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How does a T1 line work?

Most of us are familiar with a normal business or residential line from the phone
company. A normal phone line like this is delivered on a pair of copper wires (see
How Telephones Work) that transmit your voice as an analog signal (see How
Analog and igital !ecording Works for details). When you use a normal modem on
a line like this" it can transmit data at perhaps #$ kilobits per second (#$"$$$ bits
per second).
The phone company moves nearly all voice traffic as digital rather than analog
signals. %our analog line gets converted to a digital signal by sampling it &"$$$
times per second at &'bit resolution (()"$$$ bits per second). *early all digital data
now flows over fiber optic lines" and the phone company uses different designations
to talk about the capacity of a fiber optic line.
+f your office has a T, line" it means that the phone company has brought a fiber
optic line into your office (a T, line might also come in on copper). A T, line can
carry -) digiti.ed voice channels" or it can carry data at a rate of ,./)) megabits
per second. +f the T, line is being used for telephone conversations" it plugs into the
office0s phone system. +f it is carrying data it plugs into the network0s router.
A T, line can carry about ,1-"$$$ bytes per second '' roughly ($ times more data
than a normal residential modem. +t is also e2tremely reliable '' much more reliable
than an analog modem. epending on what they are doing" a T, line can generally
handle 3uite a few people. 4or general browsing" hundreds of users are easily able
to share a T, line comfortably. +f they are all downloading M5# files or video files
simultaneously it would be a problem" but that still isn0t e2tremely common.
A T, line might cost between 6,"$$$ and 6,"/$$ per month depending on who
provides it and where it goes. The other end of the T, line needs to be connected to
an +75 (see How the +nternet Works)" and the total cost is a combination of the fee
the phone company charges and the fee the +75 charges.
A large company needs something more than a T, line. The following table shows
some of the common line designations8
• 7$ ' () kilobits per second
• +7* ' Two 7$ lines plus signaling (,( kilobytes per second)" or ,-&
kilobits per second
• T, ' ,./)) megabits per second (-) 7$ lines)
• T# ' )#.-#- megabits per second (-& T,s)
• 9:# ' ,// megabits per second (&) T,s)
• 9:,- ' (-- megabits per second () 9:#s)
• 9:)& ' -./ gigabits per seconds () 9:,-s)
• 9:,1- ' 1.( gigabits per second () 9:)&s)
Here are three interesting links8