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Chapter 1

Chapter 1
Exercise 1A
1.
-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
2 2
x = 3 or x = 7
2.
-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 1
x = 5 or x = 7
3.
-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2
2 2
x = −6 or x = −2
4.
-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
5 5
x = −8 or x = 2
5.
-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
3 3
x = 4
6.
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
5 5
x = 3
7. x + 3 = 7
x = 4
or x + 3 = −7
x = −10
8. x −3 = 5
x = 8
or x −3 = −5
x = −2
9. No solution (absolute value can never be nega-
tive).
10. x −2 = 11
x = 13
or x −2 = −11
x = −9
11. 2x + 3 = 7
2x = 4
x = 2
or 2x + 3 = −7
2x = −10
x = −5
12. 5x −8 = 7
5x = 15
x = 3
or 5x −8 = −7
5x = 1
x =
1
5
13. Find the appropriate intersection and read the
x-coordinate.
(a) Intersections at (3,4) and (7,4) so x = 3 or
x = 7.
(b) Intersections at (-2,4) and (6,4) so x = −2
or x = 6.
(c) Intersections at (4,2) and (8,6) so x = 4 or
x = 8.
14.
x
y
-8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
-2
-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
y = 5
y = |x|
y = 3 −0.5x
y = |2x + 3|
(a) Intersections at (-4,5) and (1,5) so x = −4
or x = 1.
(b) Intersections at (-6,6) and (2,2) so x = −6
or x = 2.
(c) Intersections at (-4,5) and (0,3) so x = −4
or x = 0.
(d) Intersections at (-3,3) and (-1,1) so x = −3
or x = −1.
15.
-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2
1 1
x = −7 or x = −5
16. No solution (absolute value can never be nega-
tive).
17.
-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2
2.5 2.5
x = −5.5
18.
-12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6
8 8
x = −3
19.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
2 2
x = 8
20.
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
8 8
x = 2
21.
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0
1.5 1.5
x = −3.5
1
Exercise 1A Chapter 1
22.
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
5 5
x = 5
23. x + 5 = 2x −14
x = 19
|19 + 5| = |2 ×19 −14|
|24| = |24|
or
x + 5 = −(2x −14)
x + 5 = −2x + 14
3x = 9
x = 3
|3 + 5| = |2 ×3 −14|
|8| = | −8|
24. 3x −1 = x + 9
2x = 10
x = 5
|3 ×5 −1| = |5 + 9|
|14| = |14|
or
−(3x −1) = x + 9
−3x + 1 = x + 9
−4x = 8
x = −2
|3 ×−2 −1| = | −2 + 9|
| −7| = |7|
25. 4x −3 = 3x −11
x = −8
|4 ×−8 −3| = |3 ×−8 −11|
| −35| = | −35|
or
4x −3 = −(3x −11)
4x −3 = −3x + 11
7x = 14
x = 2
|4 ×2 −3| = |3 ×2 −11|
|5| = | −5|
26. 5x −11 = 5 −3x
8x = 16
x = 2
|5 ×2 −11| = |5 −3 ×2|
| −1| = | −1|
or
−(5x −11) = 5 −3x
−5x + 11 = 5 −3x
6 = 2x
x = 3
|5 ×3 −11| = |5 −3 ×3|
|4| = | −4|
27. x −2 = 2x −6
−x = −4
x = 4
|4 −2| = 2 ×4 −6
|2| = 2
or
−(x −2) = 2x −6
−x + 2 = 2x −6
−3x = −8
x =
8
3
|
8
3
−2| = 2 ×
8
3
−6
|
2
3
| = −
2
3
The second ’solution’ is not valid. The only so-
lution is x = 4.
28. x −3 = 2x
x = −3
| −3 −3| = 2 ×−3
| −6| = −6
or
−(x −3) = 2x
−x + 3 = 2x
−3x = −3
x = 1
|1 −3| = 2 ×1
| −2| = 2
The first ’solution’ is not valid. The only solution
is x = 1.
29. x −2 = 0.5x + 1
0.5x = 3
x = 6
|6| −2 = 0.5 ×6 + 1
4 = 4
or
2
Chapter 1 Exercise 1A
−x −2 = 0.5x + 1
−1.5x = 3
x = −2
| −2| −2 = 0.5 ×−2 + 1
0 = 0 .
30. x + 2 = −3x + 6
4x = 4
x = 1
|1 + 2| = −3 ×1 + 6
|3| = 3
or
−(x + 2) = −3x + 6
−x −2 = −3x + 6
2x = 8
x = 4
|4 + 2| = −3 ×4 + 6
|6| = 3 −6
The second solution is invalid. The only solution
is x = 1.
31. x ≥ 1:
x + 5 + x −1 = 7
2x + 4 = 7
2x = 3
x = 1.5
−5 ≤ x ≤ 1:
x + 5 −(x −1) = 7
x + 5 −x + 1 = 7
6 = 7 =⇒ no sol’n
x ≤ −5:
−(x + 5) −(x −1) = 7
−x −5 −x + 1 = 7
−2x −4 = 7
−2x = 11
x = −5.5
32. x ≥ 4:
x + 3 + x −4 = 2
2x −1 = 2
2x = 3
x = 1.5
=⇒ no sol’n (out of domain)
−3 ≤ x ≤ 4:
x + 3 −(x −4) = 2
x + 3 −x + 4 = 2
7 = 2 =⇒ no sol’n
x ≤ −3:
−(x + 3) −(x −4) = 2
−x −3 −x + 4 = 2
−2x + 1 = 2
−2x = 1
x = −0.5
=⇒ no sol’n (out of domain)
The equation has no solution.
33. x ≥ 3:
x + 5 + x −3 = 8
2x + 2 = 8
2x = 6
x = 3
−5 ≤ x ≤ 3:
x + 5 −(x −3) = 8
x + 5 −x + 3 = 8
8 = 8
=⇒ all of −5 ≤ x ≤ 3 is a solution.
x ≤ −5:
−(x + 5) −(x −3) = 8
−x −5 −x + 3 = 8
−2x −2 = 8
−2x = 10
x = −5
Solution is −5 ≤ x ≤ 3.
34. x ≥ 8:
x −8 = −(2 −x) −6
x −8 = −2 + x −6
−8 = −8
=⇒ all of x ≥ 8 is a solution.
2 ≤ x ≤ 8:
−(x −8) = −(2 −x) −6
−x + 8 = −2 + x −6
2x = 16
x = 8
x ≤ 2:
−(x −8) = 2 −x −6
−x + 8 = −x −4
8 = −4 =⇒ no sol’n
Solution is x ≥ 8.
3
Exercise 1B Chapter 1
Exercise 1B
1.
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
2 2
−2 < x < 2
2.
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
5 5
−5 ≤ x ≤ 5
3.
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
7 7
x < −7 or x > 7
4.
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
3 3
x < −1 or x > 5
5.
-8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
4 4
−7 ≤ x ≤ 1
6.
x
y
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5
-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 y = |5x −3|
y = 7
Algebraically:
For 5x −3 ≥ 0: For 5x −3 ≤ 0:
5x −3 < 7
5x < 10
x < 5
−(5x −3) < 7
5x −3 > −7
5x > −4
x > −
4
5

4
5
< x < 2
7.
x
y
-4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6
-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 y = |2x −3|
y = 5
Algebraically:
For 2x −3 ≥ 0: For 2x −3 ≤ 0:
2x −3 > 5
2x > 8
x > 4
−(2x −3) > 5
2x −3 < −5
2x < −2
x < −1
x < −1 or x > 4
8.
x
y
-6 -4 -2 2 4 6 8 10
-1
1
3
5
7
9
11
13 y = |5 −2x|
y = 11
Algebraically:
For 5 −2x ≥ 0: For 5 −2x ≤ 0:
5 −2x ≤ 11
−2x ≤ 6
x ≥ −3
−(5 −2x) ≤ 11
−5 + 2x ≤ 11
2x ≤ 16
x ≤ 8
−3 ≤ x ≤ 8
9. Centred on 0, no more than 3 units from centre:
|x| ≤ 3
10. Centred on 0, less than 4 units from centre:
|x| < 4
11. Centred on 0, at least 1 unit from centre: |x| ≥ 1
12. Centred on 0, more than 2 units from centre:
|x| > 2
13. Centred on 0, no more than 4 units from centre:
|x| ≤ 4
14. Centred on 0, at least 3 units from centre: |x| ≥ 3
4
Chapter 1 Exercise 1B
15. Distance from 3 is greater than distance from 7.
Distance is equal at x = 5 so possible values are
{x ∈ R : x > 5}.
16. Distance from 1 is less than or equal to distance
from 8. Distance is equal at x = 4.5 so possible
values are {x ∈ R : x ≤ 4.5}.
17. Distance from −2 is less than distance from 2.
Distance is equal at x = 0 so possible values are
{x ∈ R : x < 0}.
18. Distance from 5 is greater than or equal to dis-
tance from −1. Distance is equal at x = 2 so
possible values are {x ∈ R : x ≤ 2}.
19. Distance from 13 is greater than distance from
5. (Note |5 − x| = |x − 5|.) Distance is equal at
x = 9 so possible values are {x ∈ R : x < 9}.
20. Distance from −12 is greater than or equal to
distance from 2. Distance is equal at x = −5 so
possible values are {x ∈ R : x ≥ −5}.
21. Centred on 2, no more than 3 units from centre:
|x −2| ≤ 3
22. Centred on 3, less than 1 unit from centre:
|x −3| < 1
23. Centred on 2, at least 2 units from centre:
|x −2| ≥ 2
24. Centred on 1, more than 2 units from centre:
|x −1| > 2
25. Centred on 1, no more than 4 units from centre:
|x −1| ≤ 4
26. Centred on 1, at least 4 units from centre:
|x −1| ≥ 4
27.
-8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
5 5
x ≤ −5 or x ≥ 5
28. For 2x > 0: For 2x < 0:
2x < 8
x < 4
−2x < 8
2x > −8
x > −4
−4 < x < 4
29. |x| > −3 is true for all x (since the absolute value
is always positive).
30. Distance from 3 is greater than or equal to dis-
tance from −5. Distance is equal at −1 so
x ≤ −1.
31.
x
y
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3
-1
1
2
3
4
5
6
y = |x + 1|
y = |2x + 5|
Algebraically:
First solve |x + 1| = |2x + 5|
x + 1 = 2x + 5
x = −4
or −(x + 1) = 2x + 5
−x −1 = 2x + 5
−6 = 3x
x = −2
Now consider the three intervals delimited by
these two solutions.
• x < −4
Try a value, say -5:
Is it true that | −5 + 1| ≤ |2(−5) + 5| ?
Yes (4 ≤ 5).
• −4 < x < −2
Try a value, say -3:
Is it true that | −3 + 1| ≤ |2(−3) + 5| ?
No (2 1).
• x > −2
Try a value, say 0:
Is it true that |0 + 1| ≤ |2(0) + 5| ?
Yes (1 ≤ 5).
Solution set is
{x ∈ R : x ≤ −4} ∪ {x ∈ R : x ≥ −2}
32. No solution (absolute value can not be negative.)
33. First solve |5x + 1| = |3x + 9|
5x + 1 = 3x + 9
2x = 8
x = 4
or −(5x + 1) = 3x + 9
−5x −1 = 3x + 9
−10 = 8x
x = −1.25
Now consider the three intervals delimited by
these two solutions.
• x < −1.25
Try a value, say -2:
Is it true that |5(−2) + 1| > |3(−2) + 9| ?
Yes (9 > 3).
5
Exercise 1B Chapter 1
• −1.25 < x < 4
Try a value, say 0:
Is it true that |5(0) + 1| > |3(0) + 9| ?
No (1 ≯ 9).
• x > 4
Try a value, say 5:
Is it true that |5(5) + 1| > |3(5) + 9| ?
Yes (26 > 24).
Solution set is
{x ∈ R : x < −1.25} ∪ {x ∈ R : x > 4}
34. First solve |2x + 5| = |3x −1|
2x + 5 = 3x −1
x = 6
or −(2x + 5) = 3x −1
−2x −5 = 3x −1
−4 = 5x
x = −0.8
Now consider the three intervals delimited by
these two solutions.
• x < −0.8
Try a value, say -2:
Is it true that |2(−2) + 5| ≥ |3(−2) −1| ?
No (1 7).
• −0.8 < x < 6
Try a value, say 0:
Is it true that |2(0) + 5| ≥ |3(0) −1| ?
Yes (5 ≥ −1).
• x > 6
Try a value, say 7:
Is it true that |2(7) + 5| ≥ |3(7) −1| ?
No (19 20).
Solution set is
{x ∈ R : −0.8 ≤ x ≤ 6}
Actually we only need to test one of the three
intervals. At each of the two initial solutions we
have lines crossing so if the LHS<RHS on one
side of the intersection it follows that LHS>RHS
on the other side, and vice versa. We’ll use this
in the next questions.
35. First solve |6x + 1| = |2x + 5|
6x + 1 = 2x + 5
4x = 4
x = 1
or −(6x + 1) = 2x + 5
−6x −1 = 2x + 5
−8x = 6
x = −0.75
Now test one of the three intervals delimited by
these two solutions.
• x < −0.75
Try a value, say -1:
Is it true that |6(−1) + 1| ≤ |2(−1) + 5| ?
No (5 3).
Solution set is
{x ∈ R : −0.75 ≤ x ≤ 1}
36. First solve |3x + 7| = |2x −4|
3x + 7 = 2x −4
x = −11
or −(3x + 7) = 2x −4
−3x −7 = 2x −4
−5x = 3
x = −0.6
Now test one of the three intervals delimited by
these two solutions.
• x < −11
Try a value, say -12:
Is it true that |3(−12) +7| > |2(−12) −4| ?
Yes (29 > 28).
Solution set is
{x ∈ R : x < −11} ∪ {x ∈ R : x > −0.6}
37. This is true for all x ∈ R since the absolute value
is never negative, and hence always greater than
-5.
38. First solve |x −1| = |2x + 7|
x −1 = 2x + 7
x = −8
or −(x −1) = 2x + 7
−x + 1 = 2x + 7
−3x = 6
x = −2
Now test one of the three intervals delimited by
these two solutions.
• x < −8
Try a value, say -10:
Is it true that | −10 −1| ≤ |2(−10) + 7| ?
Yes (11 ≤ 13).
Solution set is
{x ∈ R : x < −8} ∪ {x ∈ R : x > −2}
39. Distance from 11 is greater than or equal to dis-
tance from −5. 3 is equidistant, so x ≤ 3
40. First solve |3x + 7| = |7 −2x|
3x + 7 = 7 −2x
5x = 0
x = 0
or −(3x + 7) = 7 −2x
−3x −7 = 7 −2x
−x = 14
x = −14
Now test one of the three intervals delimited by
these two solutions.
• x < −14
Try a value, say -20:
Is it true that |3(−20) +7| > |7 −2(−20)| ?
Yes (53 > 47).
6
Chapter 1 Exercise 1B
Solution set is
{x ∈ R : x < −14} ∪ {x ∈ R : x > 0}
41. No solution (LHS=RHS ∀x ∈ R)
42. True for all x (LHS=RHS ∀x ∈ R)
43. We can rewrite this as 3|x + 1| ≤ |x + 1| which
can only be true at x + 1 = 0, i.e. x = −1.
44. We can rewrite this as 2|x −3| < 5|x −3| which
simplifies to 2 < 5 for all x = 3, so the solution
set is
{x ∈ R : x = 3}
45. First solve x = |2x −6|
x = 2x −6
x = 6
or x = −(2x −6)
x = −2x + 6
3x = 6
x = 2
Now test one of the three intervals delimited by
these two solutions.
• x < 2
Try a value, say 0:
Is it true that 0 > |2(0) −6| ?
No (0 ≯ 6).
Solution set is
{x ∈ R : 2 < x < 6}
46. First solve |x −3| = 2x
x −3 = 2x
x = −3
or −(x −3) = 2x
−x + 3 = 2x
3x = 3
x = 1
The first of these is not really a solution, because
it was found based on the premise of x −3 being
positive which is not true for x = −3. As a re-
sult we really have only one solution. (Graph it
on your calculator if you’re not sure of this.)
Now test one of the two intervals delimited by
this solution.
• x < 1
Try a value, say 0:
Is it true that |0 −3| ≤ 2(0) ?
No (3 0).
Solution set is
{x ∈ R : x ≥ 1}
47. First solve 2x −2 = |x|
2x −2 = x
x = 2
or 2x −2 = −x
3x = 2
x =
2
3
The second of these is not really a solution, be-
cause it was found based on the premise of x
being negative which is not true for x =
2
3
. As a
result we really have only one solution.
Now test one of the two intervals delimited by
this solution.
• x < 2
Try a value, say 0:
Is it true that 2(0) −2 < |0|) ?
Yes (−2 < 0).
Solution set is
{x ∈ R : x < 2}
48. First solve |x| + 1 = 2x. If you sketch the graph
of LHS and RHS it should be clear that this will
have one solution with positive x:
x + 1 = 2x
x = 1
The LHS is clearly greater than the RHS for neg-
ative x so we can conclude that the solution set
is
{x ∈ R : x ≤ 1}
49. Apart from having a > instead of ≥ this problem
can be rearranged to be identical to the previous
one, so it will have a corresponding solution set:
{x ∈ R : x < 1}
50. First solve |x + 4| = x + 2
x + 4 = x + 2
No Solution
or −(x + 4) = x + 2
−x −4 = x + 2
−2x = 6
x = −3
The second of these is not really a solution, be-
cause it was found based on the premise of x +4
being negative which is not true for x = −3. As
a result we have no solution. Graphically, the
graphs of the LHS and RHS never intersect, so
the inequality is either always true or never true.
Test a value to determine which:
Try a value, say 0:
Is it true that |(0) + 4| > 0 + 2 ?
Yes (4 > 2).
Solution set is R.
51. “*”must be > because we are including all values
of x greater than some distance from the central
point.
7
Miscellaneous Exercise 1 Chapter 1
At the value x = 3 we must have
|2x + 5| = a
|2 ×3 + 5| = a
a = 11
Then at x = b
−(2b + 5) = 11
−2b −5 = 11
−2b = 16
b = −8
52. Since 3 is a member of the solution set, result-
ing in the LHS being zero, the smallest possible
absolute value, the inequality must be either <
or ≤. Since we have a filled circle at the starting
point we can conclude that “*” is ≤.
Point x = 5 is equidistant between 3 and a (i.e.
|x − 3| = |x − a| at x = 5 so we may conclude
that a = 7.
53. First solve |2x + 5| = |x + a|
2x + 5 = x + a
x = a −5
or −(2x + 5) = x + a
−2x −5 = x + a
−3x = a + 5
x = −
a + 5
3
This gives us either
• a −5 = −2 and −
a+5
3
= −4; or
• a −5 = −4 and −
a+5
3
= −2
Only the second of these works, and we have
a = 1
The open endpoints exclude ≤ and ≥ and all that
remains is to test a value between −2 and −4 to
decide between < and >.
|2(−3) + 5| ∗ |(−3) + 1|
1 ∗ 2
and we see that “*” is <.
54. (a) False. This equation only holds when x
and y are either both positive or both nega-
tive. For example, consider x = 1, y = −2:
|x + y| = 1 but |x| +|y| = 3.
(b) False. This equation only holds when x
and y are not both positive or both nega-
tive, and further when |x| ≥ |y|. For exam-
ple, if x = 1 and y = 2, |x + y| = 3 but
|x| −|y| = −1.
(c) False. For example, consider x = 1, y = −2:
|x + y| = 1 but |x| +|y| = 3.
(d) True for all real values of x and y.
Miscellaneous Exercise 1
1. distance =

(−3 −2)
2
+ (7 −−5)
2
=

25 + 144
= 13
2. (a) f(2) = 5(2) −3
= 7
(b) f(−5) = 5(−5) −3
= −28
(c) f(1.5) = 5(1.5) −3
= 4.5
(d) f(p) = 5p −3
(e) f(q) = −18
5q −3 = −18
5q = −15
q = −3
3. (a) 8 = 2
3
(b) 64 = 8
2
= (2
3
)
2
= 2
6
(c) 2
3
×2
7
= 2
3+7
= 2
10
(d) 2
5
×16 = 2
5
×2
4
= 2
9
(e) 2
10
÷2
7
= 2
10−7
= 2
3
(f) 2
7
÷8 = 2
7
÷2
3
= 2
4
(g) 256 ×64 = 2
8
×2
6
= 2
14
(h) 1 = 2
0
4. (a) 5
6
×5
x
= 5
10
5
6+x
= 5
10
6 + x = 10
x = 4
(b) 27 ×3
x
= 3
7
3
3
×3
x
= 3
7
3
3+x
= 3
7
3 + x = 7
x = 4
8
Chapter 1 Miscellaneous Exercise 1
(c) 1 000 000 = 10
x
10
6
= 10
x
x = 6
(d) 12
9
÷12
x
= 144
12
9−x
= 12
2
9 −x = 2
x = 7
(e) 2
3
×8 ×2
x
= 2
10
2
3
×2
3
×2
x
= 2
10
2
3+3+x
= 2
10
6 + x = 10
x = 4
(f) 0.1 = 10
x
10
−1
= 10
x
x = −1
5. (a) −5 < x < 5
(b) True for all x (An absolute value is always
greater than any negative number.)
(c) −6 ≤ 2x ≤ 6 so −3 ≤ x ≤ 3
(d) No value of x satisfies this since an absolute
value cannot be less than zero.
(e) True for points on the number line having a
distance from 3 less than their distance from
9, i.e. points nearer 3 than 9. The midpoint
of 3 and 9 is 6 so the values of x that satisfy
the inequality are x < 6.
(f) True for points on the number line nearer -1
than 5. The midpoint is 2, so x < 2.
6. Refer to Sadler’s solutions for the sketches.
These comments briefly describe the operations
that have been enacted to produce these sketches.
(a) Vertical reflection in the x-axis
(b) Horizontal reflection in the y-axis
(c) That part of the curve lying below the x-
axis is vertically reflected in the x-axis.
(d) That part of the curve lying to the left of
the y-axis is replaced with a mirror image
of the part lying to the right of the axis.
7. Each function is of the form y = |a(x−b)| where a
represents the gradient of the positive slope and b
where it meets the x-axis. (It may be necessary
to expand brackets if comparing these answers
with Sadler’s.)
(a) Gradient 1, x-intercept -3: y = |x + 3|
(b) Gradient 1, x-intercept 3: y = |x −3|
(c) Gradient 3, x-intercept 2: y = |3(x −2)|
(d) Gradient 2, x-intercept -2: y = |2(x + 2)|
8. (a) f(3) = 3(3) −2 = 7
(b) f(−3) = 3(−3) −2 = −11
(c) g(3) = f(|3|) = f(3) = 7
(d) g(−3) = f(| −3|) = f(3) = 7
(e) f(5) = 3(5) −2 = 13
(f) g(−5) = f(| −5|) = f(5) = 13
(g) The graph of f(x) is a line with gradient
3 and y-intercept -2. The graph of g(x) is
identical to that of f(x) for x ≥ 0. For x < 0
the graph is a reflection in the y-axis of the
graph for positive x.
9. (a) The line lies above the curve for x between
b and e (but not including the extremes):
b < x < e.
(b) As for the previous question, but including
the extremes: b ≤ x ≤ e.
(c) The line is below the x-axis for x < a.
(d) The line is above or on the x-axis for x ≥ a.
(e) The quadratic is above or on the x-axis for
x ≤ c or x ≥ d.
(f) The quadratic is above the x-axis for x ≤ b
or x ≥ e.
10. Because a is positive the sign of ax is the same
as the sign of x and hence |ax| = a|x|. Similarly
|bx| = b|x|.
|bx| > |ax|
b|x| > a|x|
Because |x| is positive we can divide both sides by
|x| without being concerned about the inequality
changing direction. This is, of course, only valid
for x = 0
.b > a
which is true for all x so we can conclude that
the original inequality is true for all x = 0.
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