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Republic of the Philippines

SUPREME COURT
Manila
FIRST DIVISION
G.R. No. !"" Ma# $% $""&
'(N) OF (MERIC(% NT * S(% Petitione+%
,s.
(SSOCI(TED CITI-ENS '(N)% '(.FIN(NCE CORPOR(TION% MI//ER OFFSET
PRESS% INC.% U0 )I(T C1UNG% C1ING U0 SENG% U0 C1UNG GU(N SENG% an2
COURT OF (PPE(/S% Respon2ents.
3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
G.R. No. !"4 Ma# $% $""&
(SSOCI(TED CITI-ENS '(N) 5no6 UNITED OVERSE(S '(N) P1I/S.7%
Petitione+%
,s.
'(.FIN(NCE CORPOR(TION% MI//ER OFFSET PRESS% INC.% U0 )I(T C1UNG%
C1ING U0 SENG% U0 C1UNG GU(N SENG% an2 '(N) OF (MERIC(% NT * S(%
Respon2ents.
D E C I S I O N
C(RPIO% 8.9
The Case
'efo+e the Cou+t a+e consoli2ate2 cases 2oc:ete2 as G.R. No. !"" an2 G.R. No.
!"4. These t6o cases a+e petitions fo+ +e,ie6 on ce+tio+a+i of the Decision$ 2ate2 $;
Feb+ua+# &&& an2 the Resolution 2ate2 ; Dece<be+ &&& of the Cou+t of (ppeals in C(.
G.R. CV No. !44$. The Cou+t of (ppeals affi+<e2 6ith <o2ifications the Decision of
the Re=ional T+ial Cou+t of Ma:ati% '+anch ;! 5RTC7.
The (ntece2ent Facts
On ; Octobe+ &>4% '(.Finance Co+po+ation 5'(.Finance7 ente+e2 into a t+ansaction
6ith Mille+ Offset P+ess% Inc. 5Mille+7% th+ou=h the latte+?s autho+i@e2 +ep+esentati,es% i.e.%
U# )iat Chun=% Chin= U# Sen=% an2 U# Chun= Guan Sen=. '(.Finance =+ante2 Mille+ a
c+e2it line facilit# th+ou=h 6hich the latte+ coul2 assi=n o+ 2iscount its t+a2e +ecei,ables
6ith the fo+<e+. On $" Octobe+ &>4% U# )iat Chun=% Chin= U# Sen=% an2 U# Chun=
Guan Sen= e3ecute2 a Continuin= Su+et#ship (=+ee<ent 6ith '(.Finance 6he+eb# the#
Aointl# an2 se,e+all# =ua+antee2 the full an2 p+o<pt pa#<ent of an# an2 all in2ebte2ness
6hich Mille+ <a# incu+ 6ith '(.Finance.
Mille+ 2iscounte2 an2 assi=ne2 se,e+al t+a2e +ecei,ables to '(.Finance b# e3ecutin=
Dee2s of (ssi=n<ent in fa,o+ of the latte+. In consi2e+ation of the assi=n<ent% '(.
Finance issue2 fou+ chec:s pa#able to the BO+2e+ of Mille+ Offset P+ess% Inc.B 6ith the
notation BFo+ Pa#ee?s (ccount Onl#.B These chec:s 6e+e 2+a6n a=ainst 'an: of (<e+ica
an2 ha2 the follo6in= 2etails9C
Chec: No. Date (<ount
$4$>! C Feb+ua+# &4 P$$$%C;C.CC
$&";> $; Feb+ua+# &4 $D$%DD.;
C$CC $" (p+il &4 $";%!D".D>
CC"D> > Ma# &4 D&%4;$.>$
Total
P>!%$$>.>4
The fou+ chec:s 6e+e 2eposite2 b# Chin= U# Sen= 5a.:.a. Robe+t Chin=7% then the
co+po+ate sec+eta+# of Mille+% in (ccount No. &4& in (ssociate2 Citi@ens 'an:
5(ssociate2 'an:7. (ccount No. &4& is a Aoint ban: account un2e+ the na<es of Chin= U#
Sen= an2 U# Chun= Guan Sen=. (ssociate2 'an: sta<pe2 the chec:s 6ith the notation
Ball p+io+ en2o+se<ents an2Eo+ lac: of en2o+se<ents =ua+antee2%B an2 sent the< th+ou=h
clea+in=. /ate+% the 2+a6ee ban:% 'an: of (<e+ica% hono+e2 the chec:s an2 pai2 the
p+ocee2s to (ssociate2 'an: as the collectin= ban:.
Mille+ faile2 to 2eli,e+ to '(.Finance the p+ocee2s of the assi=ne2 t+a2e +ecei,ables.
ConseFuentl#% '(.Finance file2 a Co<plaint a=ainst Mille+ fo+ collection of the a<ount
of P>C%C$&.;C 6hich '(.Finance alle=e2l# pai2 in consi2e+ation of the assi=n<ent% plus
inte+est at the +ate of ;G pe+ annu< an2 penalt# cha+=es.! /i:e6ise i<plea2e2 as pa+t#
2efen2ants in the collection case 6e+e U# )iat Chun=% Chin= U# Sen=% an2 U# Chun=
Guan Sen=.
Mille+% U# )iat Chun=% an2 U# Chun= Guan Sen= file2 a 8oint (ns6e+ 5to the '(.
Finance?s Co<plaint7 6ith C+oss.Clai< a=ainst Chin= U# Sen=% 6he+ein the# 2enie2 that
57 the# +ecei,e2 the a<ount co,e+e2 b# the fou+ 'an: of (<e+ica chec:s% an2 5$7 the#
autho+i@e2 thei+ co.2efen2ant Chin= U# Sen= to t+ansact business 6ith '(.Finance on
behalf of Mille+. U# )iat Chun= an2 U# Chun= Guan Sen= also 2enie2 ha,in= si=ne2 the
Continuin= Su+et#ship (=+ee<ent 6ith '(.Finance. In ,ie6 the+eof% '(.Finance file2
an (<en2e2 Co<plaint i<plea2in= 'an: of (<e+ica as a22itional 2efen2ant fo+
alle=e2l# allo6in= encash<ent an2 collection of the chec:s b# pe+son o+ pe+sons othe+
than the pa#ee na<e2 the+eon. Chin= U# Sen=% on the othe+ han2% 2i2 not file his (ns6e+
to the co<plaint.
'an: of (<e+ica file2 a Thi+2 Pa+t# Co<plaint a=ainst (ssociate2 'an:. In its (ns6e+ to
the Thi+2 Pa+t# Co<plaint% (ssociate2 'an: a2<itte2 ha,in= +ecei,e2 the fou+ chec:s fo+
2eposit in the Aoint account of Chin= U# Sen= 5a.:.a. Robe+t Chin=7 an2 U# Chun= Guan
Sen=% but alle=e2 that Robe+t Chin=% bein= one of the co+po+ate office+s of Mille+% 6as
2ul# autho+i@e2 to act fo+ an2 on behalf of Mille+.
On $4 Septe<be+ &&!% the RTC +en2e+e2 a Decision% the 2ispositi,e po+tion of 6hich
+ea2s9
H1EREFORE% in ,ie6 of the fo+e=oin=% Au2=<ent is he+eb# +en2e+e2 a=ainst 2efen2ant
'an: of (<e+ica to pa# plaintiff '( Finance Co+po+ation the su< of P>!%$>>.>4% the
,alue of the fou+ 5!7 chec:s subAect <atte+ of this case% 6ith le=al inte+est the+eon f+o<
the ti<e of the filin= of this co<plaint until pa#<ent is <a2e an2 atto+ne#?s fees
co++espon2in= to DG of the a<ount 2ue an2 to pa# the costs of the suit.
8u2=<ent is li:e6ise +en2e+e2 o+2e+in= the thi+2.pa+t# 2efen2ant (ssociate2 Citi@ens
'an: to +ei<bu+se 'an: of (<e+ica% the 2efen2ant thi+2.pa+t# plaintiff% of the afo+estate2
a<ount.
SO ORDERED.D
The Cou+t of (ppeals? Rulin=
On appeal% the Cou+t of (ppeals +en2e+e2 Au2=<ent%; affi+<in= 6ith <o2ifications the
2ecision of the RTC% thus9
H1EREFORE% Au2=<ent is he+eb# +en2e+e2% as follo6s9
57 Defen2ant an2 thi+2.pa+t# plaintiff.appellant% 'an: of (<e+ica% NT * S(% is o+2e+e2
to pa# plaintiff.appellee '(.Finance Co+po+ation the su< of P>!%$>>.>4% 6ith le=al
inte+est the+eon f+o< the ti<e of the filin= of the co<plaint until the 6hole a<ount is
full# pai2I
5$7 Thi+2.pa+t# 2efen2ant.appellant (ssociate2 Citi@ens 'an: is li:e6ise o+2e+e2 to
+ei<bu+se 'an: of (<e+ica the afo+estate2 a<ountI
5C7 Defen2ants Chin= U# Sen= an2Eo+ U# Chun= Guan Sen= a+e also o+2e+e2 to pa#
(ssociate2 Citi@ens 'an: the afo+estate2 a<ountI an2
5!7 The a6a+2 of atto+ne#?s fees is o+2e+e2 2elete2.
SO ORDERED.>
(ssociate2 'an: an2 'an: of (<e+ica file2 thei+ +especti,e Motions fo+ Reconsi2e+ation%
but these 6e+e 2enie2 b# the Cou+t of (ppeals in its Resolution of ; Dece<be+ &&&.4
1ence% these petitions.
The Issue
The issues +aise2 in these consoli2ate2 cases <a# be su<<a+i@e2 as follo6s9
Hhethe+ the Cou+t of (ppeals e++e2 in +en2e+in= Au2=<ent fin2in= 57 'an: of (<e+ica
liable to pa# '(.Finance the a<ount of the fou+ chec:sI 5$7 (ssociate2 'an: liable to
+ei<bu+se 'an: of (<e+ica the a<ount of the fou+ chec:sI an2 5C7 Chin= U# Sen= an2Eo+
U# Chun= Guan Sen= liable to pa# (ssociate2 'an: the a<ount of the fou+ chec:s.
The Cou+t?s Rulin=
He fin2 the petitions un<e+ito+ious.
The Cou+t of (ppeals 2i2 not e++ in fin2in= 'an: of (<e+ica
liable to pa# '(.Finance the a<ount of the fou+ chec:s.
'an: of (<e+ica 2enies liabilit# fo+ pa#in= the a<ount of the fou+ chec:s issue2 b# '(.
Finance to Mille+% alle=in= that it 5'an: of (<e+ica7 +elie2 on the sta<ps <a2e b#
(ssociate2 'an: statin= that Ball p+io+ en2o+se<ent an2Eo+ lac: of en2o+se<ent
=ua+antee2%B th+ou=h 6hich (ssociate2 'an: assu<e2 the liabilit# of a =ene+al en2o+se+
un2e+ Section ;; of the Ne=otiable Inst+u<ents /a6. Mo+eo,e+% 'an: of (<e+ica
conten2s that the p+o3i<ate cause of '(.Finance?s inAu+#% if an#% is the =+oss ne=li=ence
of (ssociate2 'an: 6hich allo6e2 Chin= U# Sen= 5Robe+t Chin=7 to 2eposit the fou+
chec:s issue2 to Mille+ in the pe+sonal Aoint ban: account of Chin= U# Sen= an2 U#
Chun= Guan Sen=.
He a+e not con,ince2.
The ban: on 6hich a chec: is 2+a6n% :no6n as the 2+a6ee ban:% is un2e+ st+ict liabilit#%
base2 on the cont+act bet6een the ban: an2 its custo<e+ 52+a6e+7% to pa# the chec: onl#
to the pa#ee o+ the pa#ee?s o+2e+. The 2+a6e+?s inst+uctions a+e +eflecte2 on the face an2
b# the te+<s of the chec:. Hhen the 2+a6ee ban: pa#s a pe+son othe+ than the pa#ee
na<e2 on the chec:% it 2oes not co<pl# 6ith the te+<s of the chec: an2 ,iolates its 2ut#
to cha+=e the 2+a6e+?s account onl# fo+ p+ope+l# pa#able ite<s.& Thus% 6e +ule2 in
Philippine National 'an: ,. Ro2+i=ue@" that a 2+a6ee shoul2 cha+=e to the 2+a6e+?s
accounts onl# the pa#ables autho+i@e2 b# the latte+I othe+6ise% the 2+a6ee 6ill be
,iolatin= the inst+uctions of the 2+a6e+ an2 shall be liable fo+ the a<ount cha+=e2 to the
2+a6e+?s account.
(<on= the 2iffe+ent t#pes of chec:s issue2 b# a 2+a6e+ is the c+osse2 chec:. The
Ne=otiable Inst+u<ents /a6 is silent 6ith +espect to c+osse2 chec:s% althou=h the Co2e of
Co<<e+ce <a:es +efe+ence to such inst+u<ents.$ This Cou+t has ta:en Au2icial
co=ni@ance of the p+actice that a chec: 6ith t6o pa+allel lines in the uppe+ left han2
co+ne+ <eans that it coul2 onl# be 2eposite2 an2 coul2 not be con,e+te2 into cash.C
Thus% the effect of c+ossin= a chec: +elates to the <o2e of pa#<ent% <eanin= that the
2+a6e+ ha2 inten2e2 the chec: fo+ 2eposit onl# b# the +i=htful pe+son% i.e.% the pa#ee
na<e2 the+ein.! The c+ossin= <a# be BspecialB 6he+ein bet6een the t6o pa+allel lines is
6+itten the na<e of a ban: o+ a business institution% in 6hich case the 2+a6ee shoul2 pa#
onl# 6ith the inte+,ention of that ban: o+ co<pan#% o+ B=ene+alB 6he+ein bet6een t6o
pa+allel 2ia=onal lines a+e 6+itten the 6o+2s Ban2 Co.B o+ none at all% in 6hich case the
2+a6ee shoul2 not encash the sa<e but <e+el# accept the sa<e fo+ 2eposit.D In 'ataan
Ci=a+ ,. Cou+t of (ppeals%; 6e enu<e+ate2 the effects of c+ossin= a chec: as follo6s9
5a7 the chec: <a# not be encashe2 but onl# 2eposite2 in the ban:I 5b7 the chec: <a# be
ne=otiate2 onl# once J to one 6ho has an account 6ith a ban:I an2 5c7 the act of c+ossin=
the chec: se+,es as a 6a+nin= to the hol2e+ that the chec: has been issue2 fo+ a 2efinite
pu+pose so that he <ust inFui+e if he has +ecei,e2 the chec: pu+suant to that pu+poseI
othe+6ise% he is not a hol2e+ in 2ue cou+se.>
In this case% the fou+ chec:s 6e+e 2+a6n b# '(.Finance an2 <a2e pa#able to the BO+2e+
of Mille+ Offset P+ess% Inc.B The chec:s 6e+e also c+osse2 an2 issue2 BFo+ Pa#ee?s
(ccount Onl#.B Clea+l#% the 2+a6e+ inten2e2 the chec: fo+ 2eposit onl# b# Mille+ Offset
P+ess% Inc. in the latte+?s ban: account. Thus% 6hen a pe+son othe+ than Mille+% i.e.% Chin=
U# Sen=% a.:.a. Robe+t Chin=% p+esente2 an2 2eposite2 the chec:s in his o6n pe+sonal
account 5Chin= U# Sen=?s Aoint account 6ith U# Chun= Guan Sen=7% an2 the 2+a6ee
ban:% 'an: of (<e+ica% pai2 the ,alue of the chec:s an2 cha+=e2 '(.Finance?s account
the+efo+% the 2+a6ee 'an: of (<e+ica is 2ee<e2 to ha,e ,iolate2 the inst+uctions of the
2+a6e+% an2 the+efo+e% is liable fo+ the a<ount cha+=e2 to the 2+a6e+?s account.
The Cou+t of (ppeals 2i2 not e++ in fin2in= (ssociate2
'an: liable to +ei<bu+se 'an: of (<e+ica the
a<ount of the fou+ chec:s.
( collectin= ban: 6he+e a chec: is 2eposite2% an2 6hich en2o+ses the chec: upon
p+esent<ent 6ith the 2+a6ee ban:% is an en2o+se+.4 Un2e+ Section ;; of the Ne=otiable
Inst+u<ents /a6% an en2o+se+ 6a++ants Bthat the inst+u<ent is =enuine an2 in all +espects
6hat it pu+po+ts to beI that he has =oo2 title to itI that all p+io+ pa+ties ha2 capacit# to
cont+actI an2 that the inst+u<ent is at the ti<e of his en2o+se<ent ,ali2 an2 subsistin=.B
This Cou+t has +epeate2l# hel2 that in chec: t+ansactions% the collectin= ban: o+ last
en2o+se+ =ene+all# suffe+s the loss because it has the 2ut# to asce+tain the =enuineness of
all p+io+ en2o+se<ents consi2e+in= that the act of p+esentin= the chec: fo+ pa#<ent to the
2+a6ee is an asse+tion that the pa+t# <a:in= the p+esent<ent has 2one its 2ut# to asce+tain
the =enuineness of the en2o+se<ents.&
Hhen (ssociate2 'an: sta<pe2 the bac: of the fou+ chec:s 6ith the ph+ase Ball p+io+
en2o+se<ents an2Eo+ lac: of en2o+se<ent =ua+antee2%B that ban: ha2 fo+ all intents an2
pu+poses t+eate2 the chec:s as ne=otiable inst+u<ents an2% acco+2in=l#% assu<e2 the
6a++ant# of an en2o+se+. 'ein= so% (ssociate2 'an: cannot 2en# liabilit# on the chec:s.
In 'anco 2e O+o Sa,in=s an2 Mo+t=a=e 'an: ,. EFuitable 'an:in= Co+po+ation%$" 6e
hel2 that9
3 3 3 the la6 i<poses a 2ut# of 2ili=ence on the collectin= ban: to sc+utini@e chec:s
2eposite2 6ith it fo+ the pu+pose of 2ete+<inin= thei+ =enuineness an2 +e=ula+it#. The
collectin= ban: bein= p+i<a+il# en=a=e2 in ban:in= hol2s itself out to the public as the
e3pe+t an2 the la6 hol2s it to a hi=h stan2a+2 of con2uct. 3 3 3 In p+esentin= the chec:s
fo+ clea+in= an2 fo+ pa#<ent% the 2efen2ant Kcollectin= ban:L <a2e an e3p+ess =ua+antee
on the ,ali2it# of Ball p+io+ en2o+se<ents.B Thus% sta<pe2 at the bac: of the chec:s a+e
the 2efen2ant?s clea+ 6a++ant#9 (// PRIOR ENDORSEMENTS (NDEOR /(C) OF
ENDORSEMENTS GU(R(NTEED. Hithout such 6a++ant#% plaintiff K2+a6eeL 6oul2
not ha,e pai2 on the chec:s. No a<ount of le=al Aa+=on can +e,e+se the clea+ <eanin= of
2efen2ant?s 6a++ant#. (s the 6a++ant# has p+o,en to be false an2 inaccu+ate% the
2efen2ant is liable fo+ an# 2a<a=e a+isin= out of the falsit# of its +ep+esentation.
(ssociate2 'an: 6as also clea+l# ne=li=ent in 2is+e=a+2in= establishe2 ban:in= +ules an2
+e=ulations b# allo6in= the fou+ chec:s to be p+esente2 b#% an2 2eposite2 in the pe+sonal
ban: account of% a pe+son 6ho 6as not the pa#ee na<e2 in the chec:s. The chec:s 6e+e
issue2 to the BO+2e+ of Mille+ Offset P+ess% Inc.%B but 6e+e 2eposite2% an2 pai2 b#
(ssociate2 'an:% to the pe+sonal Aoint account of Chin= U# Sen= 5a.:.a. Robe+t Chin=7
an2 U# Chun= Guan Sen=. It coul2 not ha,e escape2 (ssociate2 'an:?s attention that the
pa#ee of the chec:s is a co+po+ation 6hile the pe+son 6ho 2eposite2 the chec:s in his
o6n account is an in2i,i2ual. Ve+il#% 6hen the ban: allo6e2 its client to collect on
c+osse2 chec:s issue2 in the na<e of anothe+% the ban: is =uilt# of ne=li=ence.$ (s +ule2
b# this Cou+t in 8ai.(lai Co+po+ation of the Philippines ,. 'an: of the Philippine
Islan2s%$$ one 6ho accepts an2 encashes a chec: f+o< an in2i,i2ual :no6in= that the
pa#ee is a co+po+ation 2oes so at his pe+il. (cco+2in=l#% 6e hol2 that (ssociate2 'an: is
liable fo+ the a<ount of the fou+ chec:s an2 shoul2 +ei<bu+se the a<ount of the chec:s to
'an: of (<e+ica.
The Cou+t of (ppeals 2i2 not e++ in fin2in= Chin= U# Sen=
an2Eo+ U# Chun= Guan Sen= liable to pa# (ssociate2
'an: the a<ount of the fou+ chec:s.
It is 6ell.settle2 that a pe+son 6ho ha2 not =i,en ,alue fo+ the <one# pai2 to hi< has no
+i=ht to +etain the <one# he +ecei,e2.$C This Cou+t% the+efo+e% Fuotes 6ith app+o,al the
+ulin= of the Cou+t of (ppeals in its 2ecision9
It appea+in=% ho6e,e+% f+o< the e,i2ence on +eco+2 that since Chin= U# Sen= an2Eo+ U#
Chun= Guan Sen= +ecei,e2 the p+ocee2s of the chec:s as the# 6e+e 2eposite2 in thei+
pe+sonal Aoint account 6ith (ssociate2 'an:% the# shoul2% the+efo+e% be obli=e2 to
+ei<bu+se (ssociate2 'an: fo+ the a<ount it has to pa# to 'an: of (<e+ica% in line 6ith
the +ule that no pe+son shoul2 be allo6e2 to unAustl# en+ich hi<self at the e3pense of
anothe+.$!a,,phi
(s +e=a+2s the t+ial cou+t?s =+ant of atto+ne#?s fees to '(.Finance% the Cou+t of (ppeals
foun2 that the+e 6as no sufficient Austification the+efo+I hence% the 2eletion of the a6a+2
is p+ope+. (n a6a+2 of atto+ne#?s fees necessitates a factual% le=al% o+ eFuitable
Austification. Hithout such Austification% the a6a+2 is a conclusion 6ithout a p+e<ise% its
basis bein= i<p+ope+l# left to speculation an2 conAectu+e.$D
He note that the Decision of the Cou+t of (ppeals p+o,i2es fo+ the a<ount of
P>!%$>>.>4 as the su< of the fou+ chec:s subAect of this case.$; This a<ount shoul2 be
<o2ifie2 as +eco+2s sho6 that the total ,alue of the fou+ chec:s is P>!%$$>.>4.$>
H1EREFORE% 6e DEN0 the petitions. He (FFIRM the Cou+t of (ppeals? Decision
2ate2 $; Feb+ua+# &&& in C(.G.R. CV No. !44$ 6ith the MODIFIC(TION that 'an:
of (<e+ica% NT * S( is o+2e+e2 to pa# '(.Finance Co+po+ation the a<ount of
P>!%$$>.>4% 6ith le=al inte+est f+o< the ti<e of filin= of the co<plaint until the a<ount
is full# pai2. (ssociate2 Citi@ens 'an: is o+2e+e2 to +ei<bu+se 'an: of (<e+ica the
abo,e<entione2 a<ount. Chin= U# Sen= an2Eo+ U# Chun= Guan Sen= a+e also o+2e+e2
to pa# (ssociate2 Citi@ens 'an: the abo,e<entione2 a<ount.
SO ORDERED.
(NTONIO T. C(RPIO
(ssociate 8ustice
HE CONCUR9
RE0N(TO S. PUNO
Chief 8ustice
Chai+pe+son
REN(TO C. CORON(
(ssociate 8ustice TERESIT( 8. /EON(RDO.DE C(STRO
(ssociate 8ustice
/UC(S P. 'ERS(MIN
(ssociate 8ustice
C E R T I F I C ( T I O N
Pu+suant to Section C% (+ticle VIII of the Constitution% I ce+tif# that the conclusions in
the abo,e Decision ha2 been +eache2 in consultation befo+e the case 6as assi=ne2 to the
6+ite+ of the opinion of the Cou+t?s Di,ision.
RE0N(TO S. PUNO
Chief 8ustice
Footnotes
Un2e+ Rule !D of the &&> Rules of Ci,il P+oce2u+e.
$ Penne2 b# (ssociate 8ustice (+te<on D. /una 6ith (ssociate 8ustices Delilah Vi2allon.
Ma=tolis an2 Ro2+i=o V. Cosico% concu++in=.
C Reco+2s% pp. ">.".
! I2. at C.
D C( +ollo% p. C4.
; P+o<ul=ate2 on $; Feb+ua+# &&&.
> Rollo 5G.R. No. !""7% pp. $D.$;.
4 I2. at C!.CD.
& (ssociate2 'an: ,. Cou+t of (ppeals% C$$ Phil. ;>>% ;&> 5&&;7.
" G.R. No. >"C$D% $; Septe<be+ $""4.
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