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# Chapter 2

Exercise 2A
1. (a) 035◦ (read directly from the diagram)
(b) 35 + 45 = 080◦

40m
7.

(c) 35 + 45 + 30 = 110◦

18◦

A

35◦

B

dAB

(d) 180 − 35 = 145◦

C

dB
dA

(e) 180 + 20 = 200◦
(f) 360 − 60 = 300◦

40
dA
40
dA =
tan 18◦
40
tan 35◦ =
dB
40
dB =
tan 35◦
40
40
dAB =

tan 18◦
tan 35◦
= 66m
tan 18◦ =

(g) Back bearings:
35 + 180 = 215◦
(h) 80 + 180 = 260◦
(i) 110 + 180 = 290◦
(j) 145 + 180 = 325◦
(k) 200 − 180 = 020◦
(l) 300 − 180 = 120◦
2. No working required. Refer to the answers in
h
22.4
h = 22.4 tan 28◦

3. tan 28◦ =

N

= 11.9m
B

4. tan θ =

2
4.1

θ = tan

m

θ
4.1m

2
4.1

h
h
22.5
h = 22.5 tan 24◦

A
239◦
302◦

8.

= 26◦

5. tan 24◦ =

N

12
.2k

2.0m
−1

212◦

d

C

24◦
22.5m

= 10.0m
∠CAB = 302 − 239
= 63◦

6. After one and a half hours, the first ship has travelled 6km and the second 7.5km.
North
110◦
6km
d2 = 62 + 7.52
7.5km
d = 9.6km
≈ 10km

∠CBA = 212 − (302 − 180)
= 90◦
12.2
cos 63◦ =
d
12.2
d=
cos 63◦
= 26.9km

d
1

3 d = 5. ∠ACB = 39 − 20 10. 19◦ 39◦ 35m C 20◦ = 19◦ 36m 15◦ A B dAB ∠CAB = 90 − 39 40◦ dB = 51◦ C dA Now use the sine rule: 36 dA 36 dA = tan 15◦ 36 tan 40◦ = dB 36 dB = tan 40◦ 36 36 dAB = − tan 15◦ tan 40◦ = 91m tan 15◦ = 35 h = sin 19◦ sin 51◦ 35 sin 19◦ h= sin 51◦ = 14.22m 2 .3 tan 65◦ Additional height of second tower: DE √ 40 3 √ DE = 40 3 tan 20 tan 20◦ = = 11. C 20◦ 30◦ E 13.2m dAC 42 dA 42 dA = tan 28◦ 42 tan 17◦ = dC 42 dC = tan 17◦ 42 42 dAC = + tan 28◦ tan 17◦ = 216m tan 28◦ = 39◦ 51◦ h 12. d N 40m A Distance between towers: B First determine the angles in the triangle made by the tree.7m F D 11. A B 65◦ 40 AB 40 AB = ◦ tan √30 = 40 3 A tan 30◦ = 5.4km = 25.3km B 335◦ ∠ABF = 335 − 270 = 65◦ d tan 65◦ = 5.Exercise 2A Total height of second tower: 42m 9. 28 A ◦ 17◦ B dA DB = 25. the hillslope and the sun’s ray.22 + 40 C dC ≈ 65.

5m 18.75 d = 0.6 tan 35. Let the height of the flagpole be h and the distance from the base be d.75h tan θ = d h = 0.3 16.6 19.3◦ 20 13 sin 10◦ AB = sin 46. d = d1 − d2 = 270m h d 0.7 − 10 = 46.3◦ DE tan 35.3◦ 500 d1 500 d1 = tan 30◦ = 866m 500 tan 40◦ = d2 500 d2 = tan 40◦ = 596m tan 30◦ = = 13.9m h = 13.3m d 17◦ y2 y = 123.6 = 15.75 tan 40◦ tan 40◦ = B A 15.6 θ = 4.75 tan 40◦ ) = 32◦ 60m D C y1 x y1 x y1 = tan θ x tan φ = y2 x y2 = tan φ y = y1 + y2 x x = + tan θ tan φ   1 1 =x + tan θ tan φ   tan φ tan θ =x + tan θ tan φ tan θ tan φ   tan θ + tan φ =x tan θ tan φ tan θ = ∠ABC = 180 − 123.3◦ = 19.9 + 1.6 DE = 19.6m B = 35.6m D 19. Let θ be the angle of elevation of the point 34 of the way up the flagpole. 40m 10 ◦ θ = tan−1 (0.7 d1 40◦ C tan θ = .3◦ √ AB 20 13 = sin 10◦ sin√46.3◦ = 17. 40◦ Ship1 17.7◦ 540 d A 540 d= sin 17◦ = 1847cm φ θ ∠BAC = 180 − 56. ◦ 30 E 500m 14.7◦ 1. Ship2 d2 d 1.3◦ 540cm B  3 h θ A ∠DCE = 40 − 4.Exercise 2A Plane Rounded up to the next metre this is 19m. sin 17◦ = x 19. p AC = 602 + 402 √ = 20 13 60 tan ∠DAC = 40 ∠DAC = 56.

x φ θ y 22. z y2 φ y1 θ y cos φ = x tan θ = y1 x y1 = tan θ x tan φ = y2 x y2 = tan φ y = y1 − y2 x x − = tan θ tan φ   1 1 =x − tan θ tan φ   tan φ tan θ =x − tan θ tan φ tan θ tan φ   tan φ − tan θ =x tan θ tan φ z x x cos φ y cos θ = z y = z cos θ z= = (x cos φ) cos θ = x cos φ cos θ  φ y 23.Exercise 2A x 20. y z x x θ (b) z φ x sin θ = z θ y x sin θ y tan φ = z y = z tan φ  x  = tan φ sin θ x tan φ = sin θ z= tan φ = x z x tan φ y cos θ = z y = z cos θ   x = cos θ tan φ x cos θ = tan φ z=  4 . (a) z x θ sin θ = x z x sin θ y sin φ = z y = z sin φ  x  = sin φ sin θ x sin φ = sin θ z=  φ 21.

3 = tan 2.4◦ (b) tan ∠GBC = C D E 30mm A GC DC = tan−1 = (f) The angle between skew lines DB and HE is equal to ∠ADB. 1 FM = AB 2 = 2.68 = 180 − 90 − ∠EAM 622 + 382 + 352 3.6◦ = tan−1 = 159mm DF BF 30 = 159 (b) sin ∠FBD = GC DC 35 62 ∠FBD = sin−1 30 159 = 10.3 3.7mm EM AM ∠EAM = tan−1 (d) AG = GC AC = tan−1 √ 35 622 + 382 = 25. = 59.6◦ (c) tan ∠GAC = 100mm = (AB2 + AE2 ) + EF2 GC BC ∠GBC = tan−1 120mm (a) BF2 = BE2 + EF2 = 29.2 + 5.Exercise 2B Exercise 2B 1 1. (a) tan 50◦ = GC BC 35 38 186 AB 186 AB = tan 24◦ = 418cm p BC = AB2 + AC2 p = 1562 + 4182 = 446cm (b) tan 24◦ = GC AC ∠GAC = tan−1 B = 1002 + 302 + 1202 √ BF = 25300 = 42.22 2 = 3.7◦ 2.6 = 67.6cm EM tan ∠EFM = FM EM ∠EFM = tan−1 FM −1 6. The key to this problem and others like it is a clear diagram that captures the information given. (a) tan ∠GDC = p = 80.4◦ .5 (c) ∠DEM = ∠AEM ∠GDC = tan−1 AC2 + GC2 p (e) The angle between the plane FADG and the base ABCD is equal to ∠GDC = 29. AB tan ∠ADB = AD AB ∠ADB = tan−1 AD 62 = tan−1 38 ◦ = 58.7 = 30.7◦ 5 . The angle between the face EAB and the base ABCD is ∠EFM.9◦ 186 AC 186 AC = tan 50◦ = 156cm 4.3◦ (d) Let F be the midpoint of AB. F = 90 − 59. (a) AM = AC 2 1p 2 AB + BC2 = 2 1p 2 = 5.68cm (b) tan ∠EAM = = tan−1 EM AM 6.

we can divide it in half to create a right triangle. This is the same as ∠GBC: 45◦ .32 (a) tan 30◦ = p BF2 + FI2 p = BF2 + FG2 + GI2 p = 62 + 6 2 + 3 2 =9 (a) BI = = 57.3 2.9cm3 6 . (c) There are a couple of ways this could be done.6cm 2.2 ∠ACB = cos−1 ∠EBC = tan−1 √ 2.32cm Volume = 2.2c C D A (a) tan ∠EBC = m 50mm G 80mm B CE BC ∠EBC = tan−1 4.3cm C D 30◦ P A 6cm B Q QU VR tan 20◦ = PQ QR 2. (a) 4DCA ∼ = 4DBA (SAS) so ∠DCA ∼ = ∠DBA and ∠DBA = 50◦ (b) ∠DBA = = 48◦ (c) The angle between 4IAB and the base ABCD is the same as the angle between rectangle ABGH and the base ABCD (since the triangle and the rectangle are coplanar). Since we now know all three sides of triangle ABC we could use the cosine rule to find ∠ACB.Exercise 2B AB AC (c) tan ∠ACB = ∠ACB = tan−1 BF FI 6 = 9 2 = 3 (b) cos ∠IBF = 418 156 = 69. like this: C 6.3 6.2cm AB = 30mm 7.3 × 3.3 PQ = QR = tan 30◦ tan 20◦ = 3. R S 20 ◦ E 30 + 502 802 = 18◦ = 68◦ H 30 + 502 402 2.3 6.98cm = 6. since we have an isosceles triangle.98 × 6. Alternatively. F E DA AB DA tan ∠DBA 7.2 I W V G T F U 8.3cm 2 3 30 50 = 31◦ CE (b) tan ∠EGC = GC A ∠EBC = tan−1 √ = 25◦ CE (c) tan ∠EAC = AC B cos ∠ACB = 2.4 = tan 50◦ = 6. 6.5◦ ∠IBF = cos−1 5.

982 + 6. V 30mm = 4910m D A ≈ 5km B C 40mm DC AC DC = 40 sin 45◦ sin 45◦ = = 28.8cm ◦ 11.6m q QR = PQ2 + PR2 PQ = = 595m 595 Speed = 10 = 59. 120m 20◦ 12.322 2.5m/min = 59.28 = 47◦ 20◦ 10. 17 Town t a (c) tan ∠USW = UW SW √ ∠USW = tan −1 d Airfield 3.28mm VC tan ∠VDC = DC 30 ∠VDC = tan−1 28.Exercise 2B q (b) PV = PQ2 + QR2 + RV2 p = 3.322 + 2.9m 20 PR = tan 30◦ = 34.6km/hr 7 d . a b 10◦ Q 120 tan 20◦ = 330m 120 b= tan 30◦ = 681m p d = b2 − a2 a= 20m 30◦ P R 20 tan 20◦ = 54.3 = 73◦ 750 tan 17◦ = 2453m 750 t= tan 30◦ = 4253m p d = a2 + t2 a= 9. Consider point D the midpoint of AB such that VD and VC are both perpendicular to AB.982 + 6.32 750m 10◦ = 7.5 × 60m/hr = 3572m/hr = 65m = 3. The angle between plane VAB and plane ABC is equal to the angle between lines that are both perpendicular to AB.

2 = 31.9 sin 50◦ = sin−1 10.8 10.2 x = 98.32 − 2 × 6.2 3. sin C sin A = (b) a c a sin C sin A = c −1 a sin C A = sin c 6.29 or x = 13.2◦ = 10.9 − 2 × x × 6.1 = 45◦ No need to consider the obtuse solution since the opposite side is not the longest in the triangle (x must be less than 50◦ ). (a) c2 = a2 + b2 − 2ab cos C 2 2 2 B = 180 − A − C = 180 − 50 − 31.8 x= sin 50 = 13.2 sin 98.2 sin 50 x = sin−1 12.96m h ∠ABD = tan−1 40 = 40◦ h (b) ∠ACD = tan−1 70 = 26◦ θ = sin−1 (sin 28◦ cos 35◦ ) = 23◦ Exercise 2C 1. 2.2cm ◦ 10.1 11.2 = x + 6.8◦ sin 98. BD = h h sin 28◦ AB cos 35◦ = AC AB AC = cos 35◦ AB = h ◦ 13.8 Reject the obtuse solution since it results in an internal angle sum greater than 180◦ .2cm 8 .Exercise 2C D 14.8 × 14.82 + 14.3 × cos 20◦ = 148.32 − 2 × 6.9 × cos 50 x = −4.2 12.82 + 14.16 Reject the negative solution and round to 1d.8 × 14. 23 40m B A = 70m = h sin 28◦ cos 35◦ h cos 35◦ sin 28◦ h AC h sin 28◦ cos 35◦ = × 1 h = sin 28◦ cos 35◦ C sin θ = h (a) = 40 tan 23◦ 2 h = 33. or A = 180 − 31.: x = 13. x2 = 6.3 × cos 20◦ p x = 6.2 sin 50 sin 50◦ sin x = 11. = 8.p.2cm.

4cm 11.32 − 2 × 12.7 × cos 80◦ 9.4 a 12.1cm 72◦ A 7.8 sin 50 x= sin 105 = 9.0cm or x = 180 − 75 or c2 = a2 + b2 − 2ab cos C North 15.2 × 12.4cm 10. 6.3cm A 11.9cm Q sin C sin 43◦ = 12.32 − 19.3 9.3 cos 43◦ a = 9.8 = 75◦ 19.2 4.3cm P 70◦ 130 ◦ 150◦ m 7.4 sin 55◦ I = sin−1 18.2 sin 40◦ x = sin−1 4.Exercise 2C H 4.4 18.2 = 61◦ or 119◦ H = 180 − 55 − 61 or 180 − 55 − 119 =6◦ = 64 h g = sin H sin G g sin H h= sin G 18.32 + x2 − 2 × 7. The smallest angle is opposite the shortest side.3cm North C North L 43◦ A 14.1km 332 + 552 − 272 2 × 33 × 55 = 21◦ B ∠ALB = 100 − 30 = 70◦ p AB = 15.8 × 14.32 − 19.8 7. cos x = = 15.72 − 2 × x × 8.9km 9.32 − 2 × 9. sin 55◦ sin I = 19.82 + 14.1 cos 70◦ B x a2 = b2 + c2 − 2bc cos A 9.4cm sin x sin 40◦ = 7. 8.8 × 14. I ◦ = 105◦ 7.3 = 108◦ 5.12 = 7.3x cos 72◦ x = 8.8 = sin(180 − 105 − 25) sin 105 11.2 19.42 + 14. 19. so 12.1 (rejecting the negative solution) AB=8.2 sin 64◦ = sin 55◦ = 20.72 = 9.1cm B 12.12 − 2 × 15.82 + 14.9 ◦ = 58 (Cannot be obtuse because c is not the longest side. 100◦ L 272 = 333 + 552 − 2 × 33 × 55 × cos θ θ = cos−1 18.2 sin 6◦ sin 55◦ =2.) ∠PQL = 150 − 130 = 20◦ ∠PLQ = 130 − 70 = 60◦ ∠LPQ = 180 − 20 − 60 B = 180 − 43 − 58 = 100◦ ◦ = 79 9 .3k 13.72 x = cos−1 2 × 9. 18.8 × 14. 2k m x = 9.6 (rejecting the negative solution) 30◦ 12.4 × 14.2cm 55◦ G x 11.4 sin 43◦ C = sin−1 9.72 2 × 9. C a2 = b2 + c2 − 2bc cos A p a = 12.22 + 12.3 × cos x 9.82 + 14.82 = x2 + 8.

2m2 C 40 tan 20◦ = AB 40 AB = tan 20◦ = 109. A 30◦ 18◦ s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c) where s = a+b+c and determine the area without 2 resort to trigonometry at all. There are a couple of ways you could approach this problem.9 × 188. 10 .22 − 2 × 109. Alternatively you could use Heron’s formula: A= B 40m 15.92 + 188.1 2 = 599. 20◦ A B 35◦ C 40m ∠ADB = 35 − 20 = 15◦ 40 BD = sin 20◦ sin 15◦ 40 sin 20◦ BD = sin 15◦ = 52.9m 40 ◦ tan 12 = AC 40 AC = tan 12◦ = 188. You could use the cosine rule to determine an angle. 52◦ 25m30◦ h H B = 52. First block—I’ll start by finding the largest angle: T 20◦ p N θ = cos−1 12◦ 252 + 482 − 532 2 × 25 × 48 = 87.Exercise 2C D LQ LP = sin ∠LPQ sin ∠PQL LP sin ∠LPQ LQ = sin ∠PQL 7.9m DC sin ∠DBC = BD DC = BD sin ∠DBC T 14. I’ll use trigonometry for the first block.1◦ 1 Area = ab sin θ 2 1 = × 25 × 48 sin 87.2 cos 48◦ = 614.2m Second block: 33 + 38 + 45 2 = 58 p Area = 58(58 − 33)(58 − 38)(58 − 45) s= ∠BAC = 30 + 18 = 48◦ 2 BC = AB2 + AC2 − 2AB × AC cos ∠BAC p BC = 109.3 sin 100◦ = sin 20◦ = 21.9 sin 35 ∠HBT = 90 − 30 = 30m = 60◦ ∠BTH = 180 − 60 − 52 = 68◦ h 25 = sin 52◦ sin 68◦ 25 sin 52◦ h= sin 68◦ = 21m 17. then use the formula Area= 1 2 ab sin C. and Heron’s formula for the second.0km 16.0m2 = 141m The second block is larger by 15m2 .

2 sin 100◦ ∠ADB = sin−1 10.7 + 6.3 = 96◦ 11 .1cm 19.2 × CD cos 80◦ CD = 7.2 × sin 100◦ 2 = 21.2 × 7.2 + 7. 12cm BC2 = AB2 + AC2 − 2 × AB × AC cos 30◦ p BC = 121.6cm2 1 = × 8.7cm 37m P = 7.2 sin 100◦ ∠CDB = sin−1 10.02 − 2 × 121.1 × 7.2 = 52.12 + 7.3 = 8.0◦ sin ∠CDB sin 80◦ = 8.0 + 52.0m tan 12◦ = m xc 14cm 20.0 cos 30◦ C 9cm φ = 92.0m tan 17◦ = AABCD = 21.2cm 6.2 10.02 + 174.3◦ = 277 + 252 cos θ −240 cos θ = 33 + 252 cos θ −492 cos θ = 33 33 492 θ = 94◦ cos θ = − ∠ADC = 44.Exercise 2C T (c) BD2 = BC2 + CD2 − 2 × BC × CD cos 80◦ 104.2 7.1 18.2cm A 2 (b) x = 142 + 92 − 2 × 14 × 9 cos φ B = 196 + 81 − 252 cos φ = 277 − 252 cos φ (a) ∠BCD = 180 − 100 (c) = 80◦ φ = 180◦ − θ cos φ = cos(180◦ − θ) (b) BD2 = 6.1 = 52.2 cos 100◦ = − cos θ = 104.2cm 17◦ A B 30◦ 1 × 6.0 × 174.2 + 8.1 × 7.22 − 2 × 6.7 × sin 80◦ 2 = 31.3 244 − 240 cos θ = 277 − 252 cos φ BD = 10.1cm2 (d) A4ABD = 12◦ A4CBD C 37 AB 37 AB = tan 17◦ = 121.2 8.22 + CD2 − 2 × 8.0m θ C 10cm A D 8. 100 B (a) x2 = 102 + 122 − 2 × 10 × 12 cos θ = 100 + 144 − 240 cos θ ◦ = 244 − 240 cos θ 7.2cm sin ∠ADB sin 100◦ = 7.6 + 31. = 29.2 10.2 = 44.7cm2 D 37 AC 37 AC = tan 12◦ = 174.