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[CHAPTER NO 03] Physiography

3.1 Introduction
The study area soon valley is in the north west of Khushab
District, Punjab, Pakistan. Its largest settlement is the town of
Naushera. The valley etends from the village of Padhrar to !akesar,
the highest "eak in the !alt #ange. The valley is $% miles &%' km( long
and has an average width of ) miles &*+ km(. It covers a $,,-s.uare-
mile &/0, km
( area.
3.2 Relief
2entral salt range area has moderate relief.!akesar is the
highest "eak in the area.3hile eastern salt range has high relief. The
"eak of 4ount !akesar is at %,,*, feet &*,%$, m( above sea level.It
was once the summer head.uarters
&now 5ttock(, 4ianwali and !hah"ur &now !argodha(. It is the only
mountain in this "art of the Punjab which receives snowfall in winter.
3.3 Population
There are total $* villages in the area. 4ain villages are khura,
6chhala, 7abbah, Kufri, 4ardwal, 2hitta, !urrakhi, 5nga !irhal, 6chali,
!odhi 8ala, !odhi 9aren, Dhaka. These are "resent at a distance of 1),
km from Islamabad and at a distance of $,, km from :ahore and at
distance of *1, km from !argodha.
3.4 Drainage
The dsrainage is mostly dendritic to "arallel and generally
controlled by structure. These run along the conjugate shear fractures
that strikes N ', 3, N +, ;, to N %, ;.
3.5 Soil/ Alluvium
The area consists of sedentary soil < residual soil that occurs at
the hill to"s and is formed due to in-situ weathering. Trans"orted soils
are also "resent in the area in valleys. These are the soils that are
trans"orted through di=erent agents such as streams and "rovide
[CHAPTER NO 03] Physiography
leveled soil "atches for cultivation of di=erent cro"s 5lluvium is >lled in
the synclinal de"ressions, which is carried and de"osited "hysically by
water. This alluvium is the main source for cultivation.
Fig 3.1 ?eneral Physiogra"hy of the study area showing relief,
[CHAPTER NO 03] Physiography
Fig 3.2 ?eneral relief in study area&sakesar limestone(
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Fig 3.3. Pa"ulation in study area in naushehra
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Fig 3.4 5lluvium in study area
3.! "egetation
The area is vegetated and contains many ty"es of cro"s for both
summer and also in winter seasons. The vegetation of salt range
com"rises both legumes and non-legumes. :egumes have ca"acity to
ca"ture nitrogen from the soil atmos"here, this allows cro"s to
maintain "roductivity with out de"letion of soil nitrogen and sometimes
can grow under situations where soil nitrogen levels are very low and
where growth for other "lants would not be "ossible.
[CHAPTER NO 03] Physiography
Fig 3.5 @egetation in study area in khura,naushehra
3.# $ater and %a&e'.
:ake 6chhali is a "ictures.ue salt water lake in the southern !alt
#ange overlooked by mount !akaser, the highest mountain in the !alt
#ange. Its brackish water means that its waters are lifeless. :ake
Khabikki is also a salt water lake in the southern !alt #ange. It is one
kilometer wide and two kilometres long. Khabikki is also the name of a
neighbouring village. These lakes attract thousands of migratory birds
each year including rare white-headed ducks &Ayura leucoce"hala(
from 2entral 5sia.
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Fig 3.! B 7halar lake in study area
Fig3.# 6chali lake in study area
3.( $eat)ering
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There are di=erent styles of weathering "resent in our study area
de"ending u"on the lithology and relief. Karren structure &solution
weathering in !akesar :imestone(, s"heriodal weathering in Kamlial.
3.* Field +rop'
The >eld cro"s of the study area include 3heat, 2hick"ea and
:entil etc.
3.1, River
The main river Cow in the ;astern !alt #ange is the 7helum #iver,
and all the other nalas Cowing in the area falls in it.
3.11 Rainfall
The average yearly rainfall is /,-0,mm for salt range. The area
lie within the limits of monsoons and receive maimum rainfall in 7uly
and 5ugust. In December , 7anuary and Debruary there is little rainfall
month of 5"ril, November and Actober are almost show the dryer
season of that area
3.12 -emperature
4ay - 7une !ummers 4in *% to 11 2 4a 10 to $0. Nov - Deb
winters 4in -$ to -+ 2 4a ' to 11 2.The climate of area is almost semi-
humid and sub-tro"ical with hot to moderate summers and severe
Due to highest altitudes and "resence of !akesar "eak , tem" is usually
less in summers as com"are to adjoining "lain areas and eceeds ++
c . During winter tem" usually between , to 1$ c.
3.13 -errace'
5 terrace is a ste"-like landform that borders a shoreline or a land
sca"e. Terraces are remanents of former channel of stream that now
has succeeded in cutting its way down to lower level. It is to"ogra"hic
surface that marks former valley Coor levels.Terraces are common in
the study area.
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3.14 Saddle
!addle is a su""ortive structure for a rider or other load, fastened
to an animalEs back by a girth. In geology it is used due to its
resemblance with the geomor"hic feature. !addles are common in the
study area.

3.15 People
The main tribe of the area is the 5wan of ancient re"ute. This
tribe came in this area with Futab !hah and settled in the !oon valley.
The other sub branches and small tribes are !hehal, 5rdaal, 4irwal,
5driyal, !henaal in Kufri, :atifal, 7urwal, #adhnal, !heraal in Naushehra,
Pirkal in 7allay wali, 4ajhial in 4ardwal, 8aGral,
2hhatal,?hadhyal,Phatal,Hakial, 4aswal in 6galisharif, Phatwal and
8hojo khail, !heral, 4ianwaddal in 5nga ,7anial, !herwal,#hamtal in
6chali #ehan of Dera Kasan 3ala near Kathwai. 8ulkiyal, Noorkhanal,
!her !hahal in Khabbaki and so on. In the valley 5wanEs are known by
their clans. In old time the head of clan in each village was known as
#aees, and the head of a tribe was known as #aees-5Gam.
3.1! -ran'portation.
!oon @alley is accessible through "ublic trans"ort from Islamabad
&41 8alkasar Interchange(, :ahore &41 Kalar Kahar Intrechange(,
!argodha , Khushab and 4ianwali . It is about 1 and half hours from
Khushab, from Islamabad side you enter in valley by jaba road through
3.1# %ocation'
[CHAPTER NO 03] Physiography
!oon!akesar is a wonderland located in the heart of Pakistan and
has uni.ue geogra"hical features that eists very rare in the world
which are its closed drainage "atterns that lead to the formation of
6chhali, Khabeki and 7ahlar :akes. !oon!akesar valley was called as
Koh-e-7odh in ancient times and is the most beautiful "art of !alt
#ange. It is a valley of :akes and s"rings, :ush green fertile >elds,
@ersatile mountains, 5maGing landsca"e, Dense mied forests,
!anctuaries of wildlife, 8rave "eo"les of high traditions.