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3G Rel4 SCNOM
MGW for MSS (U4)
Training Document






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Contents
1 Objectives...............................................................................................5
2 Overview of IPA2800 MGW for 3G-MSS...............................................6
2.1 Multimedia gateway mechanics ...............................................................7
2.2 New Hardware in U4 ................................................................................8
2.2.1 Phasing of features in Nokia MGW..........................................................9
2.2.2 U4 Features ............................................................................................9
2.2.3 Capacity and Performance.....................................................................12
3 Nokia MGW Functional Units ..............................................................14
3.1 Management, Control Computer, and Data Processing Units ...............15
3.1.1 CACU, Control and Administrative Computer Unit.................................15
3.1.2 CM, Central Memory ..............................................................................16
3.1.3 ISU, Interface Control and Signalling Unit..............................................17
3.1.4 VANU, Voice Announcement Unit..........................................................18
3.1.5 SWU, ESA24 Ethernet Switch................................................................19
3.1.6 OMU, Operation and Maintenance and its subunits...............................20
3.1.7 NEMU, Network Element Management Unit and its subunits................23
3.1.8 TCU, Transcoding Unit...........................................................................26
3.2 Network Element Interface Units............................................................27
3.2.1 NPS1/NPS1P, Network Interface Unit STM-1........................................28
3.2.2 NIP1, Network Interface Unit PDH.........................................................29
3.2.3 NPGEP, Network Interface Unit .............................................................30
3.2.4 NIWU, Network Interface Unit TDM.......................................................31
3.2.5 IWS1E/T, Network Interface Unit STM-1/OC-3......................................33
3.3 Switching and Multiplexing Units............................................................34
3.3.1 SFU, Switching Fabric Unit ....................................................................36
3.3.2 MXU, Multiplexer Unit.............................................................................37
3.3.3 A2SU, AAL 2 Switching Unit ..................................................................39
3.4 Timing, Power Distribution and Hardware Management
Subsystem .............................................................................................40
3.4.1 TBU, Timing and Hardware Management Bus Unit ...............................41
3.4.2 HMS subsystem.....................................................................................44
3.4.3 Power Distribution Subsystem...............................................................46
3.5 EHU, External Hardware Alarm Unit ......................................................47
3.5.1 EXAU, External hardware alarm panel...................................................49
3.5.2 CAIND, Cabinet alarm indicator .............................................................49
4 MGW Hardware Configuration............................................................50
5 Nokia MGW Interfaces .........................................................................55
5.1 Physical connections in Nokia MGW......................................................55
5.2 ATM Backbone in Nokia MGW...............................................................56
5.3 IP Backbone in Nokia MGW...................................................................56
5.4 TDM Backbone in Nokia MGW..............................................................57
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5.5 Nokia MGW control interface................................................................. 57
5.5.1 MGW control protocols (MEGACO/H.248) ............................................ 58
5.6 Iu interface in Nokia MGW..................................................................... 58
5.7 A-interface in Nokia MGW..................................................................... 59
5.8 Interface towards PSTN and other TDM-based networks in
Nokia MGW........................................................................................... 59





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1 Objectives
After completing this module, the student should be able to:
• List the main functions of the MGW for MSS
• Explain the main functions of each functional unit
• List the redundancy principles for the function units
• Identify the interfaces implemented in the MGW
• Explain the MGW hardware configuration
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2 Overview of IPA2800 MGW for 3G-MSS
The 3rd Generation mobile networks will accelerate the shift towards
supporting mass-market IP-based applications that has started with 2nd
Generation systems (GSM, US-TDMA). The wireless market is undergoing a
period of rapid change in competition, services and underlying technology,
making the choice of the network system complex. With Nokia 3G solutions,
operators reduce risks by using proven concepts. Mobile networks will
continue to evolve, from today to the 3G launch and onwards, to increase the
range of available services and service capabilities.

Figure 1 MGW in MSC Server Environment


The Nokia Multimedia Gateway product can be used for transmitting and
converting the user plane traffic in both circuit-switched core networks and All-
IP Mobility Core Networks as a border element between different kinds of
networks.
The Multimedia Gateway consists of several functional elements configured
under the gateway architecture. A number of different configurations of the
SGSN
RNC RNC
GSM
BSC BSC
WCDMA MGW MGW
External
IPnetworks
IP/ATM/TDM
Backbone
MGW
PSTN/ISDN
Other PLMN
HLR
GCS-
Gateway
Control Server
GCS-
Gateway
Control Server
MSCServer MSCServer
GGSN
A
A
Iu- CS
SITGTRAN
H.248
H.248
BICCCS- 2, SIP- T
IN/SCE APSE
SGSN SGSN
RNC RNC
GSM
BSC BSC
WCDMA MGW MGW
External
IPnetworks
IP/ATM/TDM
Backbone
MGW
PSTN/ISDN
Other PLMN
HLR
GCS-
Gateway
Control Server
GCS-
Gateway
Control Server
GCS-
Gateway
Control Server
GCS-
Gateway
Control Server
MSCServer MSCServer MSCServer MSCServer
GGSN
A
A
Iu- CS
SITGTRAN
H.248
H.248
BICCCS- 2, SIP- T
IN/SCE APSE
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Multimedia Gateway can be used depending on the services required by the
operator.

The main functions of the Multimedia Gateway are:

• To adapt the conventional signalling (control plane) between MSC
server or Gateway Control Server (GCS) and different network
interfaces.
• To connect the user data (user plane) from ATM/IP backbone into
radio access network or circuit switched networks. Media resources
are under control of Gateway Control Server (GCS), GCS or MSC
server via H.248 (MEGACO) protocol.
• To provide tones and announcements to end users.
• To perform the transcoding and signal processing for the user plane
when needed.

Typically, one control network element (CPS, GCS or MSC server) handles
several gateways. Therefore, Nokia Multimedia Gateway provides the
possibility to create virtual gateways in one physical gateway element so that it
offers media resources to several controlling elements. This multi-hosting
functionality in the gateway gives operators flexibility to utilise the network
elements optimally, depending on the network architecture.
2.1 Multimedia gateway mechanics
The mechanical construction of the IPA2800 network elements is based
on M2000 mechanics platform, which follows a standard hierarchy:
• Cabinets
• Cooling and power supply equipment
• Subracks
• Plug-in units
• Internal cables.

The equipment of the IPA2800 network elements is housed in IC186 or
IC186-B cabinets. One cabinet has space for the cabinet-specific power
distribution equipment, four subracks and subrack-specific cooling
equipment.
All IPA2800 network elements use three types of subracks, called
SRA1-A, SRA2-A and SRBI-B. The SRA1-A is only used in the first two
positions in the A cabinet, all other positions use the SRA2-A. The only
difference between SRA1-A and SRA2-A two subracks is that the SRA2-
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A integrates more of the subrack's internal cabling, such as signals from
the MXUs to tributary units, into its backpanel. SRBI-B is a equipped
behind the SRA1-A and SRA2-A subracks to provide modular backplane
connections.
The total number of different plug-in unit types used in a single IPA2800
network element is approximately 15. The plug-in units are generally
connected to the other parts of the system by means of backplane
connectors. Some of the connections, however, are made from the front
panels, normally by means of standard RJ-45 connectors. The plug-in
units of the IPA2800 network elements are designed to support hot
swapping. The plug-in-units are equipped with various LED indicators for
monitoring the unit's condition.
2.2 New Hardware in U4
The MX1G6 is a 1.6 Gbit/s ATM multiplexer plug-in unit. It multiplexes and
demultiplexes ATM cells and performs ATM layer and traffic management
functions. The MX1G6 enables to connect low speed units to the switching
fabric and improves the use of switching fabric port capacity by multiplexing
traffic from up to twenty tributary units to a single fabric port.
The main function of the SF20H plug-in unit is to switch cells from input
to output ports. Within the SF20H, switching is protocol independent.
This means that before the cells are sent to the fabric, they are
encapsulated inside a special fabric frame. With a total of 32 ports, the
SF20H provides a 2.5 Gbit/s serial switching fabric interface
(SFPIF2G5). Several SFPIF2G5 ports can be combined for higher
capacity ports.
The port interfaces can be configured for redundant network interface
and multiplexer units. The active input is selected inside the SF20H plug-
in unit, and the port redundancy of the SFPIF2G5 ports is implemented
by mirroring two fabric ports together. Thus the redundant port
consumes the port capacity.
The NP2GE plug-in unit is an interface unit that is specifically designed for
the optimized use of the Internet Protocol and the packet environment.
NP2GE is targeted for the multiprotocol transport Iu-CS. The primary transport
method type used is IP over Ethernet.
NP2GE provides multiprotocol packet processing at wire speed and also offers the
possibility of using both electrical (copper) and optical (fibre) based Ethernet. The
high processing power of the network processor and the unit computer enable the
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NP2GE plug-in unit to process protocol and data at the line interface unit (LIU)
instead of the dedicated processing units.
The IW1S1A plug-in unit supports the 2G transcoder function on the Ater
Interface. For efficient transmission between the plug-in unit and the Base Station
Controller, four sub-64 kbit/s (32 kbit/s, 16 kbit/s) user data/speech channels are
packed in one time slot. The IW1S1A plug-in unit submultiplexes and
desubmultiplexes the sub-channels in both directions on the Ater interface. After
the desubmultiplexing, the channels are packed into ATM cells and forwarded to
the digital signal processor (DSP) pool, where the DSP adapts the 16 kbit/s and 32
kbit/s sub-channels to normal 64 kbit/s time slots. The time slots are then handled
like normal A interface time slots. The ATM cells received in the submultiplexing
process are multiplexed to the appropriate sub-channels. IW1S1A can also
terminate one E1 line (31 time slots) SS7 signalling link.
There are few HW in U3 version removed as well by implementing new delivery of
U4, which are A2SU from AL2S-A will be replaced by CDSP-C plug in unit and
SPMU will be removed completely.
2.2.1 Phasing of features in Nokia MGW
Nokia Multimedia Gateway for both MSC Server and IP Multimedia
Subsystem environment is an evolution step from Multimedia Gateway
belonging to 3G MSC. All features from previous releases and earlier
architectures are also available in later releases.
Different functionalities become available in MGW as follows:
• U2: Functionality required by both 3G MSC and the first release of
Nokia MSC Server system.
• U3A: STM-1/OC-3 interface for TDM use in MSC Server system.
• U3B: Additional functionality for the MSC Server system release 2
including possibility to use the same network element also in IP
Multimedia Subsystem.
• U3C: Introduces Ater and Wideband AMR functionalities
• U4: New features for both the MSC Server environment and IP
Multimedia Subsystem environment for the MSC Server system
release 3
2.2.2 U4 Features

• ABNF coding for H.248 protocol.
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− The U2 release only supports ASN.1 (binary) coding for
H.248 messages. ABNF (text) is provided in U3B as an
alternative method for helping multi-vendor interoperability.
ABNF is also applied in the MGW for IMS environment.
• Mb interface support.
− This interface is needed in IP Multimedia Subsystem
environment. The Mb interface connects the IP Multimedia
Subsystem (IMS) to MGW, which provides the
interconnection with other supported multi-access VoIP
interfaces and BSS, RAN, PSTN, or IP, ATM, or TDM
backbone.
• Text Telephony Service (TTY) for 3G calls.
− Text Telephony is a feature that enables text-based
communication over a speech bearer. This is mainly
intended for hearing impaired people. The text is transmitted
through ordinary speech traffic channels
• U3B TrFO
− With Transcoder-free Operation (TrFO), the intention is to
completely remove the unnecessary transcoding from the
speech path. This is achieved with an out of band signalling
performing the coded negotiation and selection throughout
the network. Optimally, this means that speech transcoding
is only performed in peer UEs (user equipment, 3G terminal).
TrFO is standardised for 3G calls only (that is, calls via
UTRAN). TrFO provides optimised speech quality and
enables savings in the transmission capacity in the core
network. Only compressed speech samples are transmitted
over the ATM/IP networks

• Acoustic Echo Cancellation
− Acoustic echo is generated in the uplink direction due to the
acoustic coupling from the ear-piece to microphone of the
User Equipment (UE). Acoustic echo is removed by a built-in
acoustic echo control device of the UE.
Sometimes the UE functionality is not sufficient, and
therefore AEC functionality is provided on the network side
by MGW.
To deal with the echo generated in the downlink direction,
there is an echo canceller in MGW. The echo canceller
memorizes the voice samples sent to the PSTN and then
compares the samples to the voice samples received back
from the PSTN. These speech samples (containing the
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echo) are modified by the echo canceller to prevent the echo
effect from being passed back to the mobile.
In the uplink direction, the PSTN phone user hears an
acoustic echo as his/her voice is transmitted back from the
mobile phone and he/she experiences delay generated both
in core network and radio network. To deal with this echo,
the mobile phone is equipped with a built-in acoustic echo
canceller and AEC functionality is provided on the network
side by MGW.
• IPv6 support U3B
− MGW supports IPv4/IPv6 as dual stack implementation in
U3B for control and user plane. The dual stack
implementation is a very important transition mechanism.
This is the simplest and easiest way to enable
communication between the IPv4 and IPv6 entities. A
network element supporting both stacks can communicate
with an IPv4 or IPv6 peer entity.
• Measurement Management GUI.
− This feature enables an easy to use graphical measurement
handling (starting and stopping of the measurements). In the
U2 MGW starting and stopping the measurement was
managed only by MML. Statistics reports were directed
automatically to NEMU where browsing of the reports was
managed by the NE Measurement Explorer application.
In the U3, the measurement handling can be managed via a
new graphical user interface. An MML interface can be used,
even if the new GUI is available. This feature is used for
managing the measurement provided by Common Statistics
in IPA2800 Platform. The measurements are used for
monitoring of for example:
computer unit processor load
computer unit availability
statistics of ATM and STM interfaces
application measurements in MGW
• Fault Management GUI.
− The Fault Management GUI of MGW Element Manager
allows the user to monitor alarm situations (that is, viewing
and cancelling active alarms, viewing alarm history,
modifying alarm settings and controlling external alarms and
alarm outputs).
The co-operation between different operating functions can
be arranged more efficiently with the GUI applications than
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by using the traditional MMLs. The MGW EM user is able to
change quickly from the configuration view to the alarm view.
This reduces the time spent on finding and correcting the
fault situation in MGW.
• TDM to TDM semi-permanent connections
− Previously only semi-permanent ATM-ATM connections
were possible in MGW. Now it is also possible to use semi-
permanent TDM-TDM connections to for example:
provide a transparent through-connection for the
PBX LAPD channels
route the Gb interface (between BSC and SGSN)
semi-permanently through MGW
− route the O&M traffic between BSC and NetAct semi-
permanently through MGW.
• Support for Network subsystem configuration tool
− The NSS configuration tool, Nokia Configuration
Management Data Mediator (CMDM) is an optional
functionality, and requires a separate NEMU computer unit,
Medium NEMU Server hardware.
CMDM provides the operator with an opportunity to reduce
network planning costs and ease network planning. For
example, when configuring a bearer independent CS core
network environment (Nokia MSS system), CMDM provides
easy access to configuration data and tools for adding new
MGWs to a MSS or for modifying existing configuration.
The network element's configuration data can be uploaded
faster, with less work hours, and without affecting the
capacity or performance of the network element. The
possibility to download configuration data to the NE makes
network planning easier, and less on-site work is needed.
CMDM also produces valuable network configuration
documentation and information for optimization decisions,
and an interface for comparing configuration data between
NEs.
2.2.3 Capacity and Performance
The main capacity figures for MGW U4.0 new delivery are:
• Up to 50 000 simultaneous calls, depending on the call mix. This value
can be reached and even exceeded when the TrFO is used for 3G calls.
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• 2.5M BHCA
• 40 STM-1/OC-3 for TDM
• 100 000 ATM/AAL2 ports
• 120 000 IP ports
• 960 E1/T1 (IW16P1)
• 600 signalling links (TDM + ATM SS7 links -> 30 000
messages/s/direction)

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3 Nokia MGW Functional Units
Functionality is distributed to a set of functional units capable of accomplishing
a special purpose. These are entities of hardware and software or only
hardware. Units are connected to the ATM-based switching matrix (SFU)
either directly (in case of units with high traffic capacity) or via multiplexer unit
MXU (in case of units with lower traffic capacity).



Figure 2 Functional units in Multimedia Gateway

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3.1 Management, Control Computer, and Data
Processing Units
3.1.1 CACU, Control and Administrative Computer Unit
Purpose: The CACU controls the ATM switching fabrics and establishes
connections for calls. Its ATM switching management functions
comprise:
• Establishment of both internal and external connections via the
SFU, including ATM circuit hunting and address analysis.
• Management and control of the SFU, A2SU and MXU.
• Transmission resource management.
Redundancy: 2N
Type: Computer unit
Plug-in Unit: CCP18-C
Control Computer, Pentium M
Interfaces: ATM interface to MXU
Location: CAMA subracks 1-2, 1 unit per subrack
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Figure 3 CACU
3.1.2 CM, Central Memory
Purpose: The CM serves as the central data storage and distribution facility in
the exchange. It also handles the centralised part of the common
channel signalling, for example, digit analysis.
Redundancy: 2N
Type: Computer unit
Plug-in Unit:
CCP18-C
Control Computer, Pentium M
Interfaces: ATM interface to MXU
Location: CAMA subracks 1-2, 1 unit per subrack
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Figure 4 CM
3.1.3 ISU, Interface Control and Signalling Unit
Purpose:
The ISU is responsible for core network emulation and BSS signalling
emulation towards the MSC. Its tasks include the following:
• Processing of the Message Transfer Part (MTP) and Signalling
Connection Part (SCCP) of both narrowband and wideband SS7
signalling
• All message handling and processing functions related to the signalling
channels connected to it.
Redundancy: N+1
Type: Computer unit with no sub-units
Plug-in Unit: CCP18-C
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Control Computer, Pentium M
Interfaces: ATM interface to MXU
Location: CAMA subracks 3-4, all CAMB and CAMC subracks: 1 unit per
subrack

Figure 5 ISU
3.1.4 VANU, Voice Announcement Unit
Purpose: The Voice Announcement Unit (VANU) controls the announcement
function of MGW. It stores the individual speech samples,
constructs complete announcements from them and sends them to
the DSP units for further processing.
Redundancy: None or load sharing
Type: Computer unit
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Plug-in Unit: CCP18-C
Control Computer, Pentium M
Interfaces: ATM interface to MXU
Location: CAMA subracks 1-2, 1 unit per subrack

Figure 6 VANU
3.1.5 SWU, ESA24 Ethernet Switch
Purpose:
The SWU (ESA24) is an Ethernet switch, which provides physical
LAN/Ethernet interfaces for connections between NEMU and the
other units of the MGW. With two ESA24 pairs, O&M LAN and
Control LAN in MGW can be physically separated.

Redundancy: None
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Type: Ethernet switch
Plug-in Unit: ESA24
Interfaces: LAN/Ethernet to OMU, ISU, NEMU and site LAN
Location: 1 unit in CAMA subracks 1-4

Figure 7 ESA 24
3.1.6 OMU, Operation and Maintenance and its subunits
Purpose: The OMU handles all the MGW's crucial upper-level system
maintenance functions, such as hardware configuration
management, Hardware Management System (HMS) supervision
and the associated centralised recovery functions. In the event of a
fault, the OMU automatically activates appropriate recovery and
diagnostics procedures within the MGW. It also serves as an
interface between the NEMU and the other units of the exchange.
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The OMU has dedicated storage devices, which house the entire
system software and the event buffer for intermediate storing of
alarms, along with the radio network configuration files.
Redundancy: 2N
Type: Computer unit, with a dedicated storage device unit as a sub-unit.
Plug-in Unit: CCP18-A
Control Computer, Pentium M
Interfaces: ATM virtual channels to MXU
LAN/Ethernet via ESA24 to NEMU
Duplicated Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI)
Service Terminal interface
Multiplexer Interface
Duplicated Hardware Management System (HMS) interface
Location: CAMA subracks 1-2, 1 unit per subrack

Figure 8 OMU
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Purpose: The OMU has two dedicated hard disk units which serve as a
redundant storage for the entire system software, the event buffer
for intermediate storing of alarms, and the radio network
configuration files.
Backup copies are made onto a USB memory stick that can be
connected to the CCP18-A plug-in unit's front plate. Only memory
sticks can be used.
FDU is the functional unit when using the USB memory stick. No
separate configuration in the HW database is needed, because the
USB memory stick is an external device. When removing the USB
memory stick, set the state to blocked, because the system does
not do it automatically.
Redundancy: 2N (HDS-B)
Type: Sub-unit to OMU
Plug-in Unit: HDS-B: Hard Disk Drive with SCSI Interface
Interfaces: Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
Location: CAMA subracks 1-2, 1 unit per subrack
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Figure 9. OMU’s WDU
3.1.7 NEMU, Network Element Management Unit and its subunits
Purpose: The NEMU provides the following facilities:
• Local user interface
• Interface towards the higher level network management
system
• O&M functionalities which are not handled by other
computer units of the MGW, including post-processing of
performance and fault management data, as well as SW
upgrade support
• Peripheral device control.
The NEMU is equipped with storage devices for storing
measurement and statistical data, and an Ethernet hub with 12 or
24 physical LAN interfaces for connections to the upper-level
network management system and the site LAN. Both facilities are
implemented as separate plug-in units and described in separate
sections which follow this one.
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Redundancy: None
Type: Computer unit, with dedicated storage devices and the Ethernet
Switch unit (ESA24) as sub-units.
Plug-in Unit: MCP18-B
Management Computer, Pentium M745
Interfaces: Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI)
LAN/Ethernet to NMS, OMU and Site LAN via ESA24
LAN/Ethernet to OMU via ESA24
USB*
VDU
*) The USB ports can be used to connect a keyboard, a mouse, or a
bootable device to NEMU.
Location: 1 unit in CAMA subrack 1

Figure 10 NEMU

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Purpose:
The NEMU is equipped with dedicated hard disks which primarily
serve as a storage for the measurement and statistical data it
collects.

Redundancy: 2N (hard disk drive)
Type: Sub-unit to NEMU
Plug-in Unit: HDS-B
Hard Disk Drive with SCSI Interface
Interfaces:
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
Location: CAMA subracks 1-2, 1 unit per subrack

Figure 11. NEMU’s HDD
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3.1.8 TCU, Transcoding Unit
Purpose:
The TCU includes a number of signal processors whose main
functions are:
• transcoding, that is, speech signal conversion between the coded
format used in the WCDMA Radio Access Network and the PCM
format used in the GSM network.
• signal level control
• discontinuous transmission.
All DSPs of the unit can be freely allocated within the MGW.
Redundancy: SN+
Type: Signal processing unit with no sub-units
Plug-in Unit:
CDSP-D
Configurable Dynamic Signal Processing Platform
Interfaces: ATM interface to MXU
Location:
Max. 12 units each in CAMA subracks 3-4, all CAMB and CAMC
subracks
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Figure 12 TCU
3.2 Network Element Interface Units
These units serve as the trunk network interfaces of the exchange and
execute physical layer and ATM layer functions, such as policing, statistics,
Operation Administration Maintenance (OAM), buffer management and
scheduling. The category comprises the following units:
• NPS1/NPS1P, Network Interface Unit STM-1
• NIP1, Network Interface Unit PDH
• NPGEP, Network Interface Unit
• NIWU, Network Interface Unit TDM
• IWS1E/T, Network Interface Unit STM-1/OC-3
Each network interface unit contains more than one physical interface.
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3.2.1 NPS1/NPS1P, Network Interface Unit STM-1
Purpose:
Provides SDH STM-1 interfaces and handles bit timing, line
coding, and timing recovery. Typically used in connections
between the MGW and the RNC.
Redundancy: NPS1: None
NPS1P: 2N
Type:
Networking Interface unit
Plug-in Unit: NP8S1
Network Interface 8 x 155.52 Mbit/s STM-1
Capacity/
performance:
Eight optical STM-1/OC-3 interfaces, 155.52 Mbit/s each. The
payload capacity of one STM-1/OC-3 interface is 150.336 Mbit/s.
The STM interfaces are compliant with the ITU-T G.783
specifications; the OC interfaces with the ANSI T1.105
specifications.
While the NP8S1 plug-in unit also provisions for two STM-4/OC-
12 interfaces (each with 622.08 Mbit/s total capacity and 601.344
Mbit/s payload capacity), STM-4/OC-12 interfaces are not
currently supported in MGW and RNC.
Interfaces: ATM interface to SFU
Clock reference output to TSS3
Location:
NPS1P: 2 units in CAMA subrack 3-4, all CAMB and CAMC
subracks
NPS1: 1 unit in CAMA subrack 3-4, all CAMB and CAMC
subracks
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Figure 13 NPS1/ NPS1P
3.2.2 NIP1, Network Interface Unit PDH
Purpose:
This ATM network interface unit contains PDH E1/T1/JT1
interfaces with Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA) function,
which allows for flexible grouping of physical links to logical IMA
groups.
Redundancy: None
Type: Signal processing unit
Plug-in Unit: NI16P1A
ATM Network Interface 16 x PDH E1/T1/JT1
Capacity/
performance:
Sixteen physical PDH electrical interfaces, each with a bandwidth
of:
• 2048 kbit/s (E1) or
• 1544 kbit/s (T1/JT1)
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Interfaces: ATM interface to MXU
Clock reference output to TSS3
Location: 3 units in CAMA subrack 3-4 and all CAMB and CAMC subracks

Figure 14 NIP1
3.2.3 NPGEP, Network Interface Unit
Purpose:
Maps IP packets to and from Ethernet frame structure including
packet classification, forwarding, scheduling, and traffic
management.
Redundancy: 2N
Type: IP Interface unit
Plug-in Unit: NP2GE
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Interfaces: 2 x 1000Base-T Ethernet electrical
2 x 1000Base-LX Ethernet optical
Location:
1 units in all CAMA, CAMB and CAMC subracks

Figure 15. NPGEP
3.2.4 NIWU, Network Interface Unit TDM
Purpose: The ATM network interface unit IW16P1A contains TDM
E1/T1/JT1 interfaces, which carry traffic at the A interface,
between the MGW and the MSC. IW16P1A also provides support
for the Ater interface towards the BSC, eliminating the need for a
separate transcoder between the MGW and BSC.

The unit also performs the user plane conversion between the
TDM format and the ATM format

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Redundancy: None
Type: Network Interface unit
Plug-in Unit: IW16P1A
Interworking Unit 16 x E1/T1/J1
Capacity/
performance:
Sixteen physical TDM electrical interfaces, each with a bandwidth
of:
• 2048 kbit/s (E1) or
• 1544 kbit/s (T1/JT1)
Interfaces: ATM interface to MXU
RS232
Clock reference output to TSS3
Location: 6 units in CAMA subrack 3-4 and in all CAMB, CAMC subracks

Figure 16 NIWU
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3.2.5 IWS1E/T, Network Interface Unit STM-1/OC-3
Purpose:
The IWS1E/T unit provides STM-1/VC-12 (63 PCM) and OC-3/VC-
11 (84 PCM) interfaces and a direct interface to SDH/SONET
transmission equipment. It implements user plane conversions of
an STM-1/OC-3 user channel bit stream to an ATM user channel
cell stream. It also terminates narrowband SS7 signalling links and
performs narrowband / broadband conversion. The unit supports
two ATM protocols, AAL1 and AAL5, for internal communication
purposes.
Redundancy: None
Type: Network Interface unit
Plug-in Unit: IW1S1
PSTN Interworking Unit, E1/T1/JT1 over STM-1/OC-3
63 E1 (VC-12 in STM-1) or
84 T1 (VC-11 in OC-3) or
84 JT1 (VC-11 in OC-3)
Capacity/
performance:
two optical 155 Mbit/s STM-1 interfaces
Interfaces: ATM interface to MXU
RS232
Clock reference output to TSS3
Location:
4 units in CAMA subrack 3-4 and in all CAMB, CAMC subracks
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Figure 17. IWS1E/T
3.3 Switching and Multiplexing Units
Switching and multiplexing in the MGW is based on the Asynchronous
Transfer Mode (ATM) technology with full support to the various traffic types
used in the network. The units in this category are the following:

• ATM Switching Fabric Units (SFUs) which are used for switching the
calls processed by the exchange
• Multiplexer Units (MXUs), for connecting the low-bit-rate network
interface units, along with the computer units and signal processing
units (which typically have small to moderate bandwidth requirements)
to the ATM switch fabric
• AAL 2 Switching Units (A2SUs), which ensure efficient transport of
information with limited transfer delay for low-to-moderate bit-rate units
connected to the main switch fabric.

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In addition, the units in this block provide the ATM interface which serve as the
main message bus between the units in the exchange. Upper-level control
functions for all three units are performed by the CACU functional unit.



Figure 18 ATM connections to SFU
The SFU switching fabric has 32 ports for connections to the other units in the
exchange, with an aggregate capacity of 20 Gbit/s (equivalent to 64 STM-1
lines); each port, in turn, has a capacity of 1.65 Gbit/s. The connections
through the ports are allocated in the following manner:

• Some ports are used for the external high-bit-rate connections
provided by NPS1.NPS1P & NPGEP.
• The other ports are used for connections to the low-bit-rate network
interface units and the computer units via the mutually redundant MXU
pairs. One MXU pair requires one port.

The equipment of the MGW is organised as groups of units around its MXU
pairs, with each group connecting to a MXU pair of its own. Normally, one
such group occupies one subrack, with the exception of the equipment
connecting to the first MXU pair, which requires two subracks' space (CAMA
subracks 1 and 2).
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3.3.1 SFU, Switching Fabric Unit
Purpose: The ATM Switching Fabric Unit (SFU) provides part of the ATM
cell switching function. It provides 2N redundancy, full
accessibility, and is non-blocking at ATM connection level, that is,
if the input and output capacities are available, the connection can
be established. The ATM Switching Fabric supports point-to-point
and point-to-multipoint connection topologies, as well as
differentiated handling of various ATM service categories. High
capacity network interface units and ATM Multiplexer units are
connected to the redundant SFU.
Redundancy: 2N
Type: Switch Fabric unit
Plug-in Unit:
SF20H
Capacity/
performance:
20 Gbit/s
Interfaces: ATM interfaces:
• Switch fabric interfaces for NP8S1 network interfaces
• Multiplexer interfaces from SFU's unit computer to OMU
(via MXUs)
• OMU from the unit computer of the SFU (for OAM
purposes and software uploads, via MXUs)
Location: One unit in each of CAMA subracks 1-2
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Figure 19. SFU
3.3.2 MXU, Multiplexer Unit
Purpose:
The ATM Multiplexer (MXU) multiplexes traffic tributary units
towards the switching fabric thus enabling the efficient use of
switching resources for low bit rate network interface units and
computer units with small to moderate bandwidth requirements.
The ATM Multiplexer also includes part of the ATM layer
processing functionality, such as policing, statistics, OAM, buffer
management, and scheduling. Control computers, signal
processing units and low bit rate network interface units are
connected to the ATM Switching Fabric via the MXU, which is a
2N redundant unit.
Redundancy: 2N
Type: ATM switching unit, subunit of SFU
Plug-in Unit:
MX1G6
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Capacity/
performance:
1.6 Gbit/s
Interfaces: ATM interfaces to:
• SFU switching block
• SFU unit computer
• control computer units
• network interfaces
• TCU and A2SU
• connection between the passive MXU via the active one to
OMU (for OAM purposes)
Location: CAMA, CAMB, CAMC subracks: 2 units per subrack

Figure 20. MXU
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3.3.3 A2SU, AAL 2 Switching Unit
Purpose:
The A2SU is an AAL Type 2 CPS minipacket switching unit, which
is used in association with the Multiplexing Unit (MXU) for facilitating
connections between the main Switch Fabric SFU and the low-to-
moderate bit-rate units (control computers, signal processing units
and low-bit-rate network interface units). The function of the A2SU is
to limit the transfer delay and ensure the general efficiency of the
transportation of information in these connections by dividing the
incoming ATM cells up in AAL2 Type 2 CPS minipackets and
reorganising these into new ATM cells, which it sends further.
Redundancy: SN+
Type: Switching unit, subunit of MXU
Plug-in Unit: AL2S-D / AL2S-B / AL2S-A / AL2S
AAL2 Switching Unit
Interfaces: ATM interface to MXU
Location:
CAMA subrack 3-4, all CAMB, CAMC subracks: 4 units per subrack
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Figure 21. A2SU
3.4 Timing, Power Distribution and Hardware
Management Subsystem
The timing, power supply and hardware management subsystems form the
lowest level in the computing hierarchy of the IPA2800 network elements.
Each subsystem is composed of a redundant master unit and a duplicated
data distribution/collection bus. In each case, the bus actually extends through
some lower level units to virtually all of the exchange's plug-in units, which are
equipped with dedicated hardware blocks supporting the core parts of the
subsystem.

The network element's clock distribution and Hardware Management
subsystems (TBU), use the same two types of plug-in units, namely:
• TSS3, Timing and Synchronisation, SDH Stratum 3
• TBUF, Timing Buffer.

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The clock system meets Stratum 3 level accuracy requirement, as defined in
Bellcore TA-NWT-1244 standard.

The Power Distribution Subsystem in the exchange uses two types of plug-in
units, namely:
• PD30, Power Distribution Plug-in Unit 30 A
• CPD120-A, Cabinet Power Distributor 120 A.

3.4.1 TBU, Timing and Hardware Management Bus Unit
The Timing and Hardware Management Bus Unit is responsible for the
network element synchronization, timing signal distribution and message
transfer functions in the hardware management system. The TBU is a
duplicated functional unit that consists of two plug-in units in each subrack as
well as a serial bus spanning all plug-in units of the network element. The two
plug-in units, the Timing and Synchronisation, SDH Stratum 3 (TSS3) and
Timing Buffer (TBUF) and their functions are described below.
3.4.1.1 TSS3, Timing and Synchronisation, SDH Stratum 3
Purpose: The TSS3s generate the clock signals necessary for synchronising
the functions of the MGW. Normally, the TSS3 operates in a
synchronous mode, that is, it receives an input timing reference
signal from an upper level of the network and adjusts its local
oscillator to the long time mean value by filtering jitter and wander
from the timing signal. It transmits the reference to the plug-in units
in the same subrack (all plug-in units are equipped with onboard
PLL blocks), as well as to the TBUF units, which distribute the
signals to units not directly fed by the TSS3s. The TSS3 has inputs
for both synchronisation references from other network elements
(via the network interfaces) and for those from external sources
(options are 2,048 kbit/s, 2048 MHz or 1.54 MHz)
If all synchronisation references are lost, the TSS3 can operate in
plesiochronous mode, that is, by generating independently the
synchronisation reference for the units in the exchange.
The TSS3s are also involved in the functioning of the HMS bus.
They collect the alarms from the PIUS in the same subrack and
transfer them further to the HMS master net, which brings the
alarms to the appropriate OMU.
Redundancy: 2N
Type: Functional unit with TBUF units as sub-units
Plug-in Unit: TSS3
Timing and Synchronisation, SDH Stratum 3
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Interfaces: Synchronisation reference interfaces:
three line inputs (from STM-1 or TDM lines)
two external inputs (2,048 kbit/s, 2048 MHz, 1.54 MHz
eight outputs to cabinet timing buses
one output to subrack timing bus
Alarm interfaces:
one input from PIUs in same subrack
one output to OMU via HMS Master Net
Location: One unit in each of CAMA subracks 1-2
3.4.1.2
3.4.1.3 TBUF, Timing Buffer
Purpose: The TBUF unit is a clock buffer which distributes the
synchronisation signals generated by the TSS3s to plug-in units not
directly fed by the TSS3s.
Like the TSS3s, the TBUFs are also involved in the functioning of
the HMS bus. They collect the alarms from the PIUS in the same
subrack and and transfer them further to the HMS master net, which
brings the alarms to the appropriate OMU.
Redundancy: 2N
Type: Functional unit, sub-unit of the TSS3
Plug-in Unit: TBUF
Timing Buffer
Interfaces: Synchronisation reference interfaces:
• one input from TSS3 or another TBUF
• one output to subrack timing bus
• one output to another TBUF
Alarm interfaces:
• one input from PIUs in same subrack
• one output to OMU via HMS Master Net
Location: One unit in each of CAMA subracks 1-2;
two units in all other CAMA, CAMB and CAMC subracks.
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TSS3 TBUF

Figure 22. TBU
3.4.1.4 Connection principle and redundancy for the timing and synchronisation
distribution bus routing
The MGW has two separate timing and synchronisation distribution buses to
ensure 2N redundancy for the intermal timing signal distribution. Each bus has
its own system clock (a TSS3 plug-in unit), distribution cabling and timing
buffers (TBUF plug-in units).

The two TSS3 units backing each other up are placed in different subracks
(subracks 1 and 2), each of which is powered by a power supply plug-in unit of
its own to ensure redundancy for the power supply. Each of these subracks is
also equipped with a TBUF plug-in unit, which connects the equipment in the
subrack to the other clock distribution bus. The CAMA subracks 3 and 4 and
all CAMB subracks, on the other hand, have all two separate TBUF units
which connect to different clock distribution buses by means of cables of their
own.

The clock distribution principle in the exchange is shown in the figure below.
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Figure 23 Routing of the duplicated clock distribution bus
3.4.2 HMS subsystem
The hardware management subsystem has three hierarchically organised
layers of equipment. The highest level in the hierarchy is formed by the
Hardware Management Master Nodes (HMMNs), one in each OMU, which
control the whole subsystem. The TSS3s and TBUFs in the subracks have
separate Hardware Management System Bridge nodes (HMSBs), which form
the next, intermediate level in the hierarchy. As the name suggests, they serve
as bridges which connect HMMNs to the lowest-level blocks in the hierarchy,
Hardware Management System Slave Nodes (HMSSs). Implemented as
dedicated hardware blocks in all plug-in units, the latter are independent from
the other blocks of the plug-in unit, for example, in terms of the power supply.

A block diagram which illustrates the HMS subsystem implementation is
shown in the figure below.
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Figure 24 Block diagram of the HMS subsystem
The MGW has also two mutually redundant hardware management buses,
which are implemented by means of the same plug-in units as the timing and
synchronisation buses, that is, the TSS3s and the TBUFs. The routing of the
hardware management buses, however, differs somewhat from that of the
timing and synchronisation buses.

The Hardware Management Bus is organised in such a way that the TSS3s
and TBUFs are on an equal level of the subsystem; both act as parallel HMS
bridges which connect the plug-in units in the same subrack to the HMS
master net, which brings the alarms to the appropriate OMU.
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Figure 25. Routing of the duplicated HMS bus
3.4.3 Power Distribution Subsystem
Purpose: The Power Distribution Subsystem distributes the -48V power from
the rectifiers or batteries to the equipment inside the MGW cabinets.
This subsystem consists of two CPD120-A power distribution panels
at the top of each cabinet, one PD30 power distribution plug-in unit
in each subrack and the associated cabling. See the Cable Lists for
a visual representation of the power feed to each subrack.
The PD30 unit also controls the cooling equipment of its own
subrack on the basis of messages sent by the OMU.
Redundancy: Power distribution subsystem is duplicated by providing two
independent feeding input branches from cabinet level to plug-in
unit level.
Type: Subsystem
Plug-in Unit: CPD120-A
Cabinet Power Distributor 120 A
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PD30
Power Distribution Plug-in Unit 30 A
Interfaces: One input for each of the two CPD120-As
Four outputs to subracks in CPD120-A
Outputs to four groups of plug-in units (in PD30)
Fan tray control and alarm interface
Location: Either one CPD120-A unit or CPD120-A units at the top of each
cabinet; one PD30 plug-in unit in each subrack
PD30

Figure 26 Power distribution system
3.5 EHU, External Hardware Alarm Unit
Purpose: The purpose of External Hardware Alarm Unit is to receive external
alarms and send indications of them as messages to OMU-located
external alarm handler via HMS.
A second function is to drive the optional External Hardware Alarm
panel (EXAU-A / EXAU), the cabinet integrated lamp, CAIND alarm
indicator located on the top of CAMA cabinet and possible other
external equipment.

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Redundancy: None
Type: Functional Unit
Plug-in Unit:
EHAT
External Hardware Alarm Terminal
Interfaces:
Interfaces include 32 voltage controlled inputs, 8 current controlled
inputs, 16 general purpose 20 mA current outputs. Connections to
external devices via cabling panel 1 located in the rear of the CAMA
cabinet.
Location: One unit per network element, in CAMA subrack 2,3

Figure 27. EHU
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3.5.1 EXAU, External hardware alarm panel
The optional peripheral EXAU provides a visual alarm of the fault indications
of the MGW. The EXAU panel is located in the telecommunications site
rooms, outside the network element.
3.5.2 CAIND, Cabinet alarm indicator
The CAIND is located on the top of CAMA cabinet and provides a visual alarm
indicating the network element with a fault.
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4 MGW Hardware Configuration
The MGW have three different equipment cabinets, namely:
Cabinet Module A (CAMA)
Cabinet Module B (CAMB)
Cabinet Module C (CAMC)

The subracks are assigned with numbers starting from 1 at the top of each
cabinet and ending to 4 at its bottom. The following figure shows all the
equipment cabinets and cabling cabinets in the MGW.


Figure 28 MGW cabinets and subracks
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The configurations of the MGW support left-to-right or alternatively right-to-left
cabinet installation as shown by the figure below. The cabinets must always
be installed into a single row.

Figure 29 MGW cabinet instillation (U4.0)
All the MGW configurations have the CAMA cabinet, and the first two
subracks in the CAMA cabinet (the base module) are the same for all
configurations. All other subracks are equipped according to the configuration
and capacity needed, the main difference between the configurations being
the number of TCU/A2SU units as well as type and number of interface units.

The minimum configuration of the MGW features only the CAMA cabinet
where subracks 1-2 are fully equipped and subracks 3-4 are partially
equipped. TBU and PD30 units are always equipped to empty subracks in all
three cabinets.

For expansion, the MGW provides roughly two kinds of capacities that can be
increased: interface capacity and user plane processing (DSP) capacity.
Expanded capabilities can be obtained by adding new cabinets and the
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necessary plug-in units in the empty subracks according to the chosen
configuration. The processing capacity of the MGW is increased
by adding TCUs, ISUs and MXUs. The interface capacity is then added
independently by adding NIWU, NIP1, NPS1P/NPS1, NPGEP and
IWS1E/IWS1T units.

Figure 30. CAMA subrack 1 (base module)
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Figure 31. CAMA subrack 2 (base module)
In U4.0, there are three subrack configuration alternatives. The main
difference between the subrack configurations is the number of
TCU/A2SU units and number and type of interface units.
• Subrack configuration with IWS1E/T
• Subrack configuration with NIWU/NIP1
• Subrack configuration with TCU

General principles
• NIWU/NIP1 and IWS1E/T units cannot be equipped in the same
subrack at the same time
• NIP1 units are equipped before NIWU units.
• ISUs cannot be equipped in a subrack without an MXU pair:
• Units are equipped in index order
− The index order of TCU/A2SU units runs from subrack to
subrack, top to bottom
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− The index order of NIWU units runs in two sets: from slots 1-
3 / subrack to subrack, top to bottom, from slots 4-6 /
subrack to subrack, top to bottom
− The index order of IWS1E/T units runs in two sets: from slots
1-3 / subrack to subrack, top to bottom slot 4, subrack to
subrack, top to bottom
− ISUs are equipped in index order starting from the lowest
index, up to the last subrack where MXUs are equipped
additional ISUs are equipped in CAMA subrack 1-2


Figure 32 Equipment in CAMB subracks 1–4

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5 Nokia MGW Interfaces
5.1 Physical connections in Nokia MGW
Since Nokia MGW can be used in both 2G and 3G environment, it provides
flexible alternatives for both TDM- and packet-based interfaces. MGW
provides the possibility to combine both ATM and IP interfaces in one element
according to network demands. All interface types can be scaled
independently, thus making it possible to have only those interfaces which are
required in each element


ATM used for:
• Iu-interface
• ATM backbone
TDM used for:
• A-interface
• PSTN
IP used for:
• IP user plane to backbone
• SIGTRAN
• H.248 control
MGW MGW
TDM
E1/T1/JT1
STM-1/OC3
IP
Ethernet
ATM
E1/T1/JT1 (IMA)
STM-1/OC3

Figure 33. Multimedia Gateway interfaces
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5.2 ATM Backbone in Nokia MGW
The Nb reference point in the 3GPP model describes the interface between
two MGWs. Nokia gateway utilises several ATM adaptation layer protocols for
media transport:

• AAL1 PVC/SVC for circuit-switched data and for PCM-coded speech

• AAL2 for compressed speech and for non-real-time data transport

• AAL5 PVC/SVC carries user and control data and transports IP traffic

ATM forum has specified UNI 4.0 and this protocol is used for creating SVC
connections from gateway to border ATM backbone element.

Physical connection is STM-1 VC-3 or VC-4 confirming ITU-T G.957 S-1.1.
Four STM-1 interfaces per unit are provided, and transmission medium is
single mode fiber.

5.3 IP Backbone in Nokia MGW
Nokia Multimedia Gateway provides the possibility to use IP backbone
networks as such for transporting media for circuit-switched connections
between gateways (Nb reference point). In All-IP mobility core networks, the
IP backbone is used to transport speech traffic between the GGSN and
Multimedia Gateway (Gi reference point). The natural choice for transmitting
media over IP in backbone connections is the IP over SDH/Sonet.

Media over the IP backbone is transferred using the real time protocol (RTP).
RTP provides end-to-end delivery services for data with real-time
characteristics, such as interactive audio. These services include payload type
identification, sequence numbering, time stamping and delivery monitoring.
This makes RTP an ideal protocol for real-time applications such as voice over
IP (VoIP).
The network interface unit in the Nokia Multimedia Gateway provides 2 Gigabit
Ethernet interfaces (2 x 1000 Base-T Ethernet electrical or optical)
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MGW
2*1GB
NPGEP
IP
Backbone
IP BB interface for userplane
NPGEP (PIU:NP2GE)
2*1GB Electrical or Optical
Ethernet
IP BB interface for userplane
NPGEP (PIU:NP2GE)
2*1GB Electrical or Optical
Ethernet
SFU

Figure 34. IP connectivity for user plane
5.4 TDM Backbone in Nokia MGW
Nokia Multimedia Gateway can be easily adapted to the existing mobile
environment by using the existing TDM-based transmission network also in
the Nb interface. If the existing transmission network is cost-efficient, and if
there are no other reasons (such as need for more capacity) for changing the
transmission network type, it does not prevent the operator from taking the
Rel.4 network into use.

Upgrading to the Rel.4 level inevitably requires changes in the network
because the control plane and user plane traffic are separated. The TDM
backbone makes it possible to reduce the number of simultaneous changes
when upgrading the network to the Rel.4 level. This way, the Rel.4
deployment can be divided into several easily controllable phases, thus
lowering, for example, schedule risk in the network installation phase.
Changing the backbone to a packet-based one for reaching all Rel.4 benefits
can then be scheduled to a later phase according to operator-specific plans.
5.5 Nokia MGW control interface
The Mc reference point in the 3GPP model describes the interface between
the MGCF and the Multimedia Gateway, between the MSC Server and
Multimedia Gateway, and between the GMSC Server and Multimedia
Gateway. It is fully compliant with the H.248 standard work carried out by the
IETF MEGACO workgroup.
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5.5.1 MGW control protocols (MEGACO/H.248)
MGCP and MEGACO/H.248 are protocols used between the Media Gateway
Controller and the Media Gateway. The MEGACO protocol is also known as
H.248 as it is being developed co-operatively between the IETF MEGACO
workgroup and the ITU-T. Currently, Nokia officially supports MEGACO as
defined by the ITU.

The gateway supports the MEGACO protocol to perform the following tasks:

• reserve and connect terminations

• connect or release echo canceller to terminations

• connect or release of tones and announcements to terminations

• send/receive DTMF tones
5.6 Iu interface in Nokia MGW
The Iu-CS interface is used to interconnect the UMTS RAN towards the Nokia
Multimedia Gateway. The interface is ATM-based, either STM-1 or TDM
connections can be used (as in Multimedia Gateway Rel.99). These
connections can be used to Iu-CS traffic. Also Iu-PS traffic towards packet
core can be routed via the same physical medium to Multimedia Gateway and
cross-connected in the Multimedia Gateway to SGSN.

AAL2 is supported over Iu-CS for user plane and that traffic is routed to
destination network interface (another Iu, PSTN, or ATM/IP backbone) directly
from the Multimedia Gateway.
AAL5 is used for control plane. This RANAP signalling is routed from the RNC
to the Multimedia Gateway where it is extracted and sent to the MSC Server
(typically) over Ethernet.

Physical connection is STM-1 supporting VC-4 and 3 x VC-3 formats
conforming ITU-T standard G.957 S-1.1. Eight STM-1 interfaces per unit are
provided, and transmission medium is single mode fiber.

Another option is to use TDM interfaces for ATM connectivity. Up to 16
E1/T1/JT1 ATM interfaces can be used to form one ATM IMA (Inverse Multiple
Access) interface over conventional PCM connections where the bandwidth
requirements are low and capacity and cost optimisation is necessary.

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SFU
NPS1
RNC/MGW
RNC
SDH/
Sonet
MGW
NIP1
MXU
1…8*E1 in one
IMA group
RNC
STS1
Iu & ATM BB Interface
NPS1/NPS1P (PIU:NP8S1)
8*STM-1/OC-3 interfaces
per unit
Iu & ATM BB Interface
NPS1/NPS1P (PIU:NP8S1)
8*STM-1/OC-3 interfaces
per unit
Iu & ATM BB Interface
NIP1 (PIU:NI16P1A)
16*E1/T1/JT1 interface with
IMA function per unit
Iu & ATM BB Interface
NIP1 (PIU:NI16P1A)
16*E1/T1/JT1 interface with
IMA function per unit

Figure 35. Iu interface options
5.7 A-interface in Nokia MGW
The A-interface belongs to the family of SS7 signalling system and is used for
transmission of speech, data and signalling between MSC and BSS. A-
interfaces are connected either to the MSC Server or to Multimedia Gateway,
depending on the operator needs.

If the A-interface is connected to Multimedia Gateway, then BSSAP signalling
is routed to MSC Server and handled there.

The physical interface used is E1/T1/JT1.
5.8 Interface towards PSTN and other TDM-based
networks in Nokia MGW
Multimedia Gateway typically serves as an interconnect point between two
different types of networks, providing an interconnection for both signalling
and media between TDM-based and packet (or cell)-based networks.

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All TDM-based networks are considered identical in the Multimedia Gateway
from the signalling point of view. In case a call is routed from a packet-based
network towards the PSTN interface, then echo cancellers are connected from
Multimedia Gateway to the speech path to prevent the electrical echo
generated by the interconnection.

Signalling towards other TDM networks is handled using SS7 standards.

ISUP
The ISDN user part (ISUP) provides facilities for handling the ISDN bearer
services (including Telephony) and supplementary services for voice and data
applications. The Message Transfer Part is used to carry the information of the
ISUP message.

MAP
The mobile application part (MAP) protocol is specifically designed for non-call
transactions between the GSM switching and database elements that support
the roaming of mobile subscribers.

TUP
The telephone user part (TUP) provides facilities for handling telephone call
control functions in national and international networks. The Message Transfer
Part is used to carry the information of TUP messages.

The physical interface towards other TDM networks is E1/T1/JT1.

Alternatively, STM-1 VC-12 (STS-3 VC-11) is provided for environments
where large interconnect points are desired. STM-1 VC-12 allows connecting
of 63 E1 interfaces (or alternatively 84 T1 interfaces) over a single fiber.
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Glossary
2G 2
nd
Generation mobile phone network
3G 3
rd
Generation mobile phone network
3GPP Third Generation Partnership Project
AAL ATM Adaptation Layer
AEMF ATM Equipment Management Function
AMR Adaptive Multi-rate Speech Codec
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
BSSAP Base Station Subsystem Application Part
CACU Control and Administrative Computer Unit
CAMA Cabinet Module A
CAMB Cabinet Module B
CAMC Cabinet Module C
CM Central Memory
CMISE Common Management Information Service Element
CORBA Common Object Request Brokerage Architecture
CPS Connection Processing Server
CPU Central Processing Unit
CS Circuit Switched
DSP Digital Signal Processing
EDGE Enhanced Data Rates For GSM
FTP File Transfer Protocol
GCS Gateway Control Server
GERAN GSM/EDGE Radion Access Network
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GSM Global System For Mobile Communications
HMMN Hardware Management Master Node
HMS Hardware Management System
HMSB Hardware Management System Bridge node
HMSS Hardware Management System Slave Node
HSS Home Subscriber Server
IMA
Inverse Multiplexing for ATM
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IMSI
International Mobile Subscriber Identification
IN
Intelligent Network
INAP
Intelligent Network Application Part
IP
Internet Protocol
IP-NIU
can be either IPFE/IPFEP, IPGE/IPGEP or IPGO/IPGOP
ISU
Interface Control and Signalling Unit
IWS1
Network Interface Unit STM-1/OC-3
M3UA
MTP3 User Adaptation
MAP
Mobile Application Part
MGCF
Media Gateway Control Function
MGW
Multimedia Gateway
MMI
Man Machine Interface
MML
Man Machine Language
MSC
Mobile Switching Centre
MSS
MSC Server
MSSu
Upgraded MSC Server
MTP
Message Transfer Part
NEMU
Network Element Management Unit
NIP1
Network Interface Unit PDH
NIS1
Network Interface Unit STM-1
NIWU
Network Interface Unit TDM
NPC
Network Parameter Control ( used in NNI)
OAM
Operations, Administrations and Maintenance
O&M
Operation & Maintenance
OMU
Operational And Maintenance Unit
PDH
Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
PLMN
Public Land Mobile Network
PSTN
Public Switched Telephone Network
PVC
Permanent Virtual Connection
RAN
Radio Access Network
RANAP
Radio Access Network Application Part
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RNC
Radio Network Controller
RTP
Real Time Protocol
SCCP
Signalling Connection Part
SCSI
Small Computer Systems Interface
SCTP
Stream Control Transmission Protocol
SDH
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SIGTRAN
Signalling Transport
SIP
Session Initiated Protocol
SPMU
Signal Processing Management Unit
SS7
Signalling System # 7
SVC
Switched Virtual Connection
TBU
Timing and Hardware Management Bus Unit
TBUF
Timing Buffer
TMSI
Temporary Mobile Subscriber Information
T-SGW
Transport Signalling Gateway
TSS3
Timing and Synchronisation, SDH Stratum 3
UE
User Equipment
UMTS
Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
UPC
Usage Parameter Control ( used in UNI )
USB
Universal Serial Bus
UTRAN
UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
VANU
Voice Announcement Unit
VC-3/ VC-4/
VC12
Virtual Container , structural part of an STM-1 frame consisting of path
overhead and a container
VMSS
Visited MSC Server