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DIESEL POWER PLANT

GENERAL CONCEPT FOR TRAINING
PURPOSE





PREPARIED BY:

LAL K GEORGE (Chartered Engineer)
A M I Mech E (India),BOE,DME

Assignment:
MAINTENANCE ENGINEER (PGS- E&M)
POWER STATION
MODES- MASIRAH



DEDICATED TO: MASIRAH POWER STATION STAFF













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FORE WORD

The darkness disappears the moment the lamp is lit. Mind is the seat of
thoughts and storehouse of knowledge. Knowledge constitutes skill, key to
development and symbol to prosperity. Seamless access to information about
knowledge is absolute necessity for a successful organization. There will not be any
boundary for the talented people. Outputs with quality efforts deserve rewards.
People of high calibre always perform to the best of their ability and reach
unmatchable level of performances.

This book is a repository of knowledge for the readers. It has possessed
variety of technical information. It helps to develop multi-dimensional skills and
quality of the workforce. Knowledge reduces expenses, redundant efforts and guides
the people properly to achieve the better result.

This book is quite suitable for those who aspire for knowledge. The
knowledge revolution will help to enhance human productivity. The topics covered in
this book are more informative. It will give clear-cut vision; enhance confidence level
and employees potential.

I appreciate the efforts made by Lal K George , ME (PGS E&M) in bringing
out this “Hand Book’’ to the for more enlightenment of power station staff and I wish
him great success



Sd/-




“COUNT WHAT IS KNOWN
EXPOSE WHAT IS NEEDED”






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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
MODULE I
BASIC OF THERMODYNAMICS
MODULE I I
BASIC OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE (ICE)
MODULE III
CLASSIFICATION OF ICE
MODULE IV
DIESEL ENGINE
MODULE V
AUXILLIARIES
MODULE VI
BASIC OF ELECTRICITY
MODULE VII
AC-GENERATOR
MODULE VIII
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM(CONTROL SYSTEM, SWITCH GEAR,
PROTECTION SYSTEM)
MODULE IX
OPERATION
MODULE X
MAINTENANCE
MODULE XI
PLANT SIZING
MODULE XII
IMPACT TO ENVIRONMENT








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INTRODUCTION
The objective of this program is to foster a unified general standard to all working
staffs who engaged in operation and maintenance of power station apart from their
hand on experience and hope this effort will enhance their ability to understand
better engineering practices. The following concepts are included in the program.

A. Refresh basic knowledge of mechanical engineering.
B. Familiarize the operation and maintenance of Internal Combustion
Engine.
C. Familiarize basic system layouts of power plants.
D. Understand general maintenance schedule
E. Understand and compute plant efficiencies.
F. Environmental effects of internal combustion engine

A power plant is assembly of systems or subsystems to generate electricity,
i.e., power with economy and requirements. The power plant itself must be useful
and environmental friendly to the society.

Power Plant
There are two categories:

A. Conventional

Steam Engines Power Plants
Steam Turbine Power Plants
Diesel Power Plants
Gas Turbine Power Plants B. Non-conventional
Hydro-Electric Power Plants
Nuclear Power Plants Thermoelectric Generator
Thermo-ionic generator
Fuel-cells Power Plants
Photovoltaic solar cells Power System
MH D Power Plants
Fusion Reactor N PP Power S y stem
Biogas, Biomass Energy Power system
Geothermal Energy
Wind Energy Power System
Ocean Thermal energy conversion (OTEC)
Wave and Tidal Wave
Energy Plantation Scheme

A power plant may be defined as a machine or assembly of equipment that
generates and delivers a flow of mechanical or electrical energy. The main
equipment for the generation of electric power is generator. When coupling it to a
prime mover runs the generator, the electricity is generated. The type of prime move
determines the type of power plants.
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The Steam Power Plant, Diesel Power Plant, Gas Turbine Power Plant and Nuclear
Power Plants are called THERMAL POWER PLANT, because these convert heat
into electric energy.

Diesel Power plant:
Diesel engine is the prime mover, which drives an alternator to produce electrical
energy. In the diesel engine, air is drawn into the cylinder and is compressed to a
high ratio (14:1 to 25:1). During this compression, the air is heated to a temperature
of 700–900°C. A metered quantity of diesel fuel is then injected into the cylinder,
which ignites spontaneously because of the high temperature. Hence, the diesel
engine is also known as compression ignition (CI) engine.

A typical oil engine has:

1. Cylinder in which fuel and air are admitted and combustion occurs.
2. Piston, which receives high pressure of expanding hot products of combustion and
the piston, is forced to linear motion.
3. Connecting rod, crankshaft linkage to convert reciprocating motion into rotary
motion of shaft.
4. Connected Load, mechanical drive or electrical generator.
5. Suitable valves (ports) for control of flow of fuel, air, exhaust gases, fuel injection,
and ignition systems.
6. Lubricating system, cooling system

In an engine-generator set, the generator shaft is coupled to the Engine shaft.
The main differences between the gasoline engine and the diesel engine are:
• A gasoline engine intakes a mixture of gas and air, compresses it and ignites the
mixture with
a spark. A diesel engine takes in just air, compresses it and then injects fuel into the
compressed air. The heat of the compressed air lights the fuel spontaneously.
• A gasoline engine compresses at a ratio of 8:1 to 12:1, while a diesel engine
compresses at a ratio of 14:1 to as high as 25:1. The higher compression ratio of the
diesel engine leads to better efficiency.
• Gasoline engines generally use either carburetion, in which the air and fuel is
mixed long before the air enters the cylinder, or port fuel injection, in which the fuel is
injected just prior to the intake stroke (outside the cylinder). Diesel engines use direct
fuel injection to the diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder.

DG set can be classified according to cycle type as: two strokes and four stroke.
However, the bulk of IC engines use the four stroke cycle. Let us look at the principle
of operation of the four-stroke diesel engine.

Four Stroke - Diesel Engine

The 4 stroke operations in a diesel engine are: induction stroke, compression stroke,
ignition and power stroke and exhaust stroke.
1st : Induction stroke - while the inlet valve is open, the descending piston draws in
fresh air.
2nd : Compression stroke - while the valves are closed, the air is compressed to a
pressure of up to 25 bar.
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3rd : Ignition and power stroke - fuel is injected, while the valves are closed (fuel
injection actually starts at the end of the previous stroke), the fuel ignites
spontaneously and the piston is forced downwards by the combustion gases.
4th : Exhaust stroke - the exhaust valve is open and the rising piston discharges the
spent gases from the cylinder.


Figure 9.1 Schematic Diagram of Four-Stroke Diesel Engine


Since power is developed during only one stroke, the single cylinder four-stroke
engine has a low degree of uniformity. Smoother running is obtained with multi
cylinder engines because the cranks are staggered in relation to one another on the
crankshaft. There are many variations of engine configuration, for example. 4 or 6
cylinder, in-line, horizontally opposed, vee or radial configurations.

DG Set as a System

A diesel generating set should be considered as a system since its successful
operation depends on the well-matched performance of the components, namely:
a) The diesel engine and its accessories.
b) The AC Generator.
c) The control systems and switchgear.
d) The foundation and power house civil works.
e) The connected load with its own components like heating, motor drives, lighting
etc.
It is necessary to select the components with highest efficiency and operate them at
their optimum efficiency levels to conserve energy in this system.

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Fig 9.2 DG Set System

Selection Considerations

To make a decision on the type of engine, which is most suitable for a specific
application, several factors need to be considered. The two most important factors
are: power and speed of the engine.
The power requirement is determined by the maximum load. The engine power
rating should be 10 – 20 % more than the power demand by the end use. This
prevents overloading the machine by absorbing extra load during starting of motors
or switching of some types of lighting systems or when wear and tear on the
equipment pushes up its power consumption.
Speed is measured at the output shaft and given in revolutions per minute (RPM).
An engine will operate over a range of speeds, with diesel engines typically running
at lower speeds (1300 – 3000 RPM). There will be an optimum speed at which fuel
efficiency will be greatest. Engines should be run as closely as possible to their rated
speed to avoid poor efficiency and to prevent build-up of engine deposits due to
incomplete combustion – which will lead to higher maintenance and running costs.
To determine the speed requirement of an engine, one has to again look at the
requirement of the load.
For some applications, the speed of the engine is not critical, but for other
applications such as a generator, it is important to get a good speed match. If a good
match can be obtained, direct coupling of engine and generator is possible; if not,
then some form of gearing will be necessary - a gearbox or belt system, which will
add to the cost and reduce the efficiency.
There are various other factors that have to be considered, when choosing an
engine for a given application. These include the following: cooling system, abnormal
environmental conditions (dust, dirt, etc.), fuel quality, speed governing (fixed or
variable speed), poor maintenance, control system, starting equipment, drive type,
ambient temperature, altitude, humidity, etc.
Suppliers or manufacturers literature will specify the required information when
purchasing an engine. The efficiency of an engine depends on various factors, for
example, load factor (percentage of full load), engine size, and engine type.



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Diesel Generator Captive Power Plants

Diesel engine power plants are most frequently used in small power (captive non-
utility) systems. The main reason for their extensive use is the higher efficiency of
the diesel engines compared with gas turbines and small steam turbines in the
output range considered. In applications requiring low captive power, without much
requirement of process steam, the ideal method of power generation would be by
installing diesel generator plants. The fuels burnt in diesel engines range from light
distillates to residual fuel oils. Most frequently used diesel engine sizes are between
the range 4 to 15 MW. For continuous operation, low speed diesel engine is more
cost-effective than high speed diesel engine.

Advantages of adopting Diesel Power Plants are:
■ Low installation cost
■ Short delivery periods and installation period
■ Higher efficiency (as high as 43 – 45 %)
■ More efficient plant performance under part loads
■ Suitable for different type of fuels such as low sulphur heavy stock and heavy fuel
oil in case of large capacities.
■ Minimum cooling water requirements,
■ Adopted with air cooled heat exchanger in areas where water is not available
■ Short start up time
A brief comparison of different types of captive power plants (combined gas turbine
and steam turbine, conventional steam plant and diesel engine power plant) is given
in Table 9.1. It can be seen from the Table that captive diesel plant wins over the
other two in terms of thermal efficiency, capital cost, space requirements, auxiliary
power consumption, plant load factor etc.

TABLE 9.1 COMPARISONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CAPTIVE POWER PLANT

Description Units Combined Conventional Diesel Engine
GT & ST Steam Plant Power Plants
DG GT ST
Thermal Efficiency % 40 – 46 33 – 36 43 – 45
Initial Investment of Rs./kW 8,500 – 10,000 15,000 – 18,000 , 7500 – 9,000
Installed Capacity
Space requirement 125 % (Approx.) 250 % (Approx.) 100 % (Approx.)
Construction time Months 24 – 30 42 – 48 12 – 15
Project period Months 30 – 36 52 – 60 12
Auxiliary Power % 2 – 4 8 – 10 1.3 - 2.1
Consumption
Plant Load Factor kWh/kW 6000 – 7000, 5000 – 6000, 7200 – 7500
Start-up time from cold Minutes About 10, 120 – 180, 15 – 20

Diesel Engine Power Plant Developments

The diesel engine developments have been steady and impressive. The specific fuel
consumption has come down from a value of 220 g/kWh in the 1970s to a value
around 160 g/kWh in present times. Slow speed diesel engine, with its flat fuel
consumption curve over a wide load range (50%–100%), compares very favourably
over other prime movers such as medium speed diesel engine, steam turbines and
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gas turbines. With the arrival of modern, high efficiency turbochargers, it is possible
to use an exhaust gas driven turbine generator to further increase the engine rated
output. The net result – lower fuel consumption per kWh and further increase in
overall thermal efficiency. The diesel engine is able to burn the poorest quality
fuel oils, unlike gas turbine, which is able to do so with only costly fuel treatment
equipment. Slow speed dual fuel engines are now available using high-pressure gas
injection, which gives the same thermal efficiency and power output as a regular fuel
oil engine.

Selection and Sizing of a Generator set:

a) If the DG set is required for 100% standby, then the entire connected load in HP /
kVA should be added. After finding out the diversity factor, the correct capacity of a
DG set can be found out.

Example :
Connected Load = 650 kW
Diversity Factor = 0.54
(Demand / connected load)
Max. Demand = 650 x 0.54 = 350 kW
% Loading = 70
Set rating = 350/0.7 = 500 kW
At 0.8 PF, rating = 625 kVA

b) For an existing installation, record the current, voltage and power factors (kWh /
kVAh) reading at the main bus-bar of the system at every half-an-hour interval for a
period of 2–3 days and during this period the factory should be having its normal
operations. The non-essential loads should be switched off to find the realistic
current taken for running essential equipment. This will give a fair idea about the
current taken from which the rating of the set can be calculated.

For existing installation:
kVA = √3 V I
kVA Rating = kVA / Load Factor
where Load factor = Average kVA / Maximum kVA

c) For a new installation, an approximate method of estimating the capacity of a DG
set is to add full load currents of all the proposed loads to be run in DG set. Then,
applying a diversity factor depending on the industry, process involved and
guidelines obtained from other similar units, correct capacity can be arrived at.

High Speed Engine or Slow/Medium Speed Engine

The normal accepted definition of high speed engine is 1500 rpm. The other features
and comparison between high and medium / slow speed engines are mentioned
below:

Factor Slow speed engine High speed engine

Break mean effective pressure - therefore Low High wear and tear and consumption
of spares
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Weight to power ratio- therefore sturdiness More Less and life
Space High Less Type of use Continuous use Intermittent use
Period between overhauls* 8000 hours 3200 Direct operating cost (includes
lubricating Less High oils, filters etc.
* Typical recommendations from manufacturers
Keeping the above factors and available capacities of DG set in mind, the cost of
economics for both the engines should be worked out before arriving at a decision.

Capacity Combinations

From the point of view of space, operation, maintenance and initial capital
investment, it is certainly economical to go in for one large DG set than two or more
DG sets in parallel.
Two or more DG sets running in parallel can be an advantage as only the short-fall in
power–depending upon the extent of power cut prevailing - needs to filled up. Also,
flexibility of operation is increased since one DG set can be stopped, while the other
DG set is generating at least 50% of the power requirement. Another advantage is
that one DG set can become 100% standby during lean and low power-cut periods.

Air Cooling Vs. Water Cooling

The general feeling has been that a water cooled DG set is better than an air cooled
set, as most users are worried about the overheating of engines during summer
months. This is to some extent is true and precautions have to be taken to ensure
that the cooling water temperature does not exceed the prescribed limits. However,
from performance and maintenance point of view, water and air cooled sets are
equally good except that proper care should be taken to ensure cross ventilation so
that as much cool air as possible is circulated through the radiator to keep
its cooling water temperature within limits. While, it may be possible to have air
cooled engines in the lower capacities, it will be necessary to go in for water cooled
engines in larger capacities to ensure that the engine does not get over-heated
during summer months.

Safety Features
It is advisable to have short circuit, over load and earth fault protection on all the DG
sets. However, in case of smaller capacity DG sets, this may become uneconomical.
Hence, it is strongly recommended to install a circuit protection. Other safety
equipment like high temperature, low lube oil pressure cut-outs should be provided,
so that in the event of any of these abnormalities, the engine would stop and prevent
damage. It is also essential to provide reverse power relay when DG sets are to run
in parallel to avoid back feeding from one alternator to another.
Parallel Operation with Grid

Running the DG set in parallel with the mains from the supply undertakings can be
done in consultation with concerned electricity authorities. However, some supply
undertakings ask the consumer to give an undertaking that the DG set will not be run
in parallel with their supply. The reasons stated are that the grid is an infinite bus and
paralleling a small capacity DG set would involve operational risks despite normal
protections like reverse power relay, voltage and frequency relays.


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Maximum Single Load on DG Set

The starting current of squirrel cage induction motors is as much as six times the
rated current for a few seconds with direct-on-line starters. In practice, it has been
found that the starting current value should not exceed 200 % of the full load
capacity of the alternator. The voltage and frequency throughout the motor starting
interval recovers and reaches rated values usually much before the motor has
picked up full speed. In general, the HP of the largest motor that can be started with
direct on line starting is about 50 % of the kVA rating of the generating set. On the
other hand, the capacity of the induction motor can be increased, if the type of
starting is changed over to star delta or to auto transformer starter, and with this
starting the HP of the largest motor can be up to 75 % of the kVA of Genset.

Unbalanced Load Effects

It is always recommended to have the load as much balanced as possible, since
unbalanced loads can cause heating of the alternator, which may result in
unbalanced output voltages. The maximum unbalanced load between phases should
not exceed 10 % of the capacity of the generating sets.

Neutral Earthing

The electricity rules clearly specify that two independent earths to the body and
neutral should be provided to give adequate protection to the equipment in case of
an earth fault, and also to drain away any leakage of potential from the equipment to
the earth for safe working.

Operational Factors

Load Pattern & DG Set Capacity

The average load can be easily assessed by logging the current drawn at the main
switchboard on an average day. The 'over load' has a different meaning when
referred to the D.G. set. Overloads, which appear insignificant and harmless on
electricity board supply, may become detrimental to a D.G.set, and hence overload
on D.G.set should be carefully analysed. Diesel engines are designed for 10%
overload for 1 hour in every 12 hours of operation. The A.C. generators are designed
to meet 50% overload for 15 seconds as specified by standards. The D.G.set/s
selection should be such that the overloads are within the above specified limits. It
would be ideal to connect steady loads on DG set to ensure good performance.
Alongside alternator loading, the engine loading in terms of kW or BHP, needs to be
maintained above 50%. Ideally, the engine and alternator loading conditions are both
to be achieved towards high efficiency.
Engine manufacturers offer curves indicating % Engine Loading vs fuel Consumption
in grams/BHP. Optimal engine loading corresponding to best operating point is
desirable for energy efficiency. Alternators are sized for kVA rating with highest
efficiency attainable at a loading of around 70% and more. Manufacturer’s curves
can be referred to for best efficiency point and corresponding kW and kVA loading
values.

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Sequencing of Loads
The captive diesel generating set has certain limits in handling the transient loads.
This applies to both kW (as reflected on the engine) and kVA (as reflected on the
generator). In this context, the base load that exists before the application of
transient load brings down the transient load handling capability, and in case of A.C.
generators, it increases the transient voltage dip. Hence, great care is required in
sequencing the load on D.G.set/s. It is advisable to start the load with highest
transient kVA first followed by other loads in the descending order of the starting
kVA. This will lead to optimum sizing and better utilisation of transient load handling
capacity of D.G.set.

Load Pattern
In many cases, the load will not be constant throughout the day. If there is
substantial variation in load, then consideration should be given for parallel operation
of D.G.sets. In such a situation, additional D.G. set(s) are to be switched on when
load increases.
By parallel operation, D.G. sets can be run at optimum operating points or near
about, for optimum fuel consumption and additionally, flexibility is built into the
system. This scheme can be also be applied where loads can be segregated as
critical and non-critical loads to provide standby power to critical load in the captive
power system.

Load Characteristics
Some of the load characteristics influence efficient use of D.G.set. These
characteristics are entirely load dependent and cannot be controlled by the D.G.set.
The extent of detrimental influence of these characteristics can be reduced in several
cases.

Power Factor:
The load power factor is entirely dependent on the load. The A.C. generator is
designed for the power factor of 0.8 lag as specified by standards. Lower power
factor demands higher excitation currents and results in increased losses. Over
sizing A.C. generators for operation at lower power factors results in lower operating
efficiency and higher costs. The economical alternative is to provide power factor
improvement capacitors.

Unbalanced Load:
Unbalanced loads on A.C. generator leads to unbalanced set of voltages and
additional heating in A.C. generator. When other connected loads like motor loads
are fed with unbalanced set of voltages additional losses occur in the motors as well.
Hence, the load on the A.C. generators should be balanced as far as possible.
Where single phase loads are predominant, consideration should be given for
procuring single phase A.C. generator.

Transient Loading:
On many occasions to contain transient voltage dip arising due to transient load
application, a specially designed generator may have to be selected. Many times an
un standard combination of engine and A.C. generator may have to be procured.
Such a combination ensures that the prime mover is not unnecessarily oversized
which adds to capital cost and running cost.
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Special Loads:
Special loads like rectifier / thyristor loads, welding loads, furnace loads need an
application check. The manufacturer of diesel engine and AC generator should be
consulted for proper recommendation so that desired utilisation of DG set is
achieved without any problem. In certain cases of loads, which are sensitive to
voltage, frequency regulation, voltage wave form, consideration should be given to
segregate the loads, and feed it by a dedicated power supply which usually assumes
the form of DG motor driven generator set. Such an alternative ensures that special
design of AC generator is restricted to that portion of the load which requires high
purity rather than increasing the price of the D.G.set by specially designed AC
generator for complete load.

Waste Heat Recovery in DG Sets
A typical energy balance in a DG set indicates following break-up:

Input : 100% Thermal Energy
Outputs : 35% Electrical Output
4% Alternator Losses
33% Stack Loss through Flue Gases
24% Coolant Losses
4% Radiation Losses

Among these, stack losses through flue gases or the exhaust flue gas losses on
account of existing flue gas temperature of 350°C to 550°C, constitute the major
area of concern towards operational economy. It would be realistic to assess the
Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) potential in relation to quantity, temperature margin, in
kcals/Hour as:
Potential WHR = (kWh Output/Hour) x (8 kg Gases / kWh Output)
x 0.25 kcal/kg°C x (tg – 180°C)
Where, tg is the gas temperature after Turbocharger, (the criteria being that limiting
exit gas temperature cannot be less than 180°C, to avoid acid dew point corrosion),
0.25 being the specific heat of flue gases and kWh output being the actual average
unit generation from the set per hour. For a 1100 KVA set, at 800 KW loading, and
with 480°C exhaust gas temperature, the waste heat potential works out to:
800 kWh x 8 kg gas generation / kWh output x 0.25 kCal/kg°C
x (480 – 180), i.e., 4,80,000 kCal/hr
While the above method yields only the potential for heat recovery, the actual
realisable potential depends upon various factors and if applied judiciously, a well
configured waste heat recovery system can tremendously boost the economics of
captive DG power generation.

The factors affecting Waste Heat Recovery from flue Gases are:
a) DG Set loading, temperature of exhaust gases
b) Hours of operation and
c) Back pressure on the DG set
* Consistent DG set loading (to over 60% of rating) would ensure a reasonable exit
flue gas quantity and temperature. Fluctuations and gross under loading of DG set
results in erratic flue gas quantity and temperature profile at entry to heat recovery
unit, thereby leading to possible cold end corrosion and other problems.

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TYPICAL FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE AND FLOW PATTERN IN A 5-MW DG SET
AT VARIOUS LOADS
100% Load 11.84 kgs/Sec 370°C
90% Load 10.80 kgs/Sec 350°C
70% Load 9.08 kgs/Sec 330°C
60% Load 7.50 kgs/Sec 325°C

If the normal load is 60%, the flue gas parameters for waste heat recovery unit would
be 320°C inlet temperature, 180°C outlet temperature and 27180 kgs/Hour gas flow.
At 90% loading, however, values would be 355°C and 32,400 kgs/Hour, respectively

* Number of hours of operation of the DG Set has an influence on the thermal
performance of waste heat Recovery unit. With continuous DG Set operations, cost
benefits are favourable.
* Back pressure in the gas path caused by additional pressure drop in waste heat
recovery unit is another key factor. Generally, the maximum back pressure allowed
is around 250–300 mmWC and the heat recovery unit should have a pressure drop
lower than that.

Choice of convective waste heat recovery systems with adequate heat transfer area
are known to provide reliable service.
The configuration of heat recovery system and the choice of steam parameters can
be judiciously selected with reference to the specific industry (site) requirements.
Much good work has taken place in Indian Industry regarding waste heat recovery
and one interesting configuration, deployed is installation of waste heat boiler in flue
gas path along with a vapour absorption chiller, to produce 8°C chilled water working
on steam from waste heat.

Energy Performance Assessment of DG Sets
Routine energy efficiency assessment of DG sets on shop floor involves following
typical steps:
1) Ensure reliability of all instruments used for trial.
2) Collect technical literature, characteristics, and specifications of the plant.
3) Conduct a 2 hour trial on the DG set, ensuring a steady load, wherein the
following measurements are logged at 15 minutes intervals.
a) Fuel consumption (by dip level or by flow meter)
b) Amps, volts, PF, kW, kWh
c) Intake air temperature, Relative Humidity (RH)
d) Intake cooling water temperature
e) Cylinder-wise exhaust temperature (as an indication of engine loading)
f) Turbocharger RPM (as an indication of loading on engine)
g) Charge air pressure (as an indication of engine loading)
h) Cooling water temperature before and after charge air cooler (as an indication of
cooler performance)
i) Stack gas temperature before and after turbocharger (as an indication of
turbocharger performance)
4) The fuel oil/diesel analysis is referred to from an oil company data.
5) Analysis: The trial data is to be analysed with respect to:
a) Average alternator loading.
b) Average engine loading.
c) Percentage loading on alternator.
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d) Percentage loading on engine.
e) Specific power generation kWh/liter.
f) Comments on Turbocharger performance based on RPM and gas temperature
difference.
g) Comments on charge air cooler performance.
h) Comments on load distribution among various cylinders (based on exhaust
temperature, the temperature to be 5% of mean and high/low values indicate
disturbed condition).
i) Comments on housekeeping issues like drip leakages, insulation, vibrations, etc.

Energy Saving Measures for DG Sets
a) Ensure steady load conditions on the DG set, and provide cold, dust free air at
intake (use of air washers for large sets, in case of dry, hot weather, can be
considered).
b) Improve air filtration.
c) Ensure fuel oil storage, handling and preparation as per manufacturers'
guidelines/oil company data.
d) Consider fuel oil additives in case they benefit fuel oil properties for DG set usage.
e) Calibrate fuel injection pumps frequently.
f) Ensure compliance with maintenance checklist.
g) Ensure steady load conditions, avoiding fluctuations, imbalance in phases,
harmonic loads.
h) In case of a base load operation, consider waste heat recovery system adoption
for steam generation or refrigeration chiller unit incorporation. Even the Jacket
Cooling Water is amenable for heat recovery, vapour absorption system adoption.
i) In terms of fuel cost economy, consider partial use of biomass gas for generation.
Ensure tar removal from the gas for improving availability of the engine in the long
run.
j) Consider parallel operation among the DG sets for improved loading and fuel
economy thereof.
k) Carryout regular field trials to monitor DG set performance and maintenance
planning as per requirements










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MODULE I
BASIC OF THERMODYNAMICS
Thermodynamics is the science that deals with relation between heat, work and
properties of systems. It is also deals with study of energy transformations within
systems and transfers of energy across the boundaries of the systems. Even though
mechanical, electrical and chemical energies fall within the purview of this science,
energy due to rise in temperature alone is considered in the thermodynamic.
Anything that occupies space is called matter. Collection of matter is called system.
The space and matter external to a thermodynamic system is called the
surroundings. System and surroundings put together is called universe.
In short for understating it simplify as:
From the root word ‘’THERMO’’ means heat. Dynamics means active force.
Thermodynamics deals with the study of the relations between heat and work.
SUBSTANCE
Any matter being subject for study whose composition remains the same even there
is a change in phase.
THREE PHASES OF MATTER
a. solid b. liquid c. gas
THERMODYNAMICS PROPERTIES:
TEMPERATURE(T)
-is the degree of hotness or coldness of a body. Expressed in
degree Celsius (
o
C), Fahrenheit (
o
F), Kelvin (absolute value of C) and
Rankine (absolute value of F).
Relation between Celsius and Fahrenheit scale
°C =5/9(°F-32) °F=9/5°C + 32

VOLUME(V)
- the amount of space occupied by a three-dimensional object as measured in
cubic units . Units of volume are ft
3
, m
3
,in
3
, liters, gallons and others.
PRESSURE(P)
-force per unit area ; exerted by the substance to the system and within its
molecules. It has units, such as: bar, kg/cm
2
, psi, N/m
2
and many others.
17 | P a g e


INTERNAL ENERGY(U)
-heat energy due to the movement of the molecules within the substance
brought about its temperature. The units are KJ/Kg, Kcal/Kg and others.
Change in internal energy is zero if the process is of constant temperature.
ENTHALPY(H)
-The sum of the internal energy of the body and product of its pressure and
volume. H= U + PV
ENTROPY(S)
-Property of substance that measures how reversible or efficient the process
is perfectly reversible when change in entropy ( ∆s) is zero.
-is the measure of randomness of the molecules of a substance or measures
the fraction of the total energy of a system that is not available for doing work.
Change in Entropy, ∆S = ∆Q/T
o
in KJ/Kg-K

Where:
∆Q= energy transfer, kJ/kg
T
o
=constant surrounding temp, K
IDEAL GAS
-is any gaseous substance that behaves according to the formula below.
-that remains in gaseous state during its operating cycle.
PV=MRT
where:
P= PRESSURE
M= MASS
R=SPECIFIC GAS CONSTANT; R(air)= 0.287 KJ/KG-C
T=TEMPERATURE,ABSOLUTE



18 | P a g e


PROCESSES INVOLVING IDEAL GASES:
FOR ANY PROCESS:
P1V1/T1 =P2V2/T2=MR
U2-U1 =MCv(T2-T1),constant volume process
H2-H1=MCp(T2-T1), constant pressure process
a. Reversible process: no friction loss
b. Adiabatic process: no heat loss, no heat gain, that is completely
insulated system
c. Adiabatic throttling process: constant enthalpy process, h2=h1
d. Isobaric process: constant pressure process, p1=p2
e. Iso-volumetric process: constant volume process, v1=v2
f. Iso-thermal process: constant temperature, t2=t1
g. Isentropic process: constant entropy process.
HEAT (Q)
- is added energy that causes substances to rise in temperature, fuse,
evaporate, expand, or undergo any of various other related changes, that
flows to a body by contact with or radiation from bodies at higher
temperatures, and that can be produced in a body (as by compression)
- heat gain by or loss from a substance is directly proportional to its
temperature change(∆t)
Q= MCp∆T
WHERE:
Cp -specific heat constant; heat required to change a mass of substance to
one degree temperature.
cp= specific heat at constant pressure process.
cp= 1.0 kJ/kg-c; for air
cp=4.187 kJ/kg-c;water
cv=specific heat at constant volume process.
cv=0.716 kj/kg-c;for air
19 | P a g e


FLOW WORK , W
-work due to change in volume.
W= F X L = PA X L= PV
WHERE :
F= FORCE
L= DISTANCE
A=AREA
V= A x L, CHANGE IN VOLUME,

POWER (P)
-rate of doing work in mechanical,
P
m
= WORK / TIME, in Watts or HP
Where:
Work= Force x Distance
-rate of electric current across a potential difference.
P
e
= VOLTAGE x ELECTRIC CURRENT, Watts or KiloWatts
Ex.
A man lifts a 50 kg sack of rice from ground to a height of 2 meters in 3
seconds. What is the minimum mechanical power he uses?
From formula:
P= 50 x 9.81 x 2 /3 = 327 Watts or 0.4 HP






20 | P a g e


PROCESS
-a substance is said to have undergone process when any of its properties
has changed.
CYCLE
-a substance is said to have undergone a cycle when after series of
processes it has returned to its original state.

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
“TOTAL ENERGY ENTERING A SYSTEM IS EQUAL TO ENERGY LEAVING
A SYSTEM”
Energy In = Energy Out
HEAT TRANSFER
-a flow of heat energy caused by temperature difference.

MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER:
Conduction- heat is transferred by molecular communication through solid or
stagnant fluid. ex. fuel heaters, heat exchangers
Convection-in which heat is carried from point to another point by actual
movement of the substance. ex. air radiator, cooling tower.
Radiation-in which invisible electromagnetic waves are passed from one
body to another through space. ex. heat of the sun.








21 | P a g e


EXERCISE(MODULE I)

1. WHAT IS THERMODYNAMICS?
2. WHAT IS ENTHALPY?
3. WHAT ARE THE MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER?
4. WHAT IS AN ISOBARIC PROCESS?
5. 2- LITERS OF WATER AT 32 °C IS HEATED TO BOILING TEMPERATURE.
HOW MUCH HEAT ADDED?



















22 | P a g e


MODULE II

BASIC OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
-a heat engine in which the combustion that generates heat takes inside the
engine proper instead of in a furnace.
-built to convert heat energy from the fuel into mechanical work through the
chemical reaction called combustion.



FUELS AND COMBUSTIONS
There are various kinds of fuel for combustion, however we will focus on
petroleum products (HYDRO CARBONS) having Carbon(C) and Hydrogen(H) as
the main chemical component and usually used in ICE.

PROPERTIES OF FUEL
A. Specific gravity(SG)-ratio of its density to density of water.Indicates how
heavy is the fuel compared to water at same volume. Usually less than 1
which explains petroleum products usually float on water.

B. HEATING VALUE- heat content of the fuel usually expressed as ,Qh.
Important in determining heat rate of the plant.
Qh= 41,130 + 139.6(°API) KJ/KG, ASME
°API=specific gravity standardized by American petroleum institute,
=141.5/SG@15.6°C -131.5
C. VISCOSITY(V)-resistance to flow or the property which resists shearing.
Important data in designing fuel system of ICE, ensures fuel is delivered
to combustion chamber at a right conditioning. Some fuel grade need
to be preheated to recommended range for proper atomization at
combustion chamber. Below is viscosity behavior of some fuels.

23 | P a g e































D. FLASH POINT- the temperature at which oil gives off vapor that burns
temporarily when ignited. important in sizing automatic shut off valve with
thermal fusible link.


E. CETANE NO.- the ignition quality rating of diesel, which is the percent
cetane in the standard fuel. The higher the cetane no. is the less delay in
combustion and less knocking occurrence.

DIESEL KNOCK-phenomenon results from sudden increase in pressure
caused by the rapid burning of fuel-which has accumulated during ignition
delay period.


24 | P a g e


COMBUSTION AND CHEMICAL BALANCE FORMULA

Combustion is chemical reaction between fuel and oxygen which is accompanied by
heat and light.
Stoichiometric mixture is used to define, correct air-to-fuel ratio; a mixture which
yields, on reaction, stoichiometric compound.
Although only oxygen is needed, air contains 79% nitrogen by volume and 76.8 by
mass.
Air serves also the purpose of scavenging burnt products and cooling engine parts
that is why its calculation is of great importance.
FORMULA:
AIR/FUEL RATIO(AF)= MASS OF AIR/ KG OF FUEL
FUEL + AIR = PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION
BALANCING OF FORMULA BY MOLAL ANALYSIS(VOLUMETRIC
ANALYSIS)
CnHm +xO
2
+ x(3.76)N
2
= y CO
2
+ z H
2
O + x(3.76)N
2

Where:
X, Y,Z= represents no. of mols
Molecular weight:
Air= 28.97 kg/per mol
C=12 H2=2 02=32 N2=28

EX. FOR 1 KG C
12
H
26
FUEL OIL HOW MUCH KG AIR NEEDED FOR
COMPLETE COMBUSTION.
BY CHEMICAL BALANCE,
C
12
H
26
+ 18.5(O
2
) + 18.5(3.76)N
2
= 12 CO
2
+ 13 H
2
O + 18.5(3.76)N
2

A/F = 18.5 + 18.5(3.76)/1 = 88.06 MOL OF AIR /MOL OF FUEL
= 88.06(28.97)/[(12)(12) + (26)(1)]
= 15 KG AIR/KG FUEL, ANS.


25 | P a g e

EXERCISE (MODULE II)

1. WHAT IS COMBUSTION?
2. WHAT IS VISCOSITY?
3. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE FROM
EXTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE?
4. WHAT IS DIESEL KNOCK?
5. A DIESEL ENGINE FIRES 200 LITERS PER HOUR OF FUEL WITH
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION C
12
H
23
.SPECIFIC GRAVITY IS 0.8
WHAT IS THE MINIMUM REQUIRED AIR IN KG PER MIN.


















26 | P a g e

MODULE III
CLASSIFICATION OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

Mainly two basic classification of engine, that is based on the theoretical cycle they
operate.

• OTTO CYCLE ENGINE
• DIESEL CYCLE ENGINE

OTHER CLASSIFICATION:
i. By USE
-for automotive
-industrial or power generation
-marine propulsion
ii. By Speed
-the rpm rating determines the weight and size of an engine in relation to its
output power. Engine Life can be roughly determined as proportional to the
ratio of weight and power .
High speed ranges over 1000 rpm
Medium speed ranges 300-1000 rpm
Low speed ranges up to 300 rpm


iii. By Design

Engines are also classified according to the no. of stroke per cycle, cylinder
arrangement(ex. V-type ,in line, opposed, radial), type of fuel used(gaseous,
diesel, Fuel oil and etc.),method of starting(dc-motor, compressed air for large
engine and other).

iv. By Size
Horsepower per cylinder data is the most contentious. It relates to cylinder
dimensions, speed and cylinder pressure.

Small size below 25 hp/cyl
Medium size 25 to 200 hp/cyl
Large size above 200 hp/cyl
Total ICE rating, specially in power generation application is usually
expressed in Brake horsepower, in RPM at a given specific ambient
27 | P a g e

conditions. The maximum Output power is dependent to ambient air density
and temperature.
v. By Intake Pressure
Without Turbo charge
-normally aspirated engine
With turbocharger
-air is supercharged to introduce more in the combustion
chamber.





















28 | P a g e

EXERCISE(MODULE III)
1. What are the two basic classification of internal combustion engine?
2. Differentiate Diesel engine from Gasoline Engine?
























29 | P a g e

MODULE IV
DIESEL ENGINE
-an internal combustion engine in which air is compressed to a temperature
sufficiently high to ignite fuel injected into the cylinder where the combustion and
expansion actuate a piston.
- INVENTED BY Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913) German mechanical engineer; built the
first successful Diesel engine, a pressure-ignited internal combustion engine (1896).
-four stroke diesel engine is popular in heavy duty application. it has simpler design
and cheaper fuel cost.
IDEAL DIESEL CYCLE HAS BASICALLY FOUR PROCESSES NAMELY :
1-2 ISENTROPIC COMPRESSION
-compression of substance(air) at constant entropy(no heat gain or loss,
friction less and reversible).
2-3 ISOBARIC HEAT ADDITION
-at constant pressure heat is added.
3-4 ISENTROPIC EXPANSION
-constant entropy; reversible
4-1 CONSTANT VOLUME HEAT REJECTION
-pressure decreases as air discharges from the system.












PV DIAGRAM STANDARD DIESEL CYCLE

P
V
4
3 2
1
0
30 | P a g e


STROKES IN 4-STROKE DIESEL ENGINE
SUCTION STROKE
-intake valve is open while the piston moves down, and bringing
fresh air into the cylinder.
COMPRESSION STROKE
-both intake and exhaust valves are closed and the pistons
compresses the air by moving upward.
-fuel is injected just near the end of this stroke.
POWER STROKE
-in effect to heat addition air expanded suddenly pushing the
piston downward and turns the crankshaft.
EXHAUST STROKE
-exhaust valve opens and air exhausted from the combustion
chamber by piston up ward movement.

















AIR FUEL
SUCTION STROKE
COMPRESSION STROKE
31 | P a g e














In actual application strokes, valves opening & closing and fuel injection were
delicately timed together as specified by manufacturer timing diagram to attain
optimum power conversion.
Intake valves and exhaust valves movement are designed to inter-lap for short
period for the purpose of sufficient cooling and scavenging of combustion products.

BASIC COMPONENT OF ENGINE
Body parts of large diesel engine are commonly made of cast iron. it is cheap and
strong .some of its good properties are:
1. Low tooling and production cost
2. Good machinability without burring
3. Ability to cast into complex shapes
4. Excellent wear resistance and high hardness (particularly white cats irons)
5. High inherent damping capabilities
6. At some extent resistant to corrosion





EXHAST
GAS
POWER STROKE EXHAUST STROKE
32 | P a g e

CYLINDER BLOCK

The cylinder block, as shown in Figure 4, is generally a single unit made from
cast iron. In a liquid-cooled diesel, the block also provides the structure and rigid
frame for the engine's cylinders, water coolant and oil passages, and support for the
crankshaft and camshaft bearings.









CYLINDER HEADS
Serves several functions. First, they provide the top seal for the cylinder bore
or sleeve. Second, they provide the structure holding exhaust valves (and intake
valves where applicable), the fuel injector, and necessary linkages. A diesel engine's
heads are manufactured in one of two ways. In one method, each cylinder has its
own head casting, which is bolted to the block. This method is used primarily on the
larger diesel engines. In the second method, which is used on smaller engines, the
engine's head is cast as one piece (multi-cylinder head).












33 | P a g e

PISTON
It transforms the energy of the expanding gases into mechanical energy. The piston
rides in the cylinder liner or sleeve. Pistons are commonly made of aluminum or cast
iron alloys.
To prevent the combustion gases from bypassing the piston and to keep friction to a
minimum, each piston has several metal rings around it, as illustrated below.
These rings function as the seal between the piston and the cylinder wall and also
act to reduce friction by minimizing the contact area between the piston and the
cylinder wall. The rings are usually made of cast iron and coated with chrome or
molybdenum. Most diesel engine pistons have several rings, usually 2 to 5, with
each ring performing a distinct function. The top ring(s) acts primarily as the pressure
seal. The intermediate ring(s) acts as a wiper ring to remove and control the amount
of oil film on the cylinder walls. The bottom ring(s) is an oiler ring and ensures that a
supply of lubricating oil is evenly deposited on the cylinder walls.

34 | P a g e






35 | P a g e


CYLINDER LINER
- Made usually of cast iron cylindrical in shape with collar at upper portion
which keeps liner fixed in its place.
- Serves as combustion chamber and guides reciprocating action of piston.








Piston MAK 8M453 engine

36 | P a g e

CONNECTING ROD
It is usually made of aluminum or cast iron materials. It is designed to with stand
thermal and compressive stresses. It connects the piston to the crankshaft.
Transmit the power from the expanding gas to the crankshaft.
Its small end bore is inserted and coupled into the piston by piston pin. The big end
bore which house the halves of shell bearing is of split type. Its construction allows
easy installation and removal from crankshaft.
For big engine, It has drilled passage holes that convey oil for lubrication and
cooling of piston and liner.










MAK 453 Connecting Rod
CRANKSHAFT
Harness the power from the fuel. Converts reciprocating action of piston into rotary
motion.
It may comprise of coupling accessories for driven unit, fly wheel, damper, drive
gear for auxiliaries.
Crankshaft brake power is measured by dynamometer.
SUMP TANK
Contains the lubrication of the engine
For dry type crankcase, it is installed separately from the crankcase.

37 | P a g e

CAMSHAFT
It consists of cam lobes(might be split type or built in) which opens or closes intake
or exhaust valves and actuate fuel injection pump at specific timing with respect to
crankshaft angular position.
Drive gear and speed monitoring are usually attached at one end.








ENERGY TRAIL IN ICE

CHEMICAL ENERGY --> HEAT -- FLOW WORK- KENITIC
ENERGY ROTATIONAL ENERGY---ELECTRICAL ENERGY
FUEL ------COMBUSTION------EXPANSION-PISTON SPEED—
CRANKSHAFT TORQUE&RPM--- KVA

PERFORMANCE OF DIESEL GENERATING SET
1. HEAT GENERATED BY FUEL,Q
Q= mass of fuel x heating value of fuel
2. PISTON VOLUME DISPLACEMENT, VD
VD=( π/4)D2LNC
WHERE:
D= BORE
L=length of stroke
N=speed/2, for 4-stroke engine
38 | P a g e

C= no. of cylinders
3. INDICATED POWER
Power developed by expansion of air inside the cylinder liner.
From flow work formula:
Ind P= Pmi x VD
Where:
Pmi = indicated mean effective pressure on engine indicator instruments
VD= piston volume displacement
4. BRAKE POWER
Power developed by engine as express by
Brake power= 2 πTN
Where:
T=torque , can be measured by dynamometer
N=rpm
5. Mechanical efficiency, n
m

n
m
=

BRAKE POWER/INDICATED POWER
6. Generator Efficiency, n
e

n
e
= GENERATOR OUTPUT/BRAKE POWER
7. SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION
= mass of fuel/ gen output; kJ/kW-hr
8. GENERATOR HEAT RATE
= heat input/ gen output, kj/kw-hr





39 | P a g e

EXERCISE(MODULE IV)
1. Enumerate and explain the piston strokes in 4-stroke diesel engine.
2. What is cylinder head?
3. Engine parts is mostly made of what material?
4. An 8-cylinder engine with bore of 32 CM and stroke of 40 CM.
How much total piston displacement in Liters.
5. What is heat rate ?




















40 | P a g e

MODULE V
AUXILLIARIES

Deterioration of diesel engine components are mainly caused by:
• MECHANICAL FATIGUE
• TORSIONAL STRESS AND THERMAL STRESS,
• FRICTION
• CONTAMINATION
Auxiliaries of Diesel generator should be well designed according to site condition,
mode of intended operation and size of power plant.
Taking design of auxiliaries as top priority will surely prolong economical service life
of power station.

THE AUXILIARIES EQUIPMENT
1. Starting system
2. Engine speed-governing system
3. The generator voltage regulating system
4. Lubricating system
5. Fuel System
6. Air and Exhaust System
7. Generator and engine cooling system







41 | P a g e

STARTING SYSTEM
Small engine – starting can be done by 12 or 24-volt dc motor. Connected to lead-
acid batteries, which are automatically recharged with small alternator driven by
engine auxiliary drive train.
Large capacity engine- starting can be done with compressed air(15-30 bars) either
by direct introduction to combustion space at the end of compression stroke or by
air-driven pneumatic motor coupled to barring gear. The system might consist of
but not limited to air compressor(motor or diesel engine driven), Air receiver which
capacity could make at least three starting attempts, Air filter, Main starting valve,
Individual starting valves, Ignition sensor, Isolating valves, pressure regulators for
control air and plant utility use.
ENGINE SPEED GOVERNING SYSTEM
It may consists of speed governor, actuator, tachometer, speed sensor(magnetic
pick up) , speed and load limiting mechanisms.
Speed governor could be operating electrically or mechanically or both electrical
and mechanical. Electrical control is usually set higher. Well known brand is
woodward governor.
Actuator provides necessary torque to turn control rod and then actuates the fuel
racks of individual injection pumps.
MECHANICAL GOVERNOR
Speed sensing element being applied is the centrifugal ball head having
flyweights which spread out when speed increases and moves towards
center of rotation when speed decreases. This movement is converted into
increase or decrease fuel movement of actuator to attain set speed.
ELECTRICAL GOVERNOR
- employs magnetic pick up or frequency to sense speed changes. and tells
dc-motor by pulse signal to actuator whether to increase or decrease fuel.
Hunting
Also called ‘cycling’ is rhythmic and repeated variation of speed.




42 | P a g e

AIR AND EXHAUST SYSTEM
Involves in the delivery of clean air to combustion chamber and extraction of
combustion products from each cylinder liner.

Consisting of :
1. Turbocharger
To compensate for power loss due to air density, assure complete combustion
of maximum fuel can be possibly feed and have sufficient scavenging and
cooling, turbocharger is applied. Turbocharger has two main section; gas
turbine and air compressor connected in one shafting. Exhaust gas imparts its
energy to turbine blades which in turn rotates the common shafting and forces
air to the charge air manifold by compressor blades.
2. Air filter
Air filter comes in various design depending of surrounding air conditions.
More heavy duty application. Oil bath filter and dry type filter are installed in
series to ensure clean air. Intake room or casing passages is designed in
such a way heavy dust particles is separated before it comes into contact
with the filter element.
Oil bath filter
-consists of a steel wool packing within a sheet metal housing, which contains
an oil bath in its base.
Dry filter
-cleans the intake air by passing it through a fibrous materials.
It comes into two types: disposable and serviceable. Dry type filters must be
at least serviced twice a week in a dusty environment setting.







43 | P a g e

LUBRICATING OIL SYSTEM
Reduce friction between moving or rubbing parts of the diesel engine. It serves also
as cooling system of the system to avoid overheating and eventually seizure of
moving parts. It mainly supplies pressurized oil(≈2.0-4.0 bar) to the main crankshaft
shell bearing through oil galleries. It may consists of the following:
a. Main lub oil pump
- supplies oil to main bearing, big end bearing , small end bearing,
piston , drive gear train, rocker system and camshaft.
b. Series of Filters
- removes excess carbon from the oil and metallic grits from rubbing
parts. Some equipped with water condensate automatic drain.
During the combustion of diesel fuel a great amount of soot is generated.
Some of the soot gets into the lubricating oil with the blow-by gases. This
is the type of material that tends to plug oil filters.
Acids tend to form in diesel lube systems, caused by the combustion
process and type of fuel burned. These, too, can shorten the life of oil
filters as well as causes corrosive wear on engine parts.
Raw fuel is more apt to get into the lube oil in diesel systems as
compared to gasoline systems. The fuel dilutes the oil and affects its
lubricity properties.
The importance of lube system service is apparent. Specified service
intervals, in fact, are usually shorter than those for gasoline engines.

c. Heat exchanger
-removes heat from oil .
d. Sump tank
-serves as container during standby and also traps some contaminants
by settling down ; ex. Metal grits, water .
e. Temperature Regulating Valves
- is also used in the system to maintain the operating temperature
throughout the operation to lessen thermal fatigue and high rate of wear
on the engine parts.



44 | P a g e

FUEL SYSTEM
Carries the fuel to the combustion chamber.
It conditions the fuel before being introduced to the injection system. Water content
and other impurities are being removed.
It basically compose of:
FUEL TRANSFER PUMP
- usually gear of type; conveys fuel from main storage tank to day tank.
BOOSTER PUMP
- delivers fuel to Fuel Injection Pump passing through the filters at constant
pressure.
FUEL FILTERS
-usually of serviceable type ,comes in fine wire mesh element.
-Fuel filtration is of prime importance for diesel engines. The filters must be
high efficiency units specifically designed for diesel service. Maintenance
must be followed regularly to maintain a smooth and reliable running system.
Fuel filters for diesel service cannot be treated with the complacency given to
filters in gasoline service.
Water should be removed at a point before the injectors. Some fuel filters
combine water removal features and filtration features in the same package.
Diesel fuel systems from process, to storage tanks, to engines, traditionally
contain much more water than gasoline systems. Water is a definite problem
in diesel fuels and it must be coped with. Low temperatures tend to precipitate
wax in diesel fuels. In order to get the fuel to flow through filters correctly, it is
generally heated in the fuel system of the engine.

INJECTION PUMP
-delivers exact amount of required fuel corresponding to load, at high
pressure ranging from 250-450 bars. Modern design Electronic Fuel Injection
has been used. It is more compact than the conventional one. It delivers
more accurate amount of fuel according to load and available charged- air by
electrical pulses signal. Thus ,it produces cleaner exhaust .



45 | P a g e

GENERATOR AND ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM
The system provides continuous removal of excess heat produces from combustion
and emission from current carrying winding of AC generator
Generator cooling system uses built in fan blades on the rotor which blows air to the
windings as the rotor rotates. A separate blower is also installed in some design to
cool both the generator and the surrounding.
Engine cooling system arrangement is usually designed depending to the site air
quality.
In dusty environment and raw water is of considerable price close system cooling
tower is usually used. It is basically comprised of air radiator fan and tubes heat
exchanger. Cooling tower removes heat from lub oil system, charge air system,
jacket water system and Turbocharger cooling system.
Engine cooling system is basically consists of centrifugal pumps, shell and tube
heat exchangers, cooling tower and temperature regulating valves.








EXERCISE(MODULE V)
1. Give at least two systems in diesel generator and explain their functions.






46 | P a g e

MODULE VI
BASIC OF ELECTRICITY

Electricity can be produced by many ways:
1. By friction
2. Chemical Reaction- battery
3. Light, Heat and Pressure-lightning
4. Magnetic Action-magnetism

CURRENT (I)
– flow of electron through a medium. The unit of electric current is Ampere. 1 ampere
is equal to 6,280 x 1015 electron flow through a certain cross-sectional area of a
conductor per second.

VOLTAGE(V)
– the force that pushes and pulls the electrons.

RESISTANCE(R)
-characteristic of a conducting material that tends to resist or counteract the flow of
electrons. the unit of resistance is ohms.

OHM’S LAW
- states that the current flowing through a device is directly proportional to the
voltage across the device and inversely proportional to the device resistance.
I = V/R
Electrical energy is hard to comprehend since electron activity cannot be directly
seen.
MECHANICAL ANALOGY OF AN ELECTRIC CIRCUIT(see figure below)
- the battery is analogous to the tank; the lamp is analogous to the pail; the switch is
analogous to the gate valve; the wire wherein the electrons flow is analogous to the
47 | P a g e

pipe wherein the water flows. the 6-volt electric pressure is analogous to the 6 foot
height of water causing water pressure at the bottom of the tank. The 1 ampere is
analogous to 1 gal flow of water per/min.

























6 ft
1 gal/sec
tank
pail
valve
SWITCH
1 Ampere
LAMP
6 Volts V
48 | P a g e

ELECTRIC POWER(WATTS)
- the electric power of an electric device can be obtained by multiplying the voltage
and current(v x i).

MECHANICAL POWER VERSUS ELECTRICAL POWER
Horsepower
- average capacity of a horse to do work is equal to 550 lbs weight or load
travelled at a rate of 1 foot per second.
-the equivalent motor rating that can carry the same load is equal to 746
watts
1 hp = 746 watts.
TWO BASIC CIRCUIT/ LOAD CONNECTION
-parallel
-series
PARALLEL
- loads are connected in parallel and each load or resistance receive same
voltage.
-electric current is divided into the loads according to their respective
resistances.





Where:
I total = I1 + I2
= V/R1 + V/R2
=V(1/R1+1/R2)

V
R2 R1 I1 I2
Itot
49 | P a g e

And
V= I total x 1/(1/R1 + 1/R2)
V= I total x (R1R2/R1+R2)
Therefore, total resistance in parallel circuit is product of all resistances
over their sums.
R total= R1R2R3/R1+R2+R3+
SERIES
- all the loads are connected in series in such a way that same amount
of current is flowing throughout the circuit.
- Total resistance is the sum of all resistances.

-




Where:
I total = V/(R1+R2)
R total=(R1+R2+R3+)









V
Itot
R1 R2
V
50 | P a g e

BASIC GENERATOR ACTION OF PRODUCING ELECTRICITY
Illustration below shows that when the magnet having north and south pole is
moved up and down through a coiled wire, the needle of the galvanometer moves
left and right. The movement of a galvanometer needle indicates the presence of
current in the wire.





TWO KINDS OF CURRENT
DIRECT CURRENT (DC)
- the electron flows in one direction and same magnitude all the time.





ALTERNATING CURRENT(AC)
-the periodic reversal of current.
-follows the characteristic of sinusoidal wave








A
DC current
Time
Time
AC current
A
GALVANOMETER
S
I
N
51 | P a g e

EXERCISE(MODULE VI)
1. What is OHM’s law?
2. What is voltage?
3. What are the two basic types of circuit connections?
4. 30-ohm and 20-ohm resistors are connected in series and supplied with 3-volt
power.
What is the current flowing throughout the circuit?
5. 30-ohm and 20-ohm resistors are connected in parallel and supplied with 3-volt
power.
What is the current flowing throughout the circuit?


















52 | P a g e

MODULE VII
AC-GENERATOR
It is a machine used to convert brake power into electrical energy by magnetic
action .
It is mainly consist of :
1. Stator(Armature)- house the conductors in its slots arranged cylindrically.
2. Rotor(Field Poles)-usually where magnetic poles are arranged around the
rotor shaft matching the conductors position. South and north poles are
arrange alternately in such way there is 360 degrees uniform distribution of
magnetic field.
3. Exciter- attached at the rear side of the rotor and supplies current to generator
magnetic pole.
Theory of generating voltage
Voltage- the force needed for electrons to flow in electrical circuit.
Two poles of opposing polarity kept away from each other create invisible lines of
force or magnetic flux between them. If a conductor is forced to pass through,
cutting the lines it generates voltage at a rate of one volt per 100 million lines per
sec.
AC-generator has magnetic poles arranged around the the rotor shaft. The
magnetic poles polarity positioned alternately such that magnetic lines forms arcs
between opposing poles. It explains why voltage changes from positive to
negative and vice versa. While, the conductors that cut the magnetic lines are
wound at the generator stator slots.
The no. of poles and rpm of the generator determine the out put frequency of the
generator
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
adjust the output voltage of generator main stator main field; by either manual or
automatic operation. It monitors the voltage continuously by using Potential
Transformer(PT) which scales down the output to manageable level. The difference
between output and set value triggers the voltage regulator to either increase or
decrease the excitation current of exciter magnetic field by the application of a
arrestor.
THREE BASIC SYSTEMS OF EXCITATIONS
• Direct self-excitation- supplies current direct to main field through slip rings or
brush gears.
53 | P a g e

• Indirect self-excitation- common design of excitation, AVR supplies current to
exciter field not directly to the generator rotor field windings.
• Separate excitation-supplied current to exciter field from separate small
generator attached behind exciter unit.
FREQUENCY(F)
- is the no. of cycle of reversal of current or voltage. Expressed in hertz or cycle
per second.
It is directly proportional to the no. of set of poles pass near conductor per
second.

In rotary motion
F= no. of poles/2 x rev/sec , hertz
Ex. For 6-poles, 1000 rpm gensets produce frequency of
= 6/2 x 1000/60 = 50 hertz

IMPEDANCE(Z)
Is an opposition to an AC circuit current by combined effect of resistance, inductive
reactance and capacitive reactance .
INDUCTANCE (Henry.L)
Property of a conductor which opposes any change in the current. This
property is most prominent in alternating current flowing through a coil of
wire.
INDUCTIVE REACTANCE (X
L
)
Is the term used to define the resistance of inductive devices to
alternating current. And expressed by :

X
L
= 2∏fL, ohms
Where:
F= frequency of the source
L= inductance of inductor
54 | P a g e

CAPACITANCE (farad, C)
The property of a device which opposes any changes in the voltage. The
capacitive device, which exhibits this property is called capacitor.
CAPACITIVE REACTANCE (X
C
)
Is the term used to define the resistance of a capacitor.
X
C
= 1/(2∏fC)
Where:
f= frequency of AC-source
C= capacitance in farad
TOTAL IMPEDANCE
• RESISTOR AND CAPACITOR IN SERIES
Z = √(R
2
+ X
2
C
)
• RESISTORS AND INDUCTOR IN SERIES
Z= √(R
2
+ X
2
L
)
• RESISTOR, INDUCTOR AND CAPACITOR IN SERIES
Z= √(R
2
+ (X
C
-X
L
)
2
)



EX.





Z = √(60
2
+ 80
2
) = 100 OHMS


Z
R=60 OHM
X
L
=120 OHM
X
C
=200 OHM
R=60 OHM

Z
=
Z
X
LC
=80 OHM
55 | P a g e

POWER FACTOR
- shows the degree deviation of actual power consumed from the power
supplied caused by reactive properties of load or generator.
ACTUAL POWER
- the power consumed or generated in an alternating circuit with reactive
load. And expressed by the formula:
P= EI cos ø
P= average power, watts
EI= apparent power
cos ø=power factor
LOAD FACTOR
- defined as average load over maximum load during the measured period.
AVERAGE LOAD
-defined as total electrical energy delivered divided by the duration of generation.
USE FACTOR
- annual generation KWhr over the maximum possible generation of the same
running hours.

GENERATOR RATING
Is expressed in both KVA or KW . Frequency, power factor and other data; ambient
and operating conditions are also usually stamped on the generator nameplate.
KW is the unit of real power while KVA is a unit of apparent power equal to real
power plus reactive power.
POWER FACTOR
Determines the efficiency of generator to deliver electrical energy. It is the ratio of
real power over apparent power. Standard value is 0.8 for all generator. Actual
power factor varies every now and then during operation depending on the
characteristics of connected loads.
P.F.= KW/ KVA
Or
56 | P a g e

KW = P.F x KVA= cos ø KVA
As illustrated in vector diagram,











EXERCISE(MODULE VII)

1. What is Alternator?
2. What is power factor?
3. What is Impedance?
4. A 500KVA generator is having power factor of 0.8 , what is maximum actual
power it can deliver?
5. An ac-generator having 12-poles is operated at 600 rpm constant speed. What
is the frequency of voltage?






REAL POWER, KW
ø
57 | P a g e

MODULE VIII
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Electrical systems in diesel power plant mainly includes:
• Ac-Generators
• Step up or Step down transformers
• Switchgears
• Bus bar System
• Cabling from generator to bus bar and bus bar to distribution
• Monitoring and Control Panel
• Fire protection
TRANSFORMER/SUBSTATION
There are many reasons for installing transformer in diesel power plants
• For charging batteries(that supply control panel or exciter)
• To match the voltage of the bus bar with that incomer genset
• For utility consumption
• For parasitic load of the plant

SWITCHGEAR
-device for controlling the distribution of electric energy or for controlling or protecting
the apparatus connected to a supply of electricity.
Switch gear may consists of:
• Circuit breaker- an automatic switch used to open a circuit. Its
design depends on the capacity its intended to handle.
• Switches
• Protective relays
• Instrumentation
• Indicating lights
Factors to be consider in switch gear selection:
58 | P a g e

1. Initial and future load
2. Condition of location
3. Provision for adapting other source
4. Safety for maintenance

BUS BAR SYSTEM
It is the common connection point of feeders and generators. The system accepts
accept electrical energy from gen:set and distribute it to connected; It is like an
energy terminal.
BUS BAR
-Is usually made of hard drawn copper bar.
-To where breakers terminals are tightly bolted.
Connected loads get power from distribution line called FEEDER.
The power to be synchronized to the bus is called INCOMER.
The criteria influencing choice of bus bar system
• The degree of importance of continuous supply
• Operation and maintenance flexibility
• Cost of the system

TYPES OF BUS BAR SYSTEM
SINGLE
• uses only single sets of bus bar to cater power supply and loads
• Its less costly but with more possible supply interruptions
• Maintenance could only be done during shutdown
DUPLICATE BUSBAR SYSTEM
• Where continuous supply is essential it is, therefore, necessary to
introduce a second bus bar.
• No need for plant shutdown when performing maintenance.
59 | P a g e

• It is costly because there is a need to duplicate the circuit breakers for
both the gen:set and feeders.
• Two sets of bus bar installed with coupler switch is used to parallel the
two bus bar before the selector switches are operated or breaker
transfer is made.
BUS BAR RATING
Bus bar rating is determined by its conductivity properties and operating temperature
it can withstand without failure.
Bus bar arrangement and design should consider the optimum heat dissipation.
Heat transferred by convection and radiation account most for heat dissipation.
As much as 18% more dissipation when rectangular bus is installed edgewise.
Painting the bars with dull paints can improve heat dissipation by radiation
Bus bar should have the ability to withstand the thermal and mechanical stress
caused by prospective fault current. Also, It can withstand electromagnetic stress in
which bus bar experience mechanical force whether attractive or repulsive created
by current carrying especially during the occurrence of fault currents.

FAULT CONDITIONS
• Three phase short circuit
-Where all three phases are short-circuited to each other or to earth.
-It has the highest level of fault current
-It is the value used for determining the interrupting-rating of circuit
breakers
• Unsymmetrical faults
Where only one or two of the lines are involved

MONITORING AND CONTROL PANEL
- is usually the panel boards which house the AVR , protective relays and switches,
synchronizing device, parallel switches and relays for HV and LV switchgear,
instrument gauges and transducers and indicating lights.
60 | P a g e

-sometimes it has parallel local/remote engine and auxiliaries control panel but
with limited functionality.

GENERATOR PROTECTION
Various kinds of protective relays could be employed to prevent severe damage to
generator and to hazard to operating personnel.
Relays collect current data from Current Transformers , evaluate them and when
fault current is detected ,and triggers certain contact to trip circuit breakers.
Fault current is being calculated and set in protective relays.

GROUND FAULT PROTECTION
-Ground fault occur when any of the phase of the wye winding short circuited
to its ground or neutral.

Three impedance levels of grounding
• Low impedance grounding
minimal impedance applied at neutral point
• Medium impedance grounding
Has substantial impedance applied at the neutal point so that , during a
ground fault a reduced but readily detectable level of ground current.
• High impedance
Almost no ground current, only by voltage detection

CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
This function provides un-delayed short-circuit protection for generators,
motors and transformers, and is based on the current differential protection
principle (Kirchhoff’s current law).
The differential and restraint (stabilization) current are calculated on the basis
of the phase currents.
EARTH-CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
The earth-current differential protection permits high sensitivity to single-pole
faults. The zero currents are compared. On the one hand, the zero-sequence
61 | P a g e

current is calculated on the basis of the phase currents and on the other hand,
the earth current is measured directly at the star-point current transformer.

REVERSE-POWER PROTECTION

The reverse-power protection monitors the direction of active power flow and
picks up when the mechanical energy fails. This function can be used for
operational shutdown (sequential tripping) of the generator but also prevents
damage to the steam turbines. The reverse power is calculated from the
positive-sequence systems of current and voltage. Asymmetrical power
system faults therefore do not cause reduced measuring accuracy. The
position of the emergency trip valve is injected as binary information and is
used to switch between two trip command delays. When applied for motor
protection, the sign (±) of the active power can be reversed via parameters.


PHASE-FAULT PROTECTION
Application of protective relay that detect accidental short circuit at generator
phases; either any two lines or three lines short circuit.

SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATION, Isc
Electrical installations almost always require protection against short-circuits
wherever there is an electrical continuity. This most often corresponds to points
where there is a change in conductor cross-section. The short-circuit current must be
calculated at each level in the installation in view of determining the characteristics of
the equipment required to withstand or break the fault current.
To precisely determine the short circuit current at any point of electrical system one
must know the impedances of all the devices and cables that come under the point
being considered.
Where the impedance of connected utility is not available, the MVA rating of the HV
switchgear associated with the step down transformer feeding the customer should
be used.
Fault current decreases from high initial value to a steady-state after 0.5 to 2s.
For Generators, transformers and motors, reactance and impedance are considered
to be equal meaning resistance is negligible.
On LV systems, cable resistance should not be ignored.
There are many various ways to determine short circuit current considering the
characteristics of connected electrical load, and circuit arrangements, which involves
complex equation and assumptions.


62 | P a g e

TYPES OF SHORT CIRCUIT






















CALCULATION OF I
sc
BY IMPEDANCE METHOD


Three-phase short-circuit

This method involves adding the various resistances and reactances of the fault loop
separately, from (and including) the source to the given point, and then calculating
the corresponding impedance. The Isc value is finally obtained by applying Ohm’s
law:
Isc = U
n
/√3∑(Z)

63 | P a g e

All the characteristics of the various elements in the fault loop must be known
(sources and wiring systems).

This fault involves all three phases. Short-circuit current Isc3 is equal to:
Isc
3
= U/√3
Z
cc


Where:
U =(phase-to-phase voltage) corresponds to the transformer no-load
voltage which is 3 to 5% greater than the on-load voltage across the
terminals. For example, in 390 V networks, the phase-to-phase
voltage adopted is U = 410 V, and the phase-to-neutral voltage is U /
√3 = 237 V.
Calculation of the short-circuit current therefore requires only calculation of Zsc, the
impedance equal to all the impedances through which Isc flows from the generator to
the location of the fault, i.e. the impedances of the power sources and the lines (see
Fig. 12 ). This is, in fact, the “positive-sequence” impedance per phase:

Zsc = √[( ∑R )
2
+ (∑R)
2
]
Where:
 ∑R = the sum of series resistances,
∑X = the sum of series reactance.
It is generally considered that three-phase faults provoke the highest fault currents.
The fault current in an equivalent diagram of a poly-phase system is limited by only
the impedance of one phase at the phase-to-neutral voltage of the network.
Calculation of Isc3 is therefore essential for selection of equipment (maximum
current and electro-dynamic withstand capability).






64 | P a g e

VARIOUS SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT















Phase-to-phase short-circuit clear of earth

This is a fault between two phases, supplied with a phase-to-phase voltage U. In this
case, the short-circuit current Isc2 is less than that of a three-phase fault:

Isc
2
= U/2 Z
sc
= √3/2 I
sc
≈ 0.86 I
sc3


For a fault occurring near rotating machines, the impedance of the machines is such
that Isc2 is close to Isc3.

Phase-to-neutral short-circuit clear of earth

This is a fault between one phase and the neutral, supplied with a phase-to-neutral
voltage

V = U / √3
The short-circuit current Isc1 is:

Isc
1
= U/ √3
Z
sc
+ Z
Ln


65 | P a g e

In certain special cases of phase-to-neutral faults, the zero-sequence impedance of
the source is less than Zsc (for example, at the terminals of a star-zigzag connected
transformer or of a generator under sub transient conditions).
In this case, the phase-to-neutral fault current may be greater than that of a three-
phase fault.

Phase-to-earth fault (one or two phases)

This type of fault brings the zero-sequence impedance Zo into play. Except when
rotating machines are involved
(reduced zero-sequence impedance), the short-circuit current Isc
o
is less than that of
a three phase fault.
Calculation of I
sco
may be necessary, depending on the neutral system (system
earthing arrangement), in view of defining the setting thresholds for the zero-
sequence (HV) or earth fault (LV) protection devices.





EXERCISE(MODULE VIII)
1. Give at least two main components of diesel power plant electrical
system. And explain their use.
2. Why is calculation of short circuit current important?
3. An 11-KV generator is having stator resistance of 1.0454 ohm per phase and
inductive reactance of 1.361 ohm per phase. Calculate the short circuit current
between 2-phase right after the generator.





66 | P a g e

MODULE IX
OPERATION

GENERATOR OPERATIONAL MODE
• Primary or Base load – Operates as independent power source; consumer
depends solely on the power plant
• Peak lopping- reduce the cost of electricity from the utility source during
peak hours.
• Stand by- standby power when connected utility grid is not available.
One of the key factors for gen-set to be able give its best performance and attain
economical and reliable service is proper operation by qualified highly trained
personnel who follow manufacturer’s procedure of operation.
Operation important factors:
1. Manpower
-operators should have knowledge on diesel generator and capable of taking
speedy action to safeguard the operation.
-well trained on the operation of the units where they work in.
2. Data recording
-Daily records should be kept to monitor the performance of the genset and
for future reference.
-serve as guide for maintenance.
The data basically contain
a. Load graphs
b. Lub oil consumption
c. Fuel consumption
d. Power generated
e. Operating temperatures and pressures
f. Running hours
g. Name of operator

67 | P a g e

Procedure of Starting and stopping
- the task does not just involve turning switches “ON” and “OFF” but needs
technical checking , evaluation and important decision making.
- With strict observance of proper starting and stopping untimely wear and
breakage of mechanical parts can be avoided.

STARTING
Starting and loading a genset to be successful involves many checking and
preparations depending on the size of the unit. The following is the basic
procedure of running a large gen-set unit, 1MW and above:

1. Preparation
a. Check all the isolating valves for oil, water and fuel that they are in operation
position.
b. Check oil level at sump tank or crankcase
c. Water level of expansion tanks
d. Starting air pressure
e. Jacket water preheating
f. Filters are clean
g. Check for leaks
h. Fault alarms should be cleared
i. Indicator valves are closed
2. Shift limiting device for fuel injection pump control shaft to maximum output.
3. Run pre-lubrication or priming pump for few minutes until oil film has reached all
lubricating points.
4. Set engine at idle speed.
5. Run the engine
- for big engine it is economical to use high pressure air as medium of starting.
Upon triggering, the “run” switch from control panel a relay tells master air
starting valve to open and introduced high-pressure air on top of pistons,
which are in TDC until combustion starts. Combustion is usually determined
68 | P a g e

when set rpm is reached. A rpm switch then automatically closes the starting
valve.
6. Let run the engine at idle speed while checking for any abnormalities and
warming the engine. Loading a cold engine creates untimely wear to its
running gears(liner, piston and bearing).
6. Gradually set the genset to rated speed and observed again.
(for parallel operation)Set synchronizing device to the unit to be paralleled.
7. Turned on excitation system and adjust the voltage and its frequency.
- adjust the voltage by raising or lowering excitation current from AVR. For
parallel operation, incoming generator should have slightly higher voltage than
the bus voltage to avoid reverse power occurrence.
8. Engage generator circuit breaker
- for stand alone operation after frequency and voltage correctly set circuit
breaker can be closed at this stage.
- for parallel operation voltage and frequency of incoming generator should be
at least almost of same phase and value of the bus. Modern technology uses
synchroscope device that tells when voltages become in phase. When
synchroscope needle is rotating counterclockwise, the incoming is slower and
need to increase speed. Moreover, clockwise rotation means incoming is
faster. Adjust engine speed in such a way incomer voltage phase is slightly
faster than the bus. Shortly before the needle reached 12 o’clock position (to
consider time difference from switch to circuit breaker action), close the
breaker at this stage.
9. Adjust speed and voltage to obtain desired load or shift to automatic operation
to share load as per programmed.
Stopping
-there are three basic type of stopping the engine
a. Normal shutdown- normal procedure as per standard is followed
b. Emergency shutdown- shutdown triggered by operator to save life and
property
c. Trip shutdown-triggered automatically by protection system of the generator
set
Normal Shutdown
1. Informed concerned connected consumers if necessary.
69 | P a g e

2. Standby unit if there is, should be put online the bus.
3. Shift the operation of engine to be put off to MANUAL MODE.
4. Reduce load gradually by lowering speed up to minimum load recommended
for reverse power not likely to occur (usually 2-3% of rating).
5. Cut off circuit breaker
6. Let run the engine at no load to cool down engine parts.
7. Turned off engine.
-injection pump control port is shifted to bypass flow of fuel back to a tank thus
firing ceases.






EXERCISE(MODULE IX)

1. What are the three basic operational modes of power station.
2. Explain SYCHRONIZING.
3. Name at least three preparations before running the engine.
4. Why is it important to preheat big diesel engine before starting.
5. Explain turbocharger surging?



















70 | P a g e

MODULE X

MAINTENANCE

Same purpose with right operation, good maintenance of diesel power plant
and its auxiliaries will give reliable and stable power supply. It will prolong plants’
operating life and keep its enwrapped harmful effect to environment as minimum as
possible.
Training during erection and work up of the plant should be supplemented by
courses arranged with key equipment manufacturers.
Manuals of operation and maintenance should be treated as a important
element of any contact and should be delivered before contract works can be
accepted. They are intended to assist plant personnel during the early stages of
takeover and subsequent operation and maintenance.
Basic contents of Manual
1. Purpose
2. Operating information
3. Technical description
4. Maintenance instruction
5. Maintenance schedule
6. Parts list
Planned preventive maintenance, preferably based on plant condition
monitoring extends the operating life of a plant and the most economical in general.
Adopting this type of strategy lessen the man-hours of maintenance and reduce the
unnecessary loosening and tightening of critical parts which may alter precisely set
clearances and torques by the manufacturer.
Nevertheless, in discussing program planning and maintenance schedule,
emphasis is placed on the need for keeping comprehensive record.





71 | P a g e

MAINTENANCE STRATEGIES






















PLANNED MAINTENANCE

May be organized and undertaken to a predetermined plan, using forethought,
control and good documentation and recording system.
The aim of planned maintenance is to reduce or eliminate breakdowns and
failures and to minimize the resulting stoppage or damage.

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
To reduce probability of plant failure.
There are two common kinds of preventive maintenance.

SCHEDULE MAINTENANCE

It is carried out at predetermined intervals.
Parts to be replaced at various interval of time, preferably based on the
maintenance information supplied by manufacturer.

CONDTION BASED

It would be initiated as a result of knowledge of the condition of an item
from routine or continuous monitoring.
MAINTENANCE
UNPLANNED
MAINTENANCE
PLANNED
MAINTENANCE
CORRECTIVE
MAINTENANCE
CONDITION BASED
MAINTENANCE
SCHEDULED
MAINTENANCE
PREVENTIVE
MAINTENANCE
CORRECTIVE
MAINTENANCE
72 | P a g e

Condition monitoring is continuous recording, measuring and
interpretation of data.
In a well-planned condition monitoring system, diagnosis should be
possible without dismantling, so that plant overhaul can be safely
deferred.

UNPLANNED MAINTENANCE

Where no predetermined or formalized plan exists.
It is usually mean running a plant without maintenance or repair until and unless
there is a failure or breakdown.
In some cases, such actions may be necessary in exceptional consideration.

BREAKDOWN OR CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE

Repair works are carried out right after failure occurs.
Is usually adopted because prime cost of maintenance is excessive and downtime
can be high for even a relatively minor service.

Ex. For Caterpillar high-speed engine, cost of top overhaul is 10-25 percent of its
whole price, and for total engine overhaul is 40-70 percent of the cost of new
engine.

Most engine manufacturers they include job cards for every key parts servicing. It is
good practice to keep records for job cards for the next maintenance reference and
financial considerations.

Below is example of job cards of MAK engine.


MAINTENANCE INTERVAL

Manufacturers have their own respective recommended schedule based on their
product design and the extent of loading the generator.

KEY FACTORS IN PLANNING MAINTENANCE:

1. FUEL USED
Using light Fuel(ex. Diesel) has more operating hours than heavy fuel
before preventive maintenance will be done. The latter produces more
carbon soot which contaminate the lub oil system and eventually wear
down bearing and liner. And accumulation of carbon at exhaust valves
seats is fast.

2. SPEED
The more the speed the faster is the wearing of engine parts which is
subjected to more frequent mechanical and thermal stress.




73 | P a g e

3. LOADING
Average load or Total energy generated accounts also the determination
of maintenance interval. This indicates to what extent the plant is
utilized.

4. SITE CONDITION
Dusty environment requires frequent cleaning of charge air filter and de-
dusting of heat radiating equipments(radiator, cooler, generator air gaps.
Corrosive surrounding requires frequent protective recoating of
equipments.
Quality of available raw water for cooling also determines how often to
check pH level(7) and corrosion resistant chemical presence and to
renew circulating cooling water.
Recommended concentration of Nitrate (NO3) for corrosion resistance
is 900-1200 PPM.

5. LIFE OF COMPONENTS
Engine parts were designed and tested under various operating
conditions and total operating hours were determined before the parts
fail.

















74 | P a g e

SAMPLE OF TOP OVERHAUL
TOP OVERHAUL- MAK 332

LOCATION : STATION A-MASIRAH
ENGINE : ENGINE NO. 11
ENGINE SERIAL NO. :33566
ENGINE MAKE :KRUPP MAK
ENGINE TYPE :8 MaK 332
RUNNING HOURS @ LAST MOH : 86806 HRS
PRESENT RUNNING HRS : 91351 HRS
TYPE OF OVERHAUL :TOP OVERHAUL & CORRECTIVE
MAINTENANCE(5000 HRS)
DATE STARTED : JUNE 19, 2010
DATE COMPLETED : JULY 26,2010
MANPOWER :FOUR MECHANICS


CRANKSHAFT WEB DEFLECTION( cold) AFTER OVERHAULING
Scale : 1 division = 0.01 mm(dial gauge)
Rotation : clockwise, viewed from flywheel
Lub-oil Temp : 35 °C
Water Temp : 35 °C
75 | P a g e

Ambient Temp : 34 °C
Standard limits
Max. limits :
Cyl. no.1 = +2, - 5(during realignment)
For all cyls. = +5,-8











Crank Pin
Position
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
BDC
exhaust
side
20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
Exhaust
Side
22 20 20 1/4 20 21 1/4 20 1/4 21 21
TDC 23 20 20 1/2 20 1/4 20 21 21 21
Camshaft
Side
23 20 ½ 20 1/2 20 21 20 18 22
BDC
camshaft
side
24 20 20 1/2 20 22 20 17 21
∆ max -1 -1/2 -1/4 -1/4 -1 -1 -2 1/2 -1/2
76 | P a g e

CYLINDER HEADS

All cylinder heads are replaced with reconditioned available
spares. Dismounted cylinder heads were dismantled for mechanical
and chemical cleaning. Inspection for cracks and damages were
carried out; found exhaust valve stem at free end side broken; insert
still in good condition. All inlet and exhaust valves were replaced with
new spares and lapped. Some valve seat inserts found exceeded
specified limits so removed and replaced. Valve guides were all
extracted out and replaced with spares. Cylinder heads studs were
also checked for looseness, two found loosened. One stud found
deformed at cylinder no. 1; removed and replaced with new spare and
tightened to 180 NM torque.
Cylinder head no.8 found exhaust valve guide housing worn out.
Can not be used as spare.
Cylinder heads fitted back on engine with nuts tighten to initial
torque of 50 NM evenly. Then, alternately tighten to 240 º angle turn in
four stages(60º-120º-180º-240º).
Starting valves overhauled and assembled with new o-ring and
sealing ring.
ROCKER ARM ASSEMBLY
Rocker arms assembly were dismantled, cleaned and inspected
for wears. Oil passages were cleared with compressed air. Shaft
bushes also checked and found still in good condition. Clearances fall
in specified limits.
Rocker arms fitted back with tightening the nuts to 100 NM
torque. Tappet clearances set to 0.4 mm for both intake and exhaust
valves.


77 | P a g e

VALVE CLEARANCE AND SPRING LENGTH

Clearance limit:
Exhaust= 0.4 mm; 0.016 inch
Intake =0.4 mm; 0.016 inch
Standard spring free length = 128 mm

cylinder
no.
VALVE
FLYWHEEL SIDE FREE END SIDE
valve
clearance,
inch
spring
free
length,
mm
valve
clearance,
inch
spring
free
length,
mm
1
EXHAU
ST 0.13 127 0.10 127
INTAKE 0.10 127 0.10 127
2
EXHAU
ST 0.23 126.5 0.25 126.5
INTAKE 0.20 126.7 0.23* 127.5
3
EXHAU
ST 0.25 126.7 0.25 126.5
INTAKE 0.23 126.5 0.23* 126.4
4
EXHAU
ST 0.25* 126 0.25 126
INTAKE 0.23 126 0.20 126
5
EXHAU
ST 0.13 127.5 0.10 127.5
INTAKE 0.08 126.5 0.13 126.5
6
EXHAU
ST 0.23 127.1 0.25 127.1
INTAKE 0.28 127.1 0.23* 127.1
78 | P a g e

7
EXHAU
ST 0.23 127.5 0.23* 127.5
INTAKE 0.25 126 0.20 126
8
EXHAU
ST 0.28 127 0.25 127
INTAKE 0.20 126 0.25 126


* old valve seat
insert

all valve guide
renewed





PISTONS

All pistons were pulled out. Found ring gaps position were
shifted. Heavy carbon accumulation on top of pistons no. 3, no.4,no.6
and no.8. All were decoupled from con:rods and de-carbonized by
soaking with diluted decarbonizing chemicals for three hours. Piston
ring grooves found with hard carbon and were thoroughly cleaned.
Piston no.2 and no. 8 were observed with deep wears and exceeding
side clearance; so renewed. All piston rings were renewed. Installed
with new piston rings and side clearance and ring gap clearance was
taken and recorded. Installed back with ring gaps kept in proper
arrangement and equally distributed.


79 | P a g e

GROOVE AND RING CLEARANCE

Standard:
Ring no 1&2 =0.13 mm- 0.17mm; limit= 0.3 mm
Ring no. 3 =0.07mm-0.10mm
Ring no. 4 =.05mm-0.09mm
Maximum permissible groove clearance: 0.010"

Piston
ring
Pt. no. PISTON NO.
1 2* 3 4 5 6* 7 8*
1
41-02-
31
.20 .09 .14 .17 .15 .09 .15 .09
2
41-02-
31
.10 .07 .09 .10 .09 .07 .10 .07
3
41-02-
46
.07 .07 .07 .07 .07 .07 .07 .07
4
41-02-
29
.05 .05 .05 .05 .06 .05 .05 .05

* new piston
PISTON RING BUTT CLEARANCE
Standard:
Ring no 1,2 & 3 =0.030"-.040"
Ring no. 4 =0.035-0.45"

Clearance limit: 0.3 mm


80 | P a g e



PISTON NO.
1 2 3* 4 5 6* 7 8
groove no.
1
1.15 1.15 1.20 1.20 1.25 1.20 1.45 1.15
groove
no.2
1.15 1.15 1.20 1.20 1.25 1.20 1.45 1.15
groove
no.3
1.10 1.10 1.20 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.30 1.10
groove
no.4
1.15 1.15 1.10 1.10 1.15 1.10 1.35 1.10
* new liner
CONNECTING ROD

All connecting rods were pulled out and disconnected from
pistons. The "K" values of big end bearing cap were checked and
recorded Thoroughly cleaned with kerosene; oil holes cleared and
blown with compressed air.
Crank pins were thoroughly cleaned and probed. Minor
scratches were smoothened with fine emery paper.
Together with pistons, assembled, re-cleaned, lubricated and
fitted back to liners. Big end bearing no. 2 was renewed as long scoring
marks at center was observed. Connecting rod bolts and nuts were
hand-tightened alternately by maintaining the gap of 0.04 mm between
joint faces. Then, tighten to 110º turn in two stages(60º-50º) starting
from camshaft side.
Next major overhauling con rods need to be sent for
reconditioning as small end pin bush exposed by more than 50
percent.

81 | P a g e

"K”-value big end bearing cap

Standard : 0.44 -0.60 mm
Minimum limit: 0.35 mm


Con rod
no.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
K 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.56 0.55 0.55


CAMSHAFT

Inspection on camshaft and all cams for any damage, abnormal
wear and tear was performed; found normal. Cams were re-polished
with fine emery paper. Camshaft bearing and end float clearance
measured and recorded. Reset set collar clearance using high
pressure oil injection tool to specified value. All roller tappets were
pulled out cleaned and inspected; found in good condition. Tappet
bushes were cleaned and checked for wears; found in good condition.


CAMSHAFT RADIAL BEARING CLEARANCE

Standard:
Locating= 0.03-0.08; limit= 0.25
Normal =0.10-0.17;limit=0.25

82 | P a g e




CAMSHAFT AXIAL SET COLLAR CLEARANCE

Standard: 0.2mm
Maximum Limit: 0.3mm
Axial Clearance: 0.28 mm



CYLINDER LINER

In place cleaning were carried out and measured wear and
ovality. Liner no. 3 and no. 6 were concluded to be replaced as they
were having deep wear and registered high ring gap clearances at
some area.
Fitted two new liners to engine block with new o-rings and
sealing rings with lubricant.
FUEL SYSTEM


Two fuel injection pumps, no. 5 and no. 6 removed and
overhauled. Flange o-ring were renewed.
Commencement of delivery checked and adjusted to
specified value at acceptance record. Checked pump plunger for
not being forced hard against the delivery valve and neither
Cam brg. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Clearance(mm) .05 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.06
83 | P a g e

seating at the top of the stroke nor siding on lower spring clip at
the bottom of the stroke..
Fuel Injectors all were serviced. Nozzles renewed and
tightened the nut with 100 Nm torque. Release pressure set to
300 bar.
Wood ward UG-8 Governor dismounted. Drive assembly
inspected and found in good condition. Old oil drained out,
flushed with kerosene and then with lubrication oil. Refilled with
fresh lub oil. Governor linkage lubricated and checked for free
movement.
Fuel filters housing cleaned and filter elements replaced
with new spare.




FUEL INJECTION PUMP COMMENCEMENT OF DELIVERY
-the acceptance test record of fuel timing

F.I.P
no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Degree 18.5° 19.0° 18.5° 18.5° 18.5° 19.0° 18.5° 19.5°


LUBRICATION SYSTEM

Oil sump was thoroughly cleaned. Oil pump suction line and
strainer were dismantled and de-carbonized.
84 | P a g e

Checked the backlash clearance between pump drive and
crankshaft gear; found 0.30mm(limit: 0.4 mm).
Oil duplex filter opened and cleaned each chamber thoroughly.
Candle filter assembly were dismantled and individually cleaned with
kerosene and compressed air and inspected.
It is strongly recommended to observe proper procedure in
servicing of lub-oil filter element to prolong life of some engine parts.

COOLING WATER SYSTEM


Charged-air cooler dismounted and serviced.
It is recommended regular monitoring and adjustment of cooling
water anti-corrosion chemical level.
EXHAUST & INLET AIR SYSTEM
Intake air manifold covers were opened, thorough cleaning of
Inlet manifold internal surface was done.
Turbocharger suction filter was dismantled and serviced.
Exhaust turbocharger dismounted and replaced with
reconditioned spare VTR 251, as exhaust gas registered high
temperature in all cylinders during load testing.
ELECTRICAL WORK AND PROTECTION


Electrical and instrumentation servicing done under the
supervision by APSSE .
- Generator bearing re-greased only; bearing overdue for
overhaul.
85 | P a g e

- Generator stator and rotor were cleaned and inspected.
- Air gap between stator and rotor at flywheel side
measured.
- Control panel, breaker and motor control de-dusted and
checked.
- Radiator fan motor and transmission shaft serviced.
- Pressure and Temperature switch inspected for correct
functioning.
- Protection settings:

Low Lub Oil Pressure Alarm : 2.4 bar
Low Lub Oil Pressure Trip : 2.0 bar
High Jacket water Temp (out) Alarm : 90 °C
High Jacket water Temp (out) Trip : 94 °C
Low Jacket Water Press Alarm : 0.5 bar
Low L.T. Water Press Alarm : 0.5 bar
Electrical Overspeed Trip : 840 rpm
ENGINE RUNNING-IN AND LOAD TRIAL
17July2010
0800H– Run pre-lubrication pump by PSO until sufficient pressure is
present and all lubricating points are well supplied. Cylinder
blow-through carried out by opening indicator cock and run
engine at no fuel setting for about two revolution.

- Fuel and water system vented out trapped air.
- Engine started and let run for 30 minutes.
- Stopped and performed internal inspection of running gears for
overheating, leakage and looseness; found in normal condition.

18July2010

86 | P a g e

0830H - Electrical staff verified protection system settings.
Proceeded to loading as per running in schedule up to 450 KW
and let run for 24 hours.
2130H – Engine was put out of service due to severe power factor
fluctuations.

19July2010

- Performed thorough rechecking on running gears and injection
pump racks.
- Restarted engine but few hours, again power factor
abnormalities appeared.
20July2010

- Corrective action done by PGS(E&M)
- Engine was started by PSO and loaded up to 700 KW gradually.
- Exhaust gas throughout the cylinders registered high
temperature and
Low charged air pressure.
- Turbocharger was decided to be replaced with reconditioned
spare. Cooler was dismounted and serviced.
26July2010
- Engine restarted by PSO according to normal procedure.
- Gradual loading up to 500 KW.
- Let run for 24- hours
- All parameters taken and recorded.

27July1010
- Engine gradually brought to 850 KW service
- All parameters checked and recorded. Found normal.
- Engine cleared for normal service.
The following readings were recorded at 850 KW load.
Load : 850 KW


87 | P a g e

Cyl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Peak
Pressure,
Bar
80 80 74 74 75 78 78 78
Exhaust
Temp.,°C
360 360 380 360 370 370 380 370
Fuel Rack
Position,m
m
23 25 25 25 25 24 25 25
Jacket
Water
Temp(Out),
°C
70 70 68 70 68 68 68 68











Lub Oil
HT Cooling
Water
LT Cooling
Water Charge Air
Exhau
st
Temp
After
T/C
Gov.
load
Ind.
Pos.
Room
Temp.
Deg.C
Press
., bar
Temp
. In,C
Press.
, psi
Temp.
In/Out
,C
Press.
, psi

Temp.
In/Out
,C
Press.
, Psi
Temp.
In,C
40 70 40 /72 28 /44 15 54 400 4.8 34
88 | P a g e

SAMPLE OF MAJOR OVERHAUL

MAJOR OVERHAUL- MAK 453

LOCATION :STATION B-MASIRAH
ENGINE :ENGINE NO. 14
ENGINE SERIAL NO. :26636
ENGINE MAKE : KRUPP MAK
ENGINE TYPE :8M 453
RUNNING HOURS @ LAST O/H :105829 HRS
PRESENT RUNNING HRS : 123220 HRS
TYPE OF OVERHAUL :MAJOR OVERHAUL(15000 HRS)
DATE STARTED : FEBRUARY 3,2009
DATE COMPLETED : MAY 6, 2009
MANPOWER :FIVE MECHANICS







89 | P a g e

CRANKSHAFT WEB DEFLECTION( cold) AFTER OVERHAULING
Scale : 1 division = 0.01 mm(dial gauge)
Rotation : clockwise, viewed from flywheel
Lub-oil Temp : 32 °C
Water Temp : 36 °C
Ambient Temp : 36 °C
Standard limits
Max. limits :
Cyl. no.1 = +3, - 5(during realignment)
For all cyls. = +6,-8
Crank Pin
Position
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
BDC
exhaust
side
20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
Exhaust
Side
21 21 ¼ 21 20 20 20 ½ 20 20
TDC 21 22 21 19 ½ 21 21 21 19 ¾
Camshaft
Side
20 ½ 21 ½ 21 21 21 19 21 ¾ 20
BDC
camshaft
side
20 ½ 20 ½ 20 20 1/2 20 19 20 ½ 19 ¾
∆ max +3/4 +1 3/4 +1 -3/4 +1 -1 1/2 +3/4 -1/8







90 | P a g e

Old valves were found badly worn out and burnt. Replaced with new
spares and lapped with fine grinding paste.
Guides and valves were cleaned and fitted back.

CYLINDER HEADS







INLET & EXHAUST VALVES

VALVE GUIDES

VALVE SEAT INSERTS

All cylinder heads were removed, dismantled and decarbonized with
chemicals. Checked for any damage; found two cylinders with defects. One
having crack in between valve seat inserts housing(no.5) and worn out insert
housing on no.1. Replaced with preconditioned spare.
Cylinder head studs were checked for tightness at 550 NM torque. All
sealing o-rings were renewed.
Cylinder heads fitted back and nuts initially tightened to 50 NM in
crosswise direction evenly. And turned to 250° angle in three steps(60°,180°
and 250°)
All intake and exhaust valve guides were removed. Shrunk by
freezing and installed new parts while observing projection at 104 mm from
cylinder head.
Clearance between guides and stem were taken and recorded.
After long service hours all inserts found wear at maximum; replaced
with new spare.
Valve stems and seat inserts were thoroughly lapped with grinding
compound.
91 | P a g e

VALVE SPRINGS

STARTING VALVES



VALVE CLEARANCE AND SPRING LENGTH
Clearance limit:
Exhaust= 0.4 mm
Intake =0.4 mm;
Intake valve spring free length = 182.7 mm; Min= 178 mm
Exhaust valve spring free length=167 mm; Min=162 mm

cylinder
no.
VALVE
FLYWHEEL SIDE FREE END SIDE
valve
clearance,
mm
spring
free
length,
mm
valve
clearance,
mm
spring
free
length,
mm
1
EXHAU
ST 0.20 167 0.18 166.8
INTAKE 0.18 179.9 0.18 179.7
2
EXHAU
ST 0.28 167 0.30 167
INTAKE 0.20 180.2 0.20 180.5
Cleaned and inspected for wear and crack.
Free length measured and recorded. Replaced exhaust springs of
cylinder no. 5 and no.1 as it exceeded the limit.
Old valves were cleaned and re-lapped with the seats. Fitted back
with new o-ring and sealing ring.
92 | P a g e

3
EXHAU
ST 0.30 166.8 0.3 166.4
INTAKE 0.18 180.8 0.20 180.8
4
EXHAU
ST 0.30 167 0.30 167
INTAKE 0.20 180.2 0.20 180.5
5
EXHAU
ST 0.23 168 0.23 168
INTAKE 0.18 180.0 0.13 180.4
6
EXHAU
ST 0.28 168.4 0.30 168.5
INTAKE 0.20 180.4 0.20 180
7
EXHAU
ST 0.30 167.8 0.30 167.4
INTAKE 0.23 179.4 0.20 181.5
8
EXHAU
ST 0.30 166.1 0.30 166.7
INTAKE 0.20 182.3 0.20 181

ROCKER ARM









Rocker arm assembly cleaned and checked for wears. Oil passages were
cleared.
Fitted back and tightened evenly at 250 NM torque.
Tappet setting carried out with clearance of 0.3 mm for intake valve and
0.6 mm for exhaust valves in cold conditions.
93 | P a g e

PISTONS






ROOVE AND RING CLEARANCE
Standard:
Ring no 1&2 =0.21mm-0.24mm; limit =0.4mm
Ring no. 3 =0.07mm-0.11mm;limit =0.3mm
Ring no. 4 =0.07mm-0.11mm;limit=0.3mm
Piston
ring
Pt. no. PISTON NO.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1
4101-
32A
0.22 0.20 0.22 0.22 0.20 0.22 0.22 0.22
2
4101-
71A
0.18 0.18 0.18 0.20 0.18 0.20 0.20 0.18
3
4101-
86
0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.10 0.10 0.12 0.12
4
4101-
87
0.08 0.10 0.10 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08





All pistons were carefully pulled out and disassembled from con: rod.
Decarbonized with chemicals. Hard carbon was removed mechanically.
Piston no.5 skirt was dismantled inspected for crack and carbon
accumulation; found normal. Fitted back with new o-ring and tightened
according to make.(110NM)
All pistons observed with heavy wear at top land of crown. All must be
replaced during next overhaul.
94 | P a g e

PISTON RING BUTT CLEARANCE
Clearance limit(previous report) : 5.0 mm


PISTON NO.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
groove no.
1
1.42 1.8 1.7 1.23 1.2 1.38 1.2
1.6
4
groove
no.2
4.4 4.22 4.12 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.0 4.5
groove
no.3
4.5 4.4 4.41 4.52 4.0 4.3 3.72
4.5
2
groove
no.4
1.14 1.24 1.3 1.3 1.14 1.22 1.1 1.3

CONNECTING ROD














All connecting rod dismantled, cleaned and proved. “K” value were taken
and recorded; found within limit.
Bearing caps were cleaned and proved for cracks and abnormal wearing;
found normal.
Con:rod bolts without hole tightened to 750 NM while having hole torque
to 600 NM and measured bore diameter at various points.
All big end bearings were renewed and fitted back with specified
respective torque according to bolt construction. Pre-tightened to 330 NM
starting at lower bolts and upper bolts taken twice alternately. Tightened to final
torque(750/600NM) according to bolt construction or until markings coincided.
95 | P a g e

BUSH AND PIN CLEARANCE “S”(mm)
Standard : 0.16-0.20 mm
Maximum permissible limit : 0.35 mm
CON-ROD NO.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0.16 0.16 0.15 0.17 0.16 0.18 0.16 0.18





















96 | P a g e

BIG END BORE DIAMETER WITHOUT
SHELL
Recommended Ovality: 0.1 mm, SHELL THICKNESS= 6.88mm
Standard K value: 0.7- 1.0 mm, limit :
0.6 mm


No Pos
Fly Wheel
End(mm)
Free
End(mm)
1 A-A 258.960 258.975


B-B 258.970 258.970
C-C 258.975 258.975
D-D 258.970 258.997
E-E 258.975 258.980
2 A-A 258.970 258.990
B-B 258.980 258.990
C-C 258.970 258.970
D-D 258.960 258.950
E-E 258.960 258.970
3 A-A 258.960 258.980
B-B 258.960 258.970
C-C 258.975 258.970
D-D 258.970 258.965
E-E 258.970 258.980
4 A-A 258.970 258.980
B-B 258.970 258.970
C-C 258.970 258.960
97 | P a g e

D-D 258.960 258.950
E-E 258.950 258.960
5 A-A 258.970 258.980
B-B 258.965 258.990
C-C 258.960 258.970
D-D 258.950 258.960
E-E 258.960 258.980
6 A-A 258.990 258.980
B-B 258.995 258.995
C-C 258.995 258.980
D-D 258.970 258.960
E-E 258.980 258.995
7 A-A 258.995 258.970
B-B 258.960 258.970
C-C 258.975 258.960
D-D 258.995 258.995
E-E 258.970 258.975
8 A-A 258.950 258.960
B-B 258.965 258.980
C-C 258.965 258.955
D-D 258.955 258.950
E-E 258.945 258.955





98 | P a g e

“K”-value big end bearing cap

Standard : 0.70 -1.0 mm
Minimum limit: 0.6 mm

Con rod
no.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
K 0.7 0.8 1 1 1 1 1 1


CAMSHAFT









CAMSHAFT RADIAL BEARING CLEARANCE
Standard: 0.1 mm
Limit :0.25 mm





Cam brg. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Clearance(mm) 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.13 0.10 0.14 0.15 0.10
Camshaft and cams were cleaned and smoothened with fine emery
paper. Visual inspection and measurement were carried out; found
normal.
Fuel, inlet and exhaust roller tappets assembly removed, cleaned
and proved. Five fuel tappet assembly were replaced with shim-type
adjuster. Refitted back with new o-ring and seals on cowling pipes.
Roller tappets housing inspected for wear and found within limit.
99 | P a g e

CRANKSHAFT








Measured the crankshaft axial clearance found 0.3 mm (limit=1.0 mm)



“K”-value Main Bearing Cap

Standard :
Normal Bearing= 0.55-0.70 mm
Locating Bearing= 0.3-0.53 mm




Bearing
no.
1
2
locating
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
K 0.60 0.50 0.66 0.70 0.60 0.55 0.60 0.55 0.60 0.50
All main bearings and locating bearings were opened one after the
other. Main bearing bolts were slackened first at exhaust side by 60° and
camshaft side totally loosened and “K” clearance were checked.
Main bearing no. 9 was observed with deep wear at bottom shell.
Mating portion at crankshaft near oil hole was observed with dent mark.
Smoothened with file and polished with fine emery paper.
Good cleaning with kerosene and compressed air were carried out
before re-fitment. Shells were pre-lubricated with SAE 40 engine oil.
All cap nuts were initially tightened at 150 NM evenly starting at
camshaft side. Continued tightening until both clearances between cap and
housing were equal to 0.05 mm. And nuts finally turned to 60° angle or until
marking matched. All nuts secured with tie wire.
100 | P a g e

CYLINDER LINER






LINER BORE DIAMETER
Standard bore : 320 mm
Wear limit : 1 mm
Maximum ovality : 0.35 mm
Liner no. Measuring
Point
Longitudinal Transverse Diagonal Diagonal
I
1 320.01 320.08 320.01 320.05
2 320.01 320.07 320.02 320.05
3 320.05 320.02 320.04 320.03
4 ref pt. 320.06 320.01 320.04 320.03
II
1 320.028 320.17 320.19 320.17
2 320.14 320.09 320.1 320.1
3 320.08 320.075 320.07 320.08
4 ref pt. 320.03 320.08 320.05 320.07
III
1 320.225 320.12 320.16 320.175
2 320.12 320.07 320.09 320.09
3 320.11 320.05 320.07 320.09
4 ref pt. 320.07 320.04 320.06 320.06
IV 1 320.21 320.2 320.2 320.17
Liners outer surfaces were found with heavy scale-like accumulation.
Mechanically cleaned and inspected. One found with o-ring groove pitted and
corroded and other with multiple scoring marks and uneven wears. Two were
replaced with new spares.
The rest were deglazed and diameter measured.
Fitted back with new o-rings and metallic joint rings
101 | P a g e

2 320.11 320.13 320.1 320.11
3 320.06 320.1 320.09 320.065
4 ref pt. 320.04 320.08 320.08 320.06
V(NEW)
1 320.02 320.03 320.03 320.03
2 320.02 320.03 320.03 320.03
3 320.02 320.03 320.03 320.03
4 ref pt. 320.02 320.03 320.03 320.03
VI
1 320.08 320.07 320.07 320.08
2 320.055 320.06 320.06 320.07
3 320.04 320.055 320.05 320.06
4 ref pt. 320.035 320.05 320.04 320.04
VII(NEW)
1 320.01 320.01 320.02 320.01
2 320.005 320 320.02 320.01
3 320.005 320.005 320.02 320.01
4 ref pt. 320.005 320 320.02 320.01
VIII
1 320.24 320.175 320.02 320.17
2 320.11 320.12 320.12 320.09
3 320.07 320.075 320.08 320.08
4 ref pt. 320.06 320.065 320.065 320.07








102 | P a g e

FUEL SYSTEM









FUEL INJECTION PUMP COMMENCEMENT OF DELIVERY
-the acceptance test record of fuel timing

F.I.P
no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Degree 19.0 18.5 19.3 19.0 18.8 19.0 19.0 19.0

LUBRICATION SYSTEM









Fuel injection pumps were pulled out and overhauled. Most of its running
gears were worn out; replaced with new spares. Discharge flange fitted back
with new seal and tightened to 100NM.
The injectors release pressure set to 260 bar . Nozzle tip no.4 replaced
with spare as its showed abnormal spray pattern.
Pump fitted back on engine at specified torque.
Fuel delivery timing checked and adjusted as per acceptance record.
Engine oil sump were thoroughly cleaned. Oil duplex filters were
serviced and elements were proved.
Sump refilled with fresh charge of oil.
Oil of governor was also renewed.
Oil gear pump dismantled, cleaned and inspected. All parts found in
good condition. Same was assembled and fitted with new sealing.
103 | P a g e

COOLING WATER SYSTEM








INLET AIR SYSTEM





TURBOCHARGER











Cooling water spaces at engine block were mechanically cleaned with
steel brush as corrosion formation is evident. Some liner o-ring seats found
deeply pitted so cleaned and applied steel epoxy.
External cleaning on radiator was carried out. Some elements were
observed with corroded and deformed fins.
Four elements of thermostatic valve were renewed after found
damaged.
In-place cleaning of oil bath charge air filtered were carried out.
Charge air cooler was dismounted and serviced.
Intake air manifold dismantled and freed from dirt and carbon.
Exhaust turbocharger (VTR 321) was also overhauled. Replaced
compressor and turbine side bearing. All sealing bushes and oil slingers
renewed. Radial clearance of turbine blade and “K” value measured.
“K”=34.5 mm
Minimum radial clearance= 0.4 mm
Pitting marks were observed at compressor blade side.
104 | P a g e





ELECTRICAL WORK AND PROTECTION



- Protection settings:
Low Lub Oil Pressure Alarm : 2.8 bar
Low Lub Oil Pressure Trip : 2.2 bar
High Jacket water Temp (out) Alarm : 90 °C
High Jacket water Temp (out) Trip : 93 °C
Low Jacket Water Press Alarm : 0.80 bar
Low L.T. Water Press Alarm : 0.80 bar










All electrical maintenance works on generator, instruments and protection
system were done under supervision of power station electricians.
105 | P a g e

ENGINE RUNNING-IN AND LOAD TRIAL

















The following reading were recorded at various load.




May 06, 2010
0725H –pre-lub pump started and cylinder blow through carried out
-engine started at idle speed
-fuel, oil & water system vented out trapped air.
-let run to rated speed
0800H- engine stopped & inspection on running gears done
0830H-engine restarted and gradual loading was applied. Engine
parameters checked and monitored.
1700H-engine taking 1000 KW load. Parameters checked and recorded
and engine put on continuous service at 1000 KW.
May 7, 2010
0730H – load was increased to 1200 KW. All reading were taken and
recorded.
0830H- load was gradually increased to 1500 KW. All readings taken
and recorded.
- Observed with high Jacket cooling water outlet temperature.
- Engine load was reduced back to 1200 KW .
- Put on continuous service since demand was high.

Later , abnormality was rectified. Engine driven cooling water pump was
installed back; water pressure was improved.
Thermostatic valve serviced; found elements badly damaged. All
replaced with new spare.
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Load : 1200 KW

Cyl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Peak
Pressure,
Bar
84 84 82 82 82 84 82 83
Exhaust
Temp.,°C
358 - 357 359 347 300 375 359
Fuel Rack
Position,mm
21 21 21.5 20 20 22 22 21
Jacket
Water
Temp(Out),
°C
83 83 82 82 82 80 80 80
Lub Oil
HT Cooling
Water Charge Air
Exhau
st
Temp
After
T/C
Roo
m
Tem
p.
Deg.
C
Pres
s.,
bar
Temp
. In,C
Press
., bar
Temp
.
In/Out
,C
Press
., bar
Temp
. In,C
3.4 60 2.6 83 .7 - - 34
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Load : 1500 KW

Cyl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Peak
Pressure,
Bar
95 96 94 95 93 92 93 94
Exhaust
Temp.,°C
401 - 378 407 370 323 353 384
Fuel Rack
Position,m
m
26 26.5 25 25 25.5 27 27 26.5
Jacket
Water
Temp(Out),
°C
90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90









Lub Oil
HT Cooling
Water Charge Air Exhau
st
Temp
After
T/C
Roo
m
Tem
p.
Deg.
C
Press
., bar
Temp
. In,C
Press.
, bar
Temp.
Out,C
Press.
, bar
Temp.
In,C
3.4 60 2.6 86 1.1 - - 34
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PARTS USED
Item
no. Description Part no. Qty Remarks
1 Top overhauling kit 6.2108a 8
2 Locating main bearing 1.123 01 pair
3 Main bearing 1.124 9 pair
4 Big end bearing 1.282 8
5 Valve seat insert 1.2151.3 32
6 Inlet/exhaust valve 1.2210-1 32
7 Exhaust valve guide 1.2123.2 12
8 Inlet valve guide 1.2123.1 14
9 Valve seat insert 1.2151.3 2
10 Cylinder liner 1.1101.2 2
11 Nozzle spring 1.2267.58 8
12 Nozzle element 1.2260.3 1
13 Bucket Tappet 1.3597.26 8
14 Lower Spring plate 1.3597.25 8
15 Pump element 1.3597.5 8
16 Seal ring 1.3597.204 8
17 Seal ring 1.3597.15 8
18 Delivery valve 1.3597.14 8
19 Valve spring 1.3597.16 8
20 Plunger spring 1.3597.24 8
21 Oil scraping ring 1.2601.105 8
22 Compression ring 1.2601.204 8
23 Fire ring 1.2601.103 8
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24 Compression ring 1.2601.203 8
25 O-ring 25x 2.5 8
26 O-ring 1.2267.65 16
27 Valve spring 1.222.4 8
28 Clamping cone 1.2210.7 8
29 O-ring liner 1.115.13 16
30 O-ring liner 6.1115.15 8
31 Joint ring liner bottom 6.1101.15 8
32 Joint ring liner top 1.1101.8 2
33 O-ring cylinder stud 1.119.202 64
34 Washer 12DIN7980 4
35 Socket head cap screw M12x40 4
36 Valve spring 1.2210.4 5
37 Water manifold gasket C32 x40N 8
38 Water manifold gasket C105x60x38 8
39
Oval gasket(oil gallery)
20x25 1.7073-803 18
40 T/C bearing (turbine) 38 1
41 T/C bearing(comp) 32 1
42 Sealing Bush(turbine) 506 1
43 Sealing bush (comp) 725 1
44 L.O filter element 9825483 1
45 Fuel filter element 9827301 1
46 End cover gasket 58150 2
47 Gasket air cooler 1.7250.58 2
48 Gasket 1.7250.59 2
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49 Roller Tappet 1.3565a 5
50 Stud Tappet 1.2107.2 4
51 Shaft 6.64803 1
52 Bearing 6.2072 2rs 2
53 Hexagonal bolt M10 4
54 o-ring 25x2.5 24
55
Rotor/idler shaft for L.O
pump 1.6417.104 1 set
56 Bearing bush 1.6417.113 2
57 Bearing bush 1.6117.114 2
58 Push rod 1.3570a 1
59 L.O. bypass filter 212.042/070 14
60 L.O pipe 3.2107.25 1
61
Rubber seal for rocker
box cover 1.2190.5 8
62
Rubber seal crankcase
cover 1.1630.2 16
63 Shaft seal A 40x690 1
64 gasket camshaft cover 1.1636.3 1 set
65 Bearing bush 1.6487.106 3
66 Bearing bush 1.6487.105 1
67 Gasket 1.6487.159 1
68 Gasket 1.6487.109 1
69 Valve 1.647.16 2
70 Shaft seal 16x 5 2
71 Thermostatic valve(68- 237.0120 068 4


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VALVES INITIAL SELECTION FOR REGRINDING

















VALVES FOR DE-CARBONIZING AND REGRINDING













VALVE CLEARANCE MEASUREMENT
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VALVES FINAL SEATING AFTER REGRINDING









MAIN BEARING EVALUATION








CRANK PIN AFTER INSPECTION AND POLISHING















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LINER REMOVED FOR CHEMICAL CLEANING
















LINER HONING AND SERVICING
















MAIN BEARING CAP INSTALLATION WITH LEVER TOOL
















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MAIN BEARING INSTALLATION

PISTON CROWN REMOVED FOR INSPECTION
















PISTONS FOR CRACK TEST INSPECTION














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VALVE SPRINGS EVALUATION WITH CALIPER


















CONNECTING ROD AND PIN FOR BORE AND DIAMETER MEASUREMENT

SAMPLE OF ROUTINE MAINTENANCE



MODULE XI

GENERATOR SIZING









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To size a power house is basically counting of total loads to be connected or
served.
But, there are many factors to be considered to determine the total capacity of a
power house and capacity of its individual units.
Available ratings of gensets have changed in recent years, and more sophisticated
switchgear can be integrated with generator sets. That means more flexibility to
specify generating systems that closely match users’ requirements. The key to
choosing the right rating is to understand the application in detail. That means



117 | P a g e

Knowing the type of duty and answering several key questions:
• What is the average load factor?
• What is the maximum required load?
• How many hours per year will the generator sets run?
• Will the generator sets be run isolated from or in parallel with the utility?
• Load curves/profiles for existing loads

GENERATOR SET RATING

Generator set ratings may seem complex, but their basic purpose is simple: fit the
customer’s needs at the optimum reliability, performance, and cost. An improper
rating means a customer either buys more capacity than needed or risks shorter life
to overhaul, more repairs, and more downtime. Read more to learn how smart
rating choices combined with the latest in onsite power generation systems can
help engineers match equipment to their customers’ applications for optimal long-
term performance.
Five basic generator set ratings according to application:
• Standby
• Emergency Standby Power (ESP)
• Mission Critical Standby
• Prime
• Continuous

STANDBY RATING

In this application, the generator set is capable of providing emergency backup
power at the nameplate rating for the duration of an outage.

The average load factor of a Standby rated generator set should be no more than
70% of the nameplate rating and applied to varying loads. A Standby generator set
can run for a maximum of 500 hours per year. The normal standby rating is not for
use in utility paralleling applications. For example, a 3 MW standby rated generator
set will provide power for the duration of an outage. It should be run for up to 500
hours per year and have an average load factor of 2.1 MW.



EMERGENCY STANDBY POWER (ESP) RATING

The ESP rating differs from the Standby rating only in the number of running hours
allowed per year. ESP ratings allow a maximum running time of 200 hours per year
at a 70% average load factor with varying load.


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MISSION CRITICAL STANDBY RATING

In this application, the generator set is capable of providing emergency backup
power at the nameplate rating for the duration of an outage. The average load
factor of a mission critical standby rated generator set should be no more than 85%
of the nameplate rating with varying loads. A mission critical standby generator set
can run for a maximum of 500 hours per year.

Typical peak demand is 100% of the rating for maximum of 5% of the operating
time. The mission critical standby rating is not for use in utility paralleling
applications. For example, a 3 MW mission critical standby rated generator set will
provide power for the duration of an outage. It should be run for up to 500 hours per
year and have an average load factor of up to 2.55 MW.



PRIME RATING

In this application, the generator set is capable of providing power to a varying load
for an unlimited number of hours per year. A Prime rated generator set is capable of
providing full nameplate rating for a period of time, but must have an average load
factor of no more than 70% of the Prime rating. Ten percent overload is allowed for
emergencies for a maximum of one hour in 12, and for no more than 25 hours per
year. The standard prime rating is for use in either utility paralleling or isolated
applications.

For example, a 2.7 MW rated unit may provide the full nameplate rating for a short
duration, but should have a maximum average load of 1.89 MW. The generator set
can also provide 3 MW of power in emergencies as defined above.

CONTINUOUS RATING
In this application, the generator set is able to provide power to a non-varying load
for an unlimited number of hours per year. The average power output of the
generator set is 70% to 100% of the rating. The rating is designed to provide 100%
of the rating for 100% of the operating hours.

Typical Continuous rating applications include base loading in parallel with the utility
and cogeneration operations.


EXERCISE(MODULE XI)
1. What are the types of nameplate rating of genset.
2. Explain at least one type of nameplate rating.
3. Size a power house which would serve the following equipment:
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Assuming same daily load curve throughout the year.
Raw mill = 350 KW
Crusher =200 KW
R. Kiln= 250 KW
Cement Mill= 450 KW
Cooler motor = 150 KW
Conveyor motor= 350 KW,
Others= 200 KW
Available size of genset: 1 MW, 2 MW, 2.5 MW, 3 MW
Explain your design?



















D A I L Y L O A D C U R V E
0
2 0 0
4 0 0
6 0 0
8 0 0
1 0 0 0
1 2 0 0
1 4 0 0
1 6 0 0
1 8 0 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4
H O U R
K
W
120 | P a g e

MODULE XII
IMPACT TO ENVIRONMENT
Operating a diesel power plant should not only think about producing power and
earn money. Everybody should consider and manage to control its effect to
environment and people. Designer should give more weight on its pollution control
management than the small temporary benefit it can provide. We only have one
common abode, our mother earth. Our individual action will affect everything in this
home.
Agreements have been made between industrialized countries in KYOTO
PROTOCOL on 1997. This focuses on decreasing harmful gas emissions that
cause global warming and deadly respiratory diseases.
Global warming is the main cause of increase flooding that kills thousands of our
brothers and sisters, long drought season and famine.
To be able to control global warming should be a collective effort of every human
being.
Most Diesel engine burns petroleum fuel which had been storing carbon for million
years. It instantly releases harmful gases that will stay in our lower atmosphere if
plants are not available to keep and utilize them.
GAS EMISSIONS
1. Carbon Dioxide(CO2)
A product of carbon from fuel combine with oxygen of air during combustion.
CO2 is not totally a plague of our atmosphere if there are plants ready to
consume them and harnessing- facilities when they are released from smoke
stacks.
2. Carbon Monoxide(CO)
Tasteless, colorless and odorless substance.
It is formed when there is incomplete combustion of fuel.
When inhaled in large quantity is deadly to human being.
3. NOx
Formed during high temperature combustion. Nitrogen contain of air combine
with oxygen producing nitrogen oxide.
Cause respiratory diseases and Ozone layer depletion.
121 | P a g e

Sufficient excess air from turbocharger could maintain combustion
temperature.
Catalytic converter is usually installed to control this emission.
HEAT RADIATION
Due to its low efficiency most heat content of fuel is discarded as waste to
environment.
For industrial setting and preheating purposes it is best to co-generate steam
utilizing heat from the exhaust.

THINGS TO CONSIDER IN INSTALLING DIESEL POWER PLANTS:
1. Fuel Used
-should have good quality:
• Low sulfur content
• High ignition quality
• High calorific value
• Low ash content
2. Low sound emission
-good design on exhaust system; ducting and muffler sizing.
-good enclosure of genset ; building wall, floor and roof should have good
sound insulating quality.









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EXERCISE(MODULE XII)

1. Explain briefly , how diesel power generators affect living things.
2. As an engineer, how would you contribute to lessen or cushion the effect of air
pollution to the world?