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COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
1. Communication. It is the process by which information is transferred faithfully from one
point (source) to the other point (distinaion) in an intelligible form.
Information. It is basically the news which one whishes to convey.
Message. It is the physical manifestation of the informaiton produced by the souce. It may
appear as a sequence of discrete symbols, time-varying quantity, etc.
Signal. It is the electrical analog of the masage at the source. A signal may be dfined as the
sigle-valued fuction of time (that conveys the information) and which, at every instant of
time, takes a sunique value.
2. Communication system. The set used to transmit information from one point to another is
called a communicaiton system. The essential parts of a commuication system are transmitter,
communication channer and receiver, as shown in the block diagram of fig. 15.1.
(i) Transmitter. It is a set-up that transmits the message to the receiving end through a
communication chennel. Its main function is to convert the message signal produced by the
information source into a form suitable for transmission through the channel and to transmit
it.
(ii) Communication channel or transimisssion medium. It is the medium or the physical path that
receiver. It can be a transmission line, an optical fibre or free space.
Communication System
3. Antenna. An antenna is baiscally a small length of a conductor that is used to radiate or
receive electromagnetic waves. It acts as a conversion device. At the transmitting end, it
tranforms high frequency current into electromagnetic waves. At the receiving end, it tranforms
electromagnetic waves into electical signal that is fed to the input of the receiver. A dipole
antenna is omnidirectional, whereas the dish antenna is highly directional. The length of a
dipole antenna is usually
i
/2.
4. Two basic modes of communication. These are as follows:
1. Point-topoint communication. In this mode, communication occures over a link between a
single transmitter and receiver. For example, telephony.
2. Boradcast mode. In this mode, a large number of receivers are linked to a single transmitter.
For example, radio and television.
5. A schematic arrangement for transmitting and receiving a message signal. figure shows a
block diagram for an arrangeemnt for transmitting a signal when transmitter and receiver are
several thousand kilometers apart.
Modular Amplifier
Antenna
Microphone
Antenna
Tunable
amplifier
Audio
amplifier
Demodularor
Receiver
Loudspeaker
Transmitter
At the transmitting end, a microphone converts the sound signal into a time-varying electrical
signal called the message signal. With the help of a modulator, the message signal is translated
into radio frequency range. The power of the modulated wave is boosted by a suitable
amplifier and then the wave is radiated into space from an antenna.
At the receiving and, another antenna picks up the waves from different transmitting stations.
A tunable amplifer can selectively tune in and boost up the radio frequency wave from a
particular station. The original signal is recovered by using a demodulator. After being amplified,
the electrical signal is converted into sound signal by using a loudspeaker.
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6. Analog signal. A signal in which current or voltage varies continousely with time is called
analog signal. fig. shown. represents a siplest sinusoidally verying analog signal:
t sin A V e =
Digital Signal. A signal that is discrete is called a digital signal. The presence of signal is
denoted by digit 1 and absence is denoted by digit 0.
v
v =+A
max
v =-A
min
1 (5 V)
0 (0 V)
V
7. Bandwidth of signals. The range over which frequencies in an information signal vary is
called bandwidth. It is equal to the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies
present in the signal.
The type of the communication channel needed for a given signal depends on the bandwidth
of the information signal.
For example, speech signals contain frequencies between 300 Hz to 3100 Hz. Such signals
require a bandwidth of 2800 Hz (3100 Hz-300Hz) for telephonic transmission.
Audio signals have frequencies between 20 Hz to 20 kHz. So the transmission of a good music
requires a bandwidth of about 20 kHz.
Video signals required for transmission of picture have a bandwidth of about 4.2 MHz. A TV
signal, which contains both voice and picture, is allocated a bandwidth of 6 MHz for transmission.
8. Modulation. A high frequency carrier wae is used to carry the audio signal (massage) to
large distances. Modulation is the process by which some chrateristic, usually emplitude,
frequency or frequency audio signal, called the modulating signal.
Need of modulation in communication systems. Audio signals have a bandwidth of 20
kHz. Such low frequency signals cannot be transmitted directly to long distances because of
the following reasons :
1. Practical antenna length. To transmit a signal effectively, the height of the antenna should
be comparable to the wavelength of the signal (atleast i/4 in length) so that the antenna
properly senses the time variatons of the signal. So to transmit a signal of frequency 20 kHz,
we need an antenna of height =
km 15 m
10 20
10 3
3
8
=
×
×
÷
. Antenna of such a height cannot be
constructed. On the other hand, if a carrier wave of 1 MHz is used, required antenna height
comes down to just 300 m.
2. Effective power radiated by an antenna. For liner antenna of length l, it is seen that
Power radiated ·
2
1

¹
|

\
|
i
Thus for the same antenna length, the power radiated by short wavelength or high frequency
signals would be large. If the audio signals (of longer wavelength) are directly radiated into
space, they die out after covering some distance due to their low power.
3. Mixing up signals from different transmitters. When audio signals (of same frequency
range) are transmitted by many transmitters simultaneously, their signals get mixed up and it
is not and allotting a bond of frequencies to each signal for its transmission.
Thus there is a need for translating the original low frequency message (or information) signal
into a high frequency wave before transmission such that the transmitted signal continues to
posses the information contained in the orignal signal.
9. Bandwidths of transmission media. Depending on the nature of communication channel,
th communication is classified broadly into three categories:
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1. Line communication. It invokes point-to-point contact between transmitter and receiver.
It occurs through guided media such as twisted pair and coaxial cable.
Coaxial cable is a widely used wire medium, which offers a bandwidth of 750 MHz. These
cables are normally operated below 18 GHz (1 GHz=10
12
Hz).
2. Optical communication. It makes use of a light beam in carrying an informaiton from one
point to another through a guided medium like optical fibre.
Optical communication using fibres is carried in the fequency range of 1 THz to 1000 THz
(Micorwaves to Ultraviolet waves, 1 THz=10
12
Hz.). An optical fibre can have a transmission
bandwidth above 100 GHz.
3. Space elelctromagnetic waves of different frequencies are used to carry the information
through the physical space acting as the tramsmission medium. Radio, television and satellite
communications are all space communications.
Communication through free space using radio waves takes place over a wide range of
frequencies : from a few hundreds of kHz to a few Ghz.
Service Frequency bands Comments
Standard AM Broadcast
FM Broadcast
Television
Cellular Mobile Radio
Satellite Communication
540-1600 kHz
88-108 MHz
54-72 MHz
76-88 MHz
174-216 MHz
420-890 MHz
896-901 MHz
840-935 MHz
5.925-6.425 GHz
3.7-4.2 GHz
VHF (very high frequencies)
TV
UHF (ultra high frequencies)
TV
Mobile to base station
Base station to mobile
Uplink
Downlink
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Solved Problems
1. What is amplitude modulation ? Draw an A.M. wave. Give its iportant features.
Sol. Amplitude modulation. It is the process in which the amplitude of the high frequency carrier
wave changes in accordance with the instantaneous value of modulating signal. Here a
voltage proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal gets added to the carrier
amplitude.
Waveform of A.M. voltage. an unmodulated carrier voltage, a sinusoidal odulating voltage
(audio signal) and amplitude modulated voltage.
Clearly, the aplitude of the carrier wave changes in accordance with the modulating wave.
During the positive half cycle of the modulating signal, the amplitude of carrir wave increases.
Thus the top and botom envelopes of th emodulated wave are just the replica of the modulating
signal.
Important features of the amplitude modulated wave:
1. Amplitude of the carrier wave changes according to the modulating signal.
2. Amplitude of the carrier wave changes at the frequency ‘f
m
’ of themodulating sinal.
3. Frequency of the A.M. wave is equal to the unmodulated carrier frequency ‘f
c
’.
2. Define modulation factor. Express it in terms of maximum and minimum voltages of
A.M. wave. Give the importance of modulation factor.
Sol. Modulatin factor or depth of modulation. It represents the extent to which the amplitude of
the carrier wave is changed by the modulating signal. It is defined as the ratio of the change
in the amplitude of the carrier wave to the amplitude of the original carrier wave. It is also
known as degree of modulation or modulation index. If A
m
and A
c
are the amplitudes of
modulating and carrier signals respectively, then the modulation factor is given by
c
m
A
A
wave carrier original of Amplitude
wave amplitude in Change
= = µ
Modulation factor in terms of A
max
and A
min
. Let A
max
and A
min
be the maximum and minimum
voltages of A.M. wave.
it is clear that
2
A A
A
min max
m
÷
=
and
2
A A
2
A A
A A A A
min max min max
max m max c
+
=
÷
÷ = ÷ =
Hence the modulation factor is
, )
, )
min max
min max
min max
min max
c
m
A A
A A
2 / A A
2 / A A
A
A
+
÷
=
+
÷
= = µ
Modulation factor µgenerally lies between 0 and 1.
The percentage modulation is given by
% 100
A A
A A
min max
min max
×
+
÷
= µ
Importance of modulation factor. The modulatin factor determines the strength and quality of
the transmitted signal. If m is small, the amount of variation in the carrier amplitude is small.
As a modulation, the stronger and clearer will not be strong enough. The greatr the degree of
modulated , ) 1 > µ , distortion will occur during reception.
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3. Derive an expression for amplitude modulated wave.
Sol. Let modulating signal, m
, )
t
m m
sin A t e =
and Carrier signal, , ) t sin A t c
c c
e = .
where, m(t) instanteneous voltage of modulatin wave
m
A =aplitude of modulating wave
m m
f 2t = e = angular frequency of modulating wave
, ) = t c instantaneous voltage of carrier wave
=
c
A amplitude of carrier wave
= t = e
c c
f 2 angular freequency of carrier wave.
The amplitude of the carrier wave varies at the frequency
m
e of the modulating wave. So
amplitude of the modulated wave is given by
, ) , ) t sin 1 A t sin A A t sin A A t m A A
m c m c c m m c c
e µ + = e µ + = e + = + =
Here
c
m
A
A
= µ
is the modulation index.
The instantaneous voltage of the A.M. is given by
, ) , ) t sin t sin 1 A t sin A t c
c m c c m
e × e µ + = e =
t sin . t sin 2
2
A
t sin A
m c
c
c c
e e ×
µ
+ e =
, ) , )t cos
2
A
t cos
2
A
t sin A
m c
c
m c
c
c c
e + e
µ
+ e + e
µ
+ e =
4. What is meant by sideband frequencies in a carrier wave ? Justify that bandwidth of
an A.M. wave is 2f
m
, where f
m
is the modulating frequency.
Sol. Sideband frequencies and bandwidth of A.M. wave. The equation (1) shows that the A.M.
wave is the sum of three sinusoidal waves :
2
A
c
µ
c
A
2
A
c
µ
f – f
c m
f
c
f + f
c m
(i) One the original carrier wave of amplitude A
3
and frequency f
c
= e
c
/2t.
(ii) The second wave of amplitude µA
c
/2 and of frequency (f
c
+ f
m
). The sum of carrier
frequency and modulating frequency (f
c
+ f
m
) is called upper side band frequency (USB).
(iii) The third wave of amplitude is A
c
/2 and frequency (f
c
– f
m
). The difference of carrier
frequency and modulating frequency (f
c
– f
m
) is called Lower side band frequency (LSB).
The difference between the highest and the lowest frequencies present in the A.M. wave is
called is bandwidth.
5. What is demodulation ? With the help of a suitable circuit diagram, briefly expain the
working of an amplitude demodulator.
Sol. Demodulation or detection. The process of recovering the audio signal from the modulated
wave is known as demodulation or detection. As the modulated wave contains the three
waves of frequencies e
c
, and e
c
+ e
m
, we need to detect only the original message signal m(t)
or frequency e
m
. Thus message demodulation is the reverse process of modulation. A junction
diode can be used as a deterctor or demodulator. Its action is same as that of a half-wave
rectifier.
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p n
C L C R
L
Modulated
signal
Rectified
current
pulses
Audio output
across R
H
e
a
d
p
h
o
n
e
Junction diode as a detector
Elementary demodulator cirucit for an AM wave. Fig. shows a circuit diagram for a junction
diode as detector for an amplitude modulated wave.
The input circuit is a parallel combination or inductance L and variable capacitor C. It is called
turned circuit. By adjusting the frequency of this circuit, the desired modulated radio signal is
resonatly selected from the different signals picked up by the antenna. Diode rectifies this
signal. So the output of the diode is a series of positive half cycles of radio frequency current
pulses. The peaks of these pulses vary in accordance with the audio signal. To recover the
audio signal, the capacitor C' offers a low frequency audio wave. So the capacitor C' act as a
by-pass for high frequency carrier wave while the low frequency audio wave appears across
the resistor R
1
. This sends current through a headphone to reproduce original audio signal.
For extract recovery of the original message, the following condition must be satisfied.
c
f
1
< R
1
C' <
m
f
1
6. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of amplitude modulation.
Sol. Advantages of amplitude modulation :
1. It is an easier method for transmitting and receiving voice signals.
2. It requires simple and cheaper transmitters and receivers.
3. Its transmission requires low carrier frequencies of 0.5 – 20 MHz.
4. Area in whic AM transmission can be received is much larger than that in case of FM
transmission.
Disadvantages of amplitude modulation :
1. Amplitude modulation suffers from noise.
2. Quality of audio of signal is poor.
3. Efficiency of A.M. transmission is low.
7. Give the advantages and disadvantages of frequency modulation over amplitude
modulation.
Sol. Advantages of frequency modulation over amplitude modulation :
1. F.M. transmission is highly efficient becaue all the transmitted poer is useful but in A.M.
transmission, most of the power goes waste in transmitting the carrier alone.
2. Since amplitude remains constant in F.M., So amplitude limiters can be used to reduce noise in
F.M.
3. Depoth of amplitude modulation cannot be increased beyond 100 % without causing distortion.
There is no such limit in F.M. Hence noise in F.M. can be reduced further by increasing deviation
o.
4. In F.M., standard frequency allocations provide a guard band between commercial F.M. stations.
This reduces adjacent channel interference.
5. In F.M., space wave propagation is used. So its radius of operation is slightly more thant the
line of sight. It makes possib le to operate several transmitters in the same frequency range
with negligible interference.
6. In the VHF or UHF bands where F.M. operates, there is less noise than in HF or MF bands where
A.M. operates.
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7. F.M. transmissioin gives high fidelity reception due to the presence of a large number of
sidebands.
Disadvantages of frequency modulation over amplitude modulation :
1. The channel required in F.M. is about 10 times wider than that in A.M.
2. F.M. receivers and transmitters are very complex and costly.
3. As F.M. reception is limited to line of sight, so its area of reception is much smaller than that for
A.M.
8. How can we clasify transmission media on the basis of their nature ? Give their
approximate bandwidths.
Sol. Bandwidths of transmission media. Depending on the nature of communication channel,
the communication is classified broadly into three categories :
1. Line communication. It invokes poit-to-point contact between transmitter and receiver.
It occurs through guided media such as twisted pair and coaxial cable.
Coaxial cable is widely used wire medium, which offers a bandwidth of 750 MHz. These cables
are normally operated below 18 GHz (1 GHz = 10
12
Hz),
2. Optical communication. It makes used of a light beam in carrying an information from
oine point to another through a guided medium like opotical fibre.
Optical communication using fibres is carried in the frequency range (of 1 THz to 100 THz
Microwaves to Ultraviolet waves, 1.THz = 10
12
Hz). An optical fibre can have a transmission
bandwidth above 100 GHz.
9. Give type of Space wave communication.
Sol. Here electromagnetic waves of different frequencies are used to carry the information through
the physical space acting as the transmission medium. Radio, television and satellite
communications are all space communications.
Communications through free space using radio waves takes place over a wide range of
frequencies : from a few hundreds of kHz to a few GHz.
Servise Frequency bands Comments
Standard AM bradcast 540-1600 kHz
FM broadcast 88-108 MHz
Television 54-72 MHz VHF (very high frequencies)
76-88 MHz TV
174-216 MHz UHF (ultra high frequencies)
420-890 MHz TV
Cellular Mobile Radio 896-901 MHz Mobile to base station
840-935 MHz Base statyion to mobile
Satellite Communication 5.925-6.425 GHz Uplink
3.704.2 GHz Downlink
10. Deduce an expression for the distance upto which the T.V. signals be directly be received
from a T.V. tower of height h.
Sol. Range of a transmitting antenna. Let T.V. signals be transmitted from an antenna of height
PQ = h
T
. Due to the curvature of the earth, no direct signals are possible beyong the points S
or T, as shown in fig.
Let PS = PT = d
From right-angled AOTQ, we get
OQ
2
= OT
2
+ QT
2
Here OQ = R + h
T
QT = PT = d
OT = R = Radius of the earth
(R + h
T
)
2
= R
2
+ d
2
or R
2
+ h
T
2
+ 2h
R
R = R
2
+ d
2
Q
P
S
R
R
O
T
Range of a transmitting antenna
or d
2
= h
T
2
+ 2h
T
R = 2h
T
R (
]
1

¸

+
R 2
h
1
T
But h
T
< < R, therefore d
2
= 2h
T
R
or R h 2 d
T
=
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11. Write an expressin for the maximum line of sight (LOS) distance between two antennas
for space wave propagation.
Sol. Range of space wave propagation between two antennas on earth’s surface. A space
wave travels in a stright line from transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna i.e., it is a line
of sight (LOS) communication. Due to the curvature of the earth, direct space waves get
blocked at some points. Thus the earth presents a horizon to space wave propagation commonly
called ratio horizon.
Fig. shows the effect of antenna height on the radio horizon. The line-of-sight radio horizon for
a single antenna at sea level is given by
d =
Rh 2
Where d = distance to radio horizon
h = antenna height above sea level
R = Radius of the earth
The maximum line-of-sight distance d
M
between the transmitting and receiving antennas is
given by
d
M
= d
T
+ d
R
=
T
Rh 2 +
R
Rh 2
where d
T
= radio horizon for transmitting antenna
d
R
= radio horizon for receiving antenna
h
T
= height of transmitting antenna
h
R
= height of receving antenna
Clearly, if a signal is to be received beyond the horizon, then the height of receving antenna
must be large enough so as to intercept line-of-sight waves directly.
Moreover, the power transmitted from a transmitter decreasses nearly as the inverse square of
the distance. So the signal becomes weaker with the increasing distance. Hence the range of
T.V. transmission can be increased.
(i) by increasing the heigh of the transmitting and receiving antennas.
(ii) by using repeater transmitting stations.
12. What is ionosphere ? Explain the importance in communication.
Sol. Ionosphere. It is the outermost region of the earth’s atmosphere whcih extends from about
60 –350 km from the earth’s surface. Due to law pressure in this part of atmosphere, ionisation
is produced by ultra-violet radiation and X-rays from the sun. So this region is mostly composed
of ionised matter i.e., electrons and positive ions whereas the remaining atmosphere is mostly
composed of neutral molelcules. The ionosphere is further subdivided into layer as C, D, E, F
1
and F
2
, as shown in figure shown.
C
D
E
F
1
F
2
MF absorbed
VHF, UHF transmitted
Ionosphere
HF reflected
Earth’s surface
The ionosphere plays an important role in space communication. The radiowaves of the HF
frequency band having frequency range 3 –30 MHz cannot penetrate through the ionosphere.
They are reflected back towards the earth. This region of the AM band is called shortwave
band. Above frequency of 40 MHz, the ionosphere bends the electromagnetic waves and does
not reflect them back towards the earth.
13. What is sky propagation ?
Sol. Sky wave propagation. A radiowave directed towards the sky and reflected by the ionosphere
towards the desired location of the earth is called a sky wave. Radio wave of frequencies
between 2 MHz to 20 MHz can be reflected by the ionosphere. This region of the AM band is
called short wave band. These waves radiated from a certain point and after being reflected
by the ionosphere can be received at anotehr point on the surface. This is known sky wave or
ionospheric propagation. In this way, radio waves can travel very large distances and can
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even travel round the earth.
Critical frequency. It is that highest frequency of radio wave which when sent straight
(normally) towards the given layer of ionosphere gets reflected from ionosphere and returns to
the earth. Above this frequency, the radiowave will penetrate the ionosphere and is not
reflected by it. It is given by
2 / 1
max c
) N ( 9 f =
where N
max
= the maximum electron density of the ionosphere.
14. What do you mean by the terms Internel, Email, World Wide Web, E-commerce, Chat,
FAX and Mobile Telephoney ?
Sol. Internet. It is a global network of computers linked by high speed data lines and wireles
systems. It allows communication and sharing of information between any two or more computers.
Email : Electronic mail : It is a message sent and received through a computer network.
File Transfer : An FTP (File Transfer Protocol) permits the transfer of files/software from one
computer to another connected to the internet.
WWW. World Wide Web. It is a set of protocols that allows us to access any document on
the internet.
E-commerce. It is the collection of tools and practices involving internet technologies that
allow a company to create, maintain and optimise business relations with consumers and other
businesses. It permits online banking and shopping.
Chat. It is the real time conversation among people with common interests through the typed
messages on the net.
FAX. Facsimile telegraphy. The electronic reproduction of a document at a distant place is
called Facsimile telegraphy or fax.
In order to sent a document through fax, the following three functions are performed :
(i) At the sending end, the original docuemnt is read by an optical scanner.
(ii) The black and white dots of the document are encoded and compressed for transmission
and reception via a telephone line.
(iii) At the receiving end, the received data is decompressed and processed by a printer to
reporduce the original document.
Mobile Telephony : Instead of a single high-power transmitter for an entire service area,
numerous lower power transmitters (base stations) are set up, each covering a fraction of
that service area, called a cell. As a mobile receiver moves from one cell to another, the mobile
user is handed over to the new cell’s base station through a switching office called mobile
telephone switching office (MTSO)
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Exercise–1
1. Name the three basic units of any communication system.
2. Define the terms : signal, noise, attenuation and baseband in connection with communicatino
systems.
3. What is a ground wave ? Why short wave communication over long distance is not possiblevia
ground waves ?
4. Sky waves are not used in transmitting T.V. signals. Why ? State two factors by which the
range of transmission of T.V. signals can be increased.
5. What is meant by the terms ‘modulation’ ? Explain with the help of a block diagram, how the
process of modulation is carried out in radio broadcasts.
6. What is demodulation ? With the help of a suitable circuit diagram, briefly explain the working
of an amplitude demodulator.
7. A transmitting antenna of the top of a tower has a height 32 m and that of the receiving
antenna is 50 m. What is the maximum distance between them for satisfactory communication
i s L O S m o d e ? G i v e r a d i u s o f e a r t h 6 . 4 × 1 0
6
m.
[Hint :
R e T e
h R 2 h R 2 dm + = ]
OR
Is it necessary for a transmitting antenna to be at the same height as that of the receiving
antenna for line of slight communication ? A TV transmitting antenna is 81 m tall. How much
service area it can cover it the receiving antenna is at the ground level ?
8. Explain the need of modulation in communication system.
9. Derive an expression for amplitude modulated wave. Hence explain the presence of sidebands
in such a wave.
10. On a particular day, the maximum frequency reflected from the ionosphere in 9 MHz. On
another day it was found to increase to 12 MHz. Calculate the ratio of the maximum electron
densities of the ionosphere on the two days. Point out a possible explanation for this.
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Exercise–2
1. Distinguish between sky wave and space wave propagation give a brief description with the
help of suitable diagrams indicating how these waves are propagated [2010]
2. Name any two types of transmission media that are commonly used for transmission of signals.
[2010]
Write the range of frequencier of signals for which these transmission media are used.[2010]
3. State the two main reasons eseplaining the need of modulation for transmission of audio
signals. [2010]
1
0
–1
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
3
C(t)
1
0
–1
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
3
m(t)
The diagram, given above, show carrier wave c(t) that is to be (amplitude) modulated by
modulating signal m(t). Draw general shape of the resulting AM wave. [2010]
Define its ‘modulation index’
4. Write two factor just flying the need of of modulating a signal A carrier wave of peak voltage
12 V is used to transmit a message signal. What should be the peak voltage of the modulating
signal in order to have a modulation index 75% [2010]
5. Which mode of propagation is used by short wave broadcast servicer having frequency range
from a few MHz upt o 30 MHz ? Explain diagrammatically how long distance communication can
be achieved by this mode. Why is there an upper limit of frequency of waves used in this mode.
[2010]
6. Write function of (1) Transducer and (ii) Repeater in the context of cummnication system.
[CBSE 2009]
7. Write factors (two) justifying the need of medulation for transmission for a signal [CBSE 2009]
8. A transmitting antenna at the top of a tower has a height of 36 m and the height of the
receiving antenna is 49 m. What is the maximum distance between them, for satisfactory
communication in LOS mode ? (Radius of earth = 6400 km). [CBSE 2008]
9. A carrier wave of peak voltage 20 V is used to transmit a message signal. What should be the
peak voltage of the modulating signal, in order to have a modulation index of 80 % Y.
[CBSE 2008]
10. What should be the length of dipole antenna for a carrier wave of frequency 5 × 10
8
Hz.
[CBSE 2007]
11. A TV tower has a height of 71 km. What is the maximum distance upto which TV transmission
can be received ? Radius of earth = 6.4 × 10
6
m [CBSE 2007]
12. A ground receiver station is receiving signals at (i) 5 MHz and (ii) 100 MHz, transmitted from a
ground transmiiter at a height of 300 m located at a distance of 100 km. Identify whether the
signals are coming via space wave or sky wave propagation or satellite tranponder. Radius of
earth = 6400 km; maximum electron density in ionosphere, N
max
= 10
12
m
–3
.
[CBSE 2005]
13. A TV tower has a height of 500 m at a given place. If radius of earth is 6400 km, what is it
coverage range ?
[CBSE 2004]
14. A TV tower has a height of 400 m at a given place. Calculate its coverage range if radius of
earth is 6400 km. [CBSE 2004]
15. What are the directions of electric and magnetic field vectors relative to each other and
relative to the direction of propagation of electromagnetic waves ? [CBSE 2012]
Ans.
÷ ÷
± B E
& both are
±
to direction of propagation.
217 COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
www.thinkiit.in
16. A bar magnet is moved in the direction indicated by the arrow between two coils PQ and CD.
Predict the directions of induced current in each coil. [CBSE 2012]
P
Q
A
C
D
A
N S
17. State the underlying principle of a transformer. How is the large scale transmission of electric
energy over long distances done with the use of transformers ? [CBSE 2012]
18. A circular coil of N turns and radius R carries a current I. It is unwound and rewound to make
another coil of radius R/2, current I remaining the same. Calculate the ratio of the magnetic
moments of the new coil and the original coil. [CBSE 2012]
19. In the block diagram of a simple modulator for obtaining an AM signal, shown in the figure,
identify the boxes A and B. Write their functions. [CBSE 2013]
x(t) y(t)
A B
AM
wave
carrier
wave
modulating
signal
20. Name the type of waves which are used for line of sight (LOS) communication. What is the
range of their frequencies ?
A transmitting antenna at the top of a tower has a height of 45 m and the height of the
recieving atenna is 80 m. Calculate the maximum distance between them for satisfactory
communication in LOS mode. (Radius of the Earth = 6.4 × 10
6
m) [CBSE 2013]