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Accra
City
Counter-clockwise from top: The Black Star Square Public
Space; The Black Star Monument; The Planetarium of Accra;
Terraced Houses of Accra.
Seal
Satellite Imagery of the City of Accra from the International
Space Station in Outer Space.
Accra
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Accra /əˈkrɑː/ is the capital city and second largest
city of Ghana, with an estimated urban population of
2.269 million as of 2012.
[6]
It is also the capital of the
Greater Accra Region and of the Accra Metropolitan
District, with which it is coterminous.
[7]
Accra is
furthermore the anchor of a larger metropolitan area,
the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA),
[8]
which is inhabited by about 4 million people, making it
the second largest metropolitan conglomeration in
Ghana by population,
[5]
and the eleventh-largest
metropolitan area in Africa.
Accra stretches along the Ghanaian Atlantic coast and
extends north into Ghana's interior. Originally built
around a port, it served as the capital of the British
Gold Coast between 1877 and 1957. Once merely a
19th-century suburb of Victoriaborg, Accra has since
transitioned into a modern metropolis; the city's
architecture reflects this history, ranging from 19th-
century architecture buildings to modern skyscrapers
and apartment blocks.
Accra serves as the Greater Accra region's economic
and administrative hub. It is furthermore a centre of a
wide range of nightclubs, restaurants and hotels.
[9]
Since the early 1990s, a number of new buildings have
been built, including the multi-storey French-owned
Novotel hotel. The city's National Theatre was built
with Chinese assistance. In 2010, the GaWC
designated Accra a Gamma-minus-level world city,
indicating a growing level of international influence and
connectedness.
[10]
The central business district of Accra contains the
city's main banks and department stores, and an area
known as the Ministries, where Ghana's government
administration is concentrated. Economic activities in
Accra include the financial and agricultural sectors,
Atlantic fishing, and the manufacture of processed
food, lumber, plywood, textiles, clothing and
chemicals.
Contents
1 History
Coordinat es: 5°33′00″N 0°12′00″W
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Coordinates: 5°33′00″N 0°12′00″W
Country Ghana
Region Greater Accra Region
District Accra Metropolitan District
Settled 15th century
Incorporated (city) 1898
Government
• Type Mayor–council
• Mayor Alfred Vanderpuije
Area[1][2]
• City 173 km2 (67 sq mi)
• Metro 894 km2 (345.18 sq mi)
Elevation 61 m (200 ft)
Population
(2014)
[3][4][5]
• City 2,291,352
• Density 9,589.2/km2 (24,836/sq mi)
Time zone UTC
Area code(s) 030
Website http://www.ama.gov.gh
1 History
1.1 Post-World War II
1.1.1 Fry/Treavallion Plan
1.1.2 Nkrumah Plan
1.2 Present-day Accra
2 Geography
2.1 Neighbourhoods
2.1.1 Accra Central
2.1.2 Accra North
2.1.3 Accra East
2.1.4 Accra West
2.2 Climate
3 Cityscape
3.1 Demographics
3.2 Distribution and density
3.3 Population distribution by age and
gender
3.4 Migration
3.5 Housing characteristics
3.6 Housing conditions
4 Government
5 Economy
5.1 Sectors of the economy
5.2 Primary sector
6 Education
6.1 Pre-school
6.2 Primary school
6.3 Junior high school (JHS)
6.4 Senior high school (SHS)
6.5 Universities
7 Transportation
7.1 Metro monorail
7.2 Taxis
7.3 Trotros
7.4 Buses
8 Sport
9 Attractions
10 Image Gallery
11 Notable people
12 Sister cities
13 References
13.1 Notes
14 External links
History
See also: Timeline of Accra history
Accra
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A contemporary drawing of the
Danish empire fort, Fort
Christiansborg, now Osu Castle. The
outpost to the right is Fort
Prøvestenen
A main street of central Accra
between 1885–1908
The word Accra is believed to be derived from the Akan word
nkran, meaning "ants", a reference to the numerous manner in which
the natives of Accra kept re-appearing like army ants during a war
with the Ashantis. Initially, Accra was not the most prominent trading
centre; the trade hubs of the time were the ports at Ada and
Prampram, along with the inland centres of Dodowa and Akusa. The
Dutch built the nearby outposts of James Fort and Ussher Fort. By
the 17th century, the Portuguese, followed by the Swedish, Dutch,
French, British and Danish, had constructed forts in the city.
In the 1850s, Denmark sold Christiansborg and their other forts to the
British. In 1873, after decades of tension between the British and
Akans of south Ghana, the British attacked and virtually destroyed the
Ashanti Region capital of Kumasi. The British then captured Accra in
1874, and in 1877, at the end of the second Anglo-Asante War, Accra replaced Cape Coast as the capital of
the British Gold Coast. This decision was made because Accra had a drier climate relative to Cape Coast. Until
this time, the settlement of Accra was confined between Ussher Fort to the east and the Korle Lagoon to the
west.
[11]
As the Gold Coast's administrative functions were moved to Accra, an influx of British settlers began, and the
city began to expand to accommodate the new residents. Victoriaborg was formed in the late nineteenth century
as an exclusive European residential neighborhood, located to the east of the city limits of the time. The
boundaries of Accra were further stretched in 1908. This expansion entailed the creation of a native-only
neighbourhood, intended to accommodate members of the native population as a means of relieving congestion
problems in the overcrowded city centre. Adabraka was thus established to the north of the city.
[12]
One of the most influential decisions in the history of the city was that
of building the Accra-Kumasi railway in 1908. This was to connect
Accra, the country's foremost port at that time, with Ghana's main
cocoa-producing regions. In 1923 the railway was completed, and by
1924 cocoa was Ghana's largest export.
The British Gold Coast heavily influenced the shape that Accra took
during this period. For example, racial segregation of neighborhoods
was mandated by law until 1923, and all new buildings were required
to be built out of stone or concrete. Despite these regulations, British
settlers of the Gold Coast were very hesitant to invest any large
amount of money into the city to maintain its infrastructure or improve
public works. This did not change until the governorship of Sir
Frederick Gordon Guggisberg.
Among the achievements of Guggisberg was the building of a bridge across the Korle Lagoon in 1923, which
opened the land west of the lagoon for settlement. Guggisberg also oversaw the building of hospitals and
schools. Such improvements led to an increase in Accra’s population due to the migration of rural dwellers into
the city, and the immigration of increasing numbers of British businessmen and administrators.
Post-World War II
In the years following World War II, the neighbourhoods of Ridge and Cantonments were planned as low-
density developments for Europeans, while many rural migrants settled in neighbourhoods which had not yet
been incorporated into Accra's municipal boundary, such as Nima and surrounding areas. Thus, the
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Jamestown lighthouse in
Jamestown/Usshertown
The Kwame Nkrumah mausoleum
development of these neighbourhoods was unregulated by the government, creating a crowded and jumbled
shanty-town landscape.
Another area of Accra that took shape at this time was the central business district (CBD). More administrative
buildings were built on High Street, forming a massive judicial/administrative complex. Additionally, the
expansion of the economy led to many more commercial buildings being built in the CBD.
In 1944, Accra's city planner Maxwell Fry devised a town plan, which was revised in 1958 by B.D.W.
Treavallion and Alan Flood. Although the Fry/Trevallion plan was never followed through, it illustrated the
British vision of how Accra should develop.
Fry/Treavallion Plan
In the Fry/Treavallion plan, a reorganisation of the CBD was called for, as
well as the development of the coastal region of the city. In order to
reorganise the CBD, the planners decided to superimpose a tight street grid
north of Fort Ussher.
To the east of this newly organised CBD, the planners hoped to preserve a
broad open space for a restaurant, country club, and polo and cricket fields.
Additionally, the British planners intended to build large numbers of public
squares, fountains and ornamental pools and statues throughout the city, as
well as a vast Parliament Complex in the city centre. Lastly, the
Fry/Treavallion plan included plans to make the coastal region an extension of
the exclusive European neighborhood of Victoriaborg, and to create a
recreational preserve for the elite. However, the British Gold Coast ended
before the Fry/Treavallion plan was enacted.
Nkrumah Plan
When Kwame Nkrumah became Ghana's first post-independence Prime Minister in 1957, he created his own
plan for Accra's development. Instead of creating spaces to serve the elite, Nkrumah sought to create spaces to
inspire pride and nationalism in his people and people throughout Africa.
Rather than creating ornamental fountains and a large Parliament
complex, Nkrumah decided to build landmarks such as Independence
Square, the State House, and the Organisation of African Unity
building, and to refurbish Christianborg Castle. Nkrumah decided to
leave the Atlantic coastal region undeveloped, so as to not detract
attention away from the Community Centre or Independence Square,
lending both spaces symbolic significance. The Nkrumah plan did not
emphasize order nearly as much as the Fry/Treavallion plan did;
whereas the British plan strove to lessen crowding in the commercial
district and help relieve the overcrowding of neighbourhoods
bordering the CBD, the Nkrumah plan allowed for continued
compression of commercial establishments into the CBD, as well as
increased migration into Jamestown.
Present-day Accra
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A map of the Greater Accra
Metropolitan Area.
The modern city is centred on original built British, Danish and Dutch forts and their surrounding communities:
Jamestown near the British James Fort, Osu near the Danish fort of Christiansborg (now Osu Castle), and
Ussherstown near the Dutch Ussher fort.
Today, Accra has several tourist attractions, including the National Museum of Ghana, the Ghana Academy of
Arts and Sciences, the National Archives of Ghana and Ghana's central library, the National Theatre, the Accra
Centre for National Culture, a lighthouse, and a Sports Stadium.
The city is also a transportation hub, home to the Kotoka International Airport and railway links to Tema,
Sekondi-Takoradi and Kumasi. Accra has furthermore become a location for national and international business
conferences.
[13]
Geography
Central Accra is compact, centered on the historical British, Danish,
and Dutch forts. Over the years, however, with immigration from rural
areas, the city has expanded with no regard to zoning, giving it a
sprawled attribute. The city of Accra has a total area of 200 square
kilometres (77 sq mi), and is the anchor city of the Greater Accra
Metropolitan Area (GAMA), which is made up of the Accra
Metropolitan District, Tema Metropolitan District, Ga South
Municipal District, Ga East Municipal District, Ga West Municipal
District, Adenta Municipal District, Ashaiman Municipal District,
Ledzokuku-Krowor Municipal District, and the town of Kasoa in the
Awutu Senya District of the Central Region.
The intersection of the Lafa stream and Mallam junction serves as the
western border of the city. The Great Hall of the University of Ghana forms Accra's northern border, while the
Nautical College forms the eastern border. The Gulf of Guinea forms the southern border. These borders
notwithstanding, points of conflict with adjoining districts exist, resulting in a de facto shrinking of the city limits
in recent years.
[14]
Neighbourhoods
Main article: Neighborhoods of Accra
The growth of Accra in recent decades due to immigration from the Americas, European, Asian, including
African nationals and other nationals from all over the world, has outstripped the provision of services such as
waste collection, potable water and electricity. Because of immigration there has been a rise of large slums.
Accra currently has 9 slums. All nine slums settlements, and the so-called "Sodom and Gomorrah" shanty towns,
are being demolished because of their negative effect on the environment.
[15]
A shortage in the supply of
electricity has lead to Accra having frequent planned and rolling power cuts, with several areas of the city in turn
being without power. These cuts have been blamed on various issues such as machine failure and shortage of
fuel.
[16]
Accra Central
The Ring Road, extending from the Korle Lagoon in the west, north to Kwame Nkrumah Circle, following east
to the juncture of Independence Avenue, and continuing on to Osu, forms a ring around the oldest districts of
Accra, and separates central Accra from the outlying suburbs.
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Accra North
Central Accra includes the CBD, which consists of the historic districts of Usshertown, Tudu, Victoriaborg,
West Ridge, and East Ridge, as well as the historic residential districts of Jamestown, Adabraka, Asylum Down,
North Ridge and Christiansborg/Osu.
Although satellite business districts such as the Airport City have been established across the city, Central Accra
remains the administrative and cultural centre of Accra, hosting government ministries, hotels, businesses, and
financial institutions.
Central Accra's principal attractions include the Kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum, the National Museum,
Independence Square, the National Theatre, and the Ohene Djan Stadium.
Accra North
Northern Accra is a residential and business district. The area
contains the "37" Military Hospital, The Flagstaff House, several
foreign embassies, Achimota School, Achimota Golf Park, and the
University of Ghana's Legon campus, which serves as Accra's
northern boundary.
Geographically, the areas north of Ring Road West and Central, east
of Winneba/Graphic Road, west of Liberation Road, and the districts
just north and south of the Kwame Nkrumah motorway are regarded
as Northern Accra.
Accra East
Eastern Accra is largely residential, and geographically north of Ring Road East, stretching as far north as
Kwame Nkrumah Motorway; the district is bordered to the west by Liberation Road.
Accra West
Western Accra is largely a residential and business area. Whilst geographically less expansive than the northern
and eastern reaches of the city as a result of the large saltponds of Tettegu and Aplaku, it nonetheless boasts
one of Accra's most important landmarks, the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital.
Geographically, the areas west of Ring Road West, extending as far west as the saltponds and south of Graphic
Road, are considered Accra West.
[17]
Climate
Owing to its location in the Dahomey Gap, where the coast runs parallel to the prevailing moist monsoonal
winds, Accra features a tropical savanna climate that borders on a semi-arid climate. The average annual rainfall
is about 730 mm, which falls primarily during Ghana's two rainy seasons. The chief rainy season begins in April
and ends in mid-July, whilst a weaker second rainy season occurs in October. Rain usually falls in short intensive
storms and causes local flooding in which drainage channels are obstructed.
There is very little variation in temperature throughout the year. The mean monthly temperature ranges from
24.7 °C (76.5 °F) in August (the coolest) to 28 °C (82.4 °F) in March (the hottest), with an annual average of
26.8 °C (80.2 °F). It should be noted, however, that the "cooler" months tend to be more humid than the
warmer months. As a result, during the warmer months and particularly during the windy harmattan season, the
city experiences a breezy "dry heat" that feels less warm than the "cooler" but more humid rainy season.
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Bird's-eye view of the Suburban area
of Accra
As Accra is close to the equator, the daylight hours are practically uniform during the year. Relative humidity is
generally high, varying from 65% in the mid-afternoon to 95% at night. The predominant wind direction in Accra
is from the WSW to NNE sectors. Wind speeds normally range between 8 to 16 km/h. High wind gusts occur
with thunderstorms, which generally pass in squall along the coast.
The maximum wind speed record in Accra is 107.4 km/h (58 knots). Strong winds associated with
thunderstorm activity often cause damage to property by removing roofing material. Several areas of Accra
experience micro-climatic effects. Low-profile drainage basins with a north-south orientation are not as well
ventilated as those orientated east-west.
Air is often trapped in pockets over the city, and an insulation effect can give rise to a local increase in air
temperature of several degrees. This occurs most notably in the Accra Newtown sports complex areas.
Climate data for Accra
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F)
34
(93)
38
(100)
38
(100)
34
(93)
35
(95)
33
(91)
32
(90)
32
(90)
32
(90)
32
(90)
33
(91)
34
(93)
38
(100)
Average high °C (°F)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
29
(84)
27
(81)
27
(81)
27
(81)
29
(84)
31
(88)
31
(88)
30
(86)
Average low °C (°F)
23
(73)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
23
(73)
22
(72)
23
(73)
23
(73)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
Record low °C (°F)
15
(59)
17
(63)
20
(68)
19
(66)
21
(70)
20
(68)
19
(66)
18
(64)
20
(68)
19
(66)
21
(70)
17
(63)
15
(59)
Rainfall mm (inches)
15
(0.59)
33
(1.3)
56
(2.2)
81
(3.19)
142
(5.59)
178
(7.01)
46
(1.81)
15
(0.59)
36
(1.42)
64
(2.52)
36
(1.42)
23
(0.91)
725
(28.54)
Avg. rainy days 1 2 4 6 9 10 4 3 4 6 3 2 54
Mean monthly sunshine
hours
217 226 217 210 217 150 155 155 180 217 240 248 2,432
Source: BBC Weather
[18]
Cityscape
Demographics
The period between 1960 and 1970 saw rapid industrialisation and
expansion in Accra's manufacturing and commercial sectors. This
contributed to high rural-urban migration to the city, and consequently
a high population growth rate.
[19]
The stagnation of the Ghanaian
economy during the 1970s slowed the growth of Accra’s population,
as shown by the falling growth rate of the 1970-1984 intercensal
years. Later, however, the decline in agriculture in rural communities
in Ghana and rising industrialisation in urban regions, coupled with the
late-1980s boom in the service sector, once again propelled
immigration to Accra. The primacy of the Accra Metropolitan Area
as the Greater Accra region's administrative, educational, industrial
and commercial centre continues to be the major force for its population growth, with immigration contributing
to over 35% of the Accra's population growth.
Distribution and density
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Public Housing Tower Block
Apartments in the Urban areas of East
Ridge, Accra; constructed in
similarity with the Housing and
Development Board (HDB) Public
Housing in Singapore.
The gross density of population for the Accra Metropolitan Area in 2000 was 10.03 persons per hectare,
compared to 6.23 per hectare in 1970. The highest densities were recorded in the Accra Metropolitan
Assembly, with an overall average of 69.3 persons per hectare. At the community level, densities exceeding 250
persons per hectare occurred mostly in the immigrant and depressed areas in the oldest parts of Accra, such as
Accra New Town, Nima, James Town and Ussher Town. In higher-income areas, densities ranged between
17.5 and 40 persons per hectare.
Population distribution by age and gender
Accra’s population is a very youthful one, with 56% of the population being under 24 years of age. This
predominance of young people is not expected to decline in the foreseeable future. Fifty-one percent (51%) of
the population are females, and the remaining 49% males. This gives a males-to-females ratio of 1:1.04. The
greater number of females is a reflection of the nationwide trend, where the estimated ratio of males to females is
1:1.03.
Migration
Decentralisation is expected to reduce the migration rates in Accra. An assessment of the extent of migration to
Accra, based on present locality and gender, reveals that 44% of residents in Accra are African immigrants from
countries across the African continent.
Housing characteristics
Parts of inner-city Accra comprise a mixture of very low-density
development with under-utilised service infrastructure on the one
hand, high-density development and overstretched infrastructure
services on the other. The growth of Accra has led to the neglect of
some of the old settlements, whilst efforts are being made to provide
the newly developing suburban areas with services and infrastructure
to cater for the needs of the middle-income earners. Peripheral
residential development in Accra barely has sufficient infrastructure to
support it. There are also large numbers of uncompleted houses,
interspersed with pockets of undeveloped land, which are often
subject of litigation, due to the inability of organisations and individuals
who own them to complete or develop them due to lack of funds.
Housing can be grouped into three broad categories: the low-income,
middle-income and high-income areas. The low-income housing areas
comprise Osu, Jamestown, Adedenkpo, Chorkor, La, Teshie,
Nungua, Sukura, Kwashieman, Odorkor, Bubiashie, Abeka, Nima, Maamobi and Chorkor. Altogether, these
areas accommodate about 58% of Accra’s total population. Most of the city's informal businesses are located in
low-income areas.
Housing conditions
Almost all low-income areas are built up with little room for expansion. This is particularly so in the areas of the
inner city. The middle-income areas of Accra are predominantly populated by Ghanaian citizens and business,
administrative and professional families. Much of the housing in these areas has been provided by state,
parastatal and private sector organisations and individuals. The middle-income areas include Dansoman Estates,
North Kaneshie Estates, Asylum Down, Kanda Estates, Abelempke, Achimota,Adenta and Tesano. Usually,
these areas, unlike the low-income areas, are planned developments, but are in need of infrastructure services.
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Luxury Real Estate Villa with
Olympic-Size Swimming Pool in the
Suburban areas of West Ridge,
Accra.
Building materials and general housing conditions are of better quality.
The middle-income group comprises 32% of the city's population of
which are Ghanaian citizens make up. The high-income areas
provide housing for the remaining 10% of the population of which
Ghanaian citizens also make up. They include areas like North Ridge
and West Ridge, Ringway Estates, north Labone Estates, Airport
Residential Area, Roman Ridge, East Legon. These areas are all
planned and have well developed infrastructure with spacious and
landscaped ground in sharp contrast with, particularly, the low-
income areas. Buildings are usually built with sandcrete blocks, and
have walls and roofed with aluminium, or asbestos roofing sheets.
There are also high-income peripheral areas like Haatso, Kwabenya,
Pokuase, Adenta, Taifa, Mallam, where development of engineering
infrastructure is not yet complete. These areas developed ahead of
infrastructure, however the Achimota-Ofankor controlled-access
highway was scheduled to open in May 2012,
[20]
and the Awoshie-Pokuase
(http://www.presidency.gov.gh/press-centre/general-news/president-cuts-sod-awoshie-pokuase-road)
[21]
dual
carriageway road construction was also due to be completed in 2012. In total, 84.4% of all houses in the Accra
Metropolitan Area have their outside walls made up of cement. Similarly, houses found within Accra have
99.2% of their floor materials made up of cement.
Panorama and Bird's-eye view of the suburbs surrounding the central business district of Accra, the capital city of
the Greater Accra Region, June 2008.
Government
Accra has a mayoral council government system in which the mayor is vested with extensive executive powers.
The mayor is appointed by the President of the Republic of Ghana and approved by the city council, although
the public has expressed a desire to increase mayoral accountability by holding free mayoral elections. The
mayor of Accra is Alfred Vanderpuije, appointed by President John Atta Mills in 2009.
The Accra Assembly has 104 members. Of these, 70% are elected and 30% are government appointees. The
Town and Country Planning Department is responsible for land-use planning in the metropolis.
[22]
The Parliament, Supreme Court of Ghana, and the Bank of Ghana are in Accra. Due to its size, Accra is divided
into 11 sub-metropolitan areas:
[23]
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Headquarters of Government of
Ghana in Flagstaff House
Headquarters of Parliament of
Ghana in Parliament House
Headquarters of Judiciary of
Ghana and Supreme Court of
Ghana
Exterior design of the Shopping Mall
Marina Mall in Accra.
Ablekuma Central
Ablekuma North
Ablekuma South
Ashiedu Keteke
Ayawaso Central
Ayawaso East
Ayawaso West Wuogon
La
Okaikoi North
Okaikoi South
Osu Klottey
Economy
See also: Hope City
In 2008, the World Bank estimated that Accra's economy only
constituted around US$3 billion of Ghana's total gross domestic
product (GDP).
[24]
The economically active population of Accra is
estimated to be 823,327.
Accra is a centre for manufacturing, marketing, finance, insurance,
and transportation. Its financial sector incorporates a central bank,
nine commercial banks (with 81 branches), four development banks
(with 19 branches), four merchant banks (with seven branches), three
discount houses, one home finance mortgage bank, multiple building
societies, Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE), foreign exchange bureauxs,
finance houses, insurance companies, insurance brokerage firms, two
savings and loans companies, and numerous real estate developers, with industrial sites and residential
developments.
[25][26]
The road network in the Accra Metropolitan Area totals 1,117 kilometres (694 mi) in
length.
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There are over 50,506 identified residential properties in Accra, and about 4,054 commercial/industrial/mixed
properties, with a total rateable value of GH¢13,849,014.
[27]
There are also supermarkets, 36 facilities for both
on–street and off-street parking, and shopping malls, as well as several facilities for sports and recreation.
Sectors of the economy
The sectors of Accra's economy consist of the primary, secondary (manufacturing, electricity, gas, water,
construction) and tertiary sectors (supermarkets, shopping malls, hotel, restaurant, transportation, storage,
communication, financial intermediation, real estate service, public administration, education, health and other
social services). The tertiary service sector is the city's largest, employing about 531,670 people. The second-
largest, the secondary sector, employs 22.34% of the labor force, or around 183,934 people. 12.2% of the
city's workforce are reportedly unemployed, totalling around 114,198 people.
[27]
Panorama View of the Shopping Mall exterior design and entrance of Accra Mall.
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Licensed and Commercial fishing
vessels off the coast of Accra.
Panorama View of the Shopping Mall interior design of Accra Mall.
Primary sector
Accra's smallest economic sector, the primary sector, employs
approximately 91,556 people. The predominant economic activities
are fishery and urban agriculture, with fishery accounting for 77.8% of
production labour. Urban agriculture in Accra centres on the growth
of vegetables, several crops and poultry. The fishery industry is the
most important sub-sector, with 10% of the catch being exported and
the rest consumed locally. The industry is characterized by extreme
seasonableness, operating primarily between June and September.
Although most deep-water Atlantic fishing around Accra takes place
in the June–September period, fishery operations take place close to
the shore throughout the year, and there are clear indications of the
depletion of fish stocks in the near future. Fishing operations are most
prominent at the Jamestown, La, Teshie, Nungua and Chorkor fishing shores.
Education
Pre-school
Pre-school comprises nursery and kindergarten. In 2001, there was 7,923 children (3,893 girls and 4,030
boys) in pre-schools in Accra. In 2010, the enrollment rate at Pre-school was 98%.
[28]
Pre-schools are
regulated by the Ministry of Employment and Social Welfare, and are mostly privately owned and operated. In
2001, there were 62 government-owned pre-schools in the Accra metropolis.
Primary school
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Achimota School
Accra Academy
Primary school enrollment of girls is higher than that of boys.
[28]
In 2010, the enrollment rate at primary school
level was 95%.
[28]
Junior high school (JHS)
The Junior High School is part of Ghana's basic education program. Its nationwide implementation began on 29
September 1987.
In the 2001/2002 academic year, 61,080 pupils had enrolled in Accra, representing 57.17% of the 129,467
school-age 12–to-14-year-olds. In 2010, the enrollment rate at Junior high school level was 95%.
[28]
The ratio
of girls is also higher at this level.
[28]
Senior high school (SHS)
The transition rate between junior high and senior high school increased
from 30 per cent in 1990 to 50 per cent in 2001. The number of students
grew by 23,102 between 1990 and 2005, an increase of about 2,310 a
year, since 2010 the senior high school enrollment rate has been 95%.
[28]
Ghana International School (GIS), a private non-profit A-Level school
founded in 1955 for children from ages 3–18, is located in Accra's
Cantonments. Abelemkpe is the home of Lincoln Community School, a
private, non-profit International Baccalaureate (IB) school for students
aged 3–18, established in 1968.
[29]
The American International School is
also situated in Accra.
A number of notable public secondary schools lie on the outskirts of
Accra: Achimota Secondary School, commonly referred to as
"Motown", which was founded in 1924 and opened in 1927;
[30]
the
Presbyterian Boys' Secondary School, commonly known as
"Presec";Wesley Grammar School WESS-G Dansoman, Preset
Pacesetters school Madina Fire stone,Aburi Girls Secondary School
popularly known as "Abugiss" and one of the most well-known girls'
boarding schools in Ghana; St Thomas Aquinas Secondary School,
commonly known as "Quinas"; the Accra Academy, known as "Accra Aca"; Accra High School commonly
known as ("Ahisco");, West Africa Secondary School, commonly known as "WASS"; the Accra Girls' School,
commonly known as "Agiss"; Kaneshie Secondary Technical School ("Kateco"); the Armed Forces Secondary
Technical; St. John's Grammar School; Action Senior High & Technical School ("Action"); and the City
Secondary and Business College ("Cibusco"), among others.
Universities
The University of Ghana, is located 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) north of the city centre at Legon. A number of other
public and private universities and tertiary institutions have since been founded in Accra, some of which are
listed below.
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Institution Location Public/Private Affiliation
University of Ghana (Legon) Legon Public
Regional Maritime University (RMU)
Nungua Private
University of
Ghana
Ghana Telecom University College (GTUC) Tesano Private
Islamic University College (ICUG) East Legon Private
University of
Ghana
Knutsford University College
(http://www.knutsford.edu.gh/) (Knutsford)
East Legon Private
University of
Ghana
Methodist University College (MUCG) Dansoman Private
University of
Ghana
Regent University College of Science and Technology
(Regent)
Mataheko Private
Kwame
Nkrumah
University of
Science and
Technology
Ashesi University (Ashesi) Berekuso Private
University of
Cape Coast
Central University College (Central) Mataheko/Miotso Private
University of
Cape Coast
Zenith University College (ZUC) La, Trade Fair Private
University of
Cape Coast
Ghana Institute Of Journalism (http://www.gij.edu.gh/)
(GIJ)
Rigde Public
University of
Ghana
Accra Polytechnic (A-Poly) Tudu Public
Advanced Business University College
(http://www.advancedbusinesscollege.com/site/site/)
(ABUC)
Kaneshie Private
University of
Education,
Winneba
Ghana Institute Of Management and Public
Administration (http://www.gimpa.edu.gh/) (GIMPA)
Achimota Public
The Institute of Professional Studies
(http://www.ips.edu.gh/) (IPS)
Legon Public
National Film and Television Institute (NAFTI) Cantonments Public
University of
Ghana
Valley View University (VVU) Oyibi Private
Transportation
Accra is served by Kotoka International Airport, which has both civil and military uses.
[31]
Located 6 miles (9.7
kilometres) from downtown Accra, the airport handles all of the city's scheduled passenger services. Accra is
connected by railway line to Kumasi and Takoradi.
[32]
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KIA Main entrance KIA Main terminal building
Kotoka International Airport (KIA)
Accra railway station
Accra Taxi
Downtown Accra's streets were not
organised in a grid plan, but rather created
as needed. By contrast, the streets of
planned housing estates, such as
Dansoman Estates, Ringway Estates and
Kanda Estates, do follow a grid system.
Public transportation is the most popular
means of getting around Accra.
Metro monorail
Further information: Accra
monorail
Feasibility studies for a $1.5 billion monorail project was completed in
2012, to be followed by the construction of rail tracks within the
following five years. The privately funded project is to be undertaken
by the Intercontinental Development Corporation (IDC).
[33]
Taxis
Accra has an extensive taxi network and numerous taxi ranks, but
most taxis lack a meter system, so price negotiation is required
between the passenger and driver. Metered taxis do operate in the
city, but tend to be more expensive. Taxis in Ghana are painted in two
colours: the four bumpers fenders are yellow/orange, and the rest of
the car is in a colour of the operator's choice.
Trotros
Further information: Tro tro
By far the most common form of transport in Accra, tro tros (motor
vehicles repurposed for passenger transport) is the third biggest, and
second most efficient and cost-effective way of getting around the city. The buses are typically minibuses or
vans, with the most popular being Nissan Urvan 15-seaters and Mercedes Benz Sprinter or D 309 vans.
Trotros are typically decorated with flags and stickers of various countries or (local and international) soccer
teams, and with witty sayings, wisecracks, local proverbs (in English or local languages) or Bible verses printed
on the bus's rear. Trotros stop at any bus stop or gathering of people, and can also be found at truck and taxi
stations, such as the Neoplan station.
[34]
Buses
Further information: Metro Mass Transit Company Limited
In 2003, the Metro Mass Transit Service, was inaugurated in Accra as a more comfortable and cheaper
alternative to the trotro. Recently, plans have been afoot to develop a more advanced rapid transit bus system
for the city and its metropolitan area. This project is aimed at creating an "integrated, efficient, cost-effective and
sustainable transportation system responsive to the needs of society, and supporting growth".
[35][36]
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Computer Expo at the Convention
Centre of the Accra International
Conference Centre
Panorama View of the Accra Bus Rapid Transit of Metro Mass Transit Company Limited.
Sport
Football is the most popular sport in Accra. The most famous football club in the city is Accra Hearts of Oak,
whose main rivals are Asante Kotoko of Kumasi. The Accra Sports Stadium is home to the Hearts of Oak,
[37]
and a host venue of the Black Stars, the national football team of Ghana. In 2008, the Accra Sports Stadium
hosted 9 matches in the 2008 African Cup of Nations.
[38]
Attractions
Accra is the Greater Accra region's tourist hub, sporting a wide
variety of hotels, monuments, museums and nightclubs. The city has
three five-star hotels: the Labadi Beach Hotel, the La Palm Royal
Beach Hotel and the Movenpick Ambassador Hotel. The Golden
Tulip Hotel and Novotel Accra, located in Accra's central business
district, are both ranked four stars. There are numerous three-star
hotels, including the Hotel Wangara, Hotel Shangri-La and Erata
Hotel, as well as many budget hotels. The Accra International
Conference Centre and other meeting facilities provide venues for
conference tourism.
[39]
The Du Bois Centre houses a research library and gallery of
manuscripts, as well as the graves of its namesake, the scholar
W.E.B. Du Bois, and his wife Shirley Graham Du Bois. The Kwame
Nkrumah Mausoleum is the resting place of Ghana’s first President, Kwame Nkrumah, who oversaw the Gold
Coast's independence from Britain and was a leading exponent of Pan-Africanism.
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Street scene with High-tech architecture
and Neomodern Buildings with
Mercedes-Benz automotive industry
manufacturing factory and outlet store in
West Ridge, Accra.
Roundabout scene with High-tech
architecture and Neomodern Buildings in
Labone, Accra.
The National Theatre in Accra, home
of the National Symphony Orchestra
Ghana.
Intersection and Junction in East
Ridge, Accra.
Accra furthermore hosts
the National Museum,
National Theatre, with its
distinctive modern
Chinese architecture.
The city's foremost
historical site is the
Jamestown area, which
contains the Ussher Fort
and James Fort, and Osu
Castle (also known as
Christiansborg), built by
Danish settlers in the 17th
century.
Other sites of note include The Flagstaff House (the office of the Government of Ghana and the President of
Ghana), the Parliament House of Ghana, the Ghana-India Kofi Annan Centre of Excellence in ICT, the Black
Star Square, Accra Sports Stadium, and the Accra Centre for National Culture.
The Cathedral of the Holy Spirit is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Accra, which was founded in
1943 as the Apostolic Prefecture of Accra. The cathedral itself dates to 1947.
Accra has an Atlantic beachfront and the most popular of the city's beaches is Labadi Beach, along with
Kokrobite Beach, which is located 25 kilometres west of Accra. The beachfront area also houses the Academy
of African Music and Arts.
Image Gallery
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Street scene in East Ridge, Accra. Highway scene in West Ridge, Accra.
Commercial Highway in Osu, Accra. Street scene with High-tech architecture
and Neomodern Buildings in North
Ridge, Accra.
Construction of High-tech architecture
and Neomodern Skyscraper Office
Buildings with Pedestrian Crossing
scene in North Ridge, Accra.
Ghana Post General Post Office and
Fidelity Bank Ghana Buildings in East
Ridge, Accra.
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PricewaterhouseCoopers with Eni High-
tech architecture and Neomodern
Buildings in West Ridge, Accra.
High-tech architecture and Neomodern
exterior design of the Ghana
Commercial Bank (GBC) Building in
North Ridge, Accra.
Papaye Fast Food Restaurant scene on
Oxford Street in Osu, Accra.
Traffic Circle scene in Labone, Accra.
Neomodern exterior design scene of the
Accra Kotoka International Airport in
West Ridge, Accra.
Public Space scene with High-tech
architecture of Independence Arch,
Black Star Square and Liberation Day
Monument in West Ridge, Accra.
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Direction Sign scene of the Ghana
Space Science and Technology Centre
(GSSTC) & Ghana Space Agency
(GhSA) and the International Atomic
Energy Agency (IAEA) on Proton
Street in Labone, Accra.
The first Congoid and
African professional
footballer in the world;
Arthur Wharton.
The first Africa-born
professional footballer
to win the World Cup
and FIFA 100
inductee; Marcel
Desailly.
The Ghanaian Indian
and Bollywood
renowned film
director and film
producer; Vishal
Punjabi.
Notable people
See also: People from Accra
Sister cities
Accra has four official sister cities, as recognized by Sister Cities International:
[40]
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City
Province / Region /
State
Nation Year Ref
Johannesburg
Gauteng
[41]
Chicago Illinois 1989
[40]
Washington,
DC
Maryland Virginia 2006
[42]
Columbia South Carolina
[43]
References
Notes
1. ^ City of Accra website (http://www.ama.gov.gh/ama/page/5166/physical-and-natural-environment-boundary--
administrative-area)
2. ^ "Boundary and Administrative Area" (http://ghanadistricts.com/districts/?r=1&_=3&rlv=location).
Ghanadistricts.com. Retrieved 2010-07-22.
3. ^ "World Gazetteer online" (http://bevoelkerungsstatistik.de/wg.php?
x=1170623253&men=gcis&lng=de&dat=32&geo=-85&srt=npan&col=aohdq&pt=c&va=x). World-
gazetteer.com. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
4. ^ "Population of Accra, Ghana" (http://population.mongabay.com/population/ghana/2306104/accra).
GeoNames. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
5. ^
a

b
"Ghana" (http://www.citypopulation.de/Ghana.html). Thomas Brinkhoff. Archived
(http://web.archive.org/web/20100714071417/http://www.citypopulation.de/Ghana.html) from the original on
14 July 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
6. ^ "Ghana" (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gh.html). The World Factbook.
Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-11-23.
7. ^ "Accra Metropolitan" (http://www.ghanadistricts.com/districts/?news&r=1&_=3). GhanaWeb. Retrieved 22
July 2010.
8. ^ "Environmental and Structural Inequalities in Greater Accra" (http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?
c=jii;view=text;rgn=main;idno=4750978.0016.105). The Journal of the International Institute. Retrieved 22 July
2010.
9. ^ "Accra" (http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/geography/accra.php). GhanaWeb. Retrieved 22 July
2010.
10. ^ "The World According to GaWC 2010" (http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2010.html). Globalization and
World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network. Loughborough University. Retrieved 15 September 2011.
11. ^ "History of Accra" (http://www.africanexecutive.com/modules/magazine/articles.php?article=994). The
African Executive. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
12. ^ "History of Accra" (http://www.macalester.edu/courses/geog261/eskidmore/history.htm). Retrieved 17
February 2011.
13. ^ Accra Conferences (http://www.allconferences.com/Regional/Accra/). AllConferences.com. Retrieved 2012-
01-29.
14. ^ "A repository of all districts in the republic of Ghana" (http://ghanadistricts.com/districts/?
r=1&_=3&sa=3055). Ghana Districts. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
15. ^ MyJoyOnline (http://news.myjoyonline.com/news/201001/40331.asp).
16. ^ http://www.spyghana.com/govt-hide-behind-equipment-failure-as-justification-for-power-cuts/
17. ^ "A repository of all districts in the republic of Ghana" (http://ghanadistricts.com/districts/?
r=1&_=3&rlv=climate). Ghana Districts. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
18. ^ "Average Conditions Accra, Ghana" (http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/world/city_guides/results.shtml?
tt=TT000240). BBC Weather. May 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2009.
19. ^ "A repository of all districts in the republic of Ghana" (http://ghanadistricts.com/districts/?
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19. ^ "A repository of all districts in the republic of Ghana" (http://ghanadistricts.com/districts/?
r=1&_=3&sa=3004). Ghana Districts. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
20. ^ "Achimota-Ofankor Road To Open To Traffic In May" (http://www.graphic.com.gh/news/page.php?
news=19524). graphic.com.gh. Daily Graphic (Ghana).
21. ^ "Ghana: Awoshie-Pokuase Road Projet"
(http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Environmental-and-Social-Assessments/Ghana-
Awoshie-Pokuase%20Road%20ESIA%20Summary%20board%20board%2020%201%2009.pdf). afdb.org.
22. ^ "A repository of all districts in the republic of Ghana" (http://ghanadistricts.com/districts/?
r=1&_=3&sa=3037). Ghana Districts. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
23. ^ Accra Metropolitan Assembly, Boundary and Administrative Area (http://www.ghanadistricts.com/districts/?
news&r=1&_=3). Retrieved 1 July 2009.
24. ^ http://www.worldbank.org/afr/wps/wp110.pdf World Bank Africa Region Working Paper Series 110 (PDF).
Retrieved 2011-10-15.
25. ^ Mantse Ankrah the Accra landlord is coming (http://www.ghanabizmedia.com/ghanabizmedia/january-2012-
special-report/470-mantse-ankrah-the-accra-landlord-is-coming.html). January 2012. ghanabizmedia.com.
26. ^ Oil Revenue (http://ghanaoilwatch.org/images/Oil_Revenue/jacob_hobenuPUBLICATION.PDF).
ghanaoilwatch.org.
27. ^
a

b
"A repository of all districts in the republic of Ghana" (http://ghanadistricts.com/districts/?
r=1&_=3&sa=5724). Ghana Districts. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
28. ^
a

b

c

d

e

f
"UNICEF At a glance: Ghana - Statistics"
(http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/ghana_statistics.html). unicef.org. UNICEF. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
29. ^ "Lincoln Community School" (http://www.lincoln.edu.gh). School Website. Archived
(http://web.archive.org/web/20090926100838/http://www.lincoln.edu.gh/) from the original on 26 September
2009. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
30. ^ "Achimota School Website" (http://www.achimota.edu.gh/). Achimota School. Archived
(http://web.archive.org/web/20090923174552/http://www.achimota.edu.gh/) from the original on 23
September 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
31. ^ "Kotoka International Airport" (http://worldaerodata.com/wad.cgi?id=GH02526&sch=DGAA). World Aero
Data. 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
32. ^ "Ghana"
(https://www.uktradeinvest.gov.uk/ukti/appmanager/ukti/countries;jsessionid=KTBQpDl6Xp1jtjp4NLphhKn0cT
23s7p5jtpJ3DnkJcy1PSjz0Zds!89531318!NONE?
_nfpb=true&portlet_3_5_actionOverride=/pub/portlets/genericViewer/showContentItem&_windowLabel=portle
t_3_5&portlet_3_5navigationPageId=/ghana&portlet_3_5navigationContentPath=/BEA+Repository/326/226985
&_pageLabel=CountryType1). UK Trade and Investment. 28 April 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
33. ^ IDC-World.com. Retrieved 2011-10-02. (http://www.idc-world.com/news)
34. ^ "Transportation | Ghana, Accra, Transport, Car, Trotros"
(http://beautifulghana.com/content/view/41/82/lang,en/). Beautiful Ghana. 1 May 2006. Archived
(http://web.archive.org/web/20100621083850/http://www.beautifulghana.com/content/view/41/82/lang,en/)
from the original on 21 June 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
35. ^ "US$95m VOTED TO SOLVE ACCRA, KUMASI TRANSPORT PROBLEMS | General News |
ModernGhana.com News" (http://www.modernghana.com/news/143322/1/us95m-voted-to-solve-accra-
kumasi-transport-proble.html). Modernghana.com. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
36. ^ Urban Transport Project (http://www.utp-ghana.com/home.aspx). utp-ghana.com. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
37. ^ "Accra Hearts of Oak Sporting Club" (http://www.accraheartsofoak.com/site/index.php). Official website.
Accra Hearts of Oak. Archived
(http://web.archive.org/web/20091209055754/http://www.accraheartsofoak.com/site/index.php) from the
original on 9 December 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
38. ^ "The 26th African Cup of Nations 2008". SportScheduler.
39. ^ Touring Ghana - Greater Accra Region (http://www.touringghana.com/regions/greateraccra_region.asp).
touringghana.com.
40. ^
a

b
"SCI: Sister City Directory" (http://www.sister-cities.org/directory/IntllistingsResults.cfm). Sister-
cities.org. Archived (http://web.archive.org/web/20100831175058/http://www.sister-
cities.org/directory/IntllistingsResults.cfm) from the original on 31 August 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
41. ^ "Johannesburg's Sister Cities" (http://www.joburg.org.za/index.php?
option=com_content&task=view&id=833&Itemid=131). joburg.org.za. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
27/4/2014 Accra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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External links
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Accra&oldid=605332682"
Categories: Accra Populated places in the Greater Accra Region
Populated places established in the 15th century Capitals in Africa Populated coastal places in Ghana
Former Portuguese colonies Former Dutch colonies Former Danish colonies Port cities in Africa
Regional capitals in Ghana Dutch Gold Coast Portuguese Gold Coast
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apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered
trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
42. ^ "Sister City Agreement with Accra, Ghana"
(http://jga.oca.dc.gov/DC/OS/Programs/View+DC's+Sister+Cities/Sister+City+Agreement+with+Accra,+Ghana
). Jga.oca.dc.gov. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
43. ^ "Columbia's Sister Cities" (http://www.columbiawac.org/sister_cities.html). columbiawac.org. Retrieved 14
February 2014.