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aspx

General Statistics

Analysis of Variance - ANOVA

Comparing more than 2 population means

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical test used to determine if more than two

population means are equal.

The test uses the F-distribution (probability distribution) function and information

about the variances of each population (within)

and grouping of populations (between) to help decide if variability between and

within each populations are significantly different.

So the method of A!"A test the hypotheses that#

H0# or

Ha# ot all the means are equal

1. no! the purpose of the analysis of "ariance test.

The analysis of variance (A!"A) test statistics is used to test if more than $

population means are equal.

2. no! the #ifference $et!een the !ithin-sample estimate of the "ariance an#

the $et!een-sample estimate of the "ariance

an# ho! to calculate them.

%hen comparing two or more populations there are several ways to estimate the

variance.

The !ithin-sample or treatment "ariance or variation is the average of the all the

variances for each population and is an estimate of

whether the null hypothesis& H

0

is true or not.

& for ' ( ) to *& where * is the number of samples or populations.

%&le# +iven , populations with sample variances# 2.0' 2.2' 2.()' 2.*1 an# 2.*)& the

within standard deviation is#

The !ithin-sample variance is often called the une&plaine# "ariation.

The $et!een-sample "ariance or error is the average of the square variations of each

population mean from the mean

or all the data (Gran# +ean& ) and is a estimate of only if the null

hypothesis& H

0

is true.

%hen the null hypothesis is false this variance is relatively large and by comparing it

with the within-sample variance

we can tell statistically whether H

0

is true or not.

The $et!een-sample variance is associated with the e&plaine# "ariation of our

e-periment.

%&le# +iven the means of , samples# 210' 212' 21(' 21* an# 21*&

Then another estimate of the sample variance of the means is#

for ' ( ) to *& where * is the number of samples or populations.

Sample Sample

mean

,1-

, -

+ean -

Gran#

+ean ,2-

, -

Sum of

S.uare

, -

2

,(-

1 $). ) /.0/

2 $)$ $ ..1/

( $)1 1 ..)/

* $)2 2 ).3/

) $)2 , ).3/

A"erage

,1- /$)$./

0otal ,(-

/)).$

Gran# +ean& ( $)$./& * ( ,& and s

2

4

(between) ( ( )

$

5 (*-)) ( )).$ 5 2 ( 2.1

%hen the null hypothesis& H

0

is true the within-sample variance and the between-

sample variance will be about the same6

however& if the between-sample variance is much larger than the within& we would

re'ect H

0

.

7f the data from both e-amples above are from the same , samples or populations then

a ratio of both estimates of the variance

would give the following#

This ratio has a 2-#istri$ution.

(. no! the properties of an 2 3istri$ution.

There is an infinite number of F-8istribution based on the combination of alpha

significance level&

the degree of freedom (#f

1

) of the within-sample variance and the degree of freedom

(#f

1

) of the between-sample variance.

The F-8istribution is the ratio of the between-sample estimate of and the within-

sample estimate#

7f there are 4 number of population and n number of data values of the all the sample&

then the degree of freedom of the within-sample variance& #f

1

/ 4 -1 and

the degrees of freedom of the between-sample variance is given has #f

2

/ n - 4.

The graph of an F probability distribution starts a . and e-tends indefinitely to the

right.

7t is s*ewed to the right similar to the graph shown below.

2-3istri$ution Graphs5

*. no! ho! sum of s.uares relate to Analysis of Variance.

9emember bac* in Chapter ( ,6egression- we introduced the concept that the total

sum of squares

is equal to the sum of the e-plained and une-plained variation6 this section is an

e-tension of that discussion.

0otal Variation / %&plaine# Variation

7 8ne&plaine# Variation.

Sum of S.uares

The sum of squares for the $et!een-sample variation is either given by the

symbol SS9 (sum of squares between)

or SS06 (sum of squares for treatments) and is the e&plaine# "ariation.

To calculate SS9 or SS06& we sum the squared deviations of the sample treatment

means from the grand mean

and multiply by the number of observations for each sample.

The sum of squares for the !ithin-samplevariation is either given by the

symbol SS: (sum of square within)

or SS% (sum of square for error).

To calculate the SS% we first obtained the sum of squares for each sample and then

sum them.

The Total Sum of Squares& SS0O / SS9 7 SS:

The $et!een-sample "ariance& & where 4 is the number of samples or

treatment and is often

called the +ean S.uare 9et!een& &

The !ithin-sample "ariance& & where n is the total number of observations

in all the samples is often

called the +ean S.uare :ithin or +ean S.uare %rror& &

%&les :ompute the SS9' SS% an# SS0O for the following samples#

6o!s' i 0reatment of samples ; ( ) to

*)& * ( 1

Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample (

1 << 1( 10

2 <= =1 12

( 1< =* 1>

* 1) 11 1)

) <1 1) 10

;ean 81.2 88.2 82.6

+rand

;ean&

1*

Sum of S.uare :or4sheet

6o!s' i 0reatment of samples ; ( ) to *)& * ( 1

SS ,Column

1-

SS ,Column

2-

SS ,Column

(-

1 ,<<-11.2-

2

/ 1

<.>*

,1(-11.2-

2

/ 2

<.0*

,10-12.>-

2

/ >

.<>

2 ,<=-11.2-

2

/ * ,=1-11.2-

2

/ < ,12-12.>-

2

/ 0

.1* .1* .(>

( ,1<-11.2-

2

/ (

(.>*

,=*-11.2-

2

/ (

(.>*

,1>-12.>-

2

/ 1

1.)>

* ,1)-11.2-

2

/ 1

*.**

,11-11.2-

2

/ 0

.0*

,1)-12.>-

2

/ )

.<>

) ,<1-11.2-

2

/ 1

0.2*

,1)-11.2-

2

/ 1

0.2*

,10-12.>-

2

/ >

.<>

SS' (:ol) 80.8 78.8 31.2

Sample

si<e& nj

5 5 5

SS: / SS% ( ( 10.1 7 <1.1 7 (1.2 ( 1=0.1

SS9 / SS06 ( ( ,=(>).$ - 1*)

$

? (>>.$ - 1*)

$

? (>$./ - 1*)

$

@ (1(<.2

+S9 ( and +S: ( +S% (

2 (

). no! ho! to construct an ANOVA 0a$le.

The various statistics computed from the analysis of variance above can be

summari<ed in an A!"A Table

as shown below# These summaries are then used to draw inference about the various

samples or treatments of which we are studying.

ANOVA 0a$le - 9asic layout5

Source Sum of

S.uares

,SS-

3egree of

2ree#om

,#f-

+ean

S.uare

2-

Statistics

?-

"alue

9et!een

Samples

,%&plaine#-

SSB k-1 MSB=

F=

Value

from

0a$le

:ithin SSE n-k MSE=

Samples

,8ne&plaine#-

0otal SSTO n-1

The A!"A table is easily constructed from the ANOVA program by entering each

observations for each sample in

appropriate columns and deleting any division by . in selected regions of the program.

For the data above the A!"A table is#

>. no! ho! to interpret the #ata in the ANOVA ta$le against the null

hypothesis.

The A!"A table program computes the necessary statistics for evaluating the null

hypothesis that

the means are equal# H

0

# .

Ase the degrees of freedom and an alpha significance level to obtain the e-pected F-

8istribution statistics

from the loo4up ta$le or from the ANOVA program.

Acceptance Criteria for the Null Hypothesis5

7f the F-statistics computed in the A!"A table is less than the F-table statistics or

the B-value if greater than the alpha level of significance& then there is not reason to

re'ect the null hypothesis

that all the means are the same#

That is accept H0 if# 2-Statistics @ 2-

ta$le or ?-"alue A alpha.

For the e-ample above we would re;ect the null hypothesis at the ,C significance

level and conclude

that the means are not equal since F-Stat > F-Table.

<. no! the proce#ure for testing the null hypothesis that the mean for more

than t!o populations are e.ual.

Step 1 - Formulate Dypotheses#

H

0

# and

H

a

# ot all the means are equal

Step 2. Select the 2-Statistics 0est for equality of more than two means

Step (. !btain or decide on a significance level for alpha& say

Step *. :ompute the test statistics from the ANOVA ta$le .

Step ). 7dentify the critical 9egion# The region of re'ection of H

0

is obtained from

the 2-ta$le with alpha and degrees of freedom (*-)& n-*).

Step >. ;a*e a decision#

That is accept H

0

if# 2-Statistics @ 2-ta$le or ?-"alue A alpha.

:or4sheet for Computing Analysis of Variance Statistics5

6o!s' i 0reatment of samples ; ( ) to *

Sum of

S.uare

'()

Sum of

S.uare

;/2

Sum of

S.uare

;/(

Sum of

S.uare

;/*

Sum of

S.uare

;/)

1

2

(

*

)

>

<

1

=

10

11

12

1(

1*

SS' (:olumn

Total)

Sample

si<e& nj

SS: / SS% ( (

SS9 / SS06 ( (

ANOVA 0a$le

Source Sum of

S.uares

,SS-

3egree of

2ree#om

,#f-

+ean

S.uare

2-

Statistics

?-

"alue B

2-

0a$le

9et!een

Samples

,%&plaine#-

SS9/ 4-1/

+S9/

/

2/ /

:ithin

Samples

,8ne&plaine#-

SS%/ n-4/

+S%/

/

0otal

SS0O/ n-1/

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