Chapter 1
Exercise 1A
1.
2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2 2
x = 3 or x = 7
2.
2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 1
x = 5 or x = 7
3.
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2
2 2
x = −6 or x = −2
4.
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3
5 5
x = −8 or x = 2
5.
2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
3 3
x = 4
6.
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
5 5
x = 3
7. x + 3 = 7
x = 4
or x + 3 = −7
x = −10
8. x −3 = 5
x = 8
or x −3 = −5
x = −2
9. No solution (absolute value can never be nega
tive).
10. x −2 = 11
x = 13
or x −2 = −11
x = −9
11. 2x + 3 = 7
2x = 4
x = 2
or 2x + 3 = −7
2x = −10
x = −5
12. 5x −8 = 7
5x = 15
x = 3
or 5x −8 = −7
5x = 1
x =
1
5
13. Find the appropriate intersection and read the
xcoordinate.
(a) Intersections at (3,4) and (7,4) so x = 3 or
x = 7.
(b) Intersections at (2,4) and (6,4) so x = −2
or x = 6.
(c) Intersections at (4,2) and (8,6) so x = 4 or
x = 8.
14.
x
y
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
2
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
y = 5
y = x
y = 3 −0.5x
y = 2x + 3
(a) Intersections at (4,5) and (1,5) so x = −4
or x = 1.
(b) Intersections at (6,6) and (2,2) so x = −6
or x = 2.
(c) Intersections at (4,5) and (0,3) so x = −4
or x = 0.
(d) Intersections at (3,3) and (1,1) so x = −3
or x = −1.
15.
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2
1 1
x = −7 or x = −5
16. No solution (absolute value can never be nega
tive).
17.
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2
2.5 2.5
x = −5.5
18.
12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6
8 8
x = −3
19.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
2 2
x = 8
20.
10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
8 8
x = 2
21.
6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1.5 1.5
x = −3.5
1
Exercise 1A Chapter 1
22.
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
5 5
x = 5
23. x + 5 = 2x −14
x = 19
19 + 5 = 2 ×19 −14
24 = 24
or
x + 5 = −(2x −14)
x + 5 = −2x + 14
3x = 9
x = 3
3 + 5 = 2 ×3 −14
8 =  −8
24. 3x −1 = x + 9
2x = 10
x = 5
3 ×5 −1 = 5 + 9
14 = 14
or
−(3x −1) = x + 9
−3x + 1 = x + 9
−4x = 8
x = −2
3 ×−2 −1 =  −2 + 9
 −7 = 7
25. 4x −3 = 3x −11
x = −8
4 ×−8 −3 = 3 ×−8 −11
 −35 =  −35
or
4x −3 = −(3x −11)
4x −3 = −3x + 11
7x = 14
x = 2
4 ×2 −3 = 3 ×2 −11
5 =  −5
26. 5x −11 = 5 −3x
8x = 16
x = 2
5 ×2 −11 = 5 −3 ×2
 −1 =  −1
or
−(5x −11) = 5 −3x
−5x + 11 = 5 −3x
6 = 2x
x = 3
5 ×3 −11 = 5 −3 ×3
4 =  −4
27. x −2 = 2x −6
−x = −4
x = 4
4 −2 = 2 ×4 −6
2 = 2
or
−(x −2) = 2x −6
−x + 2 = 2x −6
−3x = −8
x =
8
3

8
3
−2 = 2 ×
8
3
−6

2
3
 = −
2
3
The second ’solution’ is not valid. The only so
lution is x = 4.
28. x −3 = 2x
x = −3
 −3 −3 = 2 ×−3
 −6 = −6
or
−(x −3) = 2x
−x + 3 = 2x
−3x = −3
x = 1
1 −3 = 2 ×1
 −2 = 2
The ﬁrst ’solution’ is not valid. The only solution
is x = 1.
29. x −2 = 0.5x + 1
0.5x = 3
x = 6
6 −2 = 0.5 ×6 + 1
4 = 4
or
2
Chapter 1 Exercise 1A
−x −2 = 0.5x + 1
−1.5x = 3
x = −2
 −2 −2 = 0.5 ×−2 + 1
0 = 0 .
30. x + 2 = −3x + 6
4x = 4
x = 1
1 + 2 = −3 ×1 + 6
3 = 3
or
−(x + 2) = −3x + 6
−x −2 = −3x + 6
2x = 8
x = 4
4 + 2 = −3 ×4 + 6
6 = 3 −6
The second solution is invalid. The only solution
is x = 1.
31. x ≥ 1:
x + 5 + x −1 = 7
2x + 4 = 7
2x = 3
x = 1.5
−5 ≤ x ≤ 1:
x + 5 −(x −1) = 7
x + 5 −x + 1 = 7
6 = 7 =⇒ no sol’n
x ≤ −5:
−(x + 5) −(x −1) = 7
−x −5 −x + 1 = 7
−2x −4 = 7
−2x = 11
x = −5.5
32. x ≥ 4:
x + 3 + x −4 = 2
2x −1 = 2
2x = 3
x = 1.5
=⇒ no sol’n (out of domain)
−3 ≤ x ≤ 4:
x + 3 −(x −4) = 2
x + 3 −x + 4 = 2
7 = 2 =⇒ no sol’n
x ≤ −3:
−(x + 3) −(x −4) = 2
−x −3 −x + 4 = 2
−2x + 1 = 2
−2x = 1
x = −0.5
=⇒ no sol’n (out of domain)
The equation has no solution.
33. x ≥ 3:
x + 5 + x −3 = 8
2x + 2 = 8
2x = 6
x = 3
−5 ≤ x ≤ 3:
x + 5 −(x −3) = 8
x + 5 −x + 3 = 8
8 = 8
=⇒ all of −5 ≤ x ≤ 3 is a solution.
x ≤ −5:
−(x + 5) −(x −3) = 8
−x −5 −x + 3 = 8
−2x −2 = 8
−2x = 10
x = −5
Solution is −5 ≤ x ≤ 3.
34. x ≥ 8:
x −8 = −(2 −x) −6
x −8 = −2 + x −6
−8 = −8
=⇒ all of x ≥ 8 is a solution.
2 ≤ x ≤ 8:
−(x −8) = −(2 −x) −6
−x + 8 = −2 + x −6
2x = 16
x = 8
x ≤ 2:
−(x −8) = 2 −x −6
−x + 8 = −x −4
8 = −4 =⇒ no sol’n
Solution is x ≥ 8.
3
Exercise 1B Chapter 1
Exercise 1B
1.
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
2 2
−2 < x < 2
2.
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
5 5
−5 ≤ x ≤ 5
3.
10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10
7 7
x < −7 or x > 7
4.
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
3 3
x < −1 or x > 5
5.
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
4 4
−7 ≤ x ≤ 1
6.
x
y
5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 y = 5x −3
y = 7
Algebraically:
For 5x −3 ≥ 0: For 5x −3 ≤ 0:
5x −3 < 7
5x < 10
x < 5
−(5x −3) < 7
5x −3 > −7
5x > −4
x > −
4
5
−
4
5
< x < 2
7.
x
y
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 y = 2x −3
y = 5
Algebraically:
For 2x −3 ≥ 0: For 2x −3 ≤ 0:
2x −3 > 5
2x > 8
x > 4
−(2x −3) > 5
2x −3 < −5
2x < −2
x < −1
x < −1 or x > 4
8.
x
y
6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10
1
1
3
5
7
9
11
13 y = 5 −2x
y = 11
Algebraically:
For 5 −2x ≥ 0: For 5 −2x ≤ 0:
5 −2x ≤ 11
−2x ≤ 6
x ≥ −3
−(5 −2x) ≤ 11
−5 + 2x ≤ 11
2x ≤ 16
x ≤ 8
−3 ≤ x ≤ 8
9. Centred on 0, no more than 3 units from centre:
x ≤ 3
10. Centred on 0, less than 4 units from centre:
x < 4
11. Centred on 0, at least 1 unit from centre: x ≥ 1
12. Centred on 0, more than 2 units from centre:
x > 2
13. Centred on 0, no more than 4 units from centre:
x ≤ 4
14. Centred on 0, at least 3 units from centre: x ≥ 3
4
Chapter 1 Exercise 1B
15. Distance from 3 is greater than distance from 7.
Distance is equal at x = 5 so possible values are
{x ∈ R : x > 5}.
16. Distance from 1 is less than or equal to distance
from 8. Distance is equal at x = 4.5 so possible
values are {x ∈ R : x ≤ 4.5}.
17. Distance from −2 is less than distance from 2.
Distance is equal at x = 0 so possible values are
{x ∈ R : x < 0}.
18. Distance from 5 is greater than or equal to dis
tance from −1. Distance is equal at x = 2 so
possible values are {x ∈ R : x ≤ 2}.
19. Distance from 13 is greater than distance from
5. (Note 5 − x = x − 5.) Distance is equal at
x = 9 so possible values are {x ∈ R : x < 9}.
20. Distance from −12 is greater than or equal to
distance from 2. Distance is equal at x = −5 so
possible values are {x ∈ R : x ≥ −5}.
21. Centred on 2, no more than 3 units from centre:
x −2 ≤ 3
22. Centred on 3, less than 1 unit from centre:
x −3 < 1
23. Centred on 2, at least 2 units from centre:
x −2 ≥ 2
24. Centred on 1, more than 2 units from centre:
x −1 > 2
25. Centred on 1, no more than 4 units from centre:
x −1 ≤ 4
26. Centred on 1, at least 4 units from centre:
x −1 ≥ 4
27.
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
5 5
x ≤ −5 or x ≥ 5
28. For 2x > 0: For 2x < 0:
2x < 8
x < 4
−2x < 8
2x > −8
x > −4
−4 < x < 4
29. x > −3 is true for all x (since the absolute value
is always positive).
30. Distance from 3 is greater than or equal to dis
tance from −5. Distance is equal at −1 so
x ≤ −1.
31.
x
y
5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
y = x + 1
y = 2x + 5
Algebraically:
First solve x + 1 = 2x + 5
x + 1 = 2x + 5
x = −4
or −(x + 1) = 2x + 5
−x −1 = 2x + 5
−6 = 3x
x = −2
Now consider the three intervals delimited by
these two solutions.
• x < −4
Try a value, say 5:
Is it true that  −5 + 1 ≤ 2(−5) + 5 ?
Yes (4 ≤ 5).
• −4 < x < −2
Try a value, say 3:
Is it true that  −3 + 1 ≤ 2(−3) + 5 ?
No (2 1).
• x > −2
Try a value, say 0:
Is it true that 0 + 1 ≤ 2(0) + 5 ?
Yes (1 ≤ 5).
Solution set is
{x ∈ R : x ≤ −4} ∪ {x ∈ R : x ≥ −2}
32. No solution (absolute value can not be negative.)
33. First solve 5x + 1 = 3x + 9
5x + 1 = 3x + 9
2x = 8
x = 4
or −(5x + 1) = 3x + 9
−5x −1 = 3x + 9
−10 = 8x
x = −1.25
Now consider the three intervals delimited by
these two solutions.
• x < −1.25
Try a value, say 2:
Is it true that 5(−2) + 1 > 3(−2) + 9 ?
Yes (9 > 3).
5
Exercise 1B Chapter 1
• −1.25 < x < 4
Try a value, say 0:
Is it true that 5(0) + 1 > 3(0) + 9 ?
No (1 ≯ 9).
• x > 4
Try a value, say 5:
Is it true that 5(5) + 1 > 3(5) + 9 ?
Yes (26 > 24).
Solution set is
{x ∈ R : x < −1.25} ∪ {x ∈ R : x > 4}
34. First solve 2x + 5 = 3x −1
2x + 5 = 3x −1
x = 6
or −(2x + 5) = 3x −1
−2x −5 = 3x −1
−4 = 5x
x = −0.8
Now consider the three intervals delimited by
these two solutions.
• x < −0.8
Try a value, say 2:
Is it true that 2(−2) + 5 ≥ 3(−2) −1 ?
No (1 7).
• −0.8 < x < 6
Try a value, say 0:
Is it true that 2(0) + 5 ≥ 3(0) −1 ?
Yes (5 ≥ −1).
• x > 6
Try a value, say 7:
Is it true that 2(7) + 5 ≥ 3(7) −1 ?
No (19 20).
Solution set is
{x ∈ R : −0.8 ≤ x ≤ 6}
Actually we only need to test one of the three
intervals. At each of the two initial solutions we
have lines crossing so if the LHS<RHS on one
side of the intersection it follows that LHS>RHS
on the other side, and vice versa. We’ll use this
in the next questions.
35. First solve 6x + 1 = 2x + 5
6x + 1 = 2x + 5
4x = 4
x = 1
or −(6x + 1) = 2x + 5
−6x −1 = 2x + 5
−8x = 6
x = −0.75
Now test one of the three intervals delimited by
these two solutions.
• x < −0.75
Try a value, say 1:
Is it true that 6(−1) + 1 ≤ 2(−1) + 5 ?
No (5 3).
Solution set is
{x ∈ R : −0.75 ≤ x ≤ 1}
36. First solve 3x + 7 = 2x −4
3x + 7 = 2x −4
x = −11
or −(3x + 7) = 2x −4
−3x −7 = 2x −4
−5x = 3
x = −0.6
Now test one of the three intervals delimited by
these two solutions.
• x < −11
Try a value, say 12:
Is it true that 3(−12) +7 > 2(−12) −4 ?
Yes (29 > 28).
Solution set is
{x ∈ R : x < −11} ∪ {x ∈ R : x > −0.6}
37. This is true for all x ∈ R since the absolute value
is never negative, and hence always greater than
5.
38. First solve x −1 = 2x + 7
x −1 = 2x + 7
x = −8
or −(x −1) = 2x + 7
−x + 1 = 2x + 7
−3x = 6
x = −2
Now test one of the three intervals delimited by
these two solutions.
• x < −8
Try a value, say 10:
Is it true that  −10 −1 ≤ 2(−10) + 7 ?
Yes (11 ≤ 13).
Solution set is
{x ∈ R : x < −8} ∪ {x ∈ R : x > −2}
39. Distance from 11 is greater than or equal to dis
tance from −5. 3 is equidistant, so x ≤ 3
40. First solve 3x + 7 = 7 −2x
3x + 7 = 7 −2x
5x = 0
x = 0
or −(3x + 7) = 7 −2x
−3x −7 = 7 −2x
−x = 14
x = −14
Now test one of the three intervals delimited by
these two solutions.
• x < −14
Try a value, say 20:
Is it true that 3(−20) +7 > 7 −2(−20) ?
Yes (53 > 47).
6
Chapter 1 Exercise 1B
Solution set is
{x ∈ R : x < −14} ∪ {x ∈ R : x > 0}
41. No solution (LHS=RHS ∀x ∈ R)
42. True for all x (LHS=RHS ∀x ∈ R)
43. We can rewrite this as 3x + 1 ≤ x + 1 which
can only be true at x + 1 = 0, i.e. x = −1.
44. We can rewrite this as 2x −3 < 5x −3 which
simpliﬁes to 2 < 5 for all x = 3, so the solution
set is
{x ∈ R : x = 3}
45. First solve x = 2x −6
x = 2x −6
x = 6
or x = −(2x −6)
x = −2x + 6
3x = 6
x = 2
Now test one of the three intervals delimited by
these two solutions.
• x < 2
Try a value, say 0:
Is it true that 0 > 2(0) −6 ?
No (0 ≯ 6).
Solution set is
{x ∈ R : 2 < x < 6}
46. First solve x −3 = 2x
x −3 = 2x
x = −3
or −(x −3) = 2x
−x + 3 = 2x
3x = 3
x = 1
The ﬁrst of these is not really a solution, because
it was found based on the premise of x −3 being
positive which is not true for x = −3. As a re
sult we really have only one solution. (Graph it
on your calculator if you’re not sure of this.)
Now test one of the two intervals delimited by
this solution.
• x < 1
Try a value, say 0:
Is it true that 0 −3 ≤ 2(0) ?
No (3 0).
Solution set is
{x ∈ R : x ≥ 1}
47. First solve 2x −2 = x
2x −2 = x
x = 2
or 2x −2 = −x
3x = 2
x =
2
3
The second of these is not really a solution, be
cause it was found based on the premise of x
being negative which is not true for x =
2
3
. As a
result we really have only one solution.
Now test one of the two intervals delimited by
this solution.
• x < 2
Try a value, say 0:
Is it true that 2(0) −2 < 0) ?
Yes (−2 < 0).
Solution set is
{x ∈ R : x < 2}
48. First solve x + 1 = 2x. If you sketch the graph
of LHS and RHS it should be clear that this will
have one solution with positive x:
x + 1 = 2x
x = 1
The LHS is clearly greater than the RHS for neg
ative x so we can conclude that the solution set
is
{x ∈ R : x ≤ 1}
49. Apart from having a > instead of ≥ this problem
can be rearranged to be identical to the previous
one, so it will have a corresponding solution set:
{x ∈ R : x < 1}
50. First solve x + 4 = x + 2
x + 4 = x + 2
No Solution
or −(x + 4) = x + 2
−x −4 = x + 2
−2x = 6
x = −3
The second of these is not really a solution, be
cause it was found based on the premise of x +4
being negative which is not true for x = −3. As
a result we have no solution. Graphically, the
graphs of the LHS and RHS never intersect, so
the inequality is either always true or never true.
Test a value to determine which:
Try a value, say 0:
Is it true that (0) + 4 > 0 + 2 ?
Yes (4 > 2).
Solution set is R.
51. “*”must be > because we are including all values
of x greater than some distance from the central
point.
7
Miscellaneous Exercise 1 Chapter 1
At the value x = 3 we must have
2x + 5 = a
2 ×3 + 5 = a
a = 11
Then at x = b
−(2b + 5) = 11
−2b −5 = 11
−2b = 16
b = −8
52. Since 3 is a member of the solution set, result
ing in the LHS being zero, the smallest possible
absolute value, the inequality must be either <
or ≤. Since we have a ﬁlled circle at the starting
point we can conclude that “*” is ≤.
Point x = 5 is equidistant between 3 and a (i.e.
x − 3 = x − a at x = 5 so we may conclude
that a = 7.
53. First solve 2x + 5 = x + a
2x + 5 = x + a
x = a −5
or −(2x + 5) = x + a
−2x −5 = x + a
−3x = a + 5
x = −
a + 5
3
This gives us either
• a −5 = −2 and −
a+5
3
= −4; or
• a −5 = −4 and −
a+5
3
= −2
Only the second of these works, and we have
a = 1
The open endpoints exclude ≤ and ≥ and all that
remains is to test a value between −2 and −4 to
decide between < and >.
2(−3) + 5 ∗ (−3) + 1
1 ∗ 2
and we see that “*” is <.
54. (a) False. This equation only holds when x
and y are either both positive or both nega
tive. For example, consider x = 1, y = −2:
x + y = 1 but x +y = 3.
(b) False. This equation only holds when x
and y are not both positive or both nega
tive, and further when x ≥ y. For exam
ple, if x = 1 and y = 2, x + y = 3 but
x −y = −1.
(c) False. For example, consider x = 1, y = −2:
x + y = 1 but x +y = 3.
(d) True for all real values of x and y.
Miscellaneous Exercise 1
1. distance =
(−3 −2)
2
+ (7 −−5)
2
=
√
25 + 144
= 13
2. (a) f(2) = 5(2) −3
= 7
(b) f(−5) = 5(−5) −3
= −28
(c) f(1.5) = 5(1.5) −3
= 4.5
(d) f(p) = 5p −3
(e) f(q) = −18
5q −3 = −18
5q = −15
q = −3
3. (a) 8 = 2
3
(b) 64 = 8
2
= (2
3
)
2
= 2
6
(c) 2
3
×2
7
= 2
3+7
= 2
10
(d) 2
5
×16 = 2
5
×2
4
= 2
9
(e) 2
10
÷2
7
= 2
10−7
= 2
3
(f) 2
7
÷8 = 2
7
÷2
3
= 2
4
(g) 256 ×64 = 2
8
×2
6
= 2
14
(h) 1 = 2
0
4. (a) 5
6
×5
x
= 5
10
5
6+x
= 5
10
6 + x = 10
x = 4
(b) 27 ×3
x
= 3
7
3
3
×3
x
= 3
7
3
3+x
= 3
7
3 + x = 7
x = 4
8
Chapter 1 Miscellaneous Exercise 1
(c) 1 000 000 = 10
x
10
6
= 10
x
x = 6
(d) 12
9
÷12
x
= 144
12
9−x
= 12
2
9 −x = 2
x = 7
(e) 2
3
×8 ×2
x
= 2
10
2
3
×2
3
×2
x
= 2
10
2
3+3+x
= 2
10
6 + x = 10
x = 4
(f) 0.1 = 10
x
10
−1
= 10
x
x = −1
5. (a) −5 < x < 5
(b) True for all x (An absolute value is always
greater than any negative number.)
(c) −6 ≤ 2x ≤ 6 so −3 ≤ x ≤ 3
(d) No value of x satisﬁes this since an absolute
value cannot be less than zero.
(e) True for points on the number line having a
distance from 3 less than their distance from
9, i.e. points nearer 3 than 9. The midpoint
of 3 and 9 is 6 so the values of x that satisfy
the inequality are x < 6.
(f) True for points on the number line nearer 1
than 5. The midpoint is 2, so x < 2.
6. Refer to Sadler’s solutions for the sketches.
These comments brieﬂy describe the operations
that have been enacted to produce these sketches.
(a) Vertical reﬂection in the xaxis
(b) Horizontal reﬂection in the yaxis
(c) That part of the curve lying below the x
axis is vertically reﬂected in the xaxis.
(d) That part of the curve lying to the left of
the yaxis is replaced with a mirror image
of the part lying to the right of the axis.
7. Each function is of the form y = a(x−b) where a
represents the gradient of the positive slope and b
where it meets the xaxis. (It may be necessary
to expand brackets if comparing these answers
with Sadler’s.)
(a) Gradient 1, xintercept 3: y = x + 3
(b) Gradient 1, xintercept 3: y = x −3
(c) Gradient 3, xintercept 2: y = 3(x −2)
(d) Gradient 2, xintercept 2: y = 2(x + 2)
8. (a) f(3) = 3(3) −2 = 7
(b) f(−3) = 3(−3) −2 = −11
(c) g(3) = f(3) = f(3) = 7
(d) g(−3) = f( −3) = f(3) = 7
(e) f(5) = 3(5) −2 = 13
(f) g(−5) = f( −5) = f(5) = 13
(g) The graph of f(x) is a line with gradient
3 and yintercept 2. The graph of g(x) is
identical to that of f(x) for x ≥ 0. For x < 0
the graph is a reﬂection in the yaxis of the
graph for positive x.
9. (a) The line lies above the curve for x between
b and e (but not including the extremes):
b < x < e.
(b) As for the previous question, but including
the extremes: b ≤ x ≤ e.
(c) The line is below the xaxis for x < a.
(d) The line is above or on the xaxis for x ≥ a.
(e) The quadratic is above or on the xaxis for
x ≤ c or x ≥ d.
(f) The quadratic is above the xaxis for x ≤ b
or x ≥ e.
10. Because a is positive the sign of ax is the same
as the sign of x and hence ax = ax. Similarly
bx = bx.
bx > ax
bx > ax
Because x is positive we can divide both sides by
x without being concerned about the inequality
changing direction. This is, of course, only valid
for x = 0
.b > a
which is true for all x so we can conclude that
the original inequality is true for all x = 0.
9