
EXPT. NO:
DATE:
OPERATION OF INTERACTING AND NON – INTERACTING
SYSTEMS
AIM:
a) To obtain the response of single capacity system for step change
input.
b) To obtain the step response of frst order system arranged in Non
Interacting
manner.
c) To obtain the step response of frst order system arranged in
Interacting manner.
d) To obtain the impulse response of frst order system arranged in
Non Interacting manner.
A) SINGLE CAPACITY LIQUID LEVEL SYSTEM:
THEORY:
The mass balance around the tank is,
ρq(t)  ρq
(t) ! "#ρ d$ % dt
Take &aplace transform on both sides
' (() ) '
(() ! "#s$ (()
*here,
'
(() ! $ (()%+
The abo,e equation becomes,
' (()$ (()%+ ! "#s$ (()
' (() ! $ (()#%+."#s/
$ (/%' (/ ! +%("#+s.#)
$ (()%' (/ ! +%τ#s.#
0or step change of " in inlet 1o2 rate,
' (t) ! "u (t)
' (() ! "%s
$ (() ! ' ((). +%(#.τs)
$ (() ! ".+%s (#.τs)
3y partial fraction e4pansion and taking in,erse &aplace transform,
$ (t) ! "+ (#e5 (t%τ))
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 2 
h (t) ! h
s
."+ #e5(t%τ)/
Therefore $ (t) ! h (t)h
s
PART .A)
SINGLE CAPACITY:
O'SERVATIONS:
6iameter of the tank ! 78mm
Initial 1o2 rate ! 9999999999999999lph
0inal 1o2 rate ! 9999999999999999lph
Initial steady state tank pressure h
si
! 9999999999999999mm
0inal steady state tank pressure h
sf
! 9999999999999999mm
T()e (
sec
Press&re
( ))
H.!)
o$ser/e0
( ))
H.!)1re0(c!
e0 ( ))
PART .A)
CALCULATION:
$(t) obser,ed ! pressure at time t :ressure at time / !
9999999999999999mm
$(t) predicted !
AR
3600
 # e
–t%;
/
*here,
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 3 
" <agnitude of (tep =hange ! 0lo2 after step change  Initial 0lo2 rate
!9999 lph
"
# 2
2
πd
4
!
+ >utlet ?al,e +esistance in sec% m3
PROCEDURE:
1. " 1e4ible pipe pro,ided at the rotameter outlet is inserted into the
co,er of tank#. The outlet ,al,es ?#and ?8 of tank# and tank8 2ere
kept fully open.
2. The pump is s2itched >N and the rotameter 1o2 rate is ad@usted
and settled at A lph. The pressure of the tank# 2as allo2ed to
reach steady state and then the 1o2 and pressure at steady state
2ere noted.
3. " (tep change in the rotameter 1o2 2as gi,en at a step magnitude
by # lph.
4. Immediately, the pressure in the tank # at the inter,al of Bsecs
2as noted do2n, until the pressure reaches the steady state ,alue.
5. =alculation 2ere carried out and predicted and obser,ed ,alues
2ere compared.
6. " plot of $ (t) ?s time for obser,ed and predicted pressures 2ere
dra2n.
') TO O'TAIN THE STEP RESPONSE OF FIRST ORDER SYSTEMS
ARRANGED IN NON – INTERACTING FASHION:
THEORY:
*hen the out1o2 tank# discharges into atmosphere before spilling it into
tank8 and the 1o2 through the +# depends only on h#. The ,ibration in
the tank 8 does not aCect the transient response occurring in tank #.The
tanks are assumed to ha,e uniform =ross sectional area and the 1o2
resistance is linear.
<ass balance around tank #,
q (t) ) q
#
(t) ! "
#
dh
#
(t)%dt.
*here,
q
#
(t) ! h#(t)%+
<ass balance around the tank8,
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 4 
q
#
(t) ) q
8
(t) ! "
8
dh
8
(t)%dt.
*here,
q
8
(t) ! h
8
(t)%+
8
Taking &aplace transform,
$
8
(() ! +
8
' (s) % (#.;
#
s)(#. ;
8
s)
*here,
;
#
! "
#
+
#
;
8
! "
8
+
8
0or a step change (3) in in1o2,
' (t) ! 3u (t)
'(s) ! 3%sD
$
8
(s) !
4 5
'
s .4 67s) .4 67 s)
+ !
8H
8Q
!
0inal statele,el Initial steadystatele,el
0lo2afterstepchange Initial 0lo2
−
−
; ! "
#
+ !
$(t) :redicted !
AR
9:;;
 # e
–t%;
/
at t !999999999999secs, $(t) ! 9999999 mm
PART .'): NON INTERACTING MANNER
O'SERVATIONS:
Initial 0lo2 +ate ! 9999999 lph
0inal 0lo2 +ate ! 9999999 lph
S!e#0% S!#!e
Press&re
I(!(#" F(#"
T()e ( sec
Le/e" ( T#< 5
M)
H
5
.!) O$ser/e0
( ))
H
5
.!) Pre0(c!e0
( ))
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 5 
CALCULATION:
$
8
(t) obser,ed ! &e,el in tank 8 at time t ) &e,el in tank 8 at time t !
! 9999999999999 mm
$
8
(t) predicted !
5
'R
9:;;
=!>74
=!>75
46e
75e
? = @
75=74 75=74
3 ! <agnitude of step change in 1o2 rate ! 999999999 lph
+
#
!
+ =+
8H4 s*4 s(4
2 A9:;;
8Q B* =Bs
!9999999999999999 sec%m
8
$
8
(t) predicted ! 3+8 #. ;# % (;8  ;#) e
t % ;#
 ;8 % (;8  ;#) e
t % ; 8
/
$8 (t) obser,ed ! le,el in tank8 at timeEtF ) le,el in tank8 at time t!/
PROCEDURE:
1. 0le4ible pipe pro,ided at the rotameter outlet is inserted into the co,er
of tank#. The outlet ,al,es ,# and ,8 are kept opened. Gnsure that the
,al,e ,B is kept closed.
2. The pump 2as s2itched >N and the rotameter 1o2 rate 2as ad@usted
and set at 7 lph. The le,els of both the tanks 2ere allo2ed to reach
steady state and then the 1o2 and le,els at steady state 2ere noted
do2n.
3. " step change in rotameter 1o2 2as gi,en at a magnitude of # lph.
4. Immediately, le,el in tank 8 at the inter,al of Bsecs, 2as noted do2n,
until the pressure reaches a steady state ,alue.
5. =alculations 2ere carried out and the predicted and obser,ed ,alues of
tank pressure 2ere compared.
6. " plot of $8 (t) ?s time for obser,ed and predicted pressures 2ere
dra2n.
C) TO O'TAIN STEP RESPONSE OF FIRST ORDER SYSTEMS
ARRANGED IN INTERACTING MODE:
THEORY:
In the interacting mode, the tanks are connected in such a 2ay that the
1o2 through +# depends on the diCerence bet2een h# and h8. The tanks
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 6 
are assumed to ha,e uniform cross sectional area and the 1o2 resistances
are linear.
The mass balance around tank#,
q(t) ) q
#
(t) ! "
#
dh
#
%dt
*here
q
#
(t) ! h
#
(t) ) h
8
(t)%+
#
The mass balance around tank8,
q
#
(t) ) q
8
(t) ! "
8
dh
8
%dt
*here,
q
8
(t) ! h
8
(t)%+
8
Taking &aplace transform for the abo,e equations,
'(s)'
#
(s) ! "
#
s$
#
(s)  (a)
'
#
(s) ! $
#
(s)  $
8
(s)%+
#
 (b)
+
8
!
+ =+
8H5 s*5 s(5
2 A9:;;
8Q B* =Bs
!999999999999999 sec%m
8
"
# 2
"
8
2
5
C0
D
!99999999999999999
m
8
;
#
! "
#
+
#
! 9999999999 sec
;
8
! "
8
+
8
! 9999999999 sec
PART C: INTERACTING MANNER:
O'SERVATIONS:
Initial 0lo2 +ate ! 999999999999 lph
0inal 0lo2 +ate ! 999999999999 lph
S!e#0% S!#!e
"e/e"
I(!(#" F(#"
T()e ( secs Le/e" ( ))
H
5
.!)
o$ser/e0 (
))
H
5
.!)
1re0(c!e0 (
))
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 7 
CALCULATION:
$
8
(t) obser,ed ! &e,el in tank8 at time t ) &e,el in tank8 at time t !
! 99999999999999 mm
$
8
(t) predicted !
5
'R
9:;;
74
75
=!>74 =!>75
?46 e = e @
75=74 75=74
3 ! <agnitude of step change in 1o2 rate ! 999999999 lph
+
#
!
+ =+
8H4 s*4 s(4
2 A9:;;
8Q B* =B(
'#(s)  '8(s) ! "8(h8(s)  (c)
'8(s) ! $8(s)%+8  (d)
(ubstitute (d) in (c)D
'#(s)  $8(s)%+8 ! "8.(.h8 (()
'#(s) ! $8(s) "8s.(#%+8)/ (e)
0rom (b) $#(s) ! +#'#(s).$8(s) (f)
(ubstitute (f) in (a)D
'(s) ) '#(s) ! "#s +#'#(s).$8(s)/
'(s) ) "#s$8(s) ! "#s+#'#(s).'#(s)
'#(s) ! '(s) ) "#s$8(s)%(#."#s+#) (g)
Gquating (e) H (g)
'(s) ) "#s$8(s)%(#."#+#s) ! $8(s) "8s.#%+8/
$8(s)%'(s) ! +8%(#."#+#s)(#."8+8s)."#+8s/
The term interacting is often referred to as loading and second tank is said
to load the frst tank.
$8(s)%'(s) ! +8%(;# ;8s58.(;#. ;8. ;#8) s.#)
*here,
;#!"#+#D ;8 ! "8+8D ;B ! "#+8
' (t) ! 3u (t)
'(s) ! 3%s
$8(s) ! +83%s ;#;8(58 . (;#. ;8. ;#8) s.#/
$8(s) ! +83%s ;#;8 (58 . (#% ;# . #% ;8 . "#+8% ;#;8) s . #% ;#;8/
&et b ! #% ;#.#% ;8."#+8% ;#;8
I ! b%8 . ((b%8)
8
) #% ;#;8))
#%8
J ! b%8  ((b%8)
8
) #% ;#;8))
K
$8(s) ! +8L% ;#;8 % s (sI)(sM)
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 8 
Taking in,erse &aplace transform,
$8 (t) predicted ! +8L % (BAN ;#;8) #%IM.#% (IM) e
(αt)
.#%L (LI) e
βt
PROCEDURE:
" 1e4ible pie pro,ided at the rotameter outlet is inserted into the
co,er of tankB. The outlet ,al,es ,8 H ,B 2ere kept fully opened.
The pump 2as s2itched >N and the rotameter 1o2 2as ad@usted and
set at 7 lph. The le,el of both the tanks are allo2ed to reach steady
state and then the 1o2 and the le,els at steady state 2ere noted
do2n.
" step change in rotameter 1o2 2as gi,en at # lph.
Immediately le,el in tank 8 at the inter,al of B secs 2as noted do2n,
until the le,el reaches the steady state ,alue.
=alculations 2ere carried out and predicted and obser,ed ,alues of
tank le,el 2ere compared.
" plot of $8 (t) ?s time for obser,ed and predicted le,el 2ere dra2n.
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 9 
D) TO O'TAIN IMPULSE RESPONSE OF FIRST ORDER SYSTEMS
ARRANGED IN NON=INTERACTING MODE:
THEORY:
The o,erall transfer function of the noninteracting system described is,
$(s)%'(s) ! +8% (#. ;#s) (;8s.#)
0or a impulse change of magnitude , (,olume of 2ater added to the
system)
' (t) ! ,s (t)
'(s) ! ,
$8(s) ! +8,% (;#s .#) (;8s.#)
+
8
!
+ =+
8H5 s*5 s(5
2 A9:;;
8Q B* =B(
!999999999999999 sec%m
8
"
# 2
"8 2
5
C0
D
!99999999999999999
m
8
;
#
! "
#
+
#
! 9999999999 sec
;
8
! "
8
+
8
! 9999999999 sec
"t !! 9999999999 secs,
$
8
(t) predicted 2 EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEE mm
PART .D): IMPULSE RESPONSE
O'SERVATIONS:
Initial 0lo2 +ate ! 999999999999 lph
0inal 0lo2 +ate ! 999999999999 lph
S!e#0% S!#!e
Le/e"
I(!(#" F(#"
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 10 
T()e (
sec
Le/e" (
))
H
5
.!)
O$ser/e0 (
))
H
5
.!)
Pre0(c!e0 (
))
CALCULATIONS :
$ (t) predicted !
VR
=!>74 =!>75 5
?e =e @
.7 =7 9:;;
4 5)
? ! (udden Impulse +esponse ! 999999999999 ml
+
8
!
8H5
8Q
!
$
8
(t) obser,ed ! 99999999999999 mm
"
#
! "
8
! 99999999999999999 m
8
+
#
!
5+s*4
A9:;;
Q(
!
99999999999999999 sec % m
8
+
8
!
5+s*5
A9:;;
Q(
!
99999999999999999 sec % m
8
;
#
! "
#
+
#
! 9999999999 sec
;
8
! "
8
+
8
! 9999999999 sec
Taking partial fraction e4pansion,
$8(s) ! "#% (;#s .#) . 3% (; 8s.#)
,+8 ! " (;8s.#) . 3 (;#s.#)
=omparing the coeOcients,
(term
! " ;8 . 3;
=onstant term,
,+8 ! ".3
" ! ,+83
(,+83) ;8 . 3 (;# ;8) !
3 ! ,+8 ;8% (;# ;8)
" ! ,+8.,+8 ;8% (;# ;8)
" ! ,+8;# % (;# ;8)
$8(s) ! ,+8%(;# ;8)#%(s.#%;#)#%(s.#% ;8)/
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 11 
Taking in,erse &aplace transform
$ (8) predicted ! ,+8% (;# ;8) e
(t%τ#)

e
(t%τ8)
/
PROCEDURE:
" 1e4ible pipe pro,ided at the rotameter outlet is inserted into the
co,er of tank#. The outlet ,al,es ,#H,8 2ere kept fully opened. Gnsure
that the ,al,e ,B is kept closed.
The pump 2as s2itched >N and the rotameter 1o2 rate 2as ad@usted
and set at 7 #ph.The le,el of both the tanks 2ere allo2ed to reach
steady state and then they 2ere noted do2n.
The impulse input is applied by adding 8 ml of 2ater in tank #.
The le,el of the tank8 at the inter,al of Bsecs, until the le,el reaches
to the steady, 2as noted do2n.
=alculations 2ere carried out and the predicted and obser,ed ,alues of
tank le,el 2ere compared.
" plot of $8 (t) ?s time for obser,ed and predicted le,el 2ere dra2n.
RESULT:
Thus the time response of single capacity tank, t2o tanks connected
in noninteracting and interacting manner for a step change in 1o2 rate
2as studied. "lso the time response of tanks connected in non interacting
manner for an impulse response 2as studied.
VIVA –QUESTIONS:
1. 6efne Interacting process
2. 6efne NonInteracting process
3. *hy a single capacity system is called as frst order processP
4. 6efne (tep 0unction.
5. 6efne Impulse function.
6. 6efne <athematical model of the system
7. *hat is steady state responseP
8. *hat is Transient responseP
9. 6efne time constant of a system.
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 12 
EXPT. NO: DATE:
PROCESS CONTROL SIMULATOR=I RESPONSE OF FIRST ORDER
SYSTEM FITH AND FITHOUT TRANSPORTATION LAG
AIM:
To determine the time constant and transfer function of >pen loop
0irst >rder :rocess 2ith and 2ithout transportation lag.
PROCEDURE:
I
ORDER FITHOUT DELAY:
1. :atch the front panel of :=(# as in fgure.
2. Qeep the process fast%slo2 s2itch ((*R) in slo2 position.
3. Qeep the set ,alue pot Sero
4. Ti,e the square 2a,e (step i %p) of around UV $W and amplitude of one
?p  p to the process input points.
5. >bser,e the input and output 2a,eforms on the =+>.
6. =alculate the time (;) taken by the output signals to reach the AB.8 X
of its fnal ,alue.
I ORDER FITH DELAY:
1. :atch the front panel of :=(# as in fgure.
2. Qeep the process fast%slo2 s2itch ((*R) in slo2 position.
3. Qeep the set ,alue pot Sero
4. =onnect out of :# to & of transport lag and &# to Y8
5. Ti,e the square 2a,e (step i%p) of around UV $W and amplitude of one
?pp to the process input points.
6. >bser,e the input and output 2a,eforms on the =+>.
7. =alculate the time (;) taken by the output signals to reach
the AB.8X of
its fnal ,alue.
GRAPH:
:lot the Traph bet2een time ?s +esponse = (t)
RESULT:
Thus the time constant and transfer function of frst order process
2ith and 2ithout transportation lag 2as determined.
VIVA QUESTIONS:
#. 6efne Time constant.
8. 6efne open loop system.
B. 6efne closed loop system.
R. 6efne order of a system.
V. 6efne Transfer 0unction.
A. 6efne &ag.
Z. 6efne (er,o operation.
U. 6efne +egulatory operation.
7. 6efne 6ead Time.
# . *hat is the signifcance of in,erterP
O'SERVATION:
(i) 0irst >rder (ystem *ithout lag[
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 13 
; !
T
p
(s) !
τ
4
4 6
s
!
(tep response = (t) ! # e
–t%;
(ii) 0irst >rder (ystem 2ith &ag[
; !
& !
T
p
(s) !
=LS
e
467
s
(tep +esponse = (t) ! # e
– (t&)%;
!
MODEL GRAPH:
0irst >rder *ithout &"T[
0irst >rder *ith &"T[
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
P Controller
I order Process
Kc = 1
PB = 100
P Controller I order Process
Kc = 1
PB = 100
!"#
 14 
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 15 
EXPT. NO:
DATE:
PROCESS CONTROL SIMULATOR=II RESPONSE OF SECOND ORDER
PROCESS FOR VARIOUS CONTROLLER MODES
AIM:
To determine the time constant and transfer functions of =lose loop
second order :rocess 2ith ,arious controller modes.
THEORY FOR PROPORTIONAL CONTROLLER:
The transfer function for a proportional controller is gi,en by
T
c
(s) !Q
c
*here,
Q
c
) :roportional gain of the controller
: =ontroller results in a response sho2ing a large ma4imum
de,iation, a moderate period of oscillation and the ma4imum o,ershoot.
PROCEDURE:
1. :atch the front panel of :=(# as sho2n in fgure
2. (et the process fast%slo2 s2itch ((*R) in fast position
3. Qeep the set ,alue pot to Wero
4. "pply a square 2a,e of 8?pp at around V $W
5. "lternati,ely display in the oscilloscope the set ,alue disturbance
point and measured ,alue from the point process ,alue :?
6. +epeat all the abo,e tests 2ith the percentage band VX and RX
7. "s each step is applied obtain the response
THEORY FOR PROPORTIONAL INTEGRAL CONTROLLER:
The transfer function of a :I controller is gi,en by
T
c
(s) ! Q
c
#.#%(;
i
s)/
*here,
;
i
 integral time constant
:I control sho2s no oCset but the elimination of oCset is at the
e4pense of a larger ) ma4imum de,iation and a longer period of oscillation
due to \6estabiliWing eCect] of the integral action 2hich necessities a
reduction of proportional gain.
PROCEDURE:
1. :atch the front panel of :=(# as sho2n in fgure
2. (et the process fast%slo2 s2itch ((*R) in fast position and controller
fast%slo2 s2itch ((*B) in fast position.
3. Qeep the set ,alue pot to Wero
4. "pply a square 2a,e of 8?pp at around V $W
5. "d@ust the proportional band control until the system settles 2ith
t2o or three o,ershoots
6. No2 connect the integral section as sho2n in fgure
7. (lo2ly reduce the integral action time until de,iation falls to Wero
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 16 
8. <onitors both the set ,alue disturbance socket and process ,alue
socket.
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 17 
(. Pro1or!(o#" Mo0e
((. Pro1or!(o#" I!e,r#" Mo0e:
(((. Pro1or!(o#" I!e,r#" Der(/#!(/e Mo0e:
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
$%t&%t
P Controller
II order Process
'et ("l%e
)*st%r+"nce
P,
+

PI Controller
II order Process
'et ("l%e
)*st%r+"nce
P,
+

$%t&%t
PB=100
τ
*
= *#
PI) Controller
II order Process
'et ("l%e
)*st%r+"nce
P,
+

$%t&%t
PB=100
τ
*
= *#
τ
d
= lo.
 18 
O'SERVATION PART:
SECOND ORDER SYSTEM:
A) PROPORTIONAL:
>,ershoot ! " % 3
<
:
! e
)T^ % (# T_ )K
T!
`!
(#T_)K
;
; !
c(t) !
= G! > T
4
5
5
e
R.!)?4 = .s(G!6H)@
.4=G )
') PROPORTIONAL INTEGRAL CONTROLLER:
>,ershoot ! "%3
<p ! e
)T^ % (#T_ )K
T !
` ! a
#T_
;
; !
= (t) !
= G! > T
4
5
5
e
R.!)?4 = .s(G!6H)@
.4=G )
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 19 
C) PROPORTIONAL INTEGRAL DERIVATIVE CONTROLLER:
>,ershoot !
<p ! e
)Tπ % (#T_)K
T
!
` !
(#T_)K
;
; !
=(t) !
= G! > T
4
5
5
e
R.!)?4 = .s(G!6H)@
.4=G )
MODEL GRAPH:
THEORY FOR PID CONTROLLER:
The Transfer function of a :I6 =ontroller is a gi,en by,
T
c
(s) ! Q
c
(#.#%(;
i
s). ;
d
s)
*here
;
d
 6eri,ati,e time constant
There is no oCset o2ing to the integral action and the stabiliWing eCect of
the deri,ati,e allo2s the gain to be increased so reducing the ma4imum
de,iation and increasing the speed of response.
PROCEDURE:
1. :atch the front panel of :=(# as sho2n in fgure.
2. (et the process fast%slo2 s2itch ((*R) in fast position and controller
fast%slo2 s2itch ((*B) in fast position.
3. Qeep the set ,alue pot to Wero.
4. "pply a square 2a,e of 8?pp at around V $W.
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 20 
5. No2 patch I and II and ad@ust the integral time until steady state
de,iation is Wero.
6. Note do2n the number of o,ershoots before the system settles.
7. No2 connect 6 and 6F and slo2ly increase the de,iation time and
note do2n the eCect of this in system response.
Gr#1+:
:lot the graph bet2een time ?s response c(t).
RESULT:
Thus the time response of closed loop second order process 2ith
proportional integral, proportional integral deri,ati,e controller 2as
studied.
VIVA QUESTIONS
1. 6efne +ise time.
2. 6efne :eak time.
3. 6efne (ettling Time.
4. 6efne <a4imum o,er shoot.
5. 6efne +esonance condition.
6. 6efne 3and2idth.
7. 6efne Time constant of the system.
8. *hat is the signifcance of frequency responseP
9. $o2 2ill you identify the gi,en system is a second order systemP
10. *hat is oCsetP $o2 2ill you eliminate itP
11. 6efne linear time in,ariant system.
12. 6efne linear time ,ariant system.
13. *hat are the nonlinear systemsP
14. (ignifcance of deri,ati,e control system.
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 21 
EXPT. NO:
DATE:
CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTROL VALVE FITH AND FITHOUT
POSITIONER
AIM:
To study characteristics of control ,al,e 2ith and 2ithout ,al,e
positioner.
THEORY:
?al,e positioner ?: is a type of cascade controller, 2hich recei,es
set point from e%p con,erter or air to control ,al,e. ?p requires indi,idual
8psi air supply to operate and this connection is sho2n as supply on ,p.
3ottom most gauge sho2s this pressure. The o%p of ,p is connected to
control ,al,e diaphragm % actuator and upper most gauges sho2s this
pressure. <iddle gauge indicates i%p pressure and the lo2er regulator to
opiate the ,al,e. bpper regulator is pro,ided to supply 8 psi pressure for
?:.
If 2e consider ?: as controller then follo2ing readings can be obser,ed.
(et point ! pressure on middle gauge
>utput ! pressure on upper most gauge.
<easurement ! stem position.
3y turning the slot by loosening the "llen scre2 in clock2ise direction, 2e
can take ,p to bypass mode and by turning in re,erse direction ,p can be
taken in auto mode.
In bypass mode air from the input directly goes to diaphragm % actuator
and in auto mode the supply air goes to output by comparing input and
stem position.
?p ad@usts the position of stem as per the requirement by lo2ering of
increasing the pressure.
A0I&s!)e! o* /1:
+emo,e the co,er on ?: by remo,ing the t2o scre2s. Inside this a
spring loaded circular disc is pro,ided for ad@usting the pressure. *hen ?:
is 2orking accurately in auto mode, output gauge sho2s pressure of B#V
psi as per the input signal. If pressure slashes do2n to B psi the output
sho2s psi H if it e4ceeds #V psi then it sho2s 8 psi. If ?: is not 2orking
as abo,e then ad@ust it as follo2s[ "d@ust ,p input pressure to V psi by
regulator and see the o%p pressure, if V psi pressure is not achie,ing ad@ust
the circular disc to set V psi pressure. Then ad@ust ,p i%p pressure to #B psi
and to ad@ust o%p to same pressure ad@ust the slotted le,er on the ,p. 6o
these ad@ustments carefully 2ithout disturbing the settings a lot
A) INHERENT CHARACTERISTICS
PROCEDURE:
1. (tart up the set up as mentioned in commissioning part abo,e for
control ,al,e to be studied (&inear% GqualX%quick opening).
2. Qeep the control ,al,e fully open by ad@usting air regulator to correct
pressure.
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 22 
3. "d@ust the regulating ,al,e and set the 1o2 rate. ((et R &:$ 1o2 for
linear%equalX ,al,e or A &:$ for quick opening ,al,e).
4. Note the pressure drop at control ,al,e at full open condition.
5. (lo2ly increase%decrease air pressure by regulator and close the
control ,al,e to tra,el the stem by 8mm. Note the pressure drop at
control ,al,e and 1o2.
6. +epeat abo,e step and take the readings at each 8mmstem tra,el till
the ,al,e is fully closed.
7. :roceed further to ne4t e4periment other2ise shut do2n the set up as
mentioned in commissioning part abo,e.
O'SERVATION.F(!+ V#"/e Pos(!(oer):
Type of control ,al,e[ &inear% GqualX% 'uick opening
S".No
L(*!
.)))
F"oJ
.LPH)
Press&re
0ro1 8P .))
o* H
5
O)
V#"/e
coeKc(e!
C/
CALCULATION:
=, ! #.#A'a (T%c:)
*here,
' ! 0lo2 (m
B
%hr)
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 23 
c: ! :ressure drop across ,al,e (bar)
! c: in mm $
8
> d #.#B % (#.#B d #
B
)
T ! (pecifc Tra,ity ! # for 2ater
O'SERVATION .F(!+o&! V#"/e Pos(!(oer):
Type of control ,al,e[ &inear% GqualX% 'uick opening
S". No L(*! .))) F"oJ .LPH)
GRAPH:
:lot the graph of ,al,e coeOcient ,ersus lift to obtain inherent
characteristic of the control ,al,e.
') INSTALLED CHARACTERISTICS
PROCEDURE:
1. (tart up the set up as mentioned in commissioning part abo,e for
control ,al,e to be studied (&inear% GqualX%quick opening).
2. Qeep the control ,al,e fully open.
3. "d@ust the rotameter ,al,e and set the 1o2 rate. ((et R &:$ 1o2 for
linear%equalX ,al,e or A &:$ for quick opening ,al,e).
4. Note the 1o2 rate at full open condition.
5. (lo2ly increase%decrease air pressure by regulator and close the
control ,al,e to tra,el the stem by 8mm. Note the 1o2 rate.
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 24 
6. +epeat abo,e step and take the readings at each 8mm stem tra,el till
the ,al,e is fully closed.
7. :roceed further to ne4t e4periment other2ise shut do2n the set up as
mentioned in commissioning part abo,e.
GRAPH:
:lot the graph of 1o2 ,ersus lift to obtain installed characteristic of
the control ,al,e.
RESULT:
Thus the characteristics of control ,al,e 2ith and 2ithout ,al,e
positioner 2ere studied.
VIVA QUESTIONS
1. 6efne control ,al,e coeOcient.
2. 6iCerentiate quick opening ,al,e and inherent characteristics.
3. *hat is range ability of control ,al,eP
4. 6efne control ,al,e.
5. $o2 2ill you select a control ,al,e for a gi,en processP
6. *hat is meant by installed and inherent characteristicsP
7. 6iCerentiate a manual and control ,al,e.
8. *hat is ser,o ,al,eP
9. *hat is the need of positioned in a control ,al,eP
10. =lassify control ,al,e.
11. $o2 2ill you identify air to open and air to close for a gi,en control
,al,eP
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 25 
EXPT. NO:
DATE:
CLOSED LOOP RESPONSE OF FLOF CONTROLLER
AIM:
To study steady state and transient response to a :roportional
Integral (:I) and :roportionalIntegral6eri,ati,e (:I6) controller for the
1o2 control system.
THEORY:
T+eor% *or PI=Co!ro""er:
The main problem 2ith proportional controllers is the oCset. To
o,ercome this problem, integral action is added to the proportional
controllers. The control algorithm that applies changes in output as long
as de,iation e4its, so as to bring the de,iation to Wero, is called integral
action. *hen integral action is used, the parameter that determines ho2
fast the output 2ill change in correspondence to some amount of
de,iation is referred to as the integral time, and shorter the integral time,
stronger the integral action (the greater the output rate of change).
>utput of proportionalIntegral controllers is gi,en by[
P2 <
1
e 6 <
(
∫e 0!
*here : is the output,
k
p
is the proportional gain (! #%:roportional band),
e is the error signal,
k
i
is integral gain
.
Integral action goes on increasing the output till the error becomes
Wero in case of positi,e error and goes on decreasing in case of negati,e
error. The abo,e equation applies to noninteracti,e controllers, in 2hich
proportional and integral gains can be ad@usted independently. There are
interacti,e controllers also in 2hich the output is gi,en by[
P 2 <
1
.e 6 <
(
Le0!)
In these controllers, proportional as 2ell as integral gain decides the
integral action and such controllers are interacti,e. Integral gain is
generally gi,en in repeats per minute. It decides ho2 many times the
proportional action is \repeated] each minute. In some controllers, this
gain is gi,en in minutes per repeat i.e. the minutes required to repeat the
proportional action. The users should kno2 the 2ay in 2hich a particular
manufacturer has e4pressed the integral gain.
The function of integral action is to eliminate the need of bias ,alue
found in proportional controllers. It also eliminates the problem of oCset. It
happens because error is continuously added up o,er time. The control
output of a controller 2ith integral action 2ill continue to change as long
as the error is nonWero. It ceases to change 2hen the error becomes Wero.
(ome people call integral action as reset because it resets the oCset ,alue
to Wero o,er time. Integral action pro,ides an automatically ad@usting
1oating bias that continues to change as long as the error is nonWero. In a
stable process, integral action 2ill guarantee that the steady state error
e,entually becomes Wero as sho2n in the 0ig.R.
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 26 
O'SERVATION:
PI CONTROLLER: PID
CONTROLLER:
(et pt. !  m
B
%secD p ! XD I ! (ec (et pt. !  m
B
%secD p !
XD
I ! (ecD 6 ! (ec
*hat
happens
2hen the
control
output
reaches one
of its
e4treme
limits,
either fully
open or fully
closed, and
some error is
still
presentP In
such a
situation, the
integral
action 2ill
continue to
increase or
decrease, a
condition
called
2indup. *hen the controller output is at #X, for e4ample, and the
error is still positi,e, the integral action of a direct acting controller 2ill
continue to be a huge positi,e ,alue.
*hen re,erse action is required, a long period of negati,e error 2ill be
required to \un2ind] the integrator and return the controller to normal
operation. In more sophisticated controllers, there are some 2ays to sol,e
this problem. >ne 2ay is to lock the integrator at the e4treme ,alue of
control output or limit the integrator to some ma4imum ,alue.
T+eor% *or PID=Co!ro""er:
The function of the deri,ati,e action in continuous controllers is to
help them in dealing 2ith sluggish processes. :rocesses, including large
inertia lot of time e,en 2ith integral action. G,en o,ershooting is also not
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
T()e
sec
Process
/#r(#$"e
)
9
>sec
T()e
sec
Process
/#r(#$"e
)
9
>sec
 27 
ruled out. 6eri,ati,e action can o,ercome this problem. The output of a
:I6 controller is gi,en by[
:! k
p
e . k
d
(de%dt) . k
i
∫edt
*here : is the output,
k
p
is the proportional gain (! #%:rportional band),
e is the error signal,
k
i
integral gain,
k
d
is deri,ati,e gain
.
"s in proportional integral controllers, :I6 controllers are also
sometimes implemented 2ith interacti,e gains. In interacti,e controllers,
the deri,ati,e action is function of proportional as 2ell as the deri,ati,e
gain.
To accelerate a sluggish process, deri,ati,e action responds to the
rate of change of error. 6eri,ati,e action is sometimes called rate in some
controllers because of this action. The deri,ati,e action basically reduces
the o,ershoot, anticipating that the process is about to reach the set
point. Take the e4ample of controlling the temperature of a large room. "n
increase in the set point may require the control output to be #X for a
longer period of time to heat up the area rapidly. >nce the temperature
has started rising, the heat input needs to be sharply decreased to a,oid
o,er shooting of the set point. The deri,ati,e action achie,es this
eCecti,ely.
In some controllers, the deri,ati,e action is also called anticipation
because it is said to predict the future ,alue of the error. 6eri,ati,e action
can cause some problems in actual practice and should be used 2isely. "s
the deri,ati,e action responds to the rate of change of error, there may be
problems 2ith the rapidly changing error signals caused by a noisy
process ,ariable measurement or sporadic set point changes. The
deri,ati,e 2ill beha,e erratically in such cases and may result in unstable
controller performance. Therefore, the practice is to address these
problems by smoothing the process signal to eliminate noise. "pplying the
deri,ati,e action to the process ,ariable rather than the error sol,es the
problem of fast changing set point.
The integral and deri,ati,e controllers are al2ays used in
con@unction 2ith the proportional controller. These are ne,er used
independently. Garlier, ,arious modes of a controller used to be realised
mechanically, pneumatically etc. No2 2e can easily realise them
electronically. *e 2ant to select the proportional, integral and deri,ati,e
gains to get suitable response. (election of these gains is called tuning of
controller. Tuning of controller is time consuming and requires patience.
Today, controllers come equipped 2ith auto tuning features and hence can
be easily tuned.
"nalogue controllers suCer from ageing and drift in ,arious
parameters. "fter certain time, these controllers require calibration. It is a
must in any industry to maintain the controller to assure quality and
consistency of the product. To o,ercome these diOculties, some
manufacturers ha,e introduced digital controllers.
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 28 
:I6 controller is used for controlling almost all process ,ariables like
Temperature, 1o2, pressure, pressure e4perienced in a continuous or
batch process.
PROCEDURE .PI Co!ro""er):
1. (tart up the set up as mentioned in commissioning part abo,e.
2. (elect close loop option for control.
3. (elect :I6 controller. (et the proportional band estimated from
:roportional control. (et deri,ati,e time ! and integral time ! A
sec., 2hich 2ill cut oC the deri,ati,e action and 2iden the eCect of
integral action.
4. (tart data logging. "llo2 the process to reach at steady state.
+ecord the steady state error.
5. =hange the integral time and apply step change to the set point.
+ecord the transient response to the system.
6. +educe the integral time and repeat the abo,e steps.
7. bsing trial and error, select a proportional band and integral time,
2hich gi,es satisfactory response to the step change in set point.
8. "pply step change to the system (.% # X) and obser,e the
response.
9. (top data logging.
10. :roceed further to ne4t e4periment other2ise shut do2n the set up
as mentioned in commissioning part abo,e.
PROCEDURE .PID co!ro"):
1. (tart up the set up as mentioned in commissioning part abo,e.
2. (elect close loop option for control.
3. (elect :I6 controller. (tart 2ith largest integral time and deri,ati,e
time as Wero.
4. (2itch the controller to manual mode.
5. =hange the proportional band to the ,alue that estimated in
proportional controller.
6. (et the set point to a VX.(tart data logging. "llo2 the process to
reach at steady state. +ecord the steady state error.
7. "pply the step change of #X .>bser,e the transient response.
+ecord the data in computer and measure ne2 steady state error.
8. =hange the integral time and obser,e the response of the process
and repeat the abo,e step.
9. bsing trial and error, select a proportional band and integral time,
2hich gi,es satisfactory response to the step change in set point.
10. Take the process ,alue at VX 2ith : H I parameter obtained in the
abo,e steps. (et the deri,ati,e time to a nonWero ,alue and carry
out the abo,e steps for diCerent time ,alues.
11. (top data logging.
12. :roceed further to ne4t e4periment other2ise shut do2n the set up
as mentioned in commissioning part abo,e.
GRAPH:
:lot the graph bet2een time ?s process ,ariable
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 29 
RESULT:
Thus the steady state and transient response for the :roportional
Integral and :roportional Integral 6eri,ati,e =ontroller for the 1o2 control
system 2as obtained.
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. &ist fe2 units of 1o2.
2. 6efne ,ena contacta
3. *hat are the principles of rotameterP
4. 6iCerentiate ,ariable head and ,ariable area 1o2 meters
5. *hat type of control ,al,e is used in 1o2 stationP
6. 6iCerentiate sensors and transducers
7. &ist ,arious 1o2 sensors.
8. *hat type of control action is suitable for 1o2 trainer ) @ustifyP
9. 6efne ,iscosity and 2rite its (I unit.
10. *hat is the purpose of air regulator in 1o2 trainerP
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 30 
EXPT. NO: DATE:
RESPONSE OF PID CONTROLLER FOR A THERMAL PROCESS
AIM:
To study the action of :I6 controller of a temperature control
system.
THEORY:
*hen all three control eCects are combined together, the benefts of
each control action are obtained moreo,er the eCect duplicates the action
of a good human operator on a control application. The three mode
controller contains the \stability] of a proportional control and the ability
to eliminate oCset because of reset (Integral) control and the ability
pro,ide an immediate correction for the magnitude of a disturbance
because of rate (6eri,ati,e) control as sho2n in fgure
PROCEDURE:
1. Qeep the position of the s2itches as sho2n in fgure (i.e. change the
s2itch mode to :I6).
2. Gnsure that the blo2er supply connected to the socket pro,ided at the
back panel is s2itched >N for furnace setup.
3. =onnect the heater element cable to the socket pro,ided at the back
panel and s2itch it >N.
4. =heck 2hether the (=+ supply s2itch is in >N position.
5. Qeep the set ,alue at V degree =elsius by ,arying set ,alue
potentiometer.
6. ?ie2 the process ,ariable by keeping the toggle s2itch in process
,ariable position.
7. ?ie2 the response for diCerent set points.
OBSERVATION:(PID )
'et Po*nt = 
S.NO.
TIME IN
SECS
POSITION
PROCESS
VARIABLE IN
0C
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 31 
GRAPH:
:lot the graph bet2een time ?s :rocess ,ariable.
VIVA –QUESTIONS:
1. 6efne $ysterisis.
2. 6efne (eeback eCect
3. 6efne :eltier GCect
4. 6efne Thomson eCect
5. 6iCerentiate (ensor and Transducer
6. *hat are the types of thermocouple and ho2 2ill you procure a
thermocoupleP
7. =on,ersion formula for celsius to 0arenheit and celsius to Qel,in
8. *hat is process ,ariableP
9. *hat is control ,ariableP
10. *hat is manipulated ,ariableP
11. $o2 2ill you select a controller for a gi,en processP
RESULT:
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 32 
/%s te PI) controller controls te te0&er"t%re control s1ste0
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 33 
EXPT. NO:
DATE:
CLOSED LOOP RESPONSE OF LEVEL CONTROLLER
AIM:
To study the steady state and transient response of :roportional
controller (:) and :roportionalIntegral (:I) of le,el control trainer.
T+eor% *or P=Co!ro""er:
There are many situations in industrial as 2ell as commercial
installations, in 2hich the controller output is continuously required and,
hence, on%oC controllers are not suitable in such locations. $ere, 2e ha,e
to use such controllers in 2hich the output is an analogue ,alue and it is
continuously ad@usted. <ost of the continuous controllers presently use
some combination of proportional, integral and deri,ati,e action.
The control algorithm that generates a linear control output
proportional to de,iation is called proportional action. In proportional
action the amount of change in the measured ,alue (or de,iation) is
e4pressed in percent of span that is required to cause the control output
to change from to # X is called the proportional band. In proportional
controllers, the output is proportional to the error signal and hence, 2e
call them proportional controllers. The output is large for a large error
signal and ,ice ,ersa. There are t2o possibilities. >ne, the output might
increase 2hen the error is positi,e. (econd, the output may decrease
2hen the error is positi,e. In frst case, 2e call the controller as direct
acting and in the other caseD the controller is called re,erse acting. 0or
e4ample, in the case of a tank le,el control, it depends on the location of
control ,al,e. If ,al,e is controlling 1o2 out of the tank, 2e 2ould like that
a positi,e error should increase the control output by opening the ,al,e
and letting more 1uid out of the tank. It 2ill require that 2e should use a
direct acting controller. >n the other hand, if a ,al,e 2ere controlling
in1o2 to the tank, a re,erse acting controller 2ould be used. This
controller 2ould reduce the 1o2 into the tank 2hene,er a high le,el is
obser,ed. The controller output is gi,en by[
P2 $ 6 <
1
e
*here, : is the output,
b is the bias,
k
p
is the proportional gain (! #%:roportional band) and
e is the error signal.
If there is no biasing, output : 2ill become Wero 2hen error is Wero.
$ence biasing is essential for a proportional controller to ha,e some
output 2hen error is Wero. 3iasing decides the ,alue of output 2hen error
is Wero. *hen error has non Wero ,alue, the output 2ill increase. The
controllers may ha,e f4ed bias ,alue in some cases, but in others it may
be mutually ad@ustable. The more the proportional gain, the more 2ill be
the output for a certain change in the e4tent of the control action that 2ill
be generated by a gi,en error signal.
The problem 2ith proportional controllers is that there is al2ays
some diCerence
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 34 
O'SERVATION:
P CONTROLLER: PI
CONTROLLER:
(et point !  mmD : ! X (et point!  mmD p ! XD I
! (ec
In the
set point and process ,ariable. This is also
called oCset. $ence, it requires that some nonWero signal should be
a,ailable to generate the control output necessary to stabilise the process
set point. The control output required to achie,e the set point 2ould ha,e
to be e4actly equal to the bias ,alue for the control to be accurate at the
same point. In other situations, 2e 2ill require a nonWero signal to
generate the appropriate control output. This 2ill result in an oCset as
sho2n in 0ig.B. *e can reduce the oCset by increasing the proportional
gain but it canFt be totally eliminated. If 2e try to eliminate oCset by
increasing gain indefnitely, the output 2ill become oscillatory.
T+eor% *or PI=Co!ro""er:
+efer 0lo2 :I Theory
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
T()e
sec
Process
/#r(#$"e
c)
T()e
s
e
c
Process
/#r(#$"e
c)
 35 
PROCEDURE .P):
1. (tart up the set up as mentioned in commissioning part abo,e.
2. (elect close loop option for control.
3. (et the controller to proportional control (:) mode.
4. "d@ust the output in manual mode, so as to match the process ,alue
2ith set point and apply this output ,alue as bias ,alue to the
controller. =hange the proportional band to #.
5. (2itch the controller to auto mode. (tart data logging.
6. "pply step change to set point , step change should be of 8 to B X.
7. (2itch the controller to manual mode. 6ecrease proportional band to
half of the pre,ious ,alue H then shift controller to auto mode. *ith
each decrease, obtain a ne2 response of the step change. Gnsure that
the set point changes are around the same operating point (8BX only).
8. bsing trial and error method, fnd the ,alue of proportional band so that
the response to a step change has at most one o,ershoot and one
undershoot.
9. (et the controller to the settings obtained in the abo,e step and 2ait
for the system to reach at steady state.
10. (top data logging.
11. :roceed further to ne4t e4periment other2ise shut do2n the set up as
mentioned in commissioning part abo,e.
PROCEDURE .PI):
1. (tart up the set up as mentioned in commissioning part abo,e.
2. (elect c"ose "oo1 option for control from soft2are.
3. "d@ust the process ,alue by changing controller to manual mode to a
particular set point.
4. (elect :I6 controller. (et the proportional band estimated from
:roportional control (: only, from pre,ious e4periment). (tart 2ith
deri,ati,e time! and integral time!Z sec., 2hich 2ill cut oC the
deri,ati,e action and 2iden the eCect of integral action.
5. (et the set point to desired ,alue. (tart data storing in fle. "llo2 the
process to reach at steady state. +ecord the steady state error.
6. =hange the integral time and apply step change to the set point by 8 to
BX. +ecord the transient response to the system.
7. (2itch on the controller to manual mode. +educe the integral time
from the half of the pre,ious and repeat the abo,e steps.
8. bsing trial and error, select an integral time, 2hich gi,es satisfactory
response to the step change in set point.
9. "pply step change to the system (.% 8 X) and obser,e the response.
(top data logging.
10. :roceed further to ne4t e4periment other2ise shut do2n the set up as
mentioned in commissioning part abo,e.
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 36 
Mo0e" Gr#1+:
RESULT:
Thus the steady state and transient response to a Proportional
controller and Proportional Integral controller for the le,el controller
system 2as studied.
VIVA=QUESTIONS:
1. *hat are the units of &e,elP
2. &ist ,arious types of le,el measurement.
3. *hat is the purpose of le,el transmitterP
4. *hat type of sensor is used to pressure le,el in the trainerP
5. 6iCerentiate transmitter and transducer.
6. *hat type of control ,al,e is used in le,el control processP
7. $o2 2ill you select the mode of controller in a le,el process stationP
8. *hat is the need of I ) : con,erter in the stationP
9. Ti,e the initial ad@ustments required to perform a le,el control action.
10. Ti,e practical applications 2here le,el control is being used.
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 37 
EXPT. NO:
DATE:
CLOSED LOOP RESPONSE OF TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER
AIM:
To study steady state and transient response to a :roportional
Integral (:I) and :roportionalIntegral6eri,ati,e (:I6) controller for the
temperature control trainer.
T+eor% *or PI=Co!ro""er:
+efer 0lo2 :I Theory
PROCEDURE:
1. (tart up the set up as mentioned in commissioning part abo,e.
2. (elect c"ose "oo1 option for control from soft2are.
3. "d@ust the process ,alue by changing controller to manual mode to a
particular temperature (set point).
4. (elect :I6 controller. (et the proportional band estimated from
:roportional control (: only, from pre,ious e4periment). (tart 2ith
deri,ati,e time! and integral time!A sec., 2hich 2ill cut oC the
deri,ati,e action and 2iden the eCect of integral action.
5. (et the set point to desired temperature. (tart data storing in fle. "llo2
the process to reach at steady state. +ecord the steady state error.
6. =hange the integral time and apply step change to the set point by 8 to
BX. +ecord the transient response to the system.
7. (2itch on the controller to manual mode. +educe the integral time and
repeat the abo,e steps.
8. bsing trial and error, select an integral time, 2hich gi,es satisfactory
response to the step change in set point.
9. "pply step change to the system (.% # X) and obser,e the response.
(top data logging.
10. :roceed further to ne4t e4periment other2ise shut do2n the set up as
mentioned in commissioning part abo,e.
T+eor% *or PID Co!ro""er:
+efer 0lo2 :I6 Theory
PROCEDURE:
1. (tart up the set up as mentioned in commissioning part abo,e.
2. (elect c"ose "oo1 option for control from soft2are.
3. (elect :I6 controller. (tart 2ith largest integral time and deri,ati,e
time .
4. (2itch the controller to manual mode.
5. =hange the proportional band to the ,alue that estimated in
proportional controller.
6. (et the set point to e R X. (tart data logging. (2itch controller to
auto mode. "llo2 the process to reach steady state.
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 38 
7. "pply the step change of #X in set point. >bser,e the transient
response. <easure ne2 steady state error
8. =hange the integral time and obser,e the response of the process
and repeat the abo,e step.
O'SERVATION:
PI CONTROLLER: PID
CONTROLLER:
(et pt. !  D p ! XD I ! (ec (et pt. !  D p !
XD
I ! (ecD 6 !
(ec
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
Time
s
e
c
:rocess
,ariable
Time
s
e
c
:rocess
,ariable
 39 
9. bsing trial and error, select the proportional band and integral time,
2hich gi,es a satisfactory response to step change in set point.
10. Take the process ,alue at RX 2ith : and I parameters obtained in
the abo,e steps. (et the deri,ati,e time to a nonWero ,alue and
carry out the abo,e steps for diCerent deri,ati,e time ,alues. (top
data logging.
11. :roceed further to ne4t e4periment other2ise shut do2n the set up
as mentioned in commissioning part abo,e.
Mo0e" Gr#1+
RESULT:
Thus the study state and transient response to a :roportional
Integral and :roportional Integral 6eri,ati,e controller for the temperature
control process 2as obtained.
VIVA –QUESTIONS:
1. 6efne $ysterisis.
2. 6efne (eeback eCect.
3. 6efne :eltier GCect.
4. 6efne Thomson GCect.
5. 6iCerentiate (ensor and Transducer.
6. *hat are the types of thermocouple and ho2 2ill you procure a
thermocoupleP
7. =on,ersion formula for =elsius to 0arenheit and =elsius to Qel,in.
8. *hat is process ,ariableP
9. *hat is control ,ariableP
10. *hat is manipulated ,ariableP
11. $o2 2ill you select a controller for a gi,en processP
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 40 
EXPT. NO:
DATE:
CLOSED LOOP RESPONSE OF PRESSURE CONTROLLER
AIM:
To study steady state and transient response to a :roportional
Integral (:I) controller and :roportionalIntegral6eri,ati,e (:I6) =ontroller
for the pressure control system.
T+eor% *or PI=Co!ro""er:
+efer 0lo2 :I Theory
PROCEDURE.PI):
1. (tart up the set up as mentioned in commissioning part abo,e.
2. (elect c"ose "oo1 option for control from soft2are.
3. "d@ust the process ,alue by changing controller to manual mode to
a particular set point.
4. (elect :I6 controller. (et the proportional band estimated from
:roportional control (: only, from pre,ious e4periment). (tart 2ith
deri,ati,e time! and integral time!A sec., 2hich 2ill cut oC
the deri,ati,e action and 2iden the eCect of integral action.
5. (et the set point to desired temperature. (tart data storing in fle.
"llo2 the process to reach at steady state. +ecord the steady state
error.
6. =hange the integral time and apply step change to the set point by
8 to BX. +ecord the transient response to the system.
7. (2itch on the controller to manual mode. +educe the integral time
from the half of the pre,ious and repeat the abo,e steps.
8. bsing trial and error, select an integral time, 2hich gi,es
satisfactory response to the step change in set point.
9. "pply step change to the system (.% 8 X) and obser,e the
response. (top data logging.
10. :roceed further to ne4t e4periment other2ise shut do2n the set up
as mentioned in commissioning part abo,e.
T+eor% *or PID Co!ro""er:
+efer 0lo2 :I6 Theory
PROCEDURE.PID) :
1. (tart up the set up as mentioned in commissioning part abo,e.
2. (elect c"ose "oo1 option for control from soft2are.
3. (elect :I6 controller. (tart 2ith largest integral time and deri,ati,e
time .
4. (2itch the controller to manual mode.
5. =hange the proportional band to the ,alue that estimated in
proportional controller.
6. (et the set point to e R X. (tart data logging. (2itch controller to
auto mode. "llo2 the process to reach steady state.
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 41 
7. "pply the step change of #X in set point. >bser,e the transient
response. <easure ne2 steady state error
8. =hange the integral time and obser,e the response of the process
and repeat the abo,e step.
9. bsing trial and error, select the proportional band and integral time,
2hich gi,es a satisfactory response to step change in set point.
10. Take the process ,alue at RX 2ith : and I parameters obtained in
the abo,e steps. (et the deri,ati,e time to a nonWero ,alue and
carry out the abo,e steps for diCerent deri,ati,e time ,alues. (top
data logging.
11. :roceed further to ne4t e4periment other2ise shut do2n the set up
as mentioned in commissioning part abo,e.
O'SERVATION:
PI CONTROLLER: PID
CONTROLLER:
(et pt. !  D p ! XD I ! (ec (et pt. !  D p !
XD
I !  (ecD 6 !
 (ec
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
T()e
s
e
c
Process
/#r(#$"e
T()e
s
e
c
Process
/#r(#$"e
 42 
Mo0e" Gr#1+:
RESULT:
Thus the steady state and transient response to a Proportional
Integral and Proportional Integral Deri,ati,e controller for a pressure
control system 2as studied.
VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. *hy do 2e select R ) 8 ma and B ) #V psi is being selected as a
standard signal for current and pressureP
2. &ist the specifcations (ma4 ratings) of pressure control trainer.
3. &ist fe2 primary sensing de,ices used for pressure measurements
4. G4press the follo2ing in terms of :(I.
# bar !
# atm pr!
# mm of $g!
# :ascal!
5. 6efne :(I
6. *hich type of gauge is used to measure ,acuum pressureP
7. *hat type of pressure gauge is used in pressure stationP
8. *hat is the purpose of air regulator in a pressure stationP
9. (tate 2hether a control ,al,e is a acti,e or passi,e de,ice  @ustify
10. *hat is the operating pressure required for the pressure control
trainerP
11. (pecify the types of pressure gauges that can be used to measure
lo2, mid and high range of pressures.
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 43 
EXPT. NO:
DATE:
TUNING OF LEVEL CONTROLLER USING M – N METHOD
AIM:
To tune the :I6 controller using Siegler ) Nichols tuning rules for a
le,el process station.
THEORY:
C"ose0 Loo1 Me!+o0:
This method is also called as ultimate gain method. The term
ultimate 2as attached to this method because its use requires the
determination of the ultimate proportional band and ultimate period. The
ultimate proportional band, :3u is the minimum allo2able ,alue of
proportional band (for a controller 2ith only proportional mode) for 2hich
the system continuously oscillating at constant amplitude. The ultimate
period, Tu is the period of response 2ith the proportional band set to its
ultimate ,alue. To determine the ultimate proportional band and ultimate
period the proportional band of the controller (2ith all integral and
deri,ati,e action turned oC) is gradually reduced until the process cycles
continuously.
Res1ose c&r/e *or &"!()#!e ,#( #0 1er(o0
The process is placed in the closed loop 2ith a proportional
controller. The proportional gain is increased (:roportional band is
decreased) until the process goes to continuous oscillations. The
corresponding ,alue of proportional band is called as ultimate proportional
band :3u and the period of oscillation is called the ultimate period Tu. The
:I6 controller parameters are selected from the follo2ing table.
=ontroller settings for diCerent controllers from abo,e fgure are
calculated as follo2s.
<ode :roportional Integral 6eri,ati,e
: 8 :3u
: . I 8.8 :3u Tu%#.8
: . I . 6 #.AV :3u .V Tu Tu%U.
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 44 
PROCEDURE:
1. (elect closed loop control. (elect : controller only. (et controller to
auto mode. (et the proportional band ,alue to ma4imum ((ay 8).
(et the controller to manual mode and ad@ust the output so that the
process for at a steady state le,el. (tart data logging.
2. (et controller to auto mode and impose upset on the process by
mo,ing the set point for a fe2 seconds H then return to its original
,alue (or apply the step change to the set point of 8X). *ait for some
time H obser,e the response.
3. (2itch the controller to manual mode and decrease the proportional
band to the half of pre,ious and upset the process as mentioned
abo,e. "nd s2itch the controller to auto mode. *ait for some time H
obser,e the response.
4. +epeat the abo,e procedure until the system @ust goes unstable i.e.
continuous oscillations are obser,ed in the output of controller.
5. +ecord the ultimate gain and ultimate period from the response.
6. =alculate the :I6 ,alues from the table. (elect the :I6 controller and
apply the parameter ,alues obtained from the abo,e steps.
7. <easure the characteristics of the step response as sho2n in abo,e
fgure and calculate the :I6 controller settings from table.
8. >bser,e the response of the process to a step change.
9. =alculate the :I6 ,alues from the table.
10. Tabulate the :I6 ,alues estimated from the >pen loop method and
closed loop method for a particular set point.
11. =ompare the ,alues obtained from both methods and comment on the
transient response of the system to a set point change and to a load
change.
(:! D
:b! D
(: ! D Qp
! D Ti !
DTd!
D
RESULT:
Thus
the tuning of :I6
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
Time
(ec
:rocess
,ariable
=m
Time
sec
:rocess
,ariable
=m
 45 
controller by close loop method 2as determined and its response 2as
plotted.
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 46 
EXPT. NO: DATE:
RESPONSE OF CASCADE CONTROL SYSTEM
AIM:
To study the cascade control trainer using ?"6#R.
THEORY:
The feedback control confguration in,ol,es one measurement and
one manipulated ,ariable in a single loop. There are ho2e,er other simple
control confguration 2hich may use more than one measurement and one
manipulation or one measurement and more than one manipulation
,ariable. In such cases control systems 2ith multiple loops may arise. "
typical e4ample is cascade control.
In cascade control there is the manipulated ,ariables and more than
one measurement. The confguration of the cascade control is sho2n in
fgure.
PROCEDURE:
1. Initially 2hen the unit is s2itched >N, check if the compressed
pressure is # :(I.
2. Then ad@ust the air regulator to sho2 8 :(I.
3. No2 s2itch >N the pump and ad@ust the ,al,e at the process tank to
open position.
4. No2 s2itch >N the computer and in,oke the cascade controller
soft2are.
5. 3y default, you 2ill be 2orking in :I6 controller mode of operation.
6. "d@ust the parameter by clicking the parameters button in the
menu.
7. ?ie2 the output response in the system.
8. If you 2ant to gi,e disturbance, ad@ust the ,alue at the con,ersion
to required point.
GRAPH:
:lot the graph bet2een time ?s process ,ariable.
RESULT:
Thus the cascade control trainer has been studied.
VIVA –QUESTIONS:
1. *hat is cascade control systemP
2. &ist ad,antage of cascade control o,er con,entional control.
3. *hat is feed for2ard controlP
4. (tate 2hether feedback control system is superior than feed for2ard )
@ustify.
5. (tate 2hether feed for2ard control alone can be used to control a
process. <ention its reason.
6. &ist the inputs and outputs of the transmitter used in cascade control
system
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 47 
7. *hat are the t2o sensing de,ices used in our cascade control systemP
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 48 
O'SERVATION:
(et point ! cmD kp8 ! D kpf! Dki8 ! Dkif ! Dk
d
!
.
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
T()e
sec
Process /#r(#$"e
)
9
>sec
 49 
EA1.N;. DATE:
RATIO AND FEEDFORFARD CONTROL SYSTEM
AIM:
To tune the +atio and 0eed for2ard =ontrol (ystem.
PROCEDURE:
For Fee0 ForJ#r0 Co!ro" S%s!e):
f If the tappings of orifce placed in the process tank outlet line are short
circuited
by a :b tube loop, remo,e the loop. =onnect pressure signal tappings of
this orifce to 0T8 2ith proper polarity.
f (hort circuit the pressure tappings of orifce placed in the :ump8 line,
(i.e. at the
outlet of the middle rotameter).
f (2itch on :ump# and ad@ust the +otameter# (e4treme right) to
#&:$.
f +emo,e entrapped air, if any from the 0T8. 0or remo,ing air open the
,ent ,al,es on the 6: transmitter.
f (2itch on the computer and ensure <>63b( communication is
initialiWed by
e4ecuting *onder2are 0actory(uite g I> (er,ers g <odicon <odbus)
f G4ecute :rograms g *onder2are g InTouch for “<ulti :rocess trainer
"6"<
R88T” (elect all in *indo2s to open and =lick \+untime].
f 0or selecting 0eed 0or2ard e4periment[ =lick \G4periment >n]D =lick
\G4periment oC]. Then =lick \0eed 0or2ard]
f =lose the drain ,al,e of the tank. >pen +otameter8 and ad@ust 1o2 to
V &:$.
0rom the default ,alues of (:!V, :3!8, IT!B, 6T!8, 00!# obser,e the
response of the system. Note for 00! the loop is purely feed back loop.
f *ith 0eed for2ard factor !# apply load disturbance by changing the
output 1o2
rotameter.>bser,e the eCect of feed for2ard on &I= output and on process
,ariable.
For R#!(o Co!ro" S%s!e):
f If the tappings of orifce placed in the second inlet 1o2 line to the
process tank are short circuited by a :b tube loop, remo,e the loop.
=onnect pressure signal tappings of this orifce to 0T8 2ith proper polarity.
f (hort circuit the pressure tappings of orifce placed in the outlet line of
the process tank. (i.e. at the inlet of the left rotameter).
f (2itch on both pumps and ad@ust the rotameter no. B (middle) and
rotameter no.
# (right) to # &:$. +emo,e air entrapped, if any, from the 0T8. 0or
remo,ing
air open the ,ent ,al,es on the 6: transmitter.
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 50 
f (2itch on the computer and ensure <>63b( communication is
initialiWed by
e4ecuting *onder2are 0actory(uite g I> (er,ers g <odicon <odbus)
f G4ecute :rograms g *onder2are g InTouch for “<ulti :rocess trainer
"6"<
R88T” (elect all in *indo2s to open and =lick \+untime].
f 0or selecting +atio =ontrol[ =lick \G4periment >n]D =lick \G4periment
oC]. Then
=lick \ +atio =ontrol]
f "d@ust +otameter no.B to e U &:$.
f 0rom the default ,alues of :3!ZV, IT!U, 6I!8, +atio (et (+()!#,
obser,e that
the 1o2 in rotameter no.# is automatically ad@usted and become equal to
that of
rotameter no.B.
f <anipulate the 1o2 in +otameter no. B and obser,e the eCect on
+otameter no.#.
f =hange the ratio (range .V8) and obser,e the eCect.
O$ser/#!(os
For Fee0 ForJ#r0 Co!ro" S%s!e):
3ecause of the feed for2ard loop the controller responds immediately to
the
disturbance before the process ,alue is aCected. The fnal correction is
done by :I6
control loop.
"ny error obser,ed in the 1o2 measurement (due to manufacturing
inaccuracies or
air in signal lines or 6: calibration) has no impact on controlling.
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).
 51 
RESULT:
Thus the tuning of :I6 controller by close loop method 2as
determined and its response 2as plotted
Process Co!ro" L#$or#!or% M#&#" – '##r( A))# Is!(!&!e o* Tec+o"o,%
S#!+%#)#,#"#).