ
H J1H ,
.
.
, lb
slug > ft
slug > ft
lb in military power
0
0
%he military power T'!) is gi'en by (#.$H)2
( ) c $ c
a
a
t t
'&
'&
¸
¸
_
,
·
¸
¸
_
,
· 7=
$70H <
$$$H 1
7 J: .
.
.
. > hr
ft > s
ft > s
> hr in military power
4imilarly, the thrust in afterburner is predicted by (#.$:)2
T T
* '&
'&
·
¸
¸
_
,
ρ
ρ
($  7.J ,
∞
) ·
¸
¸
_
,
11 777
7 77$7HH
7 7710JJ
,
.
.
lb
slug > ft
slug > ft
0
0
($  7.J (7.=)) 8 $#,0<$ lb in
afterburner
and the afterburning T'!) is2
( ) c $ c
a
a
t t
'&
'&
¸
¸
_
,
·
¸
¸
_
,
· 1
$70H <
$$$H 1
1 7: .1 > hr
ft > s
ft > s
> hr in afterburner
.
.
.
5.5 DRAG CURVES
/onsider again the case of steady, le'el, unaccelrated flight with the thrust 'ector aligned with
the 'elocity. "igure #.$1 illustrates this situation2
$0:
Thrust
Lift
Drag
Weight
Fig'%$ 5.12 S$",. L$/$l. U#"&&$l$%"$, Figh
?f the aircraft is in steady flight, not accelerating, lift must equal weight and thrust must equal drag. %he
lift requirement can be used to determine the required lift coefficient at any free stream 'elocity or Mach
number2
& # ) 2'
&
· · (#.$J)
)
#
2'
&
·
(#.$=)
@nce )& is known, the aircraft’s drag polar can be used to determine )" and then " at that 'elocity2
) ) k )
" " &
o
· +
1
, " ) 2'
"
· (#.$<)
3ote that the drag polar used is from an aircraft for which k3 8 7. %his simplifies the performance
analysis. As a con'enience the subscript on k$ is dropped. %he effect of a nonB&ero k3 will be discussed
at the end of this chapter.
?f the calculation of drag is performed for a range of 'elocities, and for a fi*ed aircraft weight and
altitude, a drag cur'e is generated. %he drag is also called h%'( %$9'i%$,, T1 , since it is the thrust
required from the engine to sustain steady, le'el flight for the gi'en conditions. "igure #.$0 shows a drag
cur'e for a typical subsonic aircraft. %he drag is shown as the sum of parasite drag and induced drag.
3ote that parasite and induced drag are equal, each making up half the total drag, at the point on the
cur'e where drag is a minimum. %he cur'es are not drawn for 'elocities below the aircraft’s stall speed,
since the assumption of steady, le'el flight could not be met below %stall. A thrust a'ailable model for an
appropriately si&ed nonBafterburning lowBbypassBratio turbofan engine (5quation #.$7) is also shown on
"igure #.$0. %he thrust and drag cur'es are not drawn for 'elocities much faster than the speed where
thrust a'ailable equals thrust required, because the aircraft would not ha'e enough thrust to sustain steady,
le'el flight at those speeds. %he speed where thrust a'ailable and thrust required are equal is the
*"8i*'* l$/$l fligh (!$$,, %ma4, for the aircraft for these conditions.
%he thrust and drag cur'es in "igure #.$0 are not drawn for % 6 J7 knots. %his is because, for
this particular aircraft, the 'alues of )& which would be required to maintain le'el flight at speeds below
J7 knots e*ceed the aircraft’s
)
&
ma4
. %he speed where the 'alue of )& required in order to maintain
le'el flight is Aust equal to
)
&
ma4
is called the aircraft’s ("ll (!$$,, %stall. An e*pression for %stall can be
deri'ed by substituting
)
&
ma4
for )& in (#.$=)2
$0#
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
True irspee!, "nots
T
h
r
u
s
t
a
n
!
#
r
a
g
,
l
b
s
%hrust A'ailable
%hrust .equired
Darasite ,rag
?nduced ,rag
Gma*
G for
Minimum
%hrust .equired
Fig'%$ 5.10 Th%'( A/"il"+l$ "#, Th%'( R$9'i%$, f)% " S'+()#i& B$ Ai%&%"f
%
#
' )
stall
&
ma4
·
1
ρ
(#.17)
?f, as in "igure #.$0, the aircraft has sufficient thrust to maintain le'el flight at low speed, then the plane’s
*i#i*'* l$/$l1fligh (!$$,, %min 8 %stall. owe'er, for many aircraft, %min L %stall because thrust required
e*ceeds thrust a'ailable at low speeds. "igure #.$: illustrates both situations.
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
True irspee!, "nots
T
h
r
u
s
t
a
n
!
#
r
a
g
,
l
b
s
%hrust A'ailable
%hrust .equired
%
min
8 %
stall
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
True irspee!, "nots
T
h
r
u
s
t
a
n
!
#
r
a
g
,
l
b
s
%hrust A'ailable
%hrust .equired %
min
%
stall
(a) 4tall or Cuffet +imited (b) %hrust +imited
Fig'%$ 5.15 T7) P)((i+l$ 2"( h" Vmin M" @$ Li*i$,
E8"*!l$ 5.2
$0H
An aircraft with )"o 8 7.717, k$ 8 7.$1, and k1 8 7 is flying at h 8 07,777 ft and ,
∞
8 7.=. ?f
the aircraft has a wing area of 0J# ft
1
and it weighs 1#,777 lbs, what is its drag coefficient and how much
drag is it generating ?f the aircraft is in steady, le'el, unaccelerated flight (4+9"), how much thrust is
its engine producing ?f its )&ma4 8 $.=, what is its stall speed at that altitude
4olution2 %he atmospheric conditions for this situation are obtained from the standard atmosphere table
for h 8 07,777 ft as ρ 8 7.777=< slug>ft
0
and a 8 <<:.= ft>s, so2
% , a
∞ ∞
· · ( . )( . 7= <<: = ft > s) 8 J<#.= ft > s
and2
2 % · · ·
$
1
1 $
1
1
7 777=< J<#= 1=$= ρ ( . )( . ) . slug > ft lb > ft
0 1
so, using (#.$=)2
)
#
2'
&
· · ·
1# 777
1=$= 0J#
7 10HH
,
( . )( )
.
lbs
lb > ft ft
1 1
and, using (#.$<)2
) ) k )
" " &
o
· + · + ·
1 1
7 717 7$1 7 10HH 7 71J . . ( . ) .
" ) 2'
"
· · · 7 71J 1=$= 0J# 1 =10 . ( . )( ) , lb > ft ft lb
1 1
?f the aircraft is in 4+9", then2
T 8 T1 8 " 8 1,=10 lb
"inally, its stall speed in 4+9" is gi'en by (#.17) as2
%
#
' )
stall
&
ma4
· · ·
1 1 1# 777
7 777=< $=
1==#
ρ
( ,
( . ) ) ( . )
.
lb)
slug > ft (0J# ft
ft > s
0 1
5.5 PO2ER CURVES
"or propellerBdri'en aircraft, engine performance is specified in terms of power. A chart is easily
de'eloped which is analogous to "igure #.$0, but with drag e*pressed as !)7$% %$9'i%$,, 1 , using the
relationship2
1 8 T1
.
%
∞
8 "
.
%
∞
(#.1$)
"igure #.$# illustrates a power required cur'e for a typical propellerBdri'en aircraft. %he power a'ailable
model for an appropriately si&ed reciprocating engine>propeller combination, obtained by multiplying
(#.J) by %
∞
, is also plotted on the figure. %he airspeed where power a'ailable equals power required is
the aircraft’s %,*5 for that altitude and aircraft weight. "or a propellerBdri'en aircraft, the airspeed where
power required is a minimum is, among other things, the speed at which the aircraft can maintain le'el
flight at that altitude and weight with the minimum engine throttle setting.
Dower cur'es are also useful in predicting the performance of turboAetB and turbofanBdri'en
aircraft. "igure #.$H illustrates power a'ailable and power required cur'es for the same aircraft whose
thrust a'ailable and thrust required cur'es are shown in "igure #.$0. %he cur'es are obtained by
multiplying thrust and drag at each point by the free stream 'elocity. 3ote that minimum power required
occurs at a lower 'elocity than minimum thrust required. %hrust and power cur'es are e*tremely useful
tools for aircraft performance predictions.
$0J
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
True irspee!, "nots
$
o
%
e
r
&
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
a
n
!
$
o
%
e
r
R
e
'
u
i
r
e
!
,
h
o
r
s
e
p
o
%
e
r
Dower A'ailable
Dower .equired
%ma4
% for minimum
Dower .equired
5.15 P)7$% A/"il"+l$ "#, P)7$% R$9'i%$, f)% " P%)!$ll$%1D%i/$# Ai%&%"f
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
0 100 200 300 400 500
True irspee!, (, "nots
$
o
%
e
r
&
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
a
n
!
$
o
%
e
r
R
e
'
u
i
r
e
!
,
m
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
o
f
f
t
l
b
/
s
Dower A'ailable
Dower .equired
Gma*
G for minimum
Dower .equired
Fig'%$ 5.1: P)7$% A/"il"+l$ "#, P)7$% R$9'i%$, f)% h$ B$ Ai%&%"f )f Fig'%$ 5.10
E8"*!l$ 5.0
What is the power required for the situation in 5*ample #.$
4olution2 Dower required is gi'en by (#.1$)2
1 8 T1
.
%
∞
8 "
.
%
∞
$ (1,=10 lb) (
J<#.= ft > s
) 8 1,1:J,777 ft lb>s 8 :,7=: horsepower M
5.: RANGE AND ENDURANCE
$0=
"or many aircraft, the ability to fly for long distances and>or long periods of time are among the
most important design requirements. ?t is hard to imagine an airline buying a transport aircraft that has
to land e'ery $77 miles to refuel, a resources agency buying a pollution monitoring aircraft which can
only stay on station for an hour at a time. or an air force buying a fighter which requires multiple
refuelings from tanker aircraft to complete its mission. ?t is common to see airliners fly nonBstop from
/hicago to "rankfurt, Moscow, or %okyo, but these capabilities had to be specifically designed into the
aircraft. %he range and endurance which an aircraft can achie'e depend on its aerodynamics (primarily,
its drag polar), the characteristics of its propulsion system, the amount of fuel the aircraft can carry, and
the way it is operated.
T'%+);$ "#, T'%+)f"# Ai%&%"f E#,'%"#&$
4ince T'!) is modeled as constant with Mach number for turboAets and turbofans, the drag
(thrust required) cur'e of "igure #.$0 may be 'iewed as a fuel flow required cur'e, since multiplying the
drag 'alues e'erywhere by a constant 'alue of ct would change the scale but not the shape of the cur'e. .
"or a gi'en thrust required and a specified ∆#f (the weight of fuel a'ailable to be burned) the endurance
is gi'en by2
. 8
∆#
#
f
f
8
∆#
c "
f
t
(#.11)
5quation (#.11) makes it clear that ma*imum endurance for a turboAet or turbofan aircraft is
achie'ed for ma*imum fuel weight and minimum T'!) when the aircraft flies at the speed for minimum
drag or thrust required. 4ince the drag cur'e of "igure #.$0 was computed assuming a constant weight
and lift equal to weight, the minimum drag condition is also the condition for *"8i*'* lif1)1,%"g
%"i), (&(")ma4 . %he parameter (&(")ma4 is a measure of an aircraft’s efficiency. ?ts 'alue may be
determined by recalling that for the airspeed for minimum drag, parasite drag and induced drag are equal,
so2
)
"
o
8 k )&
3
, so )& 8
)
k
"
o
and )" 8 1
)
"
o
then2
&
"
ma4
¸
¸
_
,
8
)
)
&
"
ma4
¸
¸
_
,
8
$
1 k )
"
o
(#.10)
5quation (#.10) is not 'ery useful in its current form for predicting endurance, because the
aircraft’s weight, and therefore its drag, will change as it burns fuel. An appro*imate endurance estimate
may be made by using the a'erage aircraft weight for the endurance problem to calculate an a'erage drag2
. 8
∆#
c "
f
t avg
(#.1:)
5quation (#.1:) is known as the "/$%"g$ /"l'$ *$h), for predicting endurance, and the accuracy of its
results is often quite good. "or a more accurate prediction of endurance, it is necessary to write (#.11) in
differential form and then integrate it with respect to the weight change2
dt 8
−d#
c "
t
or2
. 8 −
∫
d#
c "
t #
#
$
1
(#.1#)
3ote that the negati'e sign on d# is required because the burning of a positi'e amount of fuel in (#.11)
results in a negati'e change in the aircraft’s weight. At this point, it is difficult to integrate (#.1#) because
$0<
a relationship between weight and drag has not yet been established. ?f it is assumed that the endurance
task is flown at a constant aircraft angle of attack, hence a constant )& and &(", then using the fact that
lift equals weight2
. $
$
1
$
c
&
"
d#
#
t #
#
∫
8
$
1
$
c
)
)
d#
#
t
&
" #
#
∫
. 8
$
$
1
c
)
)
#
#
t
&
"
ln
¸
¸
_
,
(#.1H)
5quation (#.1H) reaffirms the fact that ma*imum endurance is achie'ed for ma*imum fuel, minimum
T'!) and ma*imum &(". 3ote that maintaining a constant 'alue of )& throughout the endurance task
will require the aircraft to fly slower as its weight decreases.
T'%+);$ "#, T'%+)f"# Ai%&%"f R"#g$
%he range of an aircraft is its endurance multiplied by its 'elocity. "or the a'erage 'alue method,
5quation (#.1:) multiplied by 'elocity is2
1 . %
#
c "
%
#
c
"
%
f
t avg
f
t
avg
· ⋅ · ⋅ ·
¸
¸
_
,
∞ ∞
∞
∆ ∆
(#.1J)
%he quantity
( )
$
c " %
t avg ∞
in (#.1J) has units of distance per pound of fuel, much like the “miles per
gallon! rating used for automobiles. ?ndeed air nautical miles per pound of fuel is a parameter commonly
used by pilots in planning flights. Ma*imi&ing this parameter will ma*imi&e the aircraft’s range. %he
ratio
" %
avg ∞ is the slope of a line drawn on the thrust and drag 's 'elocity plot ("igure #.$0) from the
origin to any point on the drag cur'e. 4ince
" %
avg ∞
must be minimi&ed to ma*imi&e range, the line
from the origin which has the lowest possible slope but still touches the drag cur'e is used to identify the
best range 'elocity. "igure #.$J illustrates such a line and the ma*imum range airspeed it identifies.
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
True irspee!, "nots
T
h
r
u
s
t
a
n
!
#
r
a
g
,
l
b
s
%hrust A'ailable
%hrust .equired
Gma*
% for
Ma*imum5ndurance
% for Ma*imum
.ange
Fig'%$ 5.1= Ai%(!$$,( f)% M"8i*'* R"#g$ "#, M"8i*'* E#,'%"#&$
$:7
%he a'erage 'alue method is an appro*imation, albeit often a good one. As with endurance, a
more accurate e*pression for range can be obtained by assuming angle of attack and &(" do not change,
then writing (#.1J) in differential form and integrating with respect to weight2
d4 8 %
∞
.
dt 8
−
∞
% d#
c "
t
1 $ −
∞
∫
%
c
&
"
d#
#
t #
#
$
1
8
$
1
$
c
)
)
% d#
#
t
&
" #
#
∞
∫
but to maintain a constant )& , %
∞
must change with changing weight, % # ')
& ∞
· 1 ρ , so2
1 $
1 $
1
$
#
') c
)
)
d#
#
& t #
#
&
"
ρ
∫
8
1 $
$
1
$
1
1
$
ρ' c
)
)
d#
# t
&
" #
#
∫
1 $
( )
1 1
$
1
$
$
1
1
$
1
ρ' c
)
)
# #
t
&
"
−
(#.1=)
5quation (#.1=) asserts that range is ma*imi&ed when density is low (high altitude), T'!) is low (high
altitude up to the tropopause), the weight of fuel a'ailable is high, and when
) )
& "
$ 1
is a ma*imum
or the reciprocal,
) )
" &
$ 1
, is a minimum. "or the simplified drag polar with k3 8 7, the condition
for minimi&ing
) )
" &
$ 1
may be found by e*pressing the ratio in terms of the drag polar, taking the
deri'ati'e, and setting it equal to &ero2
) )
" &
$ 1
8
) k )
)
" &
&
o
+
1
$ 1
8
)
)
k )
"
&
&
o
$ 1
0 1
+
( )
d ) )
d )
" &
&
$ 1
8 7 8 −
¸
¸
_
,
+
¸
¸
_
,
$
1 0 1
0
1
$ 1
)
)
k )
"
&
&
o
7 8 B ) k )
" &
o
+ 0
1
, or ) k )
" &
o
· 0
1
(#.1<)
%he 'alidity of this conclusion can be confirmed by comparing "igure #.$J with "igure #.$0. %he point
on "igure #.$J where range is ma*imi&ed is e*actly the same point on "igure #.$0 where parasite drag is
three times as great as induced drag.
E8"*!l$ 5.5
A turboAetBpowered trainer aircraft weighs #,777 lbs and is flying at h 8 1#,777 ft with $,777 lb of
fuel on board. ?t’s drag polar is )" 8 7.7$= ; 7.7<# )&
1
, its wing area is $=7 ft
1
, and the T'!) of its
engines is $.7>hr at sea le'el. What is its ma*imum range and endurance to tanks dry at this altitude, and
at what speed should the pilot initially fly to achie'e each
4olution2 Ma*imum endurance is achie'ed at the speed for 6&("+ma4 . %his speed can be determined by
first calculating the required 'alue of )& , then sol'ing for the speed required to achie'e & 8 # at that )& 2
$:$
)& 8
)
k
"
o
8
7 7$=
7 7<#
.
.
8 7.:0#
& # ) 2' 2
#
) '
&
&
· · · · · ,
,
. ( )
.
# 777
7 :0# $=7
H0=H
lb
ft
lb > ft
1
1
and using ρ 8 7.77$7HH at h 8 1#,777 ft obtained from the standard atmosphere table and the definition of
2 2
%
2
∞
· · ·
1 1 H0=H
7 77$7HH
0:H$
ρ
( . )
.
.
lb > ft
slug > ft
ft > s
1
0
for ma*imum endurance
3ote that this is only the initial 'elocity for ma*imum endurance, and that as fuel is burned, the 'elocity
for best endurance will decrease. %o calculate the ma*imum endurance time, it is first necessary to
determine the magnitude of (&>")ma4 using (#.10)2
&
"
ma4
¸
¸
_
,
8
)
)
&
"
ma4
¸
¸
_
,
8
$
1 k )
"
o
8
$
1 7 7<# 7 7$= . ( . )
8 $1.$
%he T'!) is also predicted using (#.$J) with a 8 $7$H.$ at h 8 1#,777 ft and asea level 8 $$$H.$ ft>s
obtained from the standard atmosphere table2
c $ c
a
a
$
t t
sea level
sea level
¸
¸
_
,
¸
¸
_
,
· $7
$7$H$
$$$H 1
7 <$ . >
.
.
. > hr
ft > s
ft > s
hr
%hen the endurance is calculated using (#.1H) with #$ 8 #,777 lb and2
#1 8 #$ B #f 8 #,777 lb B $,777 lb 8 :,777 lb
( ) .
c
)
)
#
#
t
&
"
·
¸
¸
_
,
·
¸
¸
_
,
·
$ $
7 <$
$1$
# 777
: 777
1 <J
$
1
ln
.
. ln
,
,
.
> hr
lb
lb
hr
4imilarly, the 'elocity for ma*imum range is obtained by sol'ing (#.1<) for )& and (:.0) for 22
) k ) )
)
k
"
o
& &
"
o
· · · · 0
0
7 7$=
0 7 7<#
7 1#$
1
,
.
( . )
.
2
#
) '
&
· · ·
# 777
7 1#$ $=7
$$7 J
,
. ( )
.
lb
ft
lb > ft
1
1
%
2
∞
· · ·
1 1 $$7 J
777$7HH
:## J
ρ
( . )
.
.
lb > ft
slug > ft
ft > s
1
0
for ma*imum range
As with the 'elocity for ma*imum endurance, the 'elocity for best range will decrease as fuel is burned.
%he 'alue calculated for )& is now used to calculate )" , after which the ma*imum range is predicted
using (#.1=)2
)" 8 7.7$= ; 7.7<# )&
1
8 7.7$= ; 7.7<# (7.1#$)
1
8 7.71:
$:1
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
1
' c
)
)
# #
t
&
"
· −
· −
·
¸
¸
_
,
¸
¸
_
,
·
1 1
1
7 77$7HH $=7
1
7 <$
7 1#$
7 71:
# 777 : 777
$7 : 1$<J 17=J J :H# $H< H#0<
$
1
$
$
1
1
$
1
$
1
$
1
$
1
$
1
ρ
. .
( . )
.
, ,
. . . . . .
slug > ft ft > hr
lb lb
ft
lb s
hr lb
ft > s
knot
3M
0 1
1
1
3ote that the first term in (#.1=) produces units of (ft>s) (lb)
7.#
, while the second term has units of hrs, and
the desired answer is in nautical miles. ?t is necessary to di'ide by the factor $.H<
ft > s
knot
to resol'e this.
P%)!$ll$%1D%i/$# Ai%&%"f E#,'%"#&$
Cecause fuel consumption for piston engines and turboprops is proportional to power output, the
power cur'es are the best tools for determining a propellerBdri'en aircraft’s endurance and range. %he
a'erage 'alue method prediction for the endurance of propellerBdri'en aircraft is2
. 8
∆#
#
f
f
8
∆#
c
f
prop
1 avg
η
( )
8
∆#
c
" %
f
prop
avg
η
∞
(#.07)
Where c with no subscript is a commonlyBused symbol for 0'!) and ηprop
is the propeller efficiency factor.
%he speed for ma*imum endurance of a propellerBdri'en aircraft is easily chosen from a power required
cur'e such as "igure #.$: as the speed for minimum power required. %he more accurate form of (#.07) is2
. $
η
prop
#
#
c
d#
"%
∞
∫
1
$
$
η
prop
#
#
c
&
"%
d#
#
1
$
∫
∞
using the assumption of constant )& , so that % # ')
& ∞
· 1 ρ
. 8
η
ρ
prop
&
" #
#
c
)
)
' d#
#
0
1
0
1 1
1
$
∫
8
( )
( )
η
ρ
prop
&
"
c
)
)
'
# #
0
1
$
$
1
1
$
1
1
1 − −
− −
$:0
. 8
( )
η
ρ
prop
&
"
c
)
)
' # #
0
1
1
$
1
$
$
1
1
− −
−
(#.0$)
5quation (#.0$) is known as the @%$g'$ $#,'%"#&$ $9'"i)#, named after a famous "rench a'iation
pioneer and aircraft builder to whom the original deri'ation of the equation is often attributed. 5quations
(#.1H) and (#.1=) are also often referred to as Creguet equations, because they are deri'ed in a similar
fashion. 5quation (#.0$) asserts that ma*imum endurance is achie'ed for conditions of high propeller
efficiency, low 0'!), high density (low altitude and temperature), high weight of fuel a'ailable, and a
ma*imum 'alue of the ratio
) )
& "
0 1
. %hat the ma*imum 'alue of this ratio is obtained for
conditions of minimum power required is easily shown using the e*pression for power required2
1 8 %
∞
.
" $ %
∞
.
#
)
)
&
"
, but
% # ')
& ∞
· 1 ρ
, so2
1 8
#
)
)
&
"
1#
')
&
ρ
8
1
0
#
' ρ
$
0 1
)
)
&
"
8
constant
)
)
&
"
0 1
(#.01)
/learly from (#.01), 1 is minimi&ed when
) )
& "
0 1
is a ma*imum or the reciprocal,
) )
" &
0 1
, is
minimi&ed. "or the simplified drag polar with k3 8 7, the condition for minimi&ing
) )
" &
0 1
may be
found by e*pressing the ratio in terms of the drag polar, taking the deri'ati'e, and setting it equal to &ero2
) )
" &
0 1
8
) k )
)
" &
&
o
+
1
0 1
8
)
)
k )
"
&
&
o
0 1
$ 1
+
( )
d ) )
d )
" &
&
0 1
8 7 8 −
¸
¸
_
,
+
¸
¸
_
,
0
1 # 1
$
1 $ 1
)
)
k
)
"
& &
o
7 8 B 0
) k )
"
o
&
+
1
, or
0
1
) k )
"
o
&
·
(#.00)
%his result can be confirmed by comparing thrust cur'es of "igure #.$0 with "igure #.$#, the power
cur'es for the same aircraft. %he 'elocity for minimum power required is the 'elocity on "igure #.$#
where induced drag is three times as much as parasite drag. 3ote that this speed is significantly slower
than the speed for (&("+ma4 .
P%)!$ll$%1D%i/$# Ai%&%"f R"#g$
%o complete the discussion of range and endurance, the a'erage 'alue method e*pression for
propellerBdri'en aircraft range is obtained by multiplying (#.07) by %
∞
2
$::
1 $ %
∞
.
. 8 %
∞
∆#
#
f
f
8 %
∞
∆#
c
f
prop
re2 avg
η
( )
¸
¸
_
,
8 %
∞
∆#
c
" %
f
prop
avg
η
∞
¸
¸
_
,
1 8
∆#
c
"
f
prop
avg
η
(#.0:)
4ince the form of (#.0:) is identical to that of (#.1:), further analysis will produce essentially the same
results for propellerBdri'en aircraft range as were found for Aet aircraft endurance. %he @%$g'$ %"#g$
$9'"i)# for propellerBdri'en aircraft is2
1 8
η
prop
&
"
c
)
)
#
#
ln
$
1
¸
¸
_
,
(#.0#)
5quation (#.0#) suggests that propellerBdri'en aircraft range is not influenced by air density (altitude),
e*cept to the degree that air density and temperature influences 0'!). DropellerBdri'en aircraft range is
ma*imi&ed by flying in conditions which are characteri&ed by ma*imum propeller efficiency, minimum
0!'), ma*imum weight of fuel a'ailable, and minimum drag (ma*imum &(" or )&>)"). .ecall that
ma*imum &(" occurs at the speed where parasite drag equals induced drag (
)
"
o
8 k )&
3
).
E8"*!l$ 5.5
An aircraft is being designed to fly on Mars (where the acceleration of gra'ity is 0.J1 m>s
1
) at an
altitude where ρ 8 7.7$ kg>m
0
. %he aircraft will be powered by a piston engine dri'ing a propeller. %he
engine has, when tested, burned #7 kg of fuel and :77 kg of o*idi&er in one hour while producing $7: kW
of shaft power. %he propeller efficiency has been measured in MarsBlike conditions at 7.=#. %he aircraft’s
drag polar is )" 8 7.70 ; 7.7J )&
1
, and its wing area is #7 m
1
. What will be the aircraft’s ma*imum
range and endurance at this altitude on #77 kg of propellants, if its mass with propellants is $#77 kg
4olution2 %he atmosphere of Mars is composed almost entirely of carbon dio*ide, so the term propellant
refers in this case to both fuel and o*idi&er which the aircraft must carry and consume in order for the
engine to operate. %he 0!') for this engine therefore must be based on total propellant consumption2
( ) ( )
( ) 0'!) c
#
'H
f
· · · ·
.
.
:#7 0J1
$H$
kg > hr m> s
$7: kw
3 > kW hr
1
%he )& for ma*imum endurance is obtained by sol'ing (#.00)2
( )
0
0 0 7 70
7 7J
$$0
1
) k ) )
)
k
"
o
& &
"
o
· · · · ,
.
.
.
then2
)" 8 )" o ; k )&
1
8 )" o ; 0 )" o 8 : )" o 8 7.$1
$:#
9sing $,#77 kg (0.J1 m>s
1
) 8 #,#=7 3 as the initial weight and 0,J17 3 as the final weight, the ma*imum
endurance is2
( )
.
c
)
)
' # #
prop
&
"
· −
− −
η
ρ
0
1
1
$
1
$
$
1
1
. · −
¸
¸
_
,
·
¸
¸
_
,
· ·
− − 7=#
$H$
$$0
7$1
1 7 7$ 0 J17 #=7
7#1=
7 770
7 77$#= $#=
0
1
$
1
$
1
$
1
.
.
( . )
.
( . )(#7 ) ( , (#,
.
.
. .
kw hr
3
kg > m m 3) 3)
kw hr
3
3
s
m
3
kw hr
w
hr
0 1
1
1
Ma*imum range for piston engine>propellerBdri'en aircraft is achie'ed at the speed for (&>")ma4, and the
magnitude of (&>")ma4, is2
&
"
ma4
¸
¸
_
,
8
)
)
&
"
ma4
¸
¸
_
,
8
$
1 k )
"
o
8
$
1 7 7J 7 70 . ( . )
8 $7.<
%he ma*imum range is then gi'en by (#.0#)2
( ) ( )
( )
1
c
)
)
#
#
prop
&
"
·
¸
¸
_
,
·
¸
¸
_
,
·
¸
¸
_
,
·
η
ln
.
.
( . ) ln
,
,
.
,
.
,
$
1
7=#
$H$
$7 <
# #=7
0 J17
7 HJJ
$ 777
0H77
7 :7#
<=J 777
kw hr
3
3
3
3 m> s hr
3
s
$ hr
m 8 <=J km
Ali',$ V"%i"i)#(
%he effect of altitude as it influences ma*imum range and endurance through changes to air
temperature and density were Aust discussed. %he choice of an appropriate cruising and>or l)i$%i#g (ma*
enduring) altitude is an important consideration for aircraft designers as well as pilots and crew members
planning their flights. %he cruising and loitering altitude choices may be influenced by weather
conditions, winds, traffic congestion (the +ear Ket and other business Aets are designed to cruise abo'e the
hea'y Aet airliner traffic at or near the tropopause), na'igation and terrain constraints, training
requirements, enemy threat system lethal en'elopes and warning system co'erage (for military aircraft),
and the cruise speed which can be achie'ed at a particular altitude. igh speeds and short tra'el times are
among the most important ad'antages of aircraft o'er surface transportation. igh cruise speeds allow
airliners and military aircraft to make more flights in the same time period and therefore generate more
$:H
re'enue or more combat effecti'eness. %he effect of altitude on cruise speed for ma*imum range can be
seen in "igure #.$=, which shows the shift in drag and power required cur'es with changes in altitude. As
altitude increases, the decreasing air density causes %
∞
for ma*imum range to increase. %his benefit is
limited by the ability of the engine(s) to generate sufficient thrust, increasing wind 'elocities with
increasing altitude, the time and fuel required to climb to higher altitudes, and Mach number effects.
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
True irspee!, "nots
T
h
r
u
s
t
a
n
!
#
r
a
g
,
p
o
u
n
!
s
%
a'ail
N 4ea +e'el
%
a'ail
N 1#,777 ft
,rag
N 4ea +e'el
,rag
N 1#,777 ft
G for Ma* .ange
N 1#,777 ft
G for
Ma* .ange
N 4ea +e'el
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 50 100 150
True irspee!, "nots
$
o
%
e
r
&
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
a
n
!
$
o
%
e
r
R
e
'
u
i
r
e
!
,
h
o
r
s
e
p
o
%
e
r
D
a'ail
N 4ea +e'el
D
a'ail
N $7,777 ft
D
req
N $7,777 ft
D
req
N 4ea +e'el
G for Ma* .ange at $7,777 ft
G for Ma* .ange
at 4ea +e'el
3A) %urboAetBDowered %rainer Aircraft (C) DistonBDowered %rainer Aircraft
Fig'%$ 5.1> Ali',$ Eff$&( )# C%'i($ S!$$, f)% M"8i*'* R"#g$
?t is useful to note that the tangent to the power required cur'es drawn from the origin in "igure
#.$= (C) corresponds to a hori&ontal line drawn on a thrust required plot, tangent to the drag cur'e at the
minimum drag point. %his reaffirms the fact that ma*imum range for propellerBdri'en aircraft occurs at
the 'elocity for (&(")ma4. ?t also e*plains why a single line is tangent to both power cur'es, since the
magnitudes of minimum drag for a gi'en aircraft at a gi'en weight do not change with altitude.
@CMC@CA
As was shown in /hapter :, aircraft which are capable of flying at speeds near and abo'e their
critical Mach number e*perience significant changes in their drag polars at high speeds. %he rapid drag
rise at the drag di'ergence Mach number, Aust abo'e ,crit, in many cases reduces the speed for ma*imum
range from that which would be predicted by (#.1#). "igure #.$< shows thrust a'ailable and thrust
required cur'es for an afterburning turbofanBpowered supersonic fighter aircraft. %he afterburning and
nonBafterburning thrust a'ailable cur'es were generated using 5quations (#.$7) and (#.$0). /ur'es were
plotted for sea le'el and for :#,777 ft M4+. %he second altitude was chosen because it is the altitude
where the airspeed for (&(")ma4 equals the airspeed corresponding to ,crit . ?f the aircraft has sufficient
thrust to fly at this altitude without using afterburner, the altitude where this condition is satisfied results
in the absolute ma*imum range for that aircraft. %he altitude and speed for this optimum cruise condition
is referred to as the +$( &%'i($ M"&hC+$( &%'i($ "li',$ (C/M>C/A). 3ote that for the case shown,
ma*imum range cruise airspeed at :#,777 ft is about twice the ma*imum range cruise airspeed at sea
le'el, but the drag is the same. 4ince T'!) is lower at :#,777 ft, the aircraft’s range is more than
doubled at the higher altitude. 3ote also that since the speed for (&(")ma4 'aries with aircraft weight, the
$:J
altitude and Mach number for (C/M>C/A) will change as the aircraft burns fuel. A more complete
discussion of C/M>C/A is contained in .eference H.
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
True irspee!, "nots
T
h
r
u
s
t
a
n
!
#
r
a
g
,
p
o
u
n
!
s
%
a'ail
,ry N 4ea +e'el
%
a'ail
,ry N :#,777 ft
,rag N 4ea +e'el
,rag N :#,777 ft
G for Ma* .ange N :#,777 ft
G for Ma* .ange
N 4ea +e'el
Fig'%$ 5.1? Af$%+'%#i#g T'%+)f"#1P)7$%$, Figh$% Ai%&%"f Th%'( "#, D%"g C'%/$(
" S$" L$/$l "#, " 55.AAA f
5.= GLIDES
"igure #.17 shows an aircraft in a powerBoff glide. %he aircraft’s flight path angle, γ , is taken as
positi'e downward, and the thrust is &ero. With these changes, (#.$) and (#.1) simplify to2
!
∑
· ma · 0 · − " + # sin γ
" $
#sin γ
(5.36)
!
⊥ ∑
· m
%
r
1
· 7 8 & − # cos γ
& · # cos γ (#.0J)
$:=
L
D
W
Horizon
Aircraft
Flight Path
γ
G
h
.
#sin
# cos γ
γ
Fig'%$ 5.2A Ai%&%"f i# " P)7$%1Off Gli,$
M"8i*'* Gli,$ R"#g$
%o determine the aircraft speed which will produce the ma*imum glide range, first note in "igure
#.17 that the aircraft’s distance tra'eled through the air has two components, the 'ertical altitude lost in
the glide, h, and the hori&ontal distance or range tra'eled, 1. "or a fi*ed initial altitude, the range is
ma*imi&ed when the magnitude of the flight path angle is as small as possible. %he limit to how small γ
can get while still sustaining steady flight is set by the force balance in (#.0H). /ombining (#.0H) and
(#.0J)2
"
& & "
#
#
h
1
· · · ·
$ sin
cos
tan
γ
γ
γ
(#.0=)
%he message in (#.0=) is that the aircraft will achie'e its flattest glide angle and its longest glide range
when the aircraft is flown at the speed for (&("+ma4 . Another useful result is2
&
"
1
h
· (#.0<)
?t is significant that weight is not a 'ariable in (#.0<). 4ince, &(" is a function of )& , and (&(")ma* is
achie'ed for a specific 'alue of )& , the 'elocity for ma*imum glide range increases with weight, but the
gli,$ %"i) , 1(h, does not change.
Mi#i*'* Si#6 R"$
@f particular interest to those who design, build, and>or fly ("il!l"#$( is the speed for minimum
(i#6 %"$. 4ailplanes are unpowered aircraft which must be towed into the air, but which use 'ertical air
currents to stay aloft for hours or e'en days. %hey are able to do this because they are designed so that
their minimum sink rate (minimum downward 'ertical 'elocity in steady flight) is less than the upward
'ertical 'elocity of the air currents. %herefore, although the aircraft is descending through the air mass,
the air rising faster than the plane is descending through it, so the plane’s altitude increases. "igure #.1$
illustrates the components of a glider’s 'elocity relati'e to the air mass. 3ote that sink rate is %
∞
sinγ ,
which, from (#.0H) is2
'ink 1ate %
% "
#
#
1
· · ·
∞
∞
sinγ (#.:7)
%he significant conclusion from (#.:7) is that the speed for minimum sink rate is the speed for minimum
power required, as defined in 4ect #.H.
$:<
γ
ori&on
'ink 1ate % ·
∞
sinγ
%
∞
Fig'%$ 5.21 V$l)&i C)*!)#$#( f)% "# Ai%&%"f i# " Gli,$
E8"*!l$ 5.:
A sailplane’s drag polar is )" 8 7.7$ ; 7.71 )&
1
. ?t has a mass of #77 kg and a wing area of 17
m
1
. What is its ma*imum glide ratio and minimum sink rate at sea le'el, and at what speeds are these
achie'ed
4olution2 %he aircraft’s ma*imum glide ratio is equal to its (& >" )ma4 2
1
h
ma4
¸
¸
_
,
8
&
"
ma4
¸
¸
_
,
8
$
1 k )
"
o
8
( ) ( )
$
1 7 7$ 7 71 . .
8 0#.:
%he speed for (& >" )ma4 is determined by first finding the )& for (& >" )ma4 2
)& 8
)
k
"
o
8
7 7$
7 71
.
.
8 7.J7J
( ) ( )
& # ) 2' 2
#
) '
m g
) '
&
& &
· · · · · · ,
.
. ( )
.
#77 < =
7 J7J 17
0:H#
kg m> s
m
3> m
1
1
1
At sea le'el, from the standard atmosphere chart, ρ 8 $.11# kg>m
0
, so2
%
2
∞
· · ·
1 1 0:H#
$
10=
ρ
( . )
.
3 > m
.11# kg > m
m> s for best glide range
1
0
%he 'elocity for minimum sink rate is the 'elocity for minimum power required, where2
0
7 71
$11#
1
) k ) )
)
k
"
o
& &
"
· · · ,
(
.
. 8
0
0 7.7$)
o
( ) ( )
& # ) 2' 2
#
) '
m g
) '
&
& &
· · · · · · ,
.
. ( )
#77 < =
$11# 17
177
kg m> s
m
3 > m
1
1
1
At sea le'el, from the standard atmosphere chart, ρ 8 $.11# kg>m
0
, so2
%
2
∞
· · ·
1 1 177
$
$=$
ρ
( )
.
3 > m
.11# kg > m
m> s for minimum sink rate
1
0
$#7
4ince 0 )" o 8 k )&
1
for this condition, )" 8 : )" o and the drag at this speed is2
" 8 )" 2 ' 8 7.7: (177 3>m
1
) (17 m
1
) 8 $H7 3
%hen the minimum rate of sink is gi'en by (#.:7)2
,inimum 'ink 1ate
% "
#
% "
mg
· · · ·
∞ ∞
$=$ $H7
#77
7 #<
. (
.
m > s 3)
kg (<.= m > s )
m > s
1
γ
1ate of )limb
1
h
%
∞
# cos γ
# sin γ
γ
L
T
D
W
Horizon
Fig'%$ 5.22 Ai%&%"f i# " Cli*+
5.> CLIM@S
"igure #.$ depicts an aircraft in a climb. Assuming thrust is appro*imately aligned with the
flight path 'ector, and that the maneu'er is a steady climb, the situation simplifies to that shown in "igure
#.11. 5quations (#.$) and (#.1) simplify to2
!
∑
· ma · 7 · T − " − # sin γ
sinγ ·
− T "
#
(#.:$)
!
⊥ ∑
· m
%
r
1
· 0 · & − # cos γ
$#$
& 8 # cos γ (#.:1)
M"8i*'* Cli*+ A#gl$
%he requirement to climb at ma*imum angle (ma*imum height gained for minimum ground
distance tra'eled is normally the result of some obstacle (either trees, buildings, mountains, etc. or an
altitude restriction imposed by a regulatory agency) in the flight path which must be cleared. 5quation
(#.:$) suggests that the ma*imum sustainable climb angle will be achie'ed for conditions which produce
the ma*imum T  " and minimum aircraft weight. "or nonBafterburning turboAets and lowBbypassBratio
turbofans (thrust model 5quation #.$7), ma*imum T  " will occur at the 'elocity for "min and (&(")ma4 ,
since thrust is constant with 'elocity. Ma*imum T  " for aircraft with other types of propulsion systems
can be found graphically by comparing thrust and drag cur'es.
M"8i*'* R"$ )f Cli*+
%he requirement to climb at ma*imum rate normally stems from a need to quickly, and with
minimum fuel e*penditure, get to higher altitudes where the aircraft’s ma*imum range and best cruise
airspeeds are higher (and on a hot day in %e*as, where the air is coolerM) As shown on "igure #.11, the
rate of climb is the 'ertical component of the aircraft’s 'elocity2
( )
1ate of )limb 1 ) %
% T "
#
#
avail re2
· · ·
−
·
−
∞
∞
> sin γ (#.:0)
"rom (#.:0) it is clear that ma*imum sustained rate of climb for propellerBdri'en aircraft (thrust model
5quation #.< or #.$0) is achie'ed for the lowest possible aircraft weight and at the airspeed for minimum
power required. "or aircraft powered by other types of propulsion systems, the airspeed for ma*imum rate
of climb can be found by comparing power a'ailable and power required cur'es. %he speed where e*cess
power (avail B re2 ) is greatest is the speed for ma*imum rate of climb.
E8"*!l$ 5.=
What are the ma*imum angle of climb and ma*imum rate of climb at sea le'el for the aircraft
described in "igures #.$0 and #.$H, and the speeds at which these occur Assume the aircraft weighs
H,777 lb.
4olution2 Ma*imum angle of climb occurs at the speed where T  " is a ma*imum. @n "igure #.$0 this
occurs at the speed for "min , appro*imately $07 knots, since thrust a'ailable does not 'ary with 'elocity.
%he drag at this point is appro*imately :77 lbs, and the thrust is $,=77 lbs, so2
sin , sin sin
,
,
. γ γ ·
−
·
− ¸
¸
_
,
·
¸
¸
_
,
·
− −
T "
#
T "
#
$ $
$=77
H 777
$0#
lb B :77 lb
lb
o
Ma*imum rate of climb occurs at the 'elocity where avail B re2 is a ma*imum. @n "igure #.$H this occurs
at appro*imately 110 knots. %he power required at this point is appro*imately 1:7,777 ft lb>s and the
power a'ailable is H=7,777 ft lb>s. so2
,a4imum 1ate of )limb
#
avail re2
·
−
· ·
H=7 777
J00
,
.
ft lb > s B 1:7,777 ft lb > s
H,777 lb
ft > s 8 :,:77 ft > min
C$ili#g(
,esign performance requirements for an aircraft may be specified in terms of a &$ili#g or
ma*imum attainable altitude. ?n "igures #.$= and #.$< it is apparent that avail B re2 and Tavail B Tre2
decrease with increasing altitude. At some altitude, thrust a'ailable decreases to the point that it Aust
$#1
equals the minimum drag. Ma* angle of climb and ma* rate of climb are &ero, and in fact the aircraft can
only sustain this altitude by flying at the minimum drag airspeed. %his altitude is referred to as the
aircraft’s "+()l'$ &$ili#g. ?t is not a 'ery practical altitude since in theory it would take an infinite
amount of time for the aircraft to climb that high. /eilings which are more commonly specified in design
requirements are the ($%/i&$ &$ili#g, the altitude where a $77 ft>min rate of climb can be sustained, and
the &)*+" &$ili#g, the altitude where #77 ft>min rate of climb can be sustained.
5.? THRUST AND PO2ER CURVE SUMMARY
"igure #.10 compares the thrust and power cur'es of "igures #.$0 and #.$H, and marks on them
the airspeeds for 'arious types of ma*imum performance. ?t is left as an e*ercise for the reader to
construct a similar summary chart for propellerBdri'en aircraft.
%hrust A'ailableO
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
True irspee!, (, "nots
$
o
%
e
r
&
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
a
n
!
$
o
%
e
r
R
e
'
u
i
r
e
!
,
m
i
l
l
i
o
n
s
o
f
f
t
l
b
/
s
G
ma*
G for
Minimum %hrust .equired,
Cest Flide Angle
Ket AircraftO Ma* /limb Angle,
and (+>,)
ma*,
/
,o
8 k /
+
1
G for
Minimum
Dower .equired and
Minimum 4ink .ate
0/
,o
8 k /
+
1
G for
Ket Aircraft
Ma*imum
.ange
/
,o
8 0k /
+
1
G for Ket AircraftO
Ma*imum.ate of /limb
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
T
h
r
u
s
t
a
n
!
#
r
a
g
,
l
b
s
O "or typical nonBafterburning turboAet and lowBbypassBratio turbofanBpowered aircraft.
Fig'%$ 5.20 B$ Ai%&%"fD Th%'( "#, P)7$% C'%/$ C)*!"%i()#
%he effects of altitude changes on cruise speed, range, endurance, angle of climb, and rate of
climb ha'e already been discussed. "igures #.$J and #.$= also show the increase with altitude in the
speeds for minimum power required and minimum drag. %he magnitude of the minimum drag for an
aircraft does not change with altitude, since (&(")ma4 is not a function of altitude. %he minimum power
required increases with altitude, howe'er, because although the drag does not change, the speed at which
it occurs increases
/hanges in aircraft weight and configuration change the power required and thrust required
cur'es. "igure #.1: illustrates these changes for thrust required. Fenerally, changing aircraft
configuration in'ol'es e*tending landing gear, speed brakes, or highBlift de'ices; all of which increase
$#0
)"o without changing k significantly. ighBlift de'ices usually ha'e the largest effect on k, and they also
increase )&ma4 , so their effect on the cur'e is more comple*. "igure #.1: shows the effect of deploying
speed brakes, spoilers, or landing gear which only increase )"o . 3ote that parasite drag is increased at all
speeds, but induced drag is unchanged. 4ince parasite drag is largest at high speeds, the net effect is to
shift the drag cur'e up and to the left. %his reduces the speeds for all types of ma*imum performance, and
also reduces (&(,)ma4 , best glide ratio, ma* climb angle and rate, ma*imum endurance, and ma*imum
range. %he minimum sink rate increases with increasing )"o .
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
0 100 200 300 400 500
True irspee!, "nots
#
r
a
g
,
p
o
u
n
!
s
5ffect of 5*tending
+anding Fear or
4peed Crakes
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
0 100 200 300 400 500
True irspee!, "nots
#
r
a
g
,
p
o
u
n
!
s5ffect of ?ncreasing Weight
Fig'%$ 5.25 Ch"#g$( ) D%"g C'%/$( 2ih C)#fig'%"i)# "#, 2$igh Ch"#g$(
?ncreasing weight changes the induced drag without changing parasite drag. 4ince induced drag
is greatest at low speeds, the net effect is to shift the cur'e up and to the right. %his increases the speeds
for all types of ma*imum performance e*cept %ma4, and also reduces ma* climb angle and rate, ma*imum
endurance (assuming the weight added is not useable fuel), and ma*imum range (assuming e*tra weight
is not fuel). %he minimum sink rate increases with increasing weight. 3ote that (&(")ma4 and best glide
ratio do not change with increasing weight, since the aircraft still flies at the same α and )& to ma*imi&e
&(". %he component of weight in the flight path direction, # sin γ , increases due to the increased weight
Aust enough to o'ercome the increased drag. owe'er, the airspeed for best glide ratio increases due to the
need for the wing to support greater weight at the same )& . %he effects of weight and configuration
changes on power required cur'es are 'ery similar to the cur'e shifts Aust described for thrust required.
5.1A TAEEOFF AND LANDING
.egardless of an aircraft’s design mission, it must takeoff and land to start and finish its flight.
Almost e'ery &)#/$#i)#"l "6$)ff "#, l"#,i#g (/%@+, as opposed to 'ertical takeoff and>or 'ertical
landing using 'ectored thrust, etc.) aircraft was designed to meet specified ma*imum takeoff and landing
distances. %he ability to use shorter runways allows airliners to ser'e smaller cities or fly from a small
runway near the business district of a large city, a light aircraft to land in a farmer’s field and park ne*t to
his house, and military aircraft to operate from impro'ised runways close to the front lines or from
established airfields whose runways ha'e been damaged.
T"6$)ff Di("#&$
"or an aircraft to takeoff, it uses e*cess thrust to accelerate to a safe flying speed. 3ormally an
airspeed $.1 times the aircraft’s stalling speed at its takeoff weight and configuration is considered safe to
$#:
become airborne. %his safe flying airspeed is called "6$)ff (!$$,. %T7. At or Aust prior to reaching
takeoff speed, the pilot raises the aircraft’s nose to establish a pitch attitude and angle of attack called the
"6$)ff "i',$. @nce the takeoff attitude is established and the aircraft has sufficient speed, it generates
enough lift to begin flying. %akeoff distance, then, is the distance required for the aircraft to accelerate to
takeoff speed and rotate. 4ome aircraft design requirements specify a rotation time, usually around three
seconds, which must be allowed, and the distance co'ered by the aircraft added to the takeoff distance
after it has reached takeoff speed. ,esign requirements may also specify required takeoff performance in
terms of the distance required to accelerate, rotate, transition to a climb, and climb o'er an obstacle with a
specified height. "igure #.1# illustrates these steps or phases in a takeoff.
s
accel
s
T7
s
rot
%ransition
/limb @'er @bstacle
s
trans
s
T7 8 )limb
Fig'%$ 5.25 Th$ T"6$)ff
%he distance labeled saccel in "igure #.1# is the distance required for the aircraft to accelerate to
takeoff speed. ?f the pilot initiates takeoff rotation so as to reach the takeoff attitude at the point saccel , then
the aircraft will lift off as it reaches %T7. Peep in mind that some design specifications will force the
designer to add three more seconds of takeoff acceleration to the takeoff distance calculation beyond saccel .
%his situation is shown in "igure #.1# as sT7 8 saccel ; srot where srot is the distance co'ered during the
threeBsecond rotation allowance. ?f the design requirement does not specify a rotation allowance, then sT7
8 saccel. %he analysis below will consider this simpler case.
"igure #.1H illustrates the forces on an aircraft during its takeoff acceleration. %he rolling
friction of the wheels on the runway is modeled as a rolling friction coefficient, µ, multiplied by the
normal force, 9, e*erted by the aircraft on the runway and, as a reaction by the runway on the aircraft.
%ypical 'alues for the rolling friction coefficient are 7.71 B 7.7: for pa'ed runways and 7.7= B 7.$ for turf.
Assuming the thrust 'ector is parallel to the surface of the runway and that the runway is le'el, summing
the forces in the 'ertical direction yields2
!
⊥ ∑
· m
%
r
1
· 0 · 9 + & − #, 9 · # B & (#.::)
and in the hori&ontal direction2
!
∑
· ma · T − " − µ 9 (#.:#)
/ombining (#.0<) and (#.:7) yields2
ma 8
#
g
T7
¸
¸
_
,
a 8 T B " B µ (#T7  &)
$##
&
T
#
9
µ9
Fig'%$ 5.2: F)%&$( D'%i#g h$ T"6$)ff A&&$l$%"i)#
( ) [ ]
a
d%
dt
g T " # &
#
T7
T7
· ·
− − − µ
(#.:H)
where #T7 is the takeoff weight. %he 'elocity, %$ , at any time, t$ , during the takeoff acceleration is
obtained by integrating (#.:H) with respect to time2
%
d%
dt
dt
o
t
$
$
·
∫
(#.:J)
?f the initial 'elocity at the start of the takeoff is &ero and the acceleration can be appro*imated as being
constant during the takeoff, then (#.:J) simplifies to2
%
d%
dt
dt
d%
dt
dt a t a t
t t
$
7 7
$ $
$ $
7 · · · − ·
∫ ∫
( ) (#.:=)
%he time to complete the takeoff, tT7 , is obtained by substituting the "6$)ff (!$$, (the speed at which the
airplane lea'es the runway), %T7 , for %$ in (#.:<) and sol'ing for tT7 2
t
%
a
T7
T7
·
3ow, %T7 8 $.1 %stall , so2
%T7 8 $.1
1#
')
T7
&
ρ
ma*
(#.:<)
( )
[ ] ( )
[ ]
t
#
')
g T " # &
#
#
g T " # &
#
')
T7
&
&
·
− − −
·
− − −
$1
1
$1 1
.
.
ma*
ma*
ρ
µ
µ ρ
(#.#7)
"or the same assumptions the takeoff distance, sT7 , is obtained by integrating (#.:0) with respect to time2
$#H
s a t dt a t dt a t a t
T7
t t
T7 T7
T7 T7
· · · − ·
∫ ∫
7 7
$
1
1 $
1
1
7 (#.#$)
4ubstituting (#.:H) and (#.#7) into (#.#$) yields2
( ) [ ]
( ) [ ] { }
s
g T " # &
#
#
g T " # &
#
' )
T7
&
·
− − −
− − −
$
1
$:: 1
1
1
µ
µ
ρ
.
ma*
( )
[ ]
s
#
' ) g T " # &
T7
T7
& T7
·
− − −
$::
1
.
ma*
ρ µ
(#.#1)
?n practice, the force terms in (#.#1) may 'ary significantly during the takeoff acceleration. .easonable
results can be obtained by using an a'erage acceleration, howe'er. %he a'erage acceleration is obtained
by e'aluating the acceleration forces at 7.J %T7, so that (#.#1) becomes2
( )
[ ]
s
#
' ) g T " # &
T7
T7
& T7
%
T7
·
− − −
$::
1
7 J
.
ma* .
ρ µ
(#.#0)
5quation (#.#0) makes it clear that short takeoff distances can be achie'ed for high thrust, low weight ,
high )&ma4 with low drag, large wing area, low rolling friction coefficient (good tires and a smooth
runway), and high density (low altitude and cold temperatures). A further simplification may be used for
aircraft with 'ery high thrust a'ailable, nearly equal to their takeoff weight. "or these aircraft, the thrust
is so great that the retarding forces are negligible by comparison, and (#.#0) simplifies to2
s
#
' ) g T
T7
T7
&
·
$::
1
.
ma*
ρ
(#.#:)
E8"*!l$ 5.>
%he nonBafterburning turboAet engines of a /essna %B0J Aet trainer produce appro*imately $J77 lb
of installed thrust for takeoff at sea le'el, and its takeoff weight is H#J# lb. ?t’s )&ma48$.H for takeoff and
its drag polar in its takeoff configuration is )"o 8 7.70 ; 7.7#J )&
1
. ?ts reference planform area is $=: ft
1
.
3ormal takeoff procedure requires the pilot to rotate the aircraft to the takeoff attitude Aust prior to
reaching takeoff 'elocity, so for the maAority of the takeoff roll the aircraft’s )& 8 7.=. What will be the
aircraft’s takeoff distance at sea le'el with no wind
4olution2 %hrust for this aircraft is 'ery much less than its weight, so it is probably not reasonable to
ignore the drag on takeoff. %he takeoff speed is2
%T7 8 $.1
1#
')
T7
&
ρ
ma*
8 $.1
1(H #J# lb)
7 7710JJ $=: $H)
,
( . ) ( )( . slug > ft ft
0 1
8 $0J.$ ft>s
but )& 8 7.= during the takeoff roll, so at % 8 7.J%T7 8 7.J ($0J.$ ft>s) 8 <#.<H ft>s2
2 % · · ·
$
1
1 $
1
1
7 7710JJ <#<H ft $7<: ρ ( . ) ( . . slug > ft > s) lb > ft
0 1
( ) ( )
& ) 2'
&
· · · 7= $=: $ H$$ . , $7.<: lb > ft ft lb
1 1
$#J
)" 8 )"o ; k )&
1
8 7.70 ; 7.7#J (7.=)
1
8 7.7HH#
( ) ( )
" ) 2'
"
· · · 7 7HH# $7.<: lb $=: $00< . . > ft ft lb
1 1
then2
( )
[ ]
( )
[ ]
s
#
' ) g T " # &
T7
T7
& T7
·
− − −
·
− − −
$::
$:: H #J# lb
7 7710JJ $=: $H)(01 1 $ J77 lb $00< 7 70 H $ H$$
1
1
.
. ( , )
( . ) ( )( . . ) , . . ,
ma*
ρ µ
slug > ft ft ft > s lb ,#J# lb lb
0 1 1
8 $,<:< ft
L"#,i#g Di("#&$
As "igure #.1J illustrates, the landing maneu'er is broken up into appro*imately the same steps
as takeoff. As with takeoff, the details of the design requirements for landing distance 'ary. %he l"#,i#g
(!$$,, %& is usually specified as $.0 %stall. %he "!!%)"&h or descent to landing is also generally flown at
%& , or slightly faster. 4ome customers and>or regulatory agencies may specify landing distances o'er a
fi*ed obstacle. @thers may specify that the aircraft pass o'er the end or h%$(h)l, of the landing runway
at a specified height, or that it touch down a specified distance down the runway. %he design
specifications may require the landing analysis to include three or more second of f%$$ %)ll (deceleration
only due to normal rolling friction and air drag) after touchdown before the brakes are applied. A landing
analysis may also include the effects of re'erse thrust or a drag parachute which is deployed at or slightly
before touchdown. %he simple case of no free roll allowance, so that s& 8 sdecel , will be considered here.
s
decel
s
land
s
roll
%ransition or .oundout
/lear @bstacle
s
trans
s
&and 7ver 7bstacle
%ouchdown
Approach
Fig'%$ 5.2= L"#,i#g
"igure #.1= shows the forces on an aircraft during a landing deceleration. %he forces are similar
to those for the takeoff, e*cept that thrust is &ero and µ , which is now called the +%"6i#g &)$ffi&i$#, has
a much higher 'alue because the brakes are applied. Craking coefficient 'alues are 7.: B7.H for dry
concrete, 7.1 B 7.0 for wet concrete, and 7.7# B 7.$ for an icy runway.
$#=
#
9
µ 9
&
"
Fig'%$ 5.2> F)%&$( D'%i#g L"#,i#g D$&$l$%"i)#
%he same analysis steps as for takeoff yield2
( )
[ ]
s
#
' ) g " # &
&
&
& &
% ma4
&
·
+ −
$H<
1
7 J
.
.
ρ µ
(#.##)
3ote that the factor $.H< in (#.##) instead of $.:: as in (#.::) is due to the fact that %& 8 $.0 %stall while
%T7 8 $.1 %stall . As with the a'erage force 'alues for takeoff, the a'erage deceleration forces are e'aluated
at 7.J %&.
5.11 TURNS
%urning performance is important to military fighter aircraft, pylon racers, crop dusters, and to a
lesser degree to any aircraft which must maneu'er in tight quarters, for instance to takeoff and land at an
airfield in a canyon or among skyscrapers in the center of a city. %he most important characteristics of
turning performance which are frequently specified as design requirements are turn rate and turn radius.
%his performance may be specified either as an i#("#"#$)'( or a ('("i#$, capability. As the names
imply, a sustained turn rate or radius is performance the aircraft can maintain for a long period of time;
minutes or e'en hours. An instantaneous turn rate or radius is a capability the aircraft can achie'e
momentarily, but then the ma*imum performance may begin to decrease immediately.
L$/$l T'%#(
%he most commonly performed turning maneu'er for an aircraft is the le'el turn. ?n this
maneu'er, the aircraft maintains a constant altitude (and in a sustained turn, a constant airspeed). ?t’s
'elocity 'ector changes directions but stays in a hori&ontal plane. "igure #.1< shows front and top 'iews
of an aircraft in a le'el turn.
$#<
+
W
φ
+ sin φ
+ cos φ
r
+ sin φ
,
%
(a) "ront Giew (b) %op Giew
Fig'%$ 5.2? F)%&$( )# "# Ai%&%"f i# " L$/$l T'%#
4umming forces in the 'ertical direction yields2
!
vert ∑
8 7 8 & cos φ − #
# 8 & cos φ (5.56)
$>cos φ 8 &(# ≡ n (#.#J)
where the parameter n defined in #.:H is known as the l)", f"&)%. %his is also known as the “g’s! that
the aircraft is pulling, but the symbol g is already being used to denote the acceleration of gra'ity.
5quation (#.#J) states that there is a oneBtoBone correspondence between bank angle and load factor in a
le'el turn, regardless of the aircraft type. 3ote that in deri'ing (#.#J) the acceleration in the 'ertical
direction is set to &ero, since the aircraft’s motion is assumed to remain in a hori&ontal plane. 4umming
forces perpendicular to the 'elocity 'ector in the hori&ontal plane gi'es2
!
hor: ∑
· m
%
r
1
8
#
g
%
r
1
8 & sin φ 8
& # # n
1 1 1
$ − · −
%
g r
1
8
n
1
$ −
which can be sol'ed for the turn radius, r2
r 8
%
g n
1
1
$ −
(#.#=)
@nce again, this result is independent of aircraft type, so a CB#1 and an "B$H at the same bank angle and
airspeed will ha'e the same turn radius. %he rate of turn, ω · %(r, so2
$H7
ω ·
−
·
− %
%
g n
g n
%
1
1
1
$
$
(#.#<)
which is also independent of aircraft type. %his analysis assumes no component of thrust perpendicular to
the 'elocity 'ector. Aircraft with thrust 'ectoring capability may significantly e*ceed the turn capability
predicted by (#.#JB#.#<).
3o information about whether the turn is sustained or Aust instantaneous is a'ailable or needed in
"igure #.1=(a), so (#.#JB#.#<) apply to both types of turns. .eferring to "igure #.1= (b), summing forces
parallel to the aircraft’s 'elocity 'ector yields2
!
∑ · m a 8
#
g
d%
dt
8 T  "
which for a sustained turn simplifies to2
T 8 "
E8"*!l$ 5.?
%wo aircraft, one on Mars and one on 5arth, are performing le'el turns at identical true airspeeds
of $77 m>s and identical bank angles of H7
o
. ow do their load factors, turn radii, and rates of turn
compare
4olution2 ?n each case, the load factor depends only on the bank angle, so it will be the same on either
planet2
n 8 $>cos φ 8 $>cos H7
o
8 1.7 on either planet
%he turn radius on each planet is calculated using (#.#=)2
( )
r
%
g n
·
−
·
−
·
1
1
1
1
$
$77
0 J1 1 $
$ ##1
m> s
m> s
m on Mars
1
.
,
( )
r
%
g n
·
−
·
−
·
1
1
1
1
$
$77
< 1 $
#=<
m> s
.= m> s
m on 5arth
1
%he turn rates are calculated using (#.#<)2
ω ·
−
·
−
·
g n
%
1 1
$ 0 J1 1 $
$77
7 7H::
.
.
m> s
m> s
radian > s 8 0.H< degrees > s on Mars
1
ω ·
−
·
−
·
g n
%
1 1
$ < 1 $
$77
7$H<J
.= m> s
m> s
radians > s 8 <.J1 degrees > s on 5arth
1
.
V$%i&"l T'%#(
Many aircraft perform turns which are not limited to a hori&ontal plane. %he simplest of these is
a turn made purely in a 'ertical plane. 4uch a maneu'er completed through 0H7 degrees of turn to the
original flight conditions is called a l))!. "igure #.07 shows the forces on an aircraft at three points in a
loop. %he maneu'er is started with a !'ll1'!. a 'ertical turn from initial straight and le'el conditions. At
the top of the loop, the aircraft is performing a !'ll1,)7# from the in'erted flight condition. A pullBdown
may also be entered from straight and le'el flight by %)lli#g (changing the bank angle, φ) the aircraft until
it is in'erted. A 'ertical turn initiated by rolling in'erted and then pulling down, completing the turn to
le'el flight headed in the opposite direction is known as a (!li1S.
$H$
r
+
+
+
W
W
W
,
,
,
%
%
%
ull"own
ull;p
Fig'%$ 5.0A F)%&$( )# "# Ai%&%"f " Th%$$ P)i#( i# " L))!
"or the pullBup, summing the forces perpendicular to the 'elocity 'ector yields2
!
⊥ ∑
8 m
%
r
1
8
#%
g r
1
8 & − #
%
g r
1
8 &(# − < 8 n B $
r 8
%
g n
1
$ ( ) −
(#.H7)
ω ·
− g n
%
( ) $
(#.H$)
+ikewise, for the pullBdown2
!
⊥ ∑
8 m
%
r
1
8
#%
g r
1
8 & + #
%
g r
1
8 &(# + < 8 n ; $
r 8
%
g n
1
$ ( ) +
(#.H1)
ω ·
+ g n
%
( ) $
(#.H0)
"inally, for the case where the aircraft’s 'elocity 'ector is 'ertical2
$H1
!
⊥ ∑
8 m
%
r
1
8
#%
g r
1
8 &
%
g r
1
8 &(# 8 n
r 8
%
gn
1
(#.H:)
ω ·
gn
%
(#.H#)
3ote that (#.H:) and (#.H#) are appro*imately true for all the turns, and for most other, more comple* turn
geometries, especially when n is large. "or modern fighter aircraft which routinely use load factors of <,
(#.H:) and (#.H#) are reasonably good appro*imations for all turning situations.
5.12 V1# DIAGRAMS
%he turn analysis up to this point has said nothing of the limitations the aircraft may ha'e on its
ability to generate the lift or sustain the structural loading needed to perform a specified turn. %hese
limitations are often summari&ed on a chart known as a V1# ,i"g%"*. "igure #.0$ is a GBn diagram for a
subsonic Aet trainer. %he ma*imum positi'e and negati'e load factors which the aircraft structure can
sustain are shown as hori&ontal lines on the chart, since for this particular aircraft these structural limits
are not functions of 'elocity. At low speeds, the ma*imum load factor is limited by the ma*imum lift the
aircraft can generate, since2
&ma4 8 nma4 # 8
)
&
ma*
2 ' 8
)
&
ma*
$
>1 ρ %
1
'
4
2
0
2
4
6
8
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Calibrate! irspee!, V
c
, "nots
)
o
a
!
F
a
c
t
o
r
,
n
Dositi'e 4tall +imit
3egati'e 4tall +imit
Dositi'e 4tructural +imit
3egati'e 4tructural +imit
q +imit
Altitude2 4ea +e'el
Weight2 #=77 lbs
/lean /onfiguration
/orner Gelocity
Fig'%$ 5.01 V1# Di"g%"* f)% " S'+()#i& B$ T%"i#$%
$H0
so2
n
) '
#
%
ma4
&
ma4
·
ρ
1
1
(#.HH)
%he ma*imum lift boundary is also known as the ("ll +)'#,"%. 5quation (#.HH) also leads to a more
general form of the stall speed equation2
%
n #
' )
stall
&
ma4
·
1
ρ
(#.HJ)
%he 'ertical line on "igure #.0$ which is labeled “q limit! indicates the *"8i*'* (%'&'%"l
"i%(!$$, of the aircraft for these conditions. ?n this case, the ma*imum structural airspeed is not a
function of load factor. @n many aircraft ma*imum structural speed decreases at high positi'e and
negati'e load factors. %he feature of the aircraft which sets the ma*imum speed 'aries. "or the aircraft of
"igure #.07, the ma*imum speed limit is actually set by the aircraft’s critical Mach number. "light abo'e
this speed is prohibited because shockBinduced separation causes control difficulties. "or other aircraft,
the limit is set by the structural strength required by the wings, windscreen, etc. to resist the high dynamic
pressures and high stagnation point pressures at these speeds; ence the name “qBlimit.! "or many highB
speed aircraft the ma*imum speed is actually a temperature limit, since at faster speeds skin friction and
shock wa'es generate so much heat that the aircraft skin will meltM
C)%#$% V$l)&i
"igure #.0$ and 5quations (#.H7) and (#.H$) can be used to determine the airspeed at which an
aircraft can make its quickest, tightest turn. "rom (#.H7) it is clear that the lowest speed at which the
ma*imum load factor can be generated will produce the smallest turn radius. 5quation (#.H$) dictates the
same condition to produce the highest turn rate. %he 'elocity labeled &)%#$% /$l)&i on "igure #.0$ is
the 'elocity at which the stall limit and the structural limit make a “corner! on the graph. %his 'elocity
satisfies the conditions for quickest, tightest turn because a faster 'elocity would not see an increase in n
due to the structural limit, and a slower 'elocity would see n limited to less than its ma*imum 'alue by the
stall. %he term “corner 'elocity! may also ha'e been chosen to reflect the fact that the aircraft makes its
sharpest corner at that speed. An e*pression for corner 'elocity, %=, is obtained by substituting the
aircraft’s ma*imum load factor into (#.HJ)2
%
n #
' )
ma4
&
ma4
O ·
1
ρ
(#.H=)
E8"*!l$ 5.1A
An aircraft with a 7i#g l)",i#g, # > ' , of J7 lb>ft
1
and )&ma4 8 $.# has a ma*imum structural
load limit of <. What is its corner 'elocity at sea le'el
4olution2 /orner 'elocity is calculated using (#.H=)2
%
n #
' )
n
)
#
'
ma4
&
ma4
&
ma4 ma4
O
( ) ( )
. ( . )
. · · · ·
1 1 1 < J7
7 7710JJ $#
#<: #
ρ ρ
lb > ft
slug > ft
ft > s
1
0
5.10 ENERGY HEIGHT AND SPECIFIC EFCESS PO2ER
@ne of the design requirements for a multiBrole fighter listed in %able $.1 was a certain (!$&ifi&
$8&$(( !)7$% achie'ed for specified conditions. 4pecific e*cess power is a measure of an aircraft’s
ability to increase its (!$&ifi& $#$%g, He, the sum of its kinetic and potential energy di'ided by its weight2
$H:
H
. > .
#
mgh m%
#
h
%
g
e
·
+
·
+
· +
. . . .
$
1
1 1
1
(#.H<)
4pecific energy is also called $#$%g h$igh, because it has units of height. 5nergy is changed by doing
work, raising an obAect against the pull of gra'ity to a higher altitude, accelerating an obAect to a faster
'elocity, or both. %he rate of doing work is power, but only part of an aircraft’s power can be used for this.
A portion of an aircraft’s power a'ailable must be used to balance the powered required due to the
aircraft’s drag. %he work done by this portion of the aircraft’s power is con'erted by air 'iscosity into heat
and air turbulence. %he aircraft’s power a'ailable which is in e*cess of its power required is its $8&$((
!)7$%. ?t is this portion of its power which may be used to increase its potential and>or kinetic energy2
% T "
d . > .
dt
avail re2uired
− · − ·
+
( )
( . . . .)
,i'iding both sides of the equation by weight gi'es an e*pression for specific e*cess power, s2
#
% T "
#
d
dt
. > .
#
dH
dt
d
dt
h
%
g
s
avail re2uired
e
≡
−
·
−
·
+ ¸
¸
_
,
· · +
¸
¸
_
,
( ) . . . .
1
1
% T "
#
dh
dt
%
g
d%
dt
s
·
−
· +
( )
(#.J7)
Ps Di"g%"*(
5quation (#.J7) is a powerful tool for e'aluating and comparing aircraft performance. ?t can be
used to 'erify that a gi'en aircraft design meets a specific s requirement, such as the one listed in %able
$.1. ?t is more common for s to be calculated and plotted for an aircraft for a range of altitudes and Mach
numbers to create a Ps ,i"g%"*. "igure #.01 is a typical s diagram for a multiBrole fighter aircraft. 3ote
that the s 'alues are indicated by &)#)'% li#$(, lines connecting points with equal 'alues of s. +ines of
constant energy height are also plotted on the diagram. "igure #.01 is only 'alid for one aircraft weight,
configuration and load factor.
$H#
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
80000
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
True irspee!, (, "nots
l
t
i
t
u
!
e
a
n
!
E
n
e
r
g
*
+
e
i
g
h
t
,
f
t
/@3"?F9.A%?@3
#7I ?nternal "uel
1 A?MB< Missiles
Ma*imum %hrust
Weight2 1$J0J lbs
n 8 $
Minimum %ime to
/limb Drofile
+ines of /onstant 5nergy eight
Fig'%$ 5.02 Ps Di"g%"* f)% " M'li1R)l$ Figh$% Ai%&%"f " n G 1
?n essence, the s diagram functions as a threeBdimensional (with altitude as the third dimension)
power a'ailable>power required cur'e. %he s 8 7 contour is the aircraft’s )!$%"i#g $#/$l)!$. "or all
combinations of altitude and Mach number inside this en'elope, the aircraft has sufficient thrust to sustain
le'el flight. Where s L 7, the aircraft can climb and>or accelerate. %he aircraft’s absolute ceiling is the
highest point on the s 8 7 contour. +ikewise, its ser'ice ceiling would be the highest point on its s 8
$77 ft>min (not ft>s as on "igure #.0$) contour. %he aircraft’s absolute ma*imum speed in le'el flight
occurs at the altitude and Mach number where the s 8 7 contour reaches furthest to the right.
H))* Cli*+(
An aircraft can operate briefly outside its le'elBflight en'elope. %his can be done either by di'ing
(so that, as in a glide, a component of weight acts opposite the drag) to reach airspeeds abo'e its
ma*imum le'elBflight speed, or by performing a <))* &li*+. A &oom climb occurs when an aircraft
climbs so as to con'ert airspeed into altitude. ?f an aircraft is flown to the edge of its operating en'elope
(so that T 8 " ) and then forced to climb, it will mo'e along a constant energy height line on the s
diagram. ?t will decelerate as it climbs, but (at least initially, because T 8 " ) its total energy will remain
constant. As the aircraft slows down, it may de'iate from the He 8 constant line as drag changes and no
longer equals thrust. ?f the aircraft whose s diagram is shown in "igure #.01 where flown to its absolute
ceiling, h 8 #J,777 ft and % 8 H07 knots, this corresponds to an energy height of J:,777 ft. ?f it entered a
&oom climb from this condition, and thrust remained equal to drag, it would mo'e along the He 8 J:,777
ft line decelerating until it reached &ero 'elocity at an altitude of J:,777 ft.
Mi#i*'* Ti*$ ) Cli*+
%he s diagram can be used to determine a strategy for climbing to a gi'en altitude in absolute
minimum time, as when the "B$#A 'treak .agle set minimumBtimeBtoBclimb records in $<J#. %he
$HH
ma*imum rate of climb at any gi'en altitude is achie'ed at the speed where s is ma*imum. owe'er,
because the aircraft can be &oomed at the end of its climb to get to a particular altitude faster, the
minimum time to climb is achie'ed by changing energy height, not Aust height, as fast as possible. %he
aircraft increases energy height the fastest when it mo'es perpendicular to He 8 constant lines at the point
where s is ma*imum on each line. A traAectory is shown on "igure #.01 which satisfies this requirement
to cross each energy height line where s is ma*imum. At one point along the traAectory the aircraft
descends and accelerates following an He 8 constant line, then continues on the climb profile. %he
constantBenergyheight descent>acceleration mo'es the aircraft quickly through the transonic regime to an
altitude and supersonic speed where s is ma*imum along the higher He 8 constant lines.
M"#$'/$%i#g P(
"igure #.00 is a s diagram for the same aircraft at a load factor, n 8 #. 3ote that s has
decreased e'erywhere on the diagram. %his is because more induced drag and power required result from
the fi'e times greater lift required to generate n 8 #.
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
80000
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
True irspee!, (, "nots
l
t
i
t
u
!
e
a
n
!
E
n
e
r
g
*
+
e
i
g
h
t
,
f
t
/@3"?F9.A%?@3
#7I ?nternal "uel
1 A?MB< Missiles
Ma*imum %hrust
Weight2 1$J0J lbs
n 8 #
Fig'%$ 5.00 Ps Di"g%"* f)% " M'li1R)l$ Figh$% Ai%&%"f " n G 5
E8"*!l$ 5.11
"or the aircraft whose s diagrams are depicted in "igures #.01 and #.002
a. What is the aircraft’s ma*imum $Bg le'el flight speed and the altitude at which it occurs
b. What is the aircraft’s ma*imum &oom altitude
c. What is the aircraft’s best rate of climb at sea le'el and the 'elocity at which it occurs
d. What is this aircraft’s minimum le'el flight speed at sea le'el, and what causes this limit
e. What is this aircraft’s ma*imum le'el flight speed at sea le'el, and what causes this limit
f. What is the ma*imum altitude at which this aircraft can sustain a #Bg turn, and at what speed does it
occur
g. What is the ma*imum speed at which this aircraft can sustain a #Bg turn, and at what altitude does it
occur
h. What is the minimum speed at which this aircraft can sustain a #Bg turn, at what altitude and airspeed
does it occur, and what causes this limit
4olution2 All the answers to these questions can be determined by looking at the s diagrams.
$HJ
a. %he ma*imum speed occurs at the point where the s 8 7 contour the farthest to the right. @n "igure
#.01 this is % 8 $177 knots at h 8 :#,777 ft.
b. %he ma*imum &oom altitude is the ma*imum energy height line touched by the s 8 7 contour. @n
"igure #.01 this is He 8 h:oom 8 $$7,777 ft.
c. %he best rate of climb at sea le'el occurs where s is ma*imum. . @n "igure #.01 this is at
appro*imately #07 knots at sea le'el, and the ma*imum rate of climb is greater than =77 ft>s or :=,777
ft>min.
d. %he minimum le'el flight speed at sea le'el is depicted on "igure #.01 as the aerodynamic limit line,
which means the minimum speed is limited by stall, buffet, or ma*imum useable angleBofBattack. %he
speed depicted on "igure #.01 is appro*imately $17 knots.
e. %he ma*imum le'el flight speed at sea le'el is depicted on "igure #.01 as the 2 limit line, which means
the ma*imum speed is limited by the ma*imum dynamic pressure which the aircraft structure can sustain.
%he speed depicted on "igure #.01 is =77 knots. ?n reality, this limit could be due to engine inlet
limitations, aircraft skin temperature limits, or e'en Aust the fact that the aircraft has not been flight tested
beyond this limit. When test pilots “push the edge of the en'elope! they are demonstrating that the
aircraft is safe to fly in areas of the flight en'elope which are achie'able but ha'e not been demonstrated
yet. 3ote that the 2 limit in "igure #.01 is identified by a ma*imum allowable calibrated airspeed, a
performance measurement easily monitored by the pilot.
f. %he ma*imum altitude at which this aircraft can sustain n 8 # is the highest point on the s 8 7 contour
on "igure #.00. %his point is at h 8 01,777 ft and % 8 HJ7 knots.
g. %he ma*imum speed at which this aircraft can sustain n 8 # is the farthest right point on the s 8 7
contour on "igure #.00. %his point is at h 8 $J,777 ft and % 8 =17 knots. ?nsufficient thrust pre'ents
sustaining # gs at a higher speed.
g. %he minimum speed at which this aircraft can sustain n 8 # is the farthest left point on the s 8 7
contour on "igure #.00. %his point is at h 8 7 ft and % 8 007 knots. %his speed is limited by stall, buffet,
or ma*imum usable angle of attack.
Ai%&%"f Ps C)*!"%i()#(
"igure #.0: illustrates one of the most important uses of s diagrams. ?t was created by
calculating the differences between the s 'alues of two different fighter aircraft, Aircraft A and Aircraft C,
at each point on a s diagram. .egions of the diagram with similar 'alues of s differences are shaded the
same. %he le'el flight en'elope for Aircraft A is shown in black, and for Aircraft C in gray. ?n the center
of the diagram, the differences in s between they two aircraft are less than $77 ft>s, so there is no clear
ad'antage for either plane. @n the right side of the diagram, higher Mach numbers and lower altitudes,
Aircraft A has a s ad'antage greater than $77 ft>s o'er aircraft C. At 'ery high Mach numbers, Aircraft
A has e*clusi'e use of a range of 'elocities and altitudes which are outside Aircraft C’s le'el flight
en'elope. +ikewise, at low speeds, Aircraft C has an ad'antage. Aircraft C has e*clusi'e use of a range
of 'ery low speeds and high altitudes.
$H=
Ad'antage
for C
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
80000
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
True irspee!, (, "nots
l
t
i
t
u
!
e
a
n
!
E
n
e
r
g
*
+
e
i
g
h
t
,
f
t
3o Ad'antage
5*clusi'e
for A
Coth Aircraft
Ma* %hrust
#7I ?nternal "uel
1 * ?. Missiles
n 8 $
Fig'%$ 5.05 C)*!"%"i/$ Ps Di"g%"* f)% Ai%&%"f A "#, Ai%&%"f @. T7) M'li1R)l$ B$ Figh$%(
/omparati'e s diagrams such as this are 'ery useful to fighter pilots as they plan how to
conduct an aerial battle against an ad'ersary aircraft of a particular type. ?n the case shown in "igure
#.0:, the pilot of Aircraft A would attempt to bring the fight to lower altitude and stay at high speed. At
the same time, the pilot of Aircraft C would attempt to keep the fight high and slow to lower speeds,
where that aircraft has the ad'antage. 4imilar diagrams made for higher load factors are also used, since
most e*tended aerial fights in'ol'e a great deal of turning.
M"#$'/$%"+ili Di"g%"*(
Another 'ery useful performance diagram combines the s and %  n diagrams, but plots them in
such a way that turn rate and radius can also be read from them. "igure #.0# is an e*ample of this chart,
which is referred to as a *"#$'/$%"+ili ,i"g%"*. %he diagram is made for a fi*ed aircraft weight,
configuration, and altitude, so load factor is a 'ariable. %he maAor a*es of the chart are airspeed or Mach
number and turn rate. /ontour lines of constant load factor and turn radius are added, and then the
aerodynamic limits and s 8 7 cur'es are plotted.
%he resulting diagram is e*tremely useful for planning air combat, because it displays ma*imum
instantaneous turn performance as well as sustainable (s 8 7) turn capability. Maneu'erability diagrams
for different aircraft are often compared in much the same way s diagrams are compared. An interesting
result clearly shown on "igure #.0# is the fact that the absolute minimum turn radius is not achie'ed at
corner 'elocity, but at a slower speed. %he difference in radius is usually small, howe'er, and the absolute
ma*imum turn rate is at %=, so corner 'elocity is usually the 'elocity of choice for turning.
$H<
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Mach #
R
a
t
e
o
f
t
u
r
n
(
d
e
g
/
s
e
c
+oad "actor, n
: # H J = <
Aerodynamic (4tall) +imit
D
s
8 7
Mach 3umber, M
/@3"?F9.A%?@3
#7I ?nternal "uel
1 A?MB< Missiles
Ma*imum %hrust
Weight2 1$J0J lbs
h 8 $#,777 ft
q +imit
/orner Gelocity
Fig'%$ 5.05 M"#$'/$%"+ili Di"g%"*
E8"*!l$ 5.12
What are the ma*imum instantaneous turn rate, minimum instantaneous turn radius, ma*imum
sustained turn rate and minimum sustained turn radius at h 8 $#,777 ft for the aircraft whose
maneu'erability diagram is depicted in "igure #.0#
4olution2 %he ma*imum instantaneous turn rate at h 8 $#,777 ft occurs at corner 'elocity where the stall
limit line and ma*imum load factor line meet. @n "igure #.0#, this rate is $#
o
> s at , $ $.$#. %he
minimum instantaneous turn radius actually occurs at a much lower 'elocity, although the appro*imation
made by saying it also occurs at corner 'elocity is quite good. %he actual minimum instantaneous turn
radius occurs where the aerodynamic limit line e*tends farthest toward the upper left corner of the
diagram and crosses the lowestB'alued constant turn radius line. @n "igure #.0# this occurs at , 8 7.H
and r 8 :,777 ft. 4ince this point falls inside the s 8 7 contour, this is also the minimum sustained turn
radius at this altitude. "inally, the ma*imum sustained turn rate is the point where the s 8 7 contour
intersects the aerodynamic limit line, ω 8 $$.#
o
> s at , 8 7.J=.
5.15 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS EFAMPLE
An e*ample will make the methods Aust discussed easier to understand. /onsider the
aerodynamic model for the "B$H which was generated in the aerodynamic analysis e*ample, 4ection :.J.
%he results of the aerodynamic analysis which must be known in order to start a performance analysis are
the aircraft drag polar and ma*imum lift coefficients. %hese were determined in 4ection :.J, based on a
reference planform area, ' 8 077 ft
1
, as2
)&ma4 8 7.7HJ>
o
($:
o
;:.<
o
) 8 $.1J for takeoff
)&ma4 8 7. 7HJ >
o
($:
o
;J.0H
o
) 8 $.:0 for landing
M"&h #'*+$% CDo 1
7.$ .7$H< .$$J
$J7
7.=H .7$H< .$$J
$.7# .7:07 .$1=
$.# .70=1 .1#1
1.7 .70#= .0HJ
?n addition, performance analysis requires a model for engine thrust and T'!). %he "B$H/ with
the Dratt and Whitney "B$77B117 engine has the following static (, 8 7) sea le'el installed thrust and
T'!) characteristics2
T'& dry 8 $$,177 lbs T'& wet 8 $J,#77 lbs
ct 8 7.= >hr ct 8 1.:H >hr
%he 'ariation of dry and wet thrust with Mach number and altitude will be modeled with (#.$$) and
(#.$1) respecti'ely. %he 'ariation of T'!) with altitude will be modeled with (#.$#).
%he final information on the aircraft which must be known is the aircraft empty, payload, and
fuel weights for which the performance is to be e'aluated. %akeoff performance is e'aluated for the
aircraft’s ma*imum takeoff gross weight, #T7, which for the "B$H is 0H,=77 lb. %able $.1 specifies that the
turning performance and s requirements be e'aluated at maneu'ering weight, which is defined as the
basic aircraft with #7I internal fuel and standard airBtoBair armament. "or the "B$H, this configuration
includes full 17mm cannon armament and 1 A?MB< missiles for a total weight of 1$,J0J lbs. %his weight
will be used for the climb and glide performance as well. %he "B$H carries H,<J1 lb of fuel internally, so
its ma*imum weight in the airBtoBair configuration is 1#.110 lbs and its &eroBfuel weight is $=,1#$ lbs.
"or loiter and cruise problems, a reasonable starting weight is 1#,777 and a typical ending weight might
be 17,777 lbs.
Gli,$ P$%f)%*"#&$
%he simplified performance analysis presented abo'e is strictly 'alid only for aircraft which
de'elop minimum drag at &ero lift, and for which k3 8 7. %his was not the case for the "B$H, but its k3 is
quite small. %he error due to ignoring this effect is also small, though not negligible. %he nonB&ero 'alue
of k3 for the "B$H will be ignored in the following analysis to demonstrate the method, but it is important
to reali&e that this can cause a significant error in the analysis for some aircraft. @n a positi'e note, the
actual performance of an aircraft with nonB&ero k3 is usually better (e*cept at 'ery high speeds) than the
performance predicted by assuming k3 8 7. %his makes the predictions of the simplified method
conser'ati'e and, when used as a first appro*imation, safe since the actual airplane will do better than
predicted..
%he best glide range is achie'ed when +>, is ma*imum, where2
&
"
ma4
¸
¸
_
,
8
)
)
&
"
ma4
¸
¸
_
,
8
$
1 k )
"
o
8
$
1 7$$J 7 7$H< . ( . )
8 $$.1:
so the "B$H will glide $$.1: 3M for e'ery H,7=7 ft ($ 3M) of altitude lost. Flide speed can be found
using the fact that induced drag equals parasite drag for the best glide condition. "or h 8 $7,777 ft2
)
"
o
8 k$ )&
3
, so )& 8
)
k
"
o
$
8
7 7$H<
7$$J
.
.
8 7.0=
%
#
' )
glide
&
·
1
ρ
·
1 1$J0J
7 77$J#H 077 7 0=
0 1
( )
. > ( ) .
lb
slug ft ft
8 :HH ft>s
$J$
Minimum sink rate is achie'ed where 0
)
"
o
8 k$ )&
1
, so )& 8
0
$
)
k
"
o
8 0
7 7$H<
7$$J
.
.
¸
¸
_
,
8 7.HH
%min sink 8
1 #
' )
&
ρ
·
1 1$J0J
7 77$J#H 077 7 HH
0 1
( )
. > ( ) .
lb
slug ft ft
8 0#0 ft>s
" 8 )" 2' $ : )"o
$
>1 ρ %
1
' 8 1 (7.7$H<) (7.77$J#H slug>ft
0
)(0#0 ft>s)
1
(077 ft
1
) 8 11$= lb
,in 'ink 1ate %
% "
#
· · · ·
∞
∞
sin
( )
γ
0#0 11$=
1$J0J
0H
ft > s lb
lb
ft > s
Cli*+ P$%f)%*"#&$
/limbs can be performed in afterburner or military (no afterburner) thrust. %he best angle of
climb is achie'ed in military thrust at (&(")ma4 where, at $7,777 ft2
" 8 )" 2' $ 1)"o
$
>1 ρ %
1
' 8 (7.7$H<) (7.77$J#H slug>ft
0
)(:HH ft>s)
1
(077 ft
1
) 8 $<00 lb
Military thrust is modeled using (#.$$)2
T T
avail '&
'&
·
¸
¸
_
,
·
¸
¸
_
,
·
ρ
ρ
$$ 177
7 77$J#H
7 7710JJ
= 1J0 ,
.
.
, lb lb
so2
sin
,
,
. γ ·
−
· ·
T "
#
= 1J0
1$ J0J
7 1<1
lb B$<00 lb
lb
γ 8 $J.7
o
Ma* climb angle in ma* thrust is achie'ed at the airspeed where T  " is ma*imum. %his speed
will not be the speed for (&(")ma4 because afterburner thrust is not constant with 'elocity. Ma* thrust
increases with increasing 'elocity according to (#.$1), and (T  ")ma4 occurs at a higher 'elocity than the
'elocity for (&(")ma4. Ma*imum rate of climb will occur where % (TB") is ma*imum. %he rate of climb
in military thrust at h 8 $7,777 ft for the conditions for ma* climb angle is2
( ) ( )
1ate of )limb 1 )
% T "
#
· ·
−
· · >
,
,
.
:HH = 1J0
1$ J0J
$0H$
ft > s lb B$<00 lb
lb
ft > s 8 =,$H: ft > min
+)i$% "#, C%'i($ P$%f)%*"#&$
Cest endurance at h 8 $7,777 ft will be achie'ed at the speed for (&(")ma4 . %he engine T'!) at
that altitude will be2
ct 8 ct 6sea level+
T
T
sea level
8 7.=>hr
:=0$
#$= H<
.
.
o
o
.
.
8 7.JJ >hr
using the Creguet endurance equation2
. 8
$
$
1
c
)
)
#
#
t
&
"
ln
¸
¸
_
,
8 ( )
$
7 JJ
$$1:
1# 777
17 777
hr lb
lb .
. ln
,
,
¸
¸
_
,
8 0.1H hr
$J1
Ma*imum range is achie'ed for the airspeed where
)
"
o
8 0 k$ )&
1
, so )& 8
)
k
"
o
0
$
8
( )
7 7$H<
0 7$$J
.
.
8
7.11
)" 8
)
"
o
; k$ )&
1
8
)
"
o
;
$
>0
)
"
o
8
:
>0
)
"
o
8 7.711#
( ) )
)
&
"
$
1
$
1
7 11
7 711#
·
.
.
8 17.=
1 $
( )
1 1
$
1
$
$
1
1
$
1
ρ' c
)
)
# #
t
&
"
−
8
( )
1
7 77$J#H 077
1
7 JJ
17= 1# 777 17 777
0 1
$
1
$
1
$
1
. .
( . ) , ,
slug > ft f
hr
lb
t
−
¸
¸
_
,
8 HJH.# (ft>s) (hr) ($ 3M>H7=7 ft) (0H77 s>hr) 8 :77.H 3M
Ps
%able $.1 requires s 8 =77 ft>sec at , 8 7.< at h 8 #,777 ft. At that Mach number, the 'alue of
)"o is appro*imated by a straight line between )"o 8 7.7$H< at , 8 7.=H and )"o 8 7.7:0 at , 8 $.7#2
( ) ) )
) )
"o "o
"o "o
· + −
−
−
·
.
. .
. .
. .
.
=H
$ 7# =H
7 < 7 =H
$7# 7 =H
7 711
%he same is done for k$2
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
k k
k k
$ $
=H
$
$ 7#
$
=H
7 < 7 =H
$7# 7 =H
7$$< · + −
−
−
·
.
. .
. .
. .
.
%hen at , 8 7.< and h 8 #,777 ft, %
∞
8 , a 8 7.< ($7<J.$ ft>s) 8 <=J.: ft>s
( ) ( ) ( )
)
#
2'
&
· · ·
1$ J0J
7 7717:= <=J : 077
7 7J0
$
1
0
1
1
,
> . .
.
slug > ft ft > s ft
)" 8 7.711 ; 7.$$< (7.7J0)
1
8 7.710
" 8 )" 2 ' $ 7.710 (
$
>1) (7.7717:= slug>ft
0
) (<=J.: ft>s)
1
(077 ft
1
) 8 H,==< lb
T T
avail '&
'&
·
¸
¸
_
,
ρ
ρ
($  7.J ,
∞
) ·
¸
¸
_
,
$J #77
7 7717:=
7 7710JJ
,
.
.
lb ($;7.1J) 8 1:,#JJ lb
( ) ( )
T " %
#
s
·
−
·
−
·
( ) , , .
,
.
1: #JJ H ==< <=J :
1$ J0J
=70#
lb lb ft > s
lb
ft > s
Th%'( "#, D%"g C'%/$(
$J0
%he methods used in the s calculation to e'aluate thrust and drag at a specific Mach number and
altitude can be used to generate thrust and drag cur'es similar to "igure #.$0. "igure #.0H is a cur'e
generated using these methods for the "B$H at h 8 $7,777 ft.
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
Mach !u"#er$ M
%
h
r
u
s
t
R
e
&
u
'
r
e
d
a
n
d
%
h
r
u
s
t
(
)
a
'
*
a
#
*
e
$
T
R
a
n
d
T
A
$
*
#
s
T
R
T
A
(dr+
T
A
((/,
Alt 8 $7,777ft Weight 8 1$J0J lbs "B$H
Fig'%$ 5.0: F11: Th%'( "#, D%"g " 1A.AAA f
T"6$)ff
An "B$H taking off in full afterburner in airBtoBair combat configuration certainly meets the
requirement for T LL ", so (#.#:) can be used to estimate takeoff distance. %he predicted )&ma4 8 $.1J for
takeoff. 9sing , 8 7.$# to calculate the a'erage takeoff thrust2
T T
avail '&
'&
·
¸
¸
_
,
ρ
ρ
($  7.J ,
∞
) 8 $J,#77 lb ($.7) ($ ; 7.$7#) 8 $<,00J lb
s
#
' ) g T
T7
T7
&
· ·
$:: $:: 1# 110
77710JJ 077 $1J 01 1 $< 00J
1 1
. . ( ,
. ( ) . ( . )( ,
ma*
ρ
lb)
slug > ft ft ft > s lb)
0 1 1
sT7 8 $,H1# ft,
L"#,i#g
When the "B$H touches down, the flight control computer automatically retracts the leading edge
flaps and flaperons. When the nosewheel is lowered to the runway the lift generated by the aircraft is
effecti'ely reduced to &ero. With landing gear e*tended, the "B$H’s )"o 8 7.7#. 9sing the predicted )&ma4
for landing of $.:0 and a landing weight of 17,777 lb2
$J:
7.J%& 8 7.J ($.0) %stall 8
( )
7 <$
1
7 <$
1 17 777
7 7710JJ 077 $:0
$=7
0 1
. .
( , )
. .
#
' ) t
&ma4
ρ
· ·
lb
slug > f ft
ft > s
" 8 )" 2 ' 8 )"o 2 ' 8 7.7# (
$
>1) (7.7710JJ slug>ft
0
) ($=7 ft>s)
1
(077 ft
1
) 8 #JJ.H lb
( )
[ ]
( )
[ ]
s
#
' ) g " # &
&
&
& &
% ma4
&
·
+ −
·
+ −
$H<
$H< 17 777
7 7710JJ 077 $:0 01 1 #JJ H 7# 17 777 7
1
7 J
1
.
. ( ,
. ( ) . ( . ) . . ,
.
ρ µ
lb)
slug > ft ft ft > s lb lb
0 1 1
s& 8 $,<:H ft
5.15 CONSTRAINT ANALYSIS: DESIGNING TO A REQUIREMENT
?t was stated at the beginning of this chapter that performance analysis in most cases answers the
question of whether a particular aircraft design will meet a customer’s needs. %he methods discussed up
to this point in this te*t enable the engineer to take an e*isting aircraft design, estimate its aerodynamics
and thrust characteristics, and predict its performance capabilities. %he challenge for aircraft designers is
to turn this process around and use the analysis methods to design an aircraft which will ha'e the desired
performance capabilities.
%able $.1 lists specific performance requirements for a multiBrole fighter. Cut how does an
aircraft designer know how to design an aircraft to meet those requirements. %here are so many
interrelated 'ariables to control and choices to make, aircraft designers use an analysis method called
&)#(%"i# "#"l(i( to narrow down the choices and help them focus on the most promising concepts.
/onstraint analysis calculates ranges of 'alues for an aircraft concept’s "6$)ff 7i#g l)",i#g, #T7 > ', and
"6$)ff h%'( l)",i#g or "6$)ff h%'(1)17$igh %"i), T'& ( #T7 , which will allow the design to meet
specific performance requirements. ?n many cases, constraint analysis will eliminate some aircraft
concepts from further consideration. ?n other instances, constraint analysis will identify two conflicting
design requirements which no single aircraft configuration can satisfy.
Th$ M"($% E9'"i)#
%he methodology of constraint analysis is based on a modification of the equation for specific
e*cess power.
T " %
#
dh
dt
%
g
d%
dt
s
·
−
· +
( )
(#.J7)
T
W
D
W V
dh
dt g
dV
dt
− · +
1 1
(#.J$)
$J#
4ubstitute the following relations into (#.J$)2
(a) T $ α T'&, where α, the h%'( l"!($ %"i) depends on ρ(ρ'& and ,
(b) # 8 β#T7, where β 8 the 7$igh f%"&i)# for a gi'en constraint
(c) " ) 2' ) k ) 2'
" " &
o
· · + ( )
$
1
(d)
C
L
qS
nW
qS
L
· ·
%his produces the “Master 5quation! for constraint analysis2
T
#
2
)
#
'
k
n
2
#
' %
dh
dt g
d%
dt
'&
T7
"
T7
T7 o
·
¸
¸
_
,
+
¸
¸
_
,
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
1
1
+ +
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
)
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
β
α β
β
$
1
$ $
(#.J1)
5quation (#.J1) is written in a form that e*presses T'& > #T7 as a function of #T7 > '. All other
'ariables in (#.J1) are specified by each design requirement. "or instance, one of the design requirements
in %able $.1 is a ma*imum sustained le'el turn load factor of n 8 : at a Mach number of $.1 at 17,777 ft
M4+. "or this constraint, the climb and acceleration terms in (#.J1) are &ero, and the thrust lapse is
determined from the specified flight conditions (obtain the 'alue of density from the standard atmosphere
model for 17,777 ft) and the appropriate thrust model from %able #.$.
Another requirement in %able $.1 is a s of =77 ft>sec at n 8 $, , 8 7.<, h 8 #,777 ft, and
maneu'ering weight. ?n this case, the two rightBhand terms of (#.J1) together must equal =77 ft>sec, and
as with the pre'ious e*ample, all other 'ariables are specified by the design requirement. "or each
requirement, (#.J1) is used to calculate the T'& > #T7 'alues required to meet that requirement for a range
of #T7 > ' 'alues. When the results are plotted, the line is called a &)#(%"i# li#$ because all 'alues of
T'& > #T7 below the line will not meet the design requirement. When se'eral constraint lines are plotted on
a single set of a*es a &)#(%"i# ,i"g%"* like "igure #.0J is formed. %he portion of the constraint
diagram which is abo'e all the constraint lines is called the ()l'i)# (!"&$, because all combinations of
T'& > #T7 and #T7 > ' within that portion of the diagram will satisfy all the design requirements.
$JH
T
SL
C2
TO
2
TO
CS
4olution 4pace
Fig'%$ 5.0= S"*!l$ C)#(%"i# Di"g%"*
Derforming a constraint analysis allows an aircraft designer to make much more intelligent
choices about aircraft configuration, engine si&e, etc. %hese choices in'ol'e choosing a ,$(ig# !)i#,
specific 'alues of T'& > #T7 and #T7 > ' from within the solution space which the aircraft concept will be
designed to achie'e. ?f the analysis is reasonably accurate, then a design which achie'es the specified
thrust and wing loading 'alues will meet the design requirements.
/onstraint analysis is always an appro*imation, since it depends so hea'ily on accurate
predictions of the aerodynamic characteristics of an aircraft which is not yet builtM %he wise designer will
choose a design point which is a small amount abo'e or away from all the constraint lines, so that the
final product will still meet all the requirements e'en if its aerodynamics differ from the original
predictions.
?n "igure #.0J note that the solution space does not lie “abo'e! all of the constraint lines, since
one of them is a 'ertical line. %he solution space may be more correctly described as lying “inside! all of
the boundaries set by the 'arious constraint lines.
/onstraint analysis occasionally re'eals two design requirements that conflict so completely with
each other that their constraint lines do not permit a solution space, or they only ha'e a solution for
unreasonably high 'alues of T'& > #T7. When this happens, it’s time to talk to the customer and determine
which constraint can be rela*ed or what kind of compromise can be made to allow a solution.
T"6$)ff "#, L"#,i#g C)#(%"i#(
5quation (#.J1) models most constraints that deal with inBflight performance, but for takeoff and
landing constraints, different equations must be de'eloped. "or the takeoff constraint, the simplified
takeoff distance equation, (#.#:), is rewritten in terms of T'& > #T7 and #T7 > ' 2
T
# ) g s
#
'
'&
T7 & T7
T7
·
$::
1
.
ma*
β
α ρ
(#.J0)
3ote that (#.H$) is the equation of a straight line, since all other 'ariables besides T'& > #T7 and #T7 > ' are
fi*ed by the aircraft configuration or the design takeoff performance requirement. As with the inBflight
constraints, 'alues of T'& > #T7 greater than the constraint line will allow the aircraft to meet the
performance requirement. 3ote that thrust lapse and weight fraction are included in (#.J0) to allow for
takeoff requirements which specify other than sea le'el conditions and ma*imum gross weight.
%he landing constraint is slightly different because T'& is not present in (#.##), so the constraint
equation is written only in terms of #T7 > '2
$JJ
( )
[ ] ( )
[ ] #
'
#
'
s ) g " # &
#
s ) g 2' ) k ) ) #
#
& T7
& & &
%
&
& & " & & T7
T7
ma4
&
ma4 o b b
· ·
+ −
·
+ − +
β
ρ µ ρ µ µ β
β
7 J
$
1
$H< $H<
.
. .
(#.J:)
where )&b is the lift coefficient maintained during braking. Minimum stopping distance for most aircraft
is achie'ed by reducing lift to a minimum to put ma*imum weight on the wheels, then using ma*imum
braking. +ift can usually be reduced to nearly &ero by retracting flaps, lowering the nosewheel to the
runway, and>or deploying spoilers. 9nless a deceleration parachute is used, aerodynamic drag in this
condition is typically much less than the deceleration force a'ailable from the wheel brakes, especially at
low speeds. "or this common situation, (#.J:) simplifies to2
#
'
s ) g
T7
& &
ma4
·
ρ µ
β $H< .
(#.J#)
"or a more general formulation for the constraint line equations, see .eference H.
5.1: CONSTRAINT ANALYSIS EFAMPLE2
/onsider the multiBrole fighter design requirements from %able $.1 and the aerodynamic model for the "B
$H de'eloped in /hapter :. Derformance requirements2
/ombat %urn (ma* AC)2 <.7g sustained N #,777 ft>M87.<
/ombat %urn (ma* AC)2 :.7g sustained N 17,777 ft>M8$.=
%akeoff E Craking ,istance2 sT7 8 s& 8 1777 ft
E8"*!l$ C)#(%"i# A#"l(i(: F11: C)*+" T'%#
h 8 17,777 ft , 8 7.< a 8 $7<H.< ft>s α 8 $.:
n 8 : % 8 <=J.1 ft>s ρ 8 7.7717:= slug>ft
0
)"o 8 7.71:0 k$ 8 7.$1$ 2 8 <<J.< lb>ft
1
β 8 7.=
T
#
2
)
#
'
k
n
2
#
'
)
#
'
k n
2
#
'
'&
T7
"
T7
T7
"
T7
T7 o o
·
¸
¸
_
,
+
¸
¸
_
,
¸
¸
_
,
¸
1
]
1
1
1
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
)
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
·
¸
¸
_
,
+
¸
¸
_
,
¸
¸
_
,
β
α β
β β
α
β
α
β
$
1
$
1
( ) ( )
( )
T
# #
'
#
' #
'
#
'
'&
T7 T7
T7
T7
T7
·
¸
¸
_
,
+
¸
¸
_
,
¸
¸
_
,
·
¸
¸
_
,
+
× ¸
¸
_
,
−
<<J.< lb
$:
7 71:0
7$1$ 7=
$:
< 7=
<<J.< lb
$J.01 lb 0H $7
1
H
1
> ft
> ft
> ft
lb > ft
1
1
1
1
.
.
. .
.
.
.
Wto>4 (psf) :7 #7 H7 J7 =7
%sl>Wto 7.H$ 7.#J 7.#H .#H 7.#J
E8"*!l$ C)#(%"i# A#"l(i(: F11: S'!$%()#i& C)*+" T'%#
$J=
h 8 17,777 ft , 8 $.1 α 8 $70H.< ft>s α 8 7.<=
n 8 : % 8 $,1:: ft>s ρ 8 7.77$1HJ slug>ft
0
)"o 8 7.7:$1 k$ 8 7.$H< 2 8 <=7.= lb>ft
1
β 8 7.=
( ) ( )
( )
T
# #
'
#
' #
'
#
'
'&
T7 T7
T7
T7
T7
·
¸
¸
_
,
+
¸
¸
_
,
¸
¸
_
,
·
¸
¸
_
,
+
× ¸
¸
_
,
−
<=7=
7<=
7 7:$1 7$H< 7=
7<=
: 7=
<=7=
:$10 $:J $7
1
H
1
.
.
. . .
.
.
.
. . lb > ft
lb > ft
lb > ft
lb > ft
1
1
1
1
Wto>4 (psf) :7 #7 H7 J7 =7
%sl>Wto $.7< 7.<7 7.J< .J$ 7.H#
E8"*!l$ C)#(%"i# A#"l(i(: F11: T"6$)ff
h 8 7 ft )&ma4T7 8 $.1J α 8 $.$7# β 8 $.7
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
T
# ) g s
#
'
slug ft ft s ft
#
'
#
'
'&
T7 & T7
T7 T7 T7
· · ·
$:: $::
$$7# 7 7710JJ $1J 01 1 1 777
7 77HJ
0 1
. .
. . > . . > ,
.
ma*
α ρ
Wto>4 (psf) :7 #7 H7 J7 =7
%sl>Wto .1H .01 .0< .:# .#1
E8"*!l$ C)#(%"i# A#"l(i(: F11: L"#,i#g
h 8 7 ft )&ma4&nd 8 $.:0 µ 8 7.# α 8 $.7 β 8 $.7
Assume lift is reduced to &ero and drag is negligible compared to braking (no drag parachute used)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
#
'
s ) g ft slug ft ft s
lb
ft
T7
& &
ma4
· · ·
ρ µ
β $H<
1 777 7 7710JJ $:0 011 7#
$H< $7
H#
0 1
1
.
, . > . . > .
. .
4ketching the resulting /onstraint ,iagram2
$J<
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Wing )oa!ing, W
T,
/S, psf
T
h
r
u
s
t
t
o
W
e
i
g
h
t
R
a
t
i
o
,
T
S
)
/
W
T
,
4olution 4pace
,esign Doint
4ubsonic %urn
4upersonic %urn
%akeoff
+anding
Fig'%$ 5.0> C)#(%"i# Di"g%"* f)% F11: E8"*!l$
Allowing some margin for error and growth, an initial design point of
#
'
T
#
T7 '&
T7
· · H7 7=#
1
lb > ft , .
would be selected. owe'er, this is a relati'ely low wing loading compared to typical modern fighter
aircraft, as shown in "igure #.0<. ?f the landing constraint could be rela*ed, a much higher wing loading
and lower thrust to weight ratio would allow the aircraft to meet the other design requirements. .ecall
that the landing distance calculation done in 4ection #.$: predicted a landing distance less than 1,777 ft.
owe'er, this calculation was made for a 'ery light, weapons e*pended>fuel tanks nearly empty condition.
%he design requirement modeled in this constraint analysis is a landing immediately after takeoff, β 8 $.
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Wing )oa!ing, Wto/S, psf
T
h
r
u
s
t
)
o
a
!
i
n
g
,
T
s
l
/
W
t
o
"B$7H
Mirage 1777
Fripen
"B$#5 .afale ">AB$=
"B$H/
%+e
.106
.16/
./(18
.15/
.150
1227
M'rage 2000
Rafa*e
0uro.'ghter 2000
3r'en
M'rage .1
4aguar
.117
M'g29
5.23
5.22
6to/1 %s*/6to
50.8596 0.690141
110.6167 0.828688
105 0.761905
73.94089 1.041528
113.0542 0.769789
78.06164 1.10228
68.02721 0.6
85.27287 0.771765
72.53599 0.814249
55.05776 1.026368
110.5072 0.520656
81.87135 0.8
52.60697 0.48
73.34963 1.22
61.85567 1.166667
64.40072 1.296296
"B$$J
Kaguar
5urofighter 1777
Q"B10
Q"B11
4uB1J
MigB1<
"B$#/
Mirage "$
$=7
Fig'%$ 5.0? T!i&"l D$(ig# P)i#( f)% R$&$# Figh$% "#, A"&6 Ai%&%"f
%he results of this initial constraint analysis would probably prompt discussions between the
designer and the customer to determine how important the landing distance constraint is to the success of
the design. ?f the constraint is not rela*ed, then the designer will either proceed with design de'elopment
using this design point or de'elop design features such as more aggressi'e high lift de'ices, drag chutes,
or re'erse thrust capability to allow the aircraft to meet the requirement at a more typical design point.
%he decision on which solution to apply will undoubtedly be based on which is likely to cost the least. ?n
either case, constraint analysis has identified the design dri'ers, the supersonic turn requirement and the
landing distance constraint, which because they are the most restricti'e will ha'e the greatest influence on
the shape of the final design.
REFERENCES
$. arned, M., “%he .amAet Dower Dlant,! *ero "igest, Kuly $<#:, pp 0=.
1. 4tinton, ,., The *natomy of the *eroplane, American 5lse'ier Dublishing /o., 3ew Qork, $<HH.
0. Foodwin, 4.D., M.%. Ceierle, and %.5. Mc+aughlin, 5ds., *eronautical .ngineering 3<? )ourse
0ooklet, PendallBunt, ,ubuque, ?A, $<<#, pp 1JB0$.
:. 3icolai, +., !undamentals of *ircraft "esign, M5%4, ?nc., Renia, @, $<J#.
#. Mc/ormick, C.W., *erodynamics, *eronautics, and !light ,echanics, Wiley, 3ew Qork, $<J<.
H. Mattingly, K.,., eiser, W.., and ,aley, ,.., *ircraft .ngine "esign, A?AA 5ducation 4eries,
Washington, ,/, $<=J.
CHAPTER 5 HOME2ORE PRO@LEMS
S#h$(i( P%)+l$*(:
4B#.$ Crainstorm at least fi'e ways to determine the actual drag polar of a small, handBlaunched glider.
4B#.1 Crainstorm at least fi'e different types of flight tests which could be used to determine the actual
drag polar of a twinBAet subsonic military trainer aircraft.
4B#.0 Crainstorm at least fi'e ways to increase loiter capability on a supersonic Aet fighter.
4B#.: Crainstorm at least fi'e ways to increase supersonic cruise range of a ighB4peed /i'il %ransport.
4B#.# An airplane is being designed to fly at high altitudes and low airspeeds for weeks at a time without
refueling. Cased on your knowledge of the relationship between induced drag and aspect ratio, and the
relati'e importance of induced and parasite drag at low speeds, would you suggest a high or low aspect
ratio for the wing of this plane
4B#.H An airplane is being designed to fly on Mars, where the density of the atmosphere is comparable to
the density at h 8 $77,777 ft in the standard atmosphere. What problems do you e*pect this aircraft to
ha'e with takeoff and landing Crainstorm fi'e concepts for o'ercoming these problems.
$=$
A#"l(i( P%)+l$*(:
AB#.$ /onsider an aircraft with a 3A/A 777< airfoil, e 8 eo 8 7.<#, )
"o
8 7.7$, and *1 8 $7. ?f the
aircraft is flying at #S angle of attack, calculate )
&
and )
"
.
AB#.1 Qou are swinging a 1 lb rock, tied to the end of a : ft string in a circle. ?f the breaking strength of
the string is 17 lbs, what 'elocity will the string break at What angular 'elocity would this be in deg>sec
AB#.0 a. 4ketch an aircraft in climbing flight and draw the forces that act on it. Assume the thrust acts
along the flight path. ?nclude the hori&on and the flight path angle, γ .
b. Write an equation for the forces acting along the flight path Tint2 ! $ maU.
c. Write an equation for the forces acting perpendicular to the flight path. What kind of
acceleration is this
d. ?f the forces along the flight path were less than 7, what would the aircraft do
e. "or le'el, unaccelerated flight what would the equations of motion be
AB#.: ,eri'e the stall speed equation (#.$H) from the basic lift equation ( & 8 )& 2' ). What aerodynamic
feature of an airplane influences the stall speed
9se the %B0= thrust and drag cur'es in Appendi* C to answer these and all other questions about the %B0=
in this chapter.
AB#.# Qou are flying a $7,777 lb %B0= at sea le'el2 at 17,777 ft2
a. What Mach number would
you fly for &("
ma4
VVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVV
b. What is your true airspeed in ft>sec,
at &("
ma4
(% $ ,a) VVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVV
c. What is your equi'alent airspeed at
&("
ma4
VVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVV
d. What is the 'alue of
&("
ma4
(#("
min
) VVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVV
e. What is your total drag at &("
ma4
VVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVV
f. What is your induced drag at &("
ma4
VVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVV
g. What is your parasite drag at &("
ma4
VVVVVVVVVVV VVVVVVVVVVV
AB#.H a. A %B0J has a drag polar of )
"
8 7.71 ; 7.7#J)
&
1
, a weight of H,777 lbs, and
' 8 $=: ft
1
. What is the 'alue of &("
ma4
for this aircraft
$=1
b. At what equi'alent airspeed would you fly for &("
ma4
AB#.J ow much faster (in ft>sec) can a %B0= at ma*imum thrust fly than one in military thrust if both
aircraft weigh =,777 lbs and are at 07,777 ft in le'el flight
AB#.= a. What is the minimum speed of a $7,777 lb %B0= at sea le'el in le'el flight What causes this
limit
b. What is the minimum speed of a $7,777 lb %B0= at :7,777 ft in le'el flight What causes this
limit
AB#.< Assuming thrust is proportional to density, calculate the military thrust a'ailable for a %B0= at
07,777 ft gi'en only the sea le'el 'alue of thrust at , 8 7.J. /ompare the result to the 07,777 ft data in
Appendi* C using the same Mach number.
AB#.$7 What is the power required for a $1,777 lb %B0= at , 8 7.H and 17,777 ft
AB#.$$ 4ketch a power required cur'e and show where &("
ma4
occurs on this cur'e.
AB#.$1 a. An "B: flying at &("
ma4
dumps :,777 lbs of internal fuel. 4hould it fly faster or slower to
maintain &("
ma4
b. ?f you are flying at &("
ma4
at $7,777 ft and climb to 17,777 ft, should your true 'elocity be
faster or slower to maintain &("
ma4
c. %he space shuttle e*tends its speed brakes fully during an approach, how does this change its
true 'elocity for &("
ma4
AB#.$0 A %B0= is cruising at 17,777 ft (using WnormalW power) and weighs $$,777 lbs (1777 lbs of this
weight is usable fuel).
a. What 'elocity would it fly at for ma* endurance
b. What is its ma* endurance (in hours)
c. .ange is endurance times 'elocity. What is its range, in 3M, at ma* endurance
AB#.$: A %B0J has a drag polar of )
"
8 7.71 ; 7.7#J)
&
1
, weighs H777 lbs, (#77 lbs of this is usable
fuel) and c
sl
8 7.<>hr. What is its ma* endurance at 17,777 ft standard day
AB#.$# A %B0= is cruising at 17,777 ft standard day and weighs $$,777 lbs (1,777 lbs of this weight is
usable fuel).
a. At what 'elocity should it fly for ma* range
b. What is its ma* range, in 3M
$=0
AB#.$H 9sing the information in problem AB#.$: and 4 8 $=: ft
1
, what is the ma* range in 3M of a
%B0J at 17,777 ft standard day
AB#.$J a. 4ketch an aircraft in gliding flight and draw the forces that act on it and the flight path angle.
Also draw a triangle which includes altitude (h) and range (1 B distance o'er the ground) and the flight
path angle (γ). Assume no wind.
b. 4um the forces along the flight path and perpendicular to the flight path. Assume steady glide
(accelerations are &ero).
c. ,eri'e an e*pression for &(" in terms of glide angle. (int2 4ol'e for &(" by di'iding the
two equations deri'ed in AB#.$J b.)
d. ,eri'e an e*pression for 1(h in terms of glide angle.
e. Write an e*pression for glide range in terms of altitude and +>,.
f. What 'alue of &(" will achie'e ma* glide range
AB#.$= a. What is the ma*imum glide range (in 3M) a $1,777 lb %B0= can achie'e from 17,777 ft abo'e
the ground
b. What is the ma*imum glide range (in 3M) an =,777 lb %B0= can achie'e from
17,777 ft abo'e the ground
AB#.$< ?n a steady (unaccelerated) climb, which is larger, lift or weight Assume thrust acts along the
flight path.
AB#.17 An =,777 lb %B0= is in a steady climb passing $7,777 ft at 7.# Mach.
a. What is its .@/ using Military %hrust 9sing Ma* %hrust
b. What is its climb angle using Ma* %hrust
AB#.1$ 3ame se'en factors which could increase takeoff roll.
AB#.11 A P/B$0# weighing $#7,777 lbs has a takeoff roll of 0H77 ft at sea le'el density altitude.
a. ?f the aircraft is loaded with $77,777 lbs of fuel and all other conditions remain the same,
what is its takeoff roll
b. ?f its ne*t takeoff is made at $#7,777 lbs gross weight and a density altitude of
=,777 ft. Assuming all other factors remain the same, what is its takeoff distance
AB#.10 A %B0= weighing =,777 lbs is preparing to land using &ero flaps at standard sea le'el conditions.
%he %B0=Xs wing area is $J7 ft
1
and the coefficient of rolling friction for braking on the dry runway is 7.#.
Answer the following questions2
a. What is the %B0=Xs stall speed Assume the stall speed is the same as for clean configuration.
b. What is /
lma*
c. What is the %B0=Xs final approach airspeed
d. What is the %B0=Xs landing distance Assume that lift is reduced to &ero once the %B0= lands
and that /
,
8 7.7# during the landing roll.
$=:
e. %he control tower reports that a sudden rain shower has soaked the runway, reducing the
coefficient of rolling friction. ow will this affect the %B0=Xs landing distance
AB#.1: A %B0= at #77 knots true airspeed with a load factor of # gXs is at $7,777 ft.
a. What is its turn rate (deg>s) and turn radius for a pullBup
b. What is its turn rate (deg>s) and turn radius for a pullBdown
c. What is its turn rate (deg>s) and turn radius for a le'el turn
AB#.1# What is the 'elocity and load factor a %B0= pilot should fly for the highest turn rate and lowest
turn radius if W 8 $1,777 lbs and the altitude is $#,777 ft
AB#.1H "ind the load factor, bank angle and turn radius for a %B:$ in a le'el turn at a true airspeed of $17
knots and a turn rate of # deg>s.
AB#.1J Qou are flight testing an aircraft and determine the $ g stall speed to be $77 knots true 'elocity.
9nder the same flight conditions what would the 0 g stall speed be
AB#.1= a. 4ketch a typical GBn diagram. What causes each of the limits /an any point inside the GBn
diagram be sustained
b. 4ketch how each of these limits changes with an increase in weight or an increase in altitude.
AB#.1< A CB#1 at 17,777 ft and 177 knots true 'elocity has a weight of #77,777 lbs and a %B0= at $7,777
ft and #77 knots true 'elocity has a weight of $7,777 lbs. Assume standard day.
a. Which aircraft has more energy
b. Which aircraft has a greater energy height
c. /alculate the D
s
of the %B0= in ma* thrust.
d. ?f the CB#1 has a ma* steady climb rate of #77 feet per minute, which aircraft has more
specific e*cess power
e. What is the le'el acceleration capability of the %B0= at these conditions
$=#
AB#.07 9sing the D
s
plot below answer the following questions2
a. At what points will this aircraft stabili&e in le'el unaccelerated flight
b. 4ketch a possible path for this aircraft to maneu'er from C to 5.
c. What is the subsonic absolute ceiling
d. What is the supersonic absolute ceiling
e. What is the ma*imum energy height this aircraft can obtain in sustained flight
f. ?f the aircraft performed a &oom climb from the ma* energy point what is the ma* altitude it
could reach
g. /an this aircraft reach point "
h. /an this aircraft reach point F
i. 4ketch the min time to climb path from takeoff to point ?.
F!"#C
SP$C%F%C $&C$SS P'W$R
Fig'%$ A15.1 F11:C S!$&ifi& E8&$(( P)7$%
$=H
AB#.0$ An ad'ersary aircraft is obser'ed with a le'el acceleration capability of $1 ft>sec
1
using ma*
thrust at an altitude of $7,777 ft and a 'elocity of #77 knots. Qour aircraft has a D
s
of
#77 ft>s at these conditions.
a. ?n le'el flight, can you accelerate faster than your ad'ersary Assume you are both at $7,777
ft and #77 knots.
b. When comparing aircraft in combat, what factors, besides D
s
, should be considered
AB#.01 "or an =,777 lb %B0= at sea le'el using military thrust or cruise power setting, determine the Mach
number for2
a. Minimum sustainable speed VVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
b. Ma* range in a glide VVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
c. Cest climb angle VVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
d. Ma* endurance VVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
e. Ma* range VVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
f. Ma* sustainable speed VVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
g. .egion of re'erse command VVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
h. Cest rate of climb VVVVVVVVVVVVVVV
AB#.00 9se the data pro'ided to perform the following constraint analysis2
Derformance requirements2
4upercruise (nonBAC supersonic cruise)2 M8$.= N 07,777 ft
/ombat %urn (ma* AC)2 #.1g sustained N 07,777 ft>M87.<
ori&ontal Acceleration (ma* AC)2 7.=M to $.#M in #7 sec N 07,777 ft
%akeoff E Craking ,istance2 sT7 8 s& 8 $#77 ft
$. 4upercruise2 α 8 7.0J#, β 8$.7, )"o 8 7.71#, k< 8 7.0, n 8VVVVV, % 8VVVVVVV, 2 8VVVVVVV
1. /ombat turn (constant % and h)2
α 8 7.#, β 8 7.=, )"o 8 7.7$0, k 8 7.$=, n 8 #.1, % 8VVVVVVV, 2 8 VVVVVVV
0. ori&ontal Acceleration2
α 8 7.#=, β 8 7.<, )"o8 7.711, k< 8 7.10, n 8VVVVV, % 8VVVVVVV, 2 8VVVVVVV, d%(dt 8VVVVVVV
:. %akeoff ,istance2 α 8 $.7, β 8 $.7, )&ma4T7 8 $.H, T @@ ", sT7 8 $,#77 ft
AB#.01 (cont.)
$=J
#. Craking ,istance2 α 8 $.7, β 8 $.7, %&8$.0%stall, )&ma4 8 1.7, µ 8 7.#, s& 8 $,#77 ft
4ketch the resulting /onstraint ,iagram2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Wing )oa!ing, Wto/S, psf
T
h
r
u
s
t

t
o

W
e
i
g
h
t
R
a
t
i
o
,
T
s
l
/
W
t
o
What’s your choice for an initial design point
/ompare your choice to the historical data for similar aircraft pro'ided in "igure #.0#. What do you
think
What constraints do you think should be rela*ed
/ongratulationsM Qou’'e Aust analy&ed the "B11M (Cased on a lecture gi'en by Feneral Mike +oh,
/ommander, Air /ombat /ommand, to aircraft design students at the 94A" Academy, # @ct $<<:.)
Fig'%$ A15.2 Th$ YF122. P%))!$ f)% h$ F122 A,/"#&$, T"&i&"l Figh$% 3C)'%$( L)&6h$$,1
M"%i#4
$==