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# Introduction to FEM

11

Variational
Formulation of
Bar Element

IFEM Ch 11 – Slide 1

. ..Variational Derivation y z . Cross section IFEM Ch 11 – Slide 2 P Longitudinal axis x ..Introduction to FEM Bar Member . .

u(x) q(x) P L cross section IFEM Ch 11 – Slide 3 ..Introduction to FEM Bar Member (cont'd) x axial rigidity EA .

)' u(x) q(x) L E A EA e = du/dx = u' σ = E e = E u' F = A σ = EA e = EA u' P Meaning Longitudinal bar axis * d(.Notation Quantity x (.)/dx Axial displacement Distributed axial force. may vary with x Axial rigidity Infinitesimal axial strain Axial stress Internal axial force Prescribed end load _ * x is used in this Chapter instead of x (as in Chapters 2-3) to simplify the notation IFEM Ch 11 – Slide 4 . given per unit of bar length Total length of bar member Elastic modulus Cross section area.Introduction to FEM The Bar Revisited .

Introduction to FEM Tonti Diagram of Governing Equations Prescribed end displacements Displacement BCs Kinematic F'+q=0 Equilibrium e=u' Axial strains e(x) unknown Distributed axial load q(x) Axial displacements u(x) F = EA e Constitutive given (problem data) IFEM Ch 11 – Slide 5 Axial force F(x) Force BCs Prescribed end loads .

Introduction to FEM Potential Energy of the Bar Member (before discretization) Internal energy (= strain energy) U= L 1 2 Fe d x = 0 L 1 2 ( E Au')u' d x = 0 External work L W = qu d x 0 Total potential energy Π= U− W IFEM Ch 11 – Slide 6 L 1 2 u' E Au' d x 0 .

u(x) ∈ C 0 in x ∈ [0. in the figure. i.Introduction to FEM Concept of Kinematically Admissible Variation u u(x)+δu(x) δu(x) δu(L) u(L) u(x) u(0) = 0 x x δu(x) is kinematically admissible if u(x) and u(x) + δu(x) (i) are continuous over bar length. (ii) satisfy exactly displacement BC. L]. u(0) = 0 IFEM Ch 11 – Slide 7 .e.

Introduction to FEM The Minimum Potential Energy (MPE) Principle The MPE principle states that the actual displacement solution u* (x) that satisfies the governing equations is that which renders the TPE functional Π[u] stationary: δΠ = δU − δW = 0 iff u = u* with respect to admissible variations u = u* + δu of the exact displacement solution u* (x) IFEM Ch 11 – Slide 8 .

f5 5 .Introduction to FEM FEM Discretization of Bar Member u 1. f3 u 4. f1 u 2. f4 (1) (2) (3) (4) 1 2 3 IFEM Ch 11 – Slide 9 4 u 5. f2 u 3.

f5 5 End node 1 assumed fixed u u2 u3 u4 u(x) u1 = 0 Axial displacement plotted normal to x for visualization convenience IFEM Ch 11 – Slide 10 u5 x .Introduction to FEM FEM Displacement Trial Function u 1. f3 u 4. f2 u 3. f1 u 2. f4 (1) (2) (3) (4) 1 2 3 4 u 5.

.Introduction to FEM Total Potential Energy Principle and Decomposition over Elements δΠ = δU − δW = 0 But and Π= Π (1) δΠ = δΠ iff + Π (1) (2) + δΠ u = u* + .. + Π (2) (exact solution) (N e) + . giving δΠe = δU e − δW e = 0 IFEM Ch 11 – Slide 11 (N e) = 0 .. each element variation must vanish.. + δΠ From fundamental lemma of variational calculus.

x1 1 Ne i 1− x/ 0 x/ Nje 1 0 IFEM Ch 11 – Slide 12 .= x γ.Introduction to FEM Element Shape Functions (e) 1 2 e = L x.

Introduction to FEM Element Shape Functions (cont'd) Linear displacement interpolation: e u 1 e e ue (x) = N1e u1e + N2e u2e = [ N1 N2 ] e = N ue u2 in which N1e = 1 − ζ= x−x1 x−x1 = 1 − ζ. e N2 = x−x1 =ζ dimensionless (natural) coordinate IFEM Ch 11 – Slide 13 .

.] = 0 (Appendix D) Ke u e = f e the element stiffness equations IFEM Ch 11 – Slide 14 .Introduction to FEM Displacement Variation Process Yields the Element Stiffness Equations { e Π = Ue − W e δΠ e = 0 since δu e δu e Ue = 1 e )T (u 2 Ke ue W e = (u e ) T f e T Ke ue − f e = 0 is arbitrary [..

Introduction to FEM The Bar Element Stiffness Ue = U = e U = e 1 2 [ u 1e 1 2 u e2 [ u1 0 0 Ke = e E A e dx 1 −1 2 −1 1 0 1 [ −1 dx EA E A BT B d x = 0 2 If EA is constant over element Ke = e = u' 0 1 −1 u2 ] 1 EA ] 1 2 EA 1 −1 −1 1 IFEM Ch 11 – Slide 15 u e1 u e2 1] u 1e ue2 = 1 −1 −1 1 1 2 dx ue dx T Ke u e .

Introduction to FEM The Consistent Nodal Force Vector e W = q u dx = 0 Since ue (u e )T NTq d x = u e T 0 q 0 is arbitrary fe = q 0 in which ζ= 1−ζ ζ x−x1 IFEM Ch 11 – Slide 16 dx 1−ζ ζ d x = ue T fe .

e..Introduction to FEM Bar Consistent Force Vector (cont'd) If q is constant along element f e = q 0 1− ζ ζ dx = q 1/2 1/2 the same result as with EbE load lumping (i. assigning one half of the total load to each node) IFEM Ch 11 – Slide 17 .