You are on page 1of 17

Chapter 2

Exercise 2A
1. (a) 035◦ (read directly from the diagram)
(b) 35 + 45 = 080◦

40m
7.

(c) 35 + 45 + 30 = 110◦

18◦

A

35◦

B

dAB

(d) 180 − 35 = 145◦

C

dB
dA

(e) 180 + 20 = 200◦
(f) 360 − 60 = 300◦

40
dA
40
dA =
tan 18◦
40
tan 35◦ =
dB
40
dB =
tan 35◦
40
40
dAB =

tan 18◦
tan 35◦
= 66m
tan 18◦ =

(g) Back bearings:
35 + 180 = 215◦
(h) 80 + 180 = 260◦
(i) 110 + 180 = 290◦
(j) 145 + 180 = 325◦
(k) 200 − 180 = 020◦
(l) 300 − 180 = 120◦
2. No working required. Refer to the answers in
Sadler.
h
22.4
h = 22.4 tan 28◦

3. tan 28◦ =

N

= 11.9m
B

4. tan θ =

2
4.1

θ = tan

m

θ
4.1m

2
4.1

h
h
22.5
h = 22.5 tan 24◦

A
239◦
302◦

8.

= 26◦

5. tan 24◦ =

N

12
.2k

2.0m
−1

212◦

d

C

24◦
22.5m

= 10.0m
∠CAB = 302 − 239
= 63◦

6. After one and a half hours, the first ship has travelled 6km and the second 7.5km.
North
110◦
6km
d2 = 62 + 7.52
7.5km
d = 9.6km
≈ 10km

∠CBA = 212 − (302 − 180)
= 90◦
12.2
cos 63◦ =
d
12.2
d=
cos 63◦
= 26.9km

d
1

3 d = 5. ∠ACB = 39 − 20 10. 19◦ 39◦ 35m C 20◦ = 19◦ 36m 15◦ A B dAB ∠CAB = 90 − 39 40◦ dB = 51◦ C dA Now use the sine rule: 36 dA 36 dA = tan 15◦ 36 tan 40◦ = dB 36 dB = tan 40◦ 36 36 dAB = − tan 15◦ tan 40◦ = 91m tan 15◦ = 35 h = sin 19◦ sin 51◦ 35 sin 19◦ h= sin 51◦ = 14.22m 2 .3 tan 65◦ Additional height of second tower: DE √ 40 3 √ DE = 40 3 tan 20 tan 20◦ = = 11. C 20◦ 30◦ E 13.2m dAC 42 dA 42 dA = tan 28◦ 42 tan 17◦ = dC 42 dC = tan 17◦ 42 42 dAC = + tan 28◦ tan 17◦ = 216m tan 28◦ = 39◦ 51◦ h 12. d N 40m A Distance between towers: B First determine the angles in the triangle made by the tree.7m F D 11. A B 65◦ 40 AB 40 AB = ◦ tan √30 = 40 3 A tan 30◦ = 5.4km = 25.3km B 335◦ ∠ABF = 335 − 270 = 65◦ d tan 65◦ = 5.Exercise 2A Total height of second tower: 42m 9. 28 A ◦ 17◦ B dA DB = 25. the hillslope and the sun’s ray.22 + 40 C dC ≈ 65.

5m 18.75 d = 0.6 tan 35. Let the height of the flagpole be h and the distance from the base be d.75h tan θ = d h = 0.3 16.6 19.3◦ 20 13 sin 10◦ AB = sin 46. d = d1 − d2 = 270m h d 0.7 − 10 = 46.3◦ DE tan 35.3◦ 500 d1 500 d1 = tan 30◦ = 866m 500 tan 40◦ = d2 500 d2 = tan 40◦ = 596m tan 30◦ = = 13.9m h = 13.3m d 17◦ y2 y = 123.6 = 15.75 tan 40◦ tan 40◦ = B A 15.6 θ = 4.75 tan 40◦ ) = 32◦ 60m D C y1 x y1 x y1 = tan θ x tan φ = y2 x y2 = tan φ y = y1 + y2 x x = + tan θ tan φ   1 1 =x + tan θ tan φ   tan φ tan θ =x + tan θ tan φ tan θ tan φ   tan θ + tan φ =x tan θ tan φ tan θ = ∠ABC = 180 − 123.3◦ = 19.9 + 1.6 DE = 19.6m B = 35.6m D 19. Let θ be the angle of elevation of the point 34 of the way up the flagpole. 40m 10 ◦ θ = tan−1 (0.7 d1 40◦ C tan θ = .3◦ √ AB 20 13 = sin 10◦ sin√46.3◦ = 17. 40◦ Ship1 17.7◦ 540 d A 540 d= sin 17◦ = 1847cm φ θ ∠BAC = 180 − 56. ◦ 30 E 500m 14.7◦ 1. Ship2 d2 d 1.3◦ 540cm B  3 h θ A ∠DCE = 40 − 4.Exercise 2A Plane Rounded up to the next metre this is 19m. sin 17◦ = x 19. p AC = 602 + 402 √ = 20 13 60 tan ∠DAC = 40 ∠DAC = 56.

x φ θ y 22. z y2 φ y1 θ y cos φ = x tan θ = y1 x y1 = tan θ x tan φ = y2 x y2 = tan φ y = y1 − y2 x x − = tan θ tan φ   1 1 =x − tan θ tan φ   tan φ tan θ =x − tan θ tan φ tan θ tan φ   tan φ − tan θ =x tan θ tan φ z x x cos φ y cos θ = z y = z cos θ z= = (x cos φ) cos θ = x cos φ cos θ  φ y 23.Exercise 2A x 20. y z x x θ (b) z φ x sin θ = z θ y x sin θ y tan φ = z y = z tan φ  x  = tan φ sin θ x tan φ = sin θ z= tan φ = x z x tan φ y cos θ = z y = z cos θ   x = cos θ tan φ x cos θ = tan φ z=  4 . (a) z x θ sin θ = x z x sin θ y sin φ = z y = z sin φ  x  = sin φ sin θ x sin φ = sin θ z=  φ 21.

3 = tan 2.4◦ (b) tan ∠GBC = C D E 30mm A GC DC = tan−1 = (f) The angle between skew lines DB and HE is equal to ∠ADB. 1 FM = AB 2 = 2.68 = 180 − 90 − ∠EAM 622 + 382 + 352 3.6◦ = tan−1 = 159mm DF BF 30 = 159 (b) sin ∠FBD = GC DC 35 62 ∠FBD = sin−1 30 159 = 10.3 3.7mm EM AM ∠EAM = tan−1 (d) AG = GC AC = tan−1 √ 35 622 + 382 = 25. = 59.6◦ (c) tan ∠GAC = 100mm = (AB2 + AE2 ) + EF2 GC BC ∠GBC = tan−1 120mm (a) BF2 = BE2 + EF2 = 29.2 + 5.Exercise 2B Exercise 2B 1 1. (a) tan 50◦ = GC BC 35 38 186 AB 186 AB = tan 24◦ = 418cm p BC = AB2 + AC2 p = 1562 + 4182 = 446cm (b) tan 24◦ = GC AC ∠GAC = tan−1 B = 1002 + 302 + 1202 √ BF = 25300 = 42.22 2 = 3.7◦ 2.6 = 67.6cm EM tan ∠EFM = FM EM ∠EFM = tan−1 FM −1 6. The key to this problem and others like it is a clear diagram that captures the information given. (a) tan ∠GDC = p = 80.4◦ .5 (c) ∠DEM = ∠AEM ∠GDC = tan−1 AC2 + GC2 p (e) The angle between the plane FADG and the base ABCD is equal to ∠GDC = 29. AB tan ∠ADB = AD AB ∠ADB = tan−1 AD 62 = tan−1 38 ◦ = 58.7 = 30.7◦ 5 . The angle between the face EAB and the base ABCD is ∠EFM.9◦ 186 AC 186 AC = tan 50◦ = 156cm 4.3◦ (d) Let F be the midpoint of AB. F = 90 − 59. (a) AM = AC 2 1p 2 AB + BC2 = 2 1p 2 = 5.68cm (b) tan ∠EAM = = tan−1 EM AM 6.

we can divide it in half to create a right triangle. This is the same as ∠GBC: 45◦ .32 (a) tan 30◦ = p BF2 + FI2 p = BF2 + FG2 + GI2 p = 62 + 6 2 + 3 2 =9 (a) BI = = 57.3 2.9cm3 6 . (c) There are a couple of ways this could be done.6cm 2.2 ∠ACB = cos−1 ∠EBC = tan−1 √ 2.32cm Volume = 2.2c C D A (a) tan ∠EBC = m 50mm G 80mm B CE BC ∠EBC = tan−1 4.3cm C D 30◦ P A 6cm B Q QU VR tan 20◦ = PQ QR 2. (a) 4DCA ∼ = 4DBA (SAS) so ∠DCA ∼ = ∠DBA and ∠DBA = 50◦ (b) ∠DBA = = 48◦ (c) The angle between 4IAB and the base ABCD is the same as the angle between rectangle ABGH and the base ABCD (since the triangle and the rectangle are coplanar). Since we now know all three sides of triangle ABC we could use the cosine rule to find ∠ACB.Exercise 2B AB AC (c) tan ∠ACB = ∠ACB = tan−1 BF FI 6 = 9 2 = 3 (b) cos ∠IBF = 418 156 = 69. like this: C 6.3 6.2cm AB = 30mm 7.3 × 3.3 PQ = QR = tan 30◦ tan 20◦ = 3. R S 20 ◦ E 30 + 502 802 = 18◦ = 68◦ H 30 + 502 402 2.3 6.98cm = 6. since we have an isosceles triangle.98 × 6. Alternatively. F E DA AB DA tan ∠DBA 7.2 I W V G T F U 8.3cm 2 3 30 50 = 31◦ CE (b) tan ∠EGC = GC A ∠EBC = tan−1 √ = 25◦ CE (c) tan ∠EAC = AC B cos ∠ACB = 2.4 = tan 50◦ = 6. 6.5◦ ∠IBF = cos−1 5.

982 + 6. V 30mm = 4910m D A ≈ 5km B C 40mm DC AC DC = 40 sin 45◦ sin 45◦ = = 28.8cm ◦ 11.6m q QR = PQ2 + PR2 PQ = = 595m 595 Speed = 10 = 59. 120m 20◦ 12.322 2.5m/min = 59.28 = 47◦ 20◦ 10. 17 Town t a (c) tan ∠USW = UW SW √ ∠USW = tan −1 d Airfield 3.28mm VC tan ∠VDC = DC 30 ∠VDC = tan−1 28.Exercise 2B q (b) PV = PQ2 + QR2 + RV2 p = 3.322 + 2.9m 20 PR = tan 30◦ = 34.6km/hr 7 d . a b 10◦ Q 120 tan 20◦ = 330m 120 b= tan 30◦ = 681m p d = b2 − a2 a= 20m 30◦ P R 20 tan 20◦ = 54.3 = 73◦ 750 tan 17◦ = 2453m 750 t= tan 30◦ = 4253m p d = a2 + t2 a= 9. Consider point D the midpoint of AB such that VD and VC are both perpendicular to AB.982 + 6.32 750m 10◦ = 7.5 × 60m/hr = 3572m/hr = 65m = 3. The angle between plane VAB and plane ABC is equal to the angle between lines that are both perpendicular to AB.

2 = 31.9 sin 50◦ = sin−1 10.8 10.2 x = 98.32 − 2 × 6.2 3. sin C sin A = (b) a c a sin C sin A = c −1 a sin C A = sin c 6.29 or x = 13.2◦ = 10.9 − 2 × x × 6.1 = 45◦ No need to consider the obtuse solution since the opposite side is not the longest in the triangle (x must be less than 50◦ ). (a) c2 = a2 + b2 − 2ab cos C 2 2 2 B = 180 − A − C = 180 − 50 − 31.8 x= sin 50 = 13.2 sin 98.2 sin 50 x = sin−1 12.96m h ∠ABD = tan−1 40 = 40◦ h (b) ∠ACD = tan−1 70 = 26◦ θ = sin−1 (sin 28◦ cos 35◦ ) = 23◦ Exercise 2C 1. 2.2cm ◦ 10.1 11.2 = x + 6.8◦ sin 98. BD = h h sin 28◦ AB cos 35◦ = AC AB AC = cos 35◦ AB = h ◦ 13.8 Reject the obtuse solution since it results in an internal angle sum greater than 180◦ .2cm 8 .Exercise 2C D 14.8 × 14.82 + 14.3 × cos 20◦ = 148.32 − 2 × 6.9 × cos 50 x = −4.2 12.82 + 14.16 Reject the negative solution and round to 1d.8 × 14. 23 40m B A = 70m = h sin 28◦ cos 35◦ h cos 35◦ sin 28◦ h AC h sin 28◦ cos 35◦ = × 1 h = sin 28◦ cos 35◦ C sin θ = h (a) = 40 tan 23◦ 2 h = 33. or A = 180 − 31.: x = 13. x2 = 6.3 × cos 20◦ p x = 6.2 sin 50 sin 50◦ sin x = 11. = 8.p.2cm.

4cm 11.32 − 2 × 12.7 × cos 80◦ 9.4 a 12.1cm 72◦ A 7.8 sin 50 x= sin 105 = 9.0cm or x = 180 − 75 or c2 = a2 + b2 − 2ab cos C North 15.2 × 12.4cm 10. 6.3cm A 11.9cm Q sin C sin 43◦ = 12.32 − 19.3 9.3 cos 43◦ a = 9.8 = 75◦ 19.2 4.3cm P 70◦ 130 ◦ 150◦ m 7.4 sin 55◦ I = sin−1 18.2 sin 40◦ x = sin−1 4.Exercise 2C H 4.4 18.2 = 61◦ or 119◦ H = 180 − 55 − 61 or 180 − 55 − 119 =6◦ = 64 h g = sin H sin G g sin H h= sin G 18.32 + x2 − 2 × 7. The smallest angle is opposite the shortest side.3cm North C North L 43◦ A 14.1km 332 + 552 − 272 2 × 33 × 55 = 21◦ B ∠ALB = 100 − 30 = 70◦ p AB = 15.8 × 14.32 − 19.8 7. cos x = = 15.72 − 2 × x × 8.9km 9.32 − 2 × 9. sin 55◦ sin I = 19.82 + 14.1 cos 70◦ B x a2 = b2 + c2 − 2bc cos A 9.4cm sin x sin 40◦ = 7. 8.8 × 14. I ◦ = 105◦ 7.3 = 108◦ 5.12 = 7.3x cos 72◦ x = 8.8 = sin(180 − 105 − 25) sin 105 11.2 19.42 + 14. 19. so 12.1 (rejecting the negative solution) AB=8.2 sin 64◦ = sin 55◦ = 20.72 = 9.1cm B 12.12 − 2 × 15.82 + 14.9 ◦ = 58 (Cannot be obtuse because c is not the longest side. 100◦ L 272 = 333 + 552 − 2 × 33 × 55 × cos θ θ = cos−1 18.2 sin 6◦ sin 55◦ =2.) ∠PQL = 150 − 130 = 20◦ ∠PLQ = 130 − 70 = 60◦ ∠LPQ = 180 − 20 − 60 B = 180 − 43 − 58 = 100◦ ◦ = 79 9 .3k 13.72 x = cos−1 2 × 9. 18.8 × 14. 2k m x = 9.6 (rejecting the negative solution) 30◦ 12.4 × 14.2cm 55◦ G x 11.4 sin 43◦ C = sin−1 9.72 2 × 9. C a2 = b2 + c2 − 2bc cos A p a = 12.22 + 12.3 × cos x 9.82 + 14.82 = x2 + 8.

2m2 C 40 tan 20◦ = AB 40 AB = tan 20◦ = 109. A 30◦ 18◦ s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c) where s = a+b+c and determine the area without 2 resort to trigonometry at all. There are a couple of ways you could approach this problem.9 × 188. 10 .22 − 2 × 109. Alternatively you could use Heron’s formula: A= B 40m 15.92 + 188.1 2 = 599. 20◦ A B 35◦ C 40m ∠ADB = 35 − 20 = 15◦ 40 BD = sin 20◦ sin 15◦ 40 sin 20◦ BD = sin 15◦ = 52.9m 40 ◦ tan 12 = AC 40 AC = tan 12◦ = 188. You could use the cosine rule to determine an angle. 52◦ 25m30◦ h H B = 52. First block—I’ll start by finding the largest angle: T 20◦ p N θ = cos−1 12◦ 252 + 482 − 532 2 × 25 × 48 = 87.Exercise 2C D LQ LP = sin ∠LPQ sin ∠PQL LP sin ∠LPQ LQ = sin ∠PQL 7.9m DC sin ∠DBC = BD DC = BD sin ∠DBC T 14. I’ll use trigonometry for the first block.1◦ 1 Area = ab sin θ 2 1 = × 25 × 48 sin 87.2 cos 48◦ = 614.2m Second block: 33 + 38 + 45 2 = 58 p Area = 58(58 − 33)(58 − 38)(58 − 45) s= ∠BAC = 30 + 18 = 48◦ 2 BC = AB2 + AC2 − 2AB × AC cos ∠BAC p BC = 109.3 sin 100◦ = sin 20◦ = 21.9 sin 35 ∠HBT = 90 − 30 = 30m = 60◦ ∠BTH = 180 − 60 − 52 = 68◦ h 25 = sin 52◦ sin 68◦ 25 sin 52◦ h= sin 68◦ = 21m 17. then use the formula Area= 1 2 ab sin C. and Heron’s formula for the second.0km 16.0m2 = 141m The second block is larger by 15m2 .

2 sin 100◦ ∠ADB = sin−1 10.7 + 6.3 = 96◦ 11 .1cm 19.2 × CD cos 80◦ CD = 7.2 × sin 100◦ 2 = 21.2 × 7.2 + 7. 12cm BC2 = AB2 + AC2 − 2 × AB × AC cos 30◦ p BC = 121.6cm2 1 = × 8.7cm 37m P = 7.2 sin 100◦ ∠CDB = sin−1 10.02 − 2 × 121.1 × 7.2 = 52.12 + 7.3 = 8.0◦ sin ∠CDB sin 80◦ = 8.0 + 52.0m tan 12◦ = m xc 14cm 20.0 cos 30◦ C 9cm φ = 92.0m tan 17◦ = AABCD = 21.2cm 6.2 10.02 + 174.3◦ = 277 + 252 cos θ −240 cos θ = 33 + 252 cos θ −492 cos θ = 33 33 492 θ = 94◦ cos θ = − ∠ADC = 44.Exercise 2C T (c) BD2 = BC2 + CD2 − 2 × BC × CD cos 80◦ 104.2 7.1 18.2cm A 2 (b) x = 142 + 92 − 2 × 14 × 9 cos φ B = 196 + 81 − 252 cos φ = 277 − 252 cos φ (a) ∠BCD = 180 − 100 (c) = 80◦ φ = 180◦ − θ cos φ = cos(180◦ − θ) (b) BD2 = 6.1 = 52.2 cos 100◦ = − cos θ = 104.2cm 17◦ A B 30◦ 1 × 6.0 × 174.2 + 8.1 × 7.22 − 2 × 6.7 × sin 80◦ 2 = 31.3 244 − 240 cos θ = 277 − 252 cos φ BD = 10.1cm2 (d) A4ABD = 12◦ A4CBD C 37 AB 37 AB = tan 17◦ = 121.2 8.22 + CD2 − 2 × 8.0m θ C 10cm A D 8. 100 B (a) x2 = 102 + 122 − 2 × 10 × 12 cos θ = 100 + 144 − 240 cos θ ◦ = 244 − 240 cos θ 7.2cm sin ∠ADB sin 100◦ = 7.6 + 31. = 29.2 10.2 = 44.7cm2 D 37 AC 37 AC = tan 12◦ = 174.

32 = 16 × 2 = 16 2 = 4 2 √ √ √ √ √ 31. 1√ 3+ 5 = 1√ 3+ 5 × √ 3−√5 3− 5 = √ 3− 5 9−5 = √ 3− 5 4 53. 3 2 57. 1√ 3− 2 = 1√ 3− 2 × √ 3+√2 3+ 2 = √ 3+ 2 9−2 = √ 3+ 2 7 54. 150◦ makes an angle of 30◦ with the x-axis and is in quadrant II (where sine is positive) so sin 150◦ = sin 30◦ = 21 . 150 makes an angle of 30 with the x-axis and is in quadrant II (where√ tangent is negative) so tan 150◦ = − tan 30◦ = 33 . 180◦ lies on the negative x-axis (where sine is zero) so sin 180◦ = 0. 27. √2 7 = √2 7 × √ √7 7 = √ 2 7 7 25. (5 3)2 = 52 × ( 3)2 = 25 × 3 = 75 √ √ 45. 34. √1 2 = √1 2 × √ √2 2 = 47. 3 2 × 4 2 = 12 2 2 = 12( 2)2 = 12 × 2 = 24 √ √ √ √ √ √ 40. √ √ √ √ √ 28. 150◦ makes an angle of 30◦ with the x-axis and is in quadrant II (where√cosine is negative) so cos 150◦ = − cos 30◦ = − 23 . (6 3)( 12) = 6 3 × 12 = 6 36 = 6 × 6 = 36 √ √ √ √ 42. 17. Note: My exact values are given with rational de√ nominators. 35. 120◦ makes an angle of 60◦ with the x-axis and is in quadrant II√ (where sine is positive) so sin 120◦ = sin 60◦ = 23 . 45 = 9 × 5 = 9 5 = 3 5 √ √ √ √ √ 30. 200 = 100 × 2 = 100 2 = 10 2 √ 2 2 √ 3 3 √ √ =2 3 2 2 56. √ 2√ 3+ 2 √ = √ 2√ 3+ 2 × √ √ √3−√2 3− 2 = √ √ 2( 3− 2) 3−2 √ =2 3− √ 3√ 3− 2 √ = √ 3√ 3− 2 × √ √ √3+√2 3+ 2 = √ √ 3( 3+ 2) 3−2 √ =3 3+ 22. √ √ 44. 135◦ makes an angle of 45◦ with the x-axis and is in quadrant II (where tangent is negative) so tan 135◦ = − tan 45◦ = −1. 120◦ makes an angle of 60◦ with the x-axis and is in quadrant II (where cosine is negative) so cos 120◦ = − cos 60◦ = − 12 . 46. ◦ ◦ 23. √ √ √ √ √ √ 43. 50 = 25 × 2 = 25 2 = 5 2 √ √ √ √ √ 33. Your answers may appear different without being wrong. (3 2)2 = 32 × ( 2)2 = 9 × 2 = 18 21. 36. 37. √1 3 = √1 3 × √ √3 3 = 48. 180◦ makes an angle of 0◦ with the x-axis and is on the negative x-axis (where cosine is negative) so cos 180◦ = − cos 0◦ = −1.Exercise 2D Exercise 2D Questions 1–15 are single step problems. √ √ √ √ 41. 16. 50. 38. I write 22 rather than √12 . 51. 180◦ lies on the negative x-axis (where tangent is zero) so tan 180◦ = 0. √ √ √ √ √ 2× 5× 5× √ √ √ 15 × 8× 3= 3= √ 2×3= 5×3= √ √ 6 15 √ 5 = ( 5)2 = 5 √ √ √ 3= 6= √ √ √ 15 × 3 = 8×6= √ 9×5= 16 × 3 = √ √ √ 9 5=3 5 √ √ √ 16 3 = 4 3 √ √ √ √ √ 39. √1 5 = √1 5 × √ √5 5 = 5 5 49. No worked solutions necessary. (5 2) ÷ ( 8) = 5 2 ÷ 4 × 2 = 5 2 ÷ (2 2) = 5 ÷ 2 = 2. 1√ 3+ 2 = 1√ 3+ 2 × √ 3−√2 3− 2 = √ 3− 2 9−2 = √ 3− 2 7 55. 72 = 36 × 2 = 36 2 = 6 2 √ √ √ √ √ 32. (3 5)(7 2) = 21 5 × 2 = 21 10 19. 20 = 4 × 5 = 4 5 = 2 5 √ √ √ √ √ 29.5 20. 120◦ makes an angle of 60◦ with the x-axis and is in quadrant II (where √ tangent is negative) so tan 120◦ = − tan 60◦ = − 3. 135◦ makes an angle of 45◦ with the x-axis and is in quadrant II√ (where sine is positive) so sin 135◦ = sin 45◦ = 22 . (5 2)(3 8) = 15 2 8 = 15 2 × 8 = 15 16 = 15 × 4 = 60 18. 135◦ makes an angle of 45◦ with the x-axis and is in quadrant II (where√cosine is negative) so cos 135◦ = − cos 45◦ = − 22 . √6 3 = √6 3 × √ √3 3 = √ 6 3 3 52. √3 2 = √3 2 × √ √2 2 = √ 3 2 2 24. 26. 12 √ √ 6√ √ 6√ √2 = √5+ × √5− 5+ 2 2 5− 2 √ √ √ √ 6( 5− 2) =2 5−2 2 3 = √ √ 6( 5− 2) 5−2 = .

sin 60◦ = x √ 3 9 = 2 x √ 3x = 18 18 x= √ 3 √ 3 18 =√ ×√ 3 3 √ 18 3 = √3 =6 3 62. b 45 ◦ a y x cos 30◦ = a √ 3 x = a √2 3a = 2x 2x a= √ 3 a ◦ sin 60 = b √ 3 a = b √2 3b = 2a 61. Label the vertical in the diagram as y. then y 10 = sin 60◦ sin 45◦ 10 sin 60◦ y= ◦ sin 45 √ 3 1 = 10 × ÷√ 2 2 √ √ 5 3 2 = × 1 1 √ √ =5 3 2 √ =5 6 x tan 30◦ = y x = y tan 30◦ √ 1 =5 6× √ 3 √ √ 5 3 2 = √ 3 √ =5 2 59. then y sin 45◦ = 10 √ y 2 = 2 10 √ y=5 2 x sin 60◦ = y √ 3 x = √ 2 5 2 √ √ 5 2 3 x= × 1 2 √ √ 5 3 2 = √2 5 6 = 2 θ 63.Exercise 2D 9 58. Use the cosine rule: √ √ x2 = 42 + (2 3)2 − 2 × 4 × 2 3 × cos 150◦ √ √ = 16 + 22 × ( 3)2 − 16 3 × (− cos 30◦ ) √ ! √ 3 = 16 + 4 × 3 − 16 3 × − 2 √ √ 16 3 × 3 = 16 + 12 + 2 = 28 + 8 × 3 2x =2× √ 3 4x =√ 3 4x 1 b= √ ×√ 3 3 4x = 3 = 52 √ x = 52 √ = 4 × 13 √ = 2 13 13 60◦ 30◦ x . x2 + 32 = 72 x2 + 9 = 49 x2 = 40 √ x = 40 √ = 4 × 10 √ √ = 4 × 10 √ = 2 10 60. Label the diagonal in the diagram as y.

134 − 114 = 20◦ 20 d= × 2π × 6350 cos 25◦ 360 = 2009km 14 . 32 − 21 = 11◦ 11 d= × 2π × 6350 360 = 1219km 5.Exercise 2E x w = sin θ sin 60◦ w sin θ x= ◦ sin √ 60 2 6 sin θ √ = y b = sin θ sin 45◦ y = b × sin θ ÷ sin 45◦ 1 = b sin θ ÷ √ 2 √ 2 = b sin θ × 1 √ = 2b sin θ √ 4x = 2× × sin θ 3 √ 4 2x sin θ = 3 3 √ 2 2 2 6 sin θ ×√ = 1 3 √ √ 4 3 2 sin θ √ = 3 √ = 4 2 sin θ y x = sin 45◦ sin φ x sin 45◦ y= sin φ x × √12 = sin φ √ 4 2 sin θ × √12 = sin φ 4 sin θ = sin φ  60 ◦ 45◦ x φ y 64. θ w √ 2 2 4 √ w2 = 42 + (2 2)2  = 16 + 4 × 2 = 24 √ w = 24 √ = 4×6 √ =2 6 Exercise 2E 1. 43 − 19 = 24◦ 24 d= × 2π × 6350 360 = 2660km 4.5 d= × 2π × 6350 360 = 5154km 2.5 − 5 = 46.5◦ 46. 41 − 4 = 37◦ 37 d= × 2π × 6350 360 = 4101km 3. 39 − (−32) = 71◦ 71 d= × 2π × 6350 360 = 7869km 6. 51.

123◦ W 16. 360 2π × 6350 cos 34◦ 3300 θ= × 360 2π × 6350 cos 34◦ = 36◦ longitude = 115 + 36 = 5264km θ = 360 − (131 + 118) = 111◦ θ 0.5LS sin = 2 r 0. 8. 820 θ = 360 2π × 6350 cos 53◦ 820 θ= × 360 2π × 6350 cos 53◦ = 12◦ 555 θ = 360 2π × 6350 555 θ= × 360 2π × 6350 = 5◦ longitude = 135 − 12 = 123◦ W New position: 53◦ S. 122 − 117 = 5◦ 5 × 2π × 6350 cos 34◦ d= 360 = 459km latitude = 35 + 18 = 53◦ S New position: 53◦ S.e. 119◦ W 15 . latitude = 71 − 36 = 35◦ S Adelaide: 35◦ S. Let’s call this angle α.Exercise 2E 7. 138◦ E 14.5◦ = 151◦ E Sydney: 34◦ S.5 × 8677 = 6350 α ◦ = 43 2 α = 86◦ Now use this angle to determine the arc length along this great circle: longitude = 135 + 106 = 241◦ E 86 × 2π × 6350 360 = 9553km d= = 360 − 241 = 119◦ W Bakersfield: 35◦ N. 360 − 248 = 112◦ 112 × 2π × 6350 cos 40◦ d= 360 = 9509km 11. θ 820 = 360 2π × 6350 cos 35◦ 820 θ= × 360 2π × 6350 cos 35◦ = 9◦ LS = 2 × 5264 sin 55. 175 − (−73) = 248 Longitude difference is greater than 180◦ so it is shorter to go the other way and cross the date line. the new latitude remains 53◦ S. 151◦ E 13.5LS = 5264 sin 55. 126◦ W ◦ 10.5LS α = 2 R 0. the centre of the great circle passing through the two points). 119 − 77 = 42◦ 42 × 2π × 6350 cos 39◦ d= 360 = 3617km 15. If the ship first heads south. First find the length of the chord LS from Los Angeles to Shimoneski through the earth using the angle subtended at the middle of the latitude circle: latitude = 29 + 5 = 34◦ S Augusta: 34◦ S. 105 − 75 = 30◦ 30 d= × 2π × 6350 cos 40◦ 360 = 2547km longitude = 135 − 9 = 126◦ W α 2000 = 360 2π × 6350 2000 α= × 360 2π × 6350 = 18◦ 9. sin θ 9600 = 360 2π × 6350 cos 35◦ 9600 θ= × 360 2π × 6350 cos 35◦ = 106◦ 0.5◦ 7870 θ = 360 2π × 6350 7870 θ= × 360 2π × 6350 = 71◦ = 8677km Now consider the angle that same chord subtends at the centre of the earth (i. 115◦ E r = 6350 cos 34◦ 3300 θ = 12.

say x = 6. AC (d) tan ∠ABC = AB 41.82 − 2 × 6. so the solution is x < 3.7m 6. so the solution is x > −4. See the answer in Sadler. The midpoint between 0 and 6 is 3.2 sin 60◦ ∠LBA = sin−1 9.2 26. {x ∈ R : 5 < x < 7} a l y a cos 75◦ 5a 4 y = |2x − a| l 5a 1 = × 4 l 5a cos 75◦ = × 4 a 5 cos 75◦ = 4 7.4 = 35◦ Conclude that the solution lies outside the interval 5–7: {x ∈ R : x ≤ 5} ∪ {x ∈ R : x ≥ 7} (d) This is the complementary case to the previous question.Miscellaneous Exercise 2 Miscellaneous Exercise 2 1. y = |x − a| a 2 16 a x . (a) Read the question as “distance from 3 is less than distance from −11”.2m 15 (b) tan 30◦ = AB 15 AB = tan 30◦ = 26.22 + 10.0m 2.4km 13 sin ∠LBA sin 60◦ = 6. so it will have the complementary solution: bearing = (100 + 180) + 35 = 315◦ 4. Let l be the length of the ladder. 5+2 6 5+2 6 5−2 6 √ √ (3 − 6)(5 − 2 6) √ √ = (5 + 2 6)(5 − 2 6) √ √ 15 − 6 6 − 5 6 + 12 = 25 − 24 √ 27 − 11 6 = 1 √ = 27 − 11 6 (c) BC2 = AC2 + AB2 p BC = 41.2 × 10.4 6. θ = cos−1 15 AC 15 AC = tan 20◦ = 41. L 6. to determine whether the inequality holds at that point.8km Now test a value for x. cos 75◦ = l= cos θ = : no. = 328◦ (c) First solve the equation |3x − 17| = |x − 3| A North 3.0 bearing = 270 + 58 ∠ABC = tan−1 = 58◦ (b) Read the question as “distance from 0 is less than distance from 6”.02 = 48. The midpoint between −11 and 3 is −4. B AB = 5 cos 75◦ 4 6.2 k m 3x − 17 = x − 3 40◦ 100 p or 3x − 17 = −(x − 3) 2x = 14 3x − 17 = −x + 3 x=7 4x = 20 ◦ x=5 10.2 9.8 × cos 60◦ |3(6) − 17| ≥ |(6) − 3| Is it true that = 9.22 + 26. (a) tan 20◦ = = 71◦ √ √ √ 3− 6 5−2 6 3− 6 √ √ √ = × 5.

(You should confirm that these are the interval endpoints by substitution. then 92 > 52 + x2 √ x < 56 √ x < 2 14 = 5m p (b) EH = AE2 − AH2 p = 82 − 52 √ = 39m Since it must also satisfy the triangle inequality x must be greater than the difference between the other √ two sides. then -10 x2 > 52 + 92 √ x > 106 -5 5 -5 17 10 x . This yields two possibilities. y = 34◦ S New position: 34◦ S. For the triangle to have an obtuse angle.) p 8.2m 11. (a) AH = AG2 + GH2 s  2 12 − 6 2 = 4 + 2 Since it must also satisfy the triangle inequality x must be less than the sum of√the other two sides. i. 5 -10 -5 5 10 x -5 (b) y = f(−x) represents a reflection in the yaxis. If x is not the longest side. The solution in this case is 4 < x < 2 14. 5 If x is the longest side. ≈ 6.2 = 4 θ = 57◦ (c) cos ∠EAH = 9.Miscellaneous Exercise 2 From the graph it appears that |2x − a| ≤ |x − a| is true for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2a 3 . y AH AE 5 = 8 ∠EAH = 51◦ EH (d) tan ∠EGH = GH 6. 131◦ W 10. The solution in this case is 106 < x < 14. (a) y = −f(x) represents a reflection in the xaxis. the longest side must be longer than the hypotenuse if it were right-angled.2 = 3 ∠EGH = 64◦ EH (e) tan θ = GB 6. y longitude = 126 + 5 = 131◦ E 330 α = 360 2π × 6350 330 α= × 360 2π × 6350 = 3◦ 5 -10 -5 5 10 x -5 latitude = 37 − 3 (d) y = f(|x|) signifies that any part of f(x) that falls left of the y-axis will be discarded and replaced with a mirror image of the part of the function that lies to the right of the axis.e. y 5 -10 θ 440 = 360 2π × 6350 cos 37◦ 440 θ= × 360 2π × 6350 cos 37◦ = 5◦ -5 5 10 x -5 (c) y = |f(x)| signifies that any part of f(x) that falls below the x-axis will be reflected to instead lie above the axis. c2 > a2 + b2 .