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Bridge Team Management

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Bridge Team Management
The Bridge Operations Programme
Backgro!nd to the "arine Operations Center
Chapter 1-Bridge Team Management
TEA" "ANA$E"ENT(Training and Coaching()ell*eing("orale
E%%O% C+A,NS(,ndications(Am*ig!it-('istraction(,nade.!ac-/
Conf!sion(Comm!nications Breakdown(,mproper Conn(
Non Compliance with Plan(Proced!ral 0iolation
CAS&A1T,ES AN' CA&SES(1ack of 'o!*le )atch(ins!fficient
Personnel(Calling the "aster(1ooko!ts("anning the )heel(
A!topilot Changeo2er(%ed!cing Speed
$%O&N',N$S AN' CA&SES(Planned Track(Track "onitoring
Track %egain('o!*le Check i3ing(0is!al i3ing(Echo(So!nder(
1ight ,dentification('ecision Corro*oration
B%,'$E O%$AN,SAT,ON(,ndi2id!al %ole
Chapter 2-Passage Appraisal
,nformation So!rces(Ocean Passages(Coastal Passages
Chapter 3-Passage Planning
No(go Areas("argins of Safet-(Safe )ater(Ocean Tracks(
Coastal Tracks(Chart Change('istance Off
'e2iation from Track
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Bridge Team Management
&nderkeel Clearance(Tidal )indow(Stream Allowance
Co!rse Alteration()heel(O2er
Parallel ,nde3ing(A%PA "apping()a-points
Position i3ing(Primar- and Secondar- i3ing(Conspic!o!s
O*5ects(1andfall 1ights(i3 re.!enc- 6 %eg!larit-
Additional ,nformation(%eporting Points(Anchor Clearance(
Pilot Boarding(T!g Engagement(Traffic
S,T&AT,ONA1 A)A%ENESS(Transits(Compass Error(
1eading 1ines(Clearing "arks(Clearing Bearings
%AN$E O 1,$+TS($eographical(1!mino!s(Nominal(
1andfall 1ights(E3treme %ange(Echo So!nder
,NO%"AT,ON(O2ercrowding(Planning Book(Conning Notes
"ASTE%S APP%O0A1(Plan Changes
Chapter 4-Ee!"ting the Plan
TACT,CS(ETA for Tide(ETA for 'a-light(Traffic Conditions(
ETA at 'estination(Tidal Stream 6 C!rrent(Plan "odification
A'',T,ONA1 PE%SONNE1(Briefing(atig!e
P%EPA%AT,ON(for 0o-age(of Bridge
Chapter #-M$nit$ring the %hip&s Pr$gress
,7,N$("ethod(0is!al Bearings(re.!enc-(%eg!larit-(
OBSE%0AT,ON(&nderkeel Clearance()a-points(Transits(
1eading 1ines(Nat!ral 1eading 1ines(Clearing "arks and Bearings(
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Bridge Team Management
'ipping 'istances(1ight Sectors
Chapter '-Team($r)
Single )atchkeeper(with 1ooko!t(+elmsman("aster on Bridge(
Additional Officer
Chapter *-Na+igating (ith a Pil$t $n B$ard
%esponsi*ilities(Planning(,nformation E3change("onitoring
Chapter ,-A"t$mati$n $- Bridge %.stems
Anne 1-IM0 %TC1 C$n+enti$n Reg"lati$ns
Anne 2-Charts and their !$rre!ti$n
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Bridge Team Management
Chapter I
The aim of the pr!dent mariner is to ens!re that their ship reaches its destination safel- and
efficientl-9 To do this consistentl- demands a le2el of skill which is not eas- to .!antif-
*!t which needs to *ecome part of the maritime c!lt!re: for there are a*o!t 8;:;;; ships
trading internationall-: each one sharing this common o*5ecti2e9
1ike all knowledge(*ased skills: *ridge watchkeeping and na2igation re.!ire practice:
s!pport and reaffirmation9 1eft !nattended the- can *ecome cas!al9 The actions taken on
the *ridge ma- *e !ncritical and the interchange of information *etween the "aster and the
watchkeeping officers lapses into a working relationship where ass!mptions are made
witho!t *eing 2erified9
)hen *ridge operations are loosel- organi<ed the impression can *e gi2en that things will
*e all right9 +owe2er: when the !ne3pected occ!rs: conf!sion arises9 ,t *ecomes more
diffic!lt to make decisions and the possi*ilit- e3ists for an error of 5!dgement: which might
lead to an accident9
An accident *- its nat!re is !ne3pected: *!t most accidents occ!r *eca!se there is no
s-stem in operation to detect and conse.!entl- pre2ent one person making a mistake(a
mistake of the t-pe all h!man *eings are lia*le to make9
This *ook on *ridge team management addresses this iss!e *- e3plaining how to prepare
for safe well(planned na2igation: which is directed *- the "aster: officers and crew in s!ch
a wa- that the ship is alwa-s cond!cted !nder positi2e control: s!pported *- the pilot when
one is taken9
,t ma- *e arg!ed that the methods *eing p!t forward in the *ook are too demanding !pon
manpower or that there is ins!fficient time to plan the ne3t 2o-age properl-9 Alternati2el-:
it ma- *e stated that the tasks to *e performed are essential: *!t the reso!rces are not
a2aila*le9 This disc!ssion cannot *e resol2ed thro!gh opinions9 The- differ widel-9 The
iss!es can onl- *e resol2ed *- assessing the re.!irements to ens!re na2igational safet- and
p!tting in place a s-stem to meet those re.!irements9
Bridge team management is th!s more than a concept9 ,t is the implementation of a wa- of
working which recogni<es that relia*le and consistent standards can onl- *e maintained if
na2igation is *ased !pon so!nd principles and reinforced *- effecti2e Organi<ation9 ,n this
conte3t it is !p to all ships= officers to make the *est possi*le !se of a2aila*le reso!rces:
*oth h!man and material: to achie2e the s!ccessf!l completion of the 2o-age9
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Bridge Team Management
,t is tr!e that modern electronic s-stems can *e !sed to a!tomate *ridge tasks and there*-
alter the *alance of d!ties performed on the *ridge9 +owe2er: this *alance depends !pon
s-stems design: relia*ilit- and the knowledge of the officers to !se it properl-9
Ass!mptions m!st not *e taken for granted9 The s-stems integrit- m!st *e assimilated into
the *ridge Organi<ation so that there is no possi*ilit- of an !ndetected error occ!rring9
All mem*ers of the team ha2e a part to pla- in this9 The title =Team "anagement=
!nderstates the interaction re.!ired within the team for s!ch a s-stem to work9 ,t does not
refer to an act of management *- one person *!t a contin!o!s adaptation of all the team
mem*ers to f!lfil the team roles that the- ha2e *een assigned9
To achie2e good res!lts consistentl-: there are a n!m*er of factors: which ha2e to *e
addressed: nota*l- those concerning technical knowledge and skills and also the
re.!irements of the more traditional man(management or =people= skills in2ol2ed in the
de2elopment of h!man reso!rces9
,n looking at the technical skills: consideration m!st *e gi2en to the techni.!es in2ol2ed in
preparing for and cond!cting the proposed 2o-age9
The skills concerning the de2elopment of h!man reso!rces are co2ered in depth in other
p!*lications9 The *asic principles of good comm!nication and man management are:
howe2er: important to the smooth and efficient r!nning of an- team: not 5!st on the *ridge
of a ship9 )ith c!rrent ship manning policies these skills m!st *e de2eloped to o2ercome
c!lt!ral *o!ndaries as well as those of a more traditional hierarchical rank str!ct!re9
Training and !$a!hing
The a*ilit- to do a 5o* well depends: to some e3tent: on the .!alit- of the training a person
has recei2ed9 A poorl- moti2ated trainer will often prod!ce a poorl- moti2ated trainee9 )e
all spend a great part of o!r li2es either imparting knowledge to others or *eing on the
recei2ing end of s!ch knowledge9 This starts when we are 2er- -o!ng and contin!es: no
matter what o!r chosen 2ocation: thro!gho!t o!r li2es9 Proportionall-: 2er- little of this is
cond!cted in the formal atmosphere of a learning esta*lishment: most learning taking place
at mother=s knee or in the workplace9 As s!ch we are all teachers and we sho!ld not *e sh-
of passing on knowledge when re.!ired9
The methods of passing on knowledge are man- and 2ario!s9 The- ma- *e split into two
main gro!ps training and coaching9 These differ slightl- in concept9 Training a person
in2ol2es instr!cting them in the e3ec!tion of 2ario!s tasks or proced!res to a re.!ired
standard9 Coaching: howe2er: in2ol2es the de2elopment of e3isting a*ilities thro!gh
delegation and monitoring9 ,t is a fine line *etween delegation for coaching p!rposes and
a*rogation of one=s responsi*ilities?
Care sho!ld *e taken to a2oid delegating at too earl- a stage of de2elopment9 ,f the
=trainee= is !nprepared for the task: the effects can *e de2astating with a great deal of
demorali<ation and !ndermined confidence9
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Training re.!irements for *ridge tasks do not alwa-s lend themsel2es to direct training
methods e3cept perhaps in the case of 2er- ine3perienced personnel or for new concepts9
The method of =Sit ne3t to Nell- and she will show -o! is not alwa-s appropriate *eca!se it
is a drain on alread- stretched h!man reso!rces9 This is where the concept of coaching is
appropriate9 )ith an- coaching sit!ation it is essential to maintain the s!per2ision of the
trainee and s!ppl- s!fficient feed*ack on the progress *eing made9 1ack of feed*ack
red!ces gains *- the recipient9
The formation of a team from a selection of indi2id!als ma- take a great deal of effort9 Not
all mem*ers will start with the same *aseline of knowledge9 Once the team is f!nctioning:
the flow of information will increase as a direct res!lt of the newl- fo!nd confidence of its
All team mem*ers sho!ld *e kept f!ll- aware of what is e3pected of them and their
performance in their 5o* fre.!entl- monitored and feed*ack gi2en9
One of the primar- f!nctions of the team is the pro2ision of a s-stem of checking and
cross(checking decisions: which will directl- or indirectl- affect the cond!ct of the ship9
The efficient team mem*er will *e *oth mentall- and ph-sicall- fit9 )atchkeeping is often
seen as *eing a passi2e role9 &nder certain low(ke- sit!ations this ma- *e the case9 The
watchkeeper can then *e considered to *e in a sit!ation re.!iring onl- the maintenance of
the present !nstressed sit!ation9 This role change dramaticall- in riskier sit!ations:
re.!iring more forcef!l action to pre2ent a sit!ation arising: not merel- responding to
factors which ma- get o!t of control9 This t-pe of reaction re.!ires *oth ph-sical and
mental well*eing of a high standard9
'emorali<ed teams: or e2en demorali<ed mem*ers of a team: are not going to prod!ce the
high standards re.!ired to ens!re the contin!ing safet- of the ship9 "orale depends !pon a
large n!m*er of factors: *!t good teamwork and effecti2e operation will *e enhanced if the
team mem*ers are clear as to their role in the team: can see the res!lts of their own efforts:
ha2e their own deficiencies caref!ll- corrected and are gi2en credit when it is d!e9
"aritime incidents or disasters are 2er- seldom the res!lt of a single e2ent: the- are almost
in2aria*l- the res!lt of a series of non(serio!s incidentsA the c!lmination of an error chain9
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Bridge Team Management
Sit!ational awareness(i9e9 knowing what is going on aro!nd the ship(helps the OO)
recogni<e that an error chain is de2eloping and taking s!ch action: *ased !pon this
awareness: to *reak the error chain9
INDICATI0N% 04 Certain signs in the f!nction of a *ridge team will indicate
ERR0R C3AIN that an error chain is de2eloping9 This does not mean that an
DE5E60PMENT incident is a*o!t to happenA it does mean that the passage is not
*eing carried o!t as planned and that certain elements of
sit!ational awareness ma- *e lacking9 The ship is *eing p!t at
!nnecessar- risk and action m!st *e taken to *reak the error
AMBIG2IT7 Am*ig!it- ma- *e easil- defina*le or there ma- *e more s!*tle
indications that things are not going as e3pected9 ,n the e2ent
that two independent and separate position fi3ing s-stems(e9g9:
radar fi3 and $PS positions(do not agree: o*2io!sl- something
ma- *e wrong with one of the fi3es and immediate action is
re.!ired to correct this am*ig!it- and determine which of the
fi3es is correct9
A more s!*tle 2ariation of am*ig!it- ma- *e that the
echoso!nder reading does not agree with the charted depth9
The less conscientio!s OO) ma- 5!st accept this factA another
will not *e satisfied and will tr- to determine wh- there is a
difference *etween the e3pected and act!al so!nding9
Am*ig!it- ma- e3ist in that two team mem*ers do not agree
!pon a point of action9 Am*ig!it- e3istsA of itself it ma- not *e
dangero!s: *!t it means that there is a difference and the ca!se
of this difference needs to *e !nderstood9 One of the two(team
mem*ers is losing: or has lost: his sit!ational awareness and an
error chain ma- *e de2eloping9
The OO) ma- *e aware that certain pre(agreed decisions(e9g9:
night orders: compan- proced!res: etc9(are not *eing followed9
Again: am*ig!it- e3ists9 )h- has there *een de2iation from
the accepted proced!resC
Am*ig!it- ma- *e a res!lt of ine3perience or lack of training9
The 5!nior officer ma- feel that he is not in a position to 2oice
his do!*ts9 This sho!ld not *e the case9 E2er- mem*er of a
well(constr!cted: well(*riefed team will feel confident that his
do!*ts or fears can *e e3pressed witho!t his *eing reprimanded
for what ma- t!rn o!t to *e: in one instance an !nwarranted
worr-: in another a 2er- pertinent and sit!ation sa2ing remark9
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DI%TRACTI0N 'istraction: the f!ll attention of a person !pon one e2ent to the
e3cl!sion of others or concentration !pon what is often an
irrele2anc- can *e an indication that sit!ational awareness is
*eginning to *reak down: e2en if onl- for a restricted period9
'istraction can *e ca!sed *- an e3cessi2e workload: stress or
fatig!e: emergenc- conditions or: all too often: inattention to
detail9 ,t ma- also *e ca!sed *- an !ne3pected: tho!gh not
threatening e2ent: s!ch as a 0+ call: which can occ!p- the
f!ll attention of a person to the e3cl!sion of other more !rgent
INADE82AC7 AND A less defina*le indication of sit!ational awareness is a
C0N42%I0N feeling that the person concerned is losing control of the
sit!ation9 A feeling that position fi3ing is not going: as it
sho!ld: that the person concerned does not know what is
e3pected to happen ne3t9 This ma- *e a res!lt of lack of
C0MM2NICATI0N Poor comm!nications: *oth internal and e3ternal: are an
BREA9D01N indication that sit!ational awareness ma- *e at risk9 ,nternal
comm!nications ma- *e conf!sed *- ph-sical ca!ses s!ch as
noise: etc9: or *e ca!sed *- lack of common lang!age or
differing proced!ral methods9 E3ternal comm!nications
*reakdown ma- also *e ca!sed *- non(common lang!age or
plain mis!nderstanding9
,n an- case: efforts m!st *e made to o2ercome the ca!se of the
comm!nication *reakdown: otherwise teamwork and m!t!al
knowledge is at risk9
IMPR0PER C0NN ,mproper conning or poor looko!t ma- *e a res!lt of lack of
0R600902T sit!ational awareness as well as an indication of its *reakdown9
)ithin the *ridge team Organi<ation there can *e no aspect
more important than a safe conn and *reakdown of this
sit!ation ma- lead to the ship *eing ha<arded9
N0N C0MP6IANCE Non(compliance with the passage plan ma- res!lt from the
1IT3 P6AN improper conn noted a*o2e: and is another indication that the
sit!ational awareness is *reaking down9
PR0CED2RA6 &n5!stified depart!re from clearl- defined and !nderstood
5I06ATI0N operating proced!res m!st *e recogni<ed as a *reakdown of:
sit!ational awareness9 As an e3ample: the OO) of a ship
which is proceeding in the wrong lane of a Traffic Separation
Scheme m!st ask himself wh- he is doing this9 ,t will *e off
the planned track and is a direct 2iolation of the ,nternational
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%eg!lations for Pre2enting Collisions at SeaA if he is *oth
de2iating from the track and ignoring the %!les then it is likel-
that he is not f!ll- aware of the position of the ship9
At the ,nternational Safet- Conference E,NTASACON ,,,F held in Norwa- it was agreed
that two principal factors seemed to *e the main ca!ses of collisions and gro!ndingG (
and a res!lt of s!ch weakness
4AI62RE T0 9EEP A G00D 600902T
)eaknesses in *ridge Organi<ation ha2e *een a common fail!re in man- cas!alties9
S!ch cas!alties ma- ha2e *een a2oided *-G
%etting d$"/le (at!hes Too often it is considered ade.!ate to contin!e in a more
in appr$priate comple3 sit!ation with the same *ridge manning le2els as if
!ir!"mstan!es: the ship were deep sea with less immediate potential ha<ards9
Ens"ring -s"--i!ient Additional personnel are often re.!ired to prepare e.!ipment
pers$nnel are a+aila/le or to *e a2aila*le !nder certain circ!mstances9 ,f calling them
in spe!ial !ir!"mstan!es is left too late the- ma- not *ecome a2aila*le !ntil the ship is in
the sit!ation the- co!ld ha2e helped pre2ent9
Pre!ise instr"!ti$ns Too often the "aster is called after a sit!ation has
-$r !alling the irredeema*l- deteriorated9 ,f the OO) is !nclear as to when
Master: he sho!ld call the master then his indecision ma- lead to his not
calling the "aster9
P$sting l$$)$"ts: The OO) ma- consider that he alone can keep the looko!t in
addition to his own d!ties9 E2ent!all-: not posting a looko!t
ma- ca!se him to neglect other important d!ties9
Manning the (heel: An !nmanned wheel also re.!ires the OO) to monitor and
correct the steering9 This: too: ma- ca!se him to o2erlook other
An esta/lished drill 'espite the case with which modern steering gear can *e
-$r !hanging $+er changed from one s-stem to another: ma5or incidents are on
-r$m a"t$mati! t$ record where lack of awareness of the precise steering s-stem
man"al steering: in operation has led to disaster9
Pre!ise instr"!ti$ns A *!s- OO) ma- not reali<e that the 2isi*ilit- has deter(
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Bridge Team Management
regarding red"!ing iorated: partic!larl- at night9 E2en when he has reali<ed that
speed in the e+ent the sit!ation has deteriorated he ma- not appreciate the
$- red"!ed +isi/ilit.: increase in workload and consider that he can still cope9
The following feat!res ha2e *een noticea*le as ca!ses of gro!ndingG
4ail"re t$ pre-plan re.!entl- it is not considered necessar- to plan a track and
a tra!) show it on the chart9 This ma- *e *eca!se the mariners
concerned feel that the- know the area s!fficientl- well or
*eca!se there is a pilot on the *ridge9
4ail"re t$ m$nit$r Altho!gh a planned track is shown on the chart OO)s do not
ade;"atel. the +essel&s alwa-s constantl- and reg!larl- fi3 the ship9 This ma- lead to
pr$gress al$ng the the OO) not *eing aware that the ship is de2iating from
planned tra!) track: perhaps towards danger9
4ail"re t$ ta)e< E2en when aware that de2iation from the track is occ!rring:
immediate a!ti$n t$ the attit!de ma- *e that it doesn=t reall- matter: that there is
regain tra!) ha+ing eno!gh safe water: when this is not act!all- the case9
de+iated -r$m it
4ail"re t$ !r$ss-!he!) ,f onl- one method of fi3ing is !sed when the ship is in con(
-ies /. !$mparing strained waters: mis(identification of a na2igation mark or
$ne means (ith fa!lt- electronic information: left !nchecked and !no*(
an$ther ser2ed: ma- lea2e the OO) with a false sense of sec!rit-9
4ail"re t$ "se Electronic position fi3ing ma- sometimes *e more acc!rate
+is"al -iing (hen or con2enient: *!t electronic fi3es do not necessaril- relate
a+aila/le the ship=s position to na2igational ha<ards9 ,gnoring 2is!al
fi3ing can lead to the OO) *ecoming !naware of his
changing en2ironment9
4ail"re t$ "se the E3cept when alongside: the ship=s nearest danger is almost
e!h$-s$"nder (hen in2aria*l- 2erticall- *elow9 Altho!gh it cannot *e considered
ma)ing a land-all $r in2aria*l- 2erticall- *elow9 Altho!gh it cannot *e considered
na+igating in to *e a position fi3: o*ser2ation and appreciation of
!$nstrained (aters the !nder(keel clearance can often warn the o*ser2er of
approaching danger or that the ship is not in the position that
it sho!ld *e9
4ail"re t$ identi-. An o*ser2er ma- con2ince himself that he sees the light he is
!$rre!tl. na+igati$nal looking for: not the light he is act!all- looking at9 This mis(
lights identification can lead to s!*se.!ent error or conf!sion9
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4ail"re t$ ens"re that B- their 2er- nat!re all h!man *eings are likel- to make
imp$rtant na+igati$nal errors9 ,t is essential that s!ch h!man errors cannot occ!r
de!isi$ns are witho!t *eing noticed and corrected9 An integral part of the
independentl. !he!)ed na2igational plan and *ridge Organi<ation m!st *e to
/. an$ther $--i!er minimi<e the risk of s!ch errors going !nnoticed9
"ost of the instances cited a*o2e are arri2ed at *- the OO) not appreciating the
comple3it- of his role in a deteriorating sit!ation9
This ma- *e *eca!se s!ch responsi*ilities ma- ne2er ha2e *een made clear to him or her9
An efficient *ridge Organi<ation will incl!de proced!res thatG
1= Eliminate the risk that an error on the part of one person ma- res!lt in a disastro!s
4H Emphasi<e the necessit- to maintain a good 2is!al looko!t and to carr- o!t
collision a2oidance ro!tines
3H Enco!rage the !se of all means of esta*lishing the ship=s position so that in the case
of one method *ecoming !nrelia*le others are immediatel- a2aila*le9
8H "ake !se of passage planning and na2igational s-stems which allow contin!o!s
monitoring and detection of de2iation from track when in coastal waters
>H Ens!re that all instr!ment errors are known and correctl- applied
@H Accept a pilot as a 2al!a*le addition to a *ridge team
Indi+id"al R$le
These proced!res can onl- *e achie2ed *- each mem*er of the *ridge team reali<ing that
he has a 2ital part to pla- in the safe na2igation of the ship and that safet- depends !pon all
personnel pla-ing their part to the !tmost of their a*ilit-9
Each team mem*er m!st appreciate that the safet- of the ship sho!ld ne2er depend !pon
the decision of one person onl-9 All decisions and orders m!st *e caref!ll- checked and
their e3ec!tion monitored9 I!nior team mem*ers m!st ne2er hesitate to .!estion a decision
if the- consider that s!ch a decision is not in the *est interests of the ship9
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0o-ages of whate2er length can *e *roken down into two ma5or stages9
,ncl!ded in PREPARATI0N isG
E>EC2TI0N of the 2o-age incl!des
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Bridge Team Management
Chapter 2
Before an- 2o-age can *e em*arked !pon or: indeed: an- pro5ect !ndertaken: those
controlling the 2ent!re need to ha2e a good idea of the risks in2ol2ed9 The appraisal stage
of passage planning e3amines these risks9 ,f alternati2es are a2aila*le: these risks are
e2al!ated and a compromise sol!tion is reached where*- the le2el of risk is *alanced
against commercial e3pedienc-9 The appraisal co!ld *e considered to *e the most
important part of passage planning as it is at this stage that all pertinent information is
gathered and the firm fo!ndation for the plan is *!ilt9 The !rge to commence planning as
soon as possi*le sho!ld *e resisted9 Time allocated to appraisal will pa- di2idends later9
The "aster=s decision on the o2erall cond!ct of the passage will *e *ased !pon an appraisal
of the a2aila*le information9 S!ch appraisal will *e made *- considering the information
from so!rces incl!dingG
1= Chart Catalog!e
4H Na2igational charts
3H Ocean Passages for the World
8H %o!ting charts or pilot charts
>H Sailing 'irections and Pilot Books
@H Light Lists
BH Tide Tables
8H Tidal stream atlases
DH Notices to "ariners ENa2areas: +-drolants: +-dropacsF
1;= %o!ting information
11= %adio signal information Eincl!ding 0TS and pilot ser2iceF
14= Climatic information
13= 1oad(line chart
18= 'istance ta*les
1>= Electronic na2igational s-stems information
1@= %adio and local warnings
1B= Owner=s and other !np!*lished so!rces
18= 'ra!ght of 2essel
1D= Personal e3perience
4;= "ariner=s +and*ook
These items are disc!ssed in some detail *elow9 Onl- British and American catalog!e
n!m*ers are .!oted9 Other: similar: p!*lications ma- *e a2aila*le from other national
Page 18 of 83
Bridge Team Management
1 C3ARTCATA60G2E P!*lished ann!all- *- the +-drographer to the Na2- EBritishF
as NP 131 and *- the 'efense "apping Agenc- E&SF as
2 C3ART% "an- merchant ships carr- British charts p!*lished *- the
+-drographer of the Na2-9 +owe2er: there are areas of the
world where the mariner ma- well *e ad2ised to consider
!sing locall- p!*lished charts as well9 British Admiralt-
polic- is to chart all British home and most Commonwealth
and some "iddle Eastern waters on a scale s!fficient for safe
na2igation9 Elsewhere the polic- is to p!*lish s!ch charts as
will ena*le the mariner to cross the oceans and proceed along
the coasts to reach the approaches to ports9 Along man-
coasts not co2ered in detail *- British charts the mariner ma-
find it *etter to !se the charts of the h-drographic office of the
rele2ant co!ntr-9
Both &S and Canadian reg!lations re.!ire that 2essels in their
waters m!st carr- and !se the appropriate charts9 This means
that the 2essel=s chart o!tfit ma- not meet the reg!lations9
Na2igators need to ens!re that the- ha2e the correct charts9
Appro3imatel- >; co!ntries are listed as ha2ing esta*lished
h-drographic offices p!*lishing charts of their national waters9
Addresses of the agents appointed *- s!ch offices ma- *e
o*tained from The Catalogue of Agents for the Sale of Charts:
p!*lished *- the
,nternational +-drographic B!rea!: B A2en!e
President I9 9 #enned-:
BP 88>: "CD8;11
"onaco Cede3:
Principate de "onaco9
,nternational standard chart s-m*ols and a**re2iations allow
foreign charts to *e !sed with little diffic!lt- *!t care m!st *e
taken to esta*lish the chart dat!ms !sed9
3 0CEAN PA%%AGE% P!*lished *- the +-drographer of the Na2- EBritishF as NP
40R T3E 10R6D 13@A contains information on planning ocean passages:
oceanograph- and c!rrents9
4 R02TEING C3ART% %o!teing charts are p!*lished *- the +-drographer of the
6 PI60T C3ART% Na2- EBritishF as Charts Nos9 >148(89 These are similar to the
Pilot Charts p!*lished *- the 'efense "apping Agenc- E&SAF
Esee Atlases N0P&B 1;>(D 6 P,1OT 1@ and P,1OT>>F9
Page 1> of 83
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Both series gi2e monthl- information on ocean ro!ting:
c!rrents: winds and ice limits and 2ario!s meteorological
# %AI6ING British pilot *ooks are p!*lished in B8 2ol!mes *- the
DIRECTI0N% AND +-drographer of the Na2- and gi2e worldwide co2erage9
PI60T B009% Sailing directions are p!*lished *- the 'efense "apping
Agenc- E&SAF in the series S'P&B 141(4;;9 Some of these
*ooks are referred to as Planning $!ides: gi2ing information
essentiall- the same as the British Ocean Passages for the
)orld: others as Enro!te: gi2ing similar information to the
British pilot *ooks9
' 6I%T% 04 6IG3T% P!*lished *- the +-drographer of the Na2- EBritishF in 11
AND 40G %IGNA6% 2ol!mes ENPB8(88F gi2ing worldwide co2erage9
Se2en 2ol!mes of Light 1ists are p!*lished *- the &S Coast
$!ard: ECO"'T"1@>;41(BF gi2ing details of all &S coastal
lights: incl!ding the $reat 1akes9 '"A p!*lications 11P&B 1
1;(@ co2er the rest of the world9
* TIDE TAB6E% P!*lished *- the +-drographer of the Na2- EBritishF: ann!all-:
in three 2ol!mes: co2ering the world9 Tidal times and heights
ma- *e readil- o*tained *- !sing a comp!ter program
p!*lished *- the British Admiralt- ES+"( 1 >DAF9
)orldwide tide ta*les are also p!*lished *- the &S National
Ocean Ser2ice ENOSPBTT 999 F
, TIDA6 %TREAM P!*lished *- the +-drographer of the Na2- EBritishF: these
AT6A%E% atlases co2er certain areas of North )est E!rope and +ong
Tidal c!rrent ta*les are p!*lished *- the &S National Ocean
Ser2ice: co2ering the Atlantic coast of North America and the
Pacific coast of North America and AsiaG Tidal c!rrent charts
are p!*lished *- the &S National Ocean Ser2ice for fo!r
&S ports9
? N0TICE% T0 Notices to "ariners are p!*lished in weekl- editions *- *oth
MARINER% the British and &S h-drographic a!thorities: ena*ling ships
to keep their charts and other p!*lications !p to date9
1; S+,PS=%O&TE,N$ P!*lished *- ,"O: this p!*lication gi2es information on all
Page 1@ of 83
Bridge Team Management
%o!ting: traffic separation schemes: deep water ro!tes and
areas to *e a2oided which ha2e *een adopted *- ,"O9
%o!ting information is also shown on charts and is incl!ded
in the sailing: directions9
11 RADI0 %IGNA6 The EBritishF Admiralt- List of %adio Signals consists of
IN40RMATI0N se2en 2ol!mes of te3t and fo!r *ooklets of diagrams co2ering
the followingG
0ol9 , E1 6 4F coast radio stations: ,nmarsat: $"'SS: SA%:
Ship reporting s-stems9
0ol9 4 radio na2igational aids: %' stations: radar *eacons:
time signals: electronic position(fi3ing s-stems9
0ol9 3 radio weather ser2ices and na2igation warnings9
0ol9 8 meteorological o*ser2ation stations9
0ol9 @ E, 6 4F port operations: pilotage ser2ices = and 2essel
traffic management and information ser2ices9
Similar information is a2aila*le in &S '"A p!*lication
%AP&B 1 1B9
12 C6IMATIC Climatic information is a2aila*le from a 2ariet- of so!rces
IN40RMATI0N incl!ding the pilot *ooks: pilot charts and Ocean Passages
the )orld alread- mentioned9 The British Admiralt- *ook
"eteorolog- for "ariners gi2es f!rther general information9
13 60AD 6INE C3ART 1oad 1ine %!les are mandator- and the load line <ones are
shown in Ocean Passages for the )orld or BA Chart '@;839
14 DI%TANCE TAB6E%Both Ocean and Coastal 'istance Ta*les are a2aila*le from a
2ariet- of so!rces incl!ding British Admiralt- ENP3>;F and &S
'"A p!*lications N0P&B 1 >1 and NOSSPBPO%TS',ST9
1> E6ECTR0NIC ,nformation re.!ired will depend !pon the s-stems in !se on
NA5IGATI0N the partic!lar ship and sho!ld ha2e *een s!pplied with the
%7%TEM% e.!ipment9
1' RADI0 AND 60CA6 The latest information a2aila*le on changes to na2igation
1ARNING% aids: etc9: will *e o*tained from radio Eincl!ding Na2te3tF and
local warnings and m!st alwa-s *e made a2aila*le to those
Page 1B of 83
Bridge Team Management
responsi*le for appraisal and planning9 1ocal information is
often a2aila*le from the har*or a!thorit-9
or information on the worldwide na2igational ser2ices and the
transmitting stations see Admiralt- 1ist of %adio Signals 0ol9 3
1* DRA2G3T 04 %3IP The anticipated dra!ght and trim of the ship at different stages
of the passage will need to *e known in order to calc!late the
!nder(keel clearance when in shallow water9 The e3treme height
of the ship a*o2e the waterline: known as the air dra!ght: ma-
also *e re.!ired9
1, 01NER&% AND S!pplementar- information from the 2essel=s owners sho!ld
0T3ER %02RCE% *e cons!lted: when a2aila*le: as sho!ld reports from other
2essels: information from agents and port a!thorit- hand*ooks:
reg!lations and g!ides to port entr-9
1? PER%0NA6 The personal e3periences of crew mem*ers who ha2e *een to
E>PERIENCE the anticipated ports and areas ma- pro2e of 2al!e9
2@ T3E MARINER4? P!*lished *- the +-df@gfapher of the Na2- EBritishF: this
3ANDB009 *ook contains information of general interest to the mariner9
+a2ing collected together all the rele2ant information the "aster: in cons!ltation with his
officers: will *e a*le to make an o2erall appraisal of the passage9
0CEAN The passage ma- *e a transocean ro!te in which case the first
consideration will need to *e the distance *etween ports: the
a2aila*ilit- of *!nkers and stores: etc9
A great circle is the shortest distance *!t other considerations
will need to *e taken into acco!nt9
"eteorological conditions will need to *e considered and it ma-
well pro2e ad2antageo!s to !se one of the weather ro!ting
ser2ices9 Altho!gh the recommended ro!te: ma- *e longer in
distance it ma- well pro2e shorter in time and the ship s!ffer less
Ocean c!rrents ma- *e !sed to ad2antage: fa2ora*le ones gi2ing
the ship a *etter o2erall speed th!s offsetting the disad2antage of
taking a longer ro!te9
)eather s-stems also need to *e considered(e9g9: a ship in the
China Sea in s!mmer need plent- of sea room if it is lia*le to *e
in2ol2ed in a tropical re2ol2ing storm and a passage in high
latit!des ma- re.!ire ice conditions to *e considered9
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Bridge Team Management
,rrespecti2e of the ad2antage of !sing a preferred9 track: the 1oad
1ine %!les m!st alwa-s *e o*e-ed9 ,n certain circ!mstances:
often politicalA a ship ma- need to keep clear of specified areas9
C0A%TA6 The main consideration at the appraisal stage will *e to
determine the distance tracks sho!ld *e laid off coastlines and
dangers9 )hen the ship is passing thro!gh areas where ,"O(
adopted traffic separation and ro!ting schemes are in operation:
s!ch ro!ting will ha2e to *e followed9 ,n some coastal areas
minim!m distances off for specified 2essels is determined *-
the rele2ant State9
Some shipping companies ma- also specif- minim!m distance
,n archipelagos: it will *e necessar- to determine which straits
and passages are to *e !sed and whether or not pilotage is
re.!ired9 &nder certain circ!mstances it !a" *e prefera*le to
di2ert aro!nd an archipelago9
+a2ing made his appraisal of the intended 2o-age: whether it
is a short coastal passage or a ma5or transocean passage: the
master will determine his strateg- and then delegate one of
his officers to plan the 2o-age9 On most ships this will *e the
Second "ate: on some a designated na2igating officer: on
others the "aster ma- ha2e to do his own planning9
,rrespecti2e of who act!all- does the planning: it has to *e to
the re.!irements of the "aster: who carries the final respons(
i*ilit- for the plan9
The plan needs to incl!de all e2ent!alities and contingencies
Passage plans are often made from Pilot station to pilot *!t
,"O %esol!tion A=2,#A5IIIB< Ane3 A E2F s!*se.!entl-
incorporated in the STC)Con2ention 1DB8: %eg!lation ,,/1
Despite the duties and obligations of a pilot, his presence on
board does not relieve the Officer in charge of the watch
from his duties and obligations for safety of the ship.
This makes it .!ite clear that it is necessar- to plan from *erth
to *erth e2en tho!gh it is anticipated that there will *e a pilot
cond!cting the 2essel at certain stages of the 2o-age9
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Chapter 3
Planning ma- *e considered in two stagesG
aF ocean and open waterA
*F coastal and est!arialA
tho!gh: at times: these two stages will merge and o2erlap9
C3ART% Collect together all the charts for the intended 2o-age: p!tting
them into the correct order9 Charts not a*sol!tel- necessar- for
the 2o-age *!t which are ad5acent to the area to *e tra2ersed
sho!ld *e incl!ded: as sho!ld 2er- large scale charts(e9g9: port
plans on the coastal part of the 2o-age9 Altho!gh it ma- not *e
necessar- act!all- to !se s!ch charts: the- ma- incl!de
information: which co!ld pro2e of !se d!ring the 2o-age9
Ens!re that all charts and p!*lications ha2e *een corrected to
the latest Notice to "ariners a2aila*le and that an- a!thentic
Na2warnings: etc9: recei2ed from an- so!rce are also incl!ded9
ESee Anne3 4F Similar corrections ma- also ha2e to *e made
d!ring the 2o-age after the plan has *een completed and the
plan ma- ha2e to *e s!*se.!entl- modified9
N0-G0 AREA% Coastal and est!arial charts sho!ld *e e3amined and all areas
where the ship cannot go caref!ll- shown *- highlighting or
cross(hatching: taking care not to o*literate information e9g9: a
na2igation mark or a conspic!o!s o*5ect9 S!ch areas are to *e
considered as no(go areas9 ,n waters where the tidal range ma-
not *e 2er- large: no(go areas will: incl!de all charted depths of
less than the ship=s dra!ght9
,n confined waters: where the tidal height ma- ha2e a large
infl!ence: s!ch no(go areas will 2ar- according to the time of
passage9 ,nitiall- all areas and dangers showing charted depths
of less than the dra!ght pl!s a safet- margin sho!ld *e
considered no(go: tho!gh s!ch no(go areas ma- s!*se.!entl-
*e amended when the act!al time of passage is known9
'iag9 1 shows no(go areas for a ship on a dra!ght of D91 metres: appro3imating to the 1;
meters conto!r: no allowance *eing made for tidal height9
Page 4; of 83
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Page 41 of 83
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MARGIN% 04 %A4ET7 Before tracks are marked on the chart the clearing distance
from the no(go areas needs to *e considered9 )hen a fi3 is plotted on a chart it in2aria*l-
represents the position of a certain part of the ship=s *ridge at the time of the fi39 )ith large
ships: altho!gh the plotted fi3 at a certain time ma- *e o!tside a no(go area: it is possi*le
that another part of the ship ma- alread- *e in it(with disastro!s res!lts9 A safet- margin is
re.!ired aro!nd the no(go areas at a distance that: in the worst pro*a*le circ!mstances: the
part of the ship *eing na2igated Ethe *ridgeF will not pass9
Among the factors which need to *e taken into acco!nt when
deciding on the si<e of this ="argin of Safet-= areG
1 The dimensions of the ship9
4 The acc!rac- of the na2igational s-stems to *e !sed9
3 Tidal streams9
8 The mane!2ering characteristics of the ship9
The margins of safet- sho!ld *e chosen so that the- can *e
readil- monitored9 To achie2e this the- need to *e related to
one of the na2igation s-stems in !se Ee9g9: clearing *earings
related to a headmark or parallel inde3esF9
"argins of safet- will show how far the ship can de2iate from
track: -et still remain in safe water Esee *elowF9 As a general
r!le the margin of safet- will ens!re that the ship remains in
waters of a depth greater than dra!ght J 4;K9 ,t is stressed that
this is onl- a general r!le: circ!mstances ma- dictate that the
J4; K clearance will need to *e considera*l- increased (e9g9
, )here the s!r2e- is old or !nrelia*le9
4 ,n sit!ations where the ship is pitching or rolling9
3 )hen there is a possi*ilit- that the ship ma- *e
e3periencing s.!at9
Page 44 of 83
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Page 43 of 83
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%A4E 1ATER Areas where the ship ma- safet- de2iate are considered to *e
safe water and the limits of this safe water are *o!nded *-
margins of safet-9
0CEAN AND 0PEN Ocean and open(water tracks sho!ld first *e drawn on the
1ATER TRAC9% small(scale charts: according to the decisions made at the
appraisal stage regarding the ro!te to *e taken9 $reat circle
and composite great circle tracks will ha2e to *e calc!lated or
o*tained from the Satna2 comp!ter or from great circle
chartsA rh!m* lines ma- *e drawn straight on to the "ercator
chart: *!t all tracks will ha2e to conform to the limits deter(
mined at the appraisal9
C0A%TA6 AND Coastal and est!arial tracks will also *e constrained *- the
E%T2ARIA6 TRAC9% decisions made at the appraisal stage and sho!ld *e first
drawn on the small(scale charts co2ering large portions of the
coastline: prefera*l- from the depart!re port to the arri2al
port9 This will depend !pon the pro3imit- of the ports and the
charts of the area and: in most cases: more than one chart will
ha2e to *e !sed9 These first tracks will form the *asis of the
plan and from them ma- *e o*tained distances and steaming
times9 )hen the depart!re time is known: the ETA EEstimated
Time of Arri2alF at the 2ario!s wa-points en ro!te can *e
The Tr!e direction of the track sho!ld *e shown in close pro3(
imit- to the track9 This will not necessaril- *e the co!rse
steered to make this trackA it onl- indicates the direction to
make good9 The co!rse to steer will depend !pon 2ario!s
factors at the time of making the passage9
)hen completed: these tracks sho!ld *e transferred to and
drawn on the large(scale charts of the area to *e tra2ersed9
Transfer of a track from one chart to another m!st *e done
with great care9
To ens!re that no mistakes are made: it is good practice
do!*l- to check this operation *- !sing a range and *earing of
the transfer position from a readil- identifia*le o*5ect(e9g9: a
light common to *oth charts(and confirming this position on
*oth charts *- the latit!de and longit!de of the point9
C3ARTC3ANGE ,t sho!ld *e .!ite clearl- shown on a chart the position where it
is re.!ired to transfer to the ne3t chart: gi2ing the ne3t chart=s
Page 48 of 83
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TRAC9 As a general r!le there is nothing to *e gained *- closel-
C0N%IDERATI0N% approaching a danger other than to red!ce passage distance and:
conse.!entl-: steaming time9 E2en so: when it does *ecome
necessar- to approach a danger there are general minim!m
r!les that sho!ld *e followed9 The ship alwa-s has to remain in
safe water Esee *elowF and remain s!fficientl- far off a danger
to minimi<e the possi*ilit- of gro!nding in the e2ent of a
machiner- *reakdown or na2igational error9
DI%TANCE 044 ,t is not possi*le to la- down hard and fast r!les regarding the
distance off a danger that a ship sho!ld maintainA it will depend
1= The dra!ght of the ship relati2e to the depth of water9
4H The weather conditions pre2ailingG a strong onshore wind
or the likel- onset of fog or rain will re.!ire an increase in
distance off9
3H The direction and rate of the tidal stream or c!rrent9
8H The 2ol!me of traffic9
>H The age and relia*ilit- of the s!r2e- from which the
information shown on the chart has *een deri2ed9
@H The a2aila*ilit- of safe water9
The following g!idelines will help in determining 5!st how far
to pass off dangers9
)here the coast is steep to and offshore so!ndings increase
.!ickl-: the minim!m passing distance sho!ld *e 1 1/4(4 miles9
)here the coast shel2es and offshore so!ndings increase
grad!all-: the track sho!ld ens!re that ade.!ate !nderkeel
clearances E&#CF are maintained9
As a g!idelineG
0essel=s dra!ght93(@ meters: pass o!tside 1;(metre conto!rA
0essel=s dra!ght @( 1 ; metres: pass o!tside 4;(metre conto!rG
0essels with a dra!ght of more than 1; metres m!st ens!re
that there is s!fficient !nderkeel clearance: e3ercising d!e
Page 4@ of 83
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,rrespecti2e of the safe &#C: a ship in a sit!ation where the
nearest na2igational danger is to star*oard m!st allow
manoe!2ring space to allow alteration of co!rse to star*oard
for traffic a2oidance9
REG26ATI0N% Both compan- and national reg!lations regarding offshore
distances m!st also *e o*ser2ed9
DE5IATI0N 4R0M ,deall- the ship will follow the planned track *!t !nder
TRAC9 certain circ!mstances it ma- *e necessar- to de2iate from
s!ch track(e9g9: ha2ing to alter for another ship9 E2en so: s!ch
de2iation from track sho!ld *e limited so that the ship does not
enter areas where it ma- *e at risk or closel- approaching the
margins of safet-9
2NDER9EE6 ,n certain circ!mstances a ship ma- *e re.!ired to na2igate
C6EARANCE in areas with a red!ced !nderkeel clearance9 ,t is important that
the red!ced &#C has *een planned for and clearl- shown9 ,n
cases where the &#C is less than 1;K of the deepest dra!ght:
or other s!ch percentage as was agreed at the appraisal stage:
then it is not onl- necessar- that the OO) is aware of s!ch
&#C *!t also that he is aware that speed needs to *e red!ced in
order to red!ce s.!at with its conse.!ent red!ction in dra!ght9
TIDA6 1IND01 ,n tidal areas: ade.!ate &#C ma- onl- *e attaina*le d!ring the
period that the tide has achie2ed a gi2en height9 O!tside that
period the area m!st *e considered no(go9 S!ch safe periods:
called the tidal window: m!st *e clearl- shown so that the
OO) is in no do!*t as to whether or not it is safe for the ship
to proceed9
%TREAMCC2RRENT ,n open sea sit!ations track correction is often made after the
A6601ANCE ship has *een set off track *- the tidal stream and/or c!rrent9
S!ch correction ma- *e ade.!ate in offshore sit!ations: where
the ship is not close to danger: *!t as the planned track
approaches the coast it is *etter to make tidal and c!rrent
correction prior to its taking effect9
C!rrent information: set and rate is often a2aila*le on the chart
tho!gh more detailed information is gi2en in Ocean Passages
for the )orld: ro!ting charts and pilot *ooks Esee Appraisal
sections 3: 8 6 >F9 C!rrents 2ar- according to their location
Page 4B of 83
Bridge Team Management
and the season and ma- *e infl!enced *- changes in
meteorological conditions9
Tidal information is a2aila*le from charts: tide ta*les and tidal
atlases: f!rther local information *eing a2aila*le in pilot *ooks
Esee Appraisal sections >: B 6 89F Tidal streams 2ar- according
to the time of high water and the phase of the moon Eneaps and
springsF and can *e infl!enced *- local meteorological
)hen the act!al time of transit of a gi2en area is known: the
tidal heights and streams can *e calc!lated and d!e allowances
made for these streams in order to find the co!rse to steer to
achie2e a planned track9 As well as ad5!sting these allowances
as the tidal stream 2aries according to location and time: the
OO) m!st still caref!ll- monitor the ship=s position and ad5!st
the co!rse steered to maintain the planned track9
C02R%E ,n the open sea and offshore coastal waters when na2igating
A6TERATI0N% D on small(scale large(area charts: co!rse alterations will
13EE6-05ER !s!all- coincide with the planned track intersections9 This will
not *e the case in confined waters when na2igating on large(
scale charts and where the margins of safet- ma- re.!ire the
ship to commence altering co!rse at the wheelo2er position
some distance *efore the track intersection in order to achie2e
the new planned track9
Often s!ch wheel(o2er positions will *e determined *- the pilot
!sing his own 5!dgement: *ased !pon e3perience9
Planned wheel(o2er positions sho!ld *e determined from the
ship=s mane!2ering data and marked on the chart9 S!ita*le
2is!al and radar c!es sho!ld then *e chosen to determine when
the ship is at the wheelo2er position9 The *est c!es for large
alterations of co!rse consist of parallel inde3es or *earings
parallel to the new track: whereas for small alterations a near
*eam *earing is often *etter9
E2en when the pilot has the conn: the wheel(o2er position
sho!ld *e shown on the chart so that the OO) will *e aware of
its imminence and importance9
Page 48 of 83
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Page 4D of 83
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'iagram 8 shows the wheel o2er position !sing two separate methods of monitoring9 At
the co!rse alteration from ;34L to ;14L the wheel(o2er position is achie2ed when Thorn
,sland is ahead at 1931 miles Eknown as the dead rangeF9 At the co!rse alteration from ;14L
to ;;;L , the wheel(o2er position is achie2ed when the so!thern edge of %at ,sland *ears
PARA66E6 INDE>ING The parallel inde3 EP,F is a !sef!l method of monitoring
crosstrack tendenc- in *oth poor and good 2isi*ilit-9 ,t is a
good practice to mark the planned P, on the chart
inconspic!o!sl- at the planning stage9 1ike an- radar
techni.!e: it is ad2isa*le to practice !sing P,s e3tensi2el- in
good 2isi*ilit- *efore placing total reliance on them when thick
weather makes 2is!al na2igation methods impossi*le9
This simple and effecti2e method of contin!o!sl- monitoring a
ship=s progress is carried o!t *- o*ser2ing the mo2ement of the
echo of a radar(conspic!o!s na2igation mark with respect to
track lines pre2io!sl- prepared on the reflection plotter or *-
!sing A%PA inde3 lines9 ,t is most effecti2e when the radar is
in the north(!p: relati2e motion mode9
A fi3ed radar target: s!ch as a lightho!se or a headland: wills
apparentl- track past the own ship: depicted as *eing at the
center of the screen: as a line parallel and opposite to the ship=s
gro!nd track9 An- cross track tendenc-: s!ch as ma- *e ca!sed
*- a tidal stream: will *ecome apparent *- the target mo2ing off
the parallel line9
The parallel inde3 ma- also *e !sed to monitor other e2ents(
e9g9: wheel(o2er position9 ,n this case the range and *earing of
the target at the wheel(o2er point is marked on the P,9 This also
allows for a distance co!ntdown to *e made9
Page 3; of 83
Bridge Team Management
Page 31 of 83
Bridge Team Management
ARPA MAPPING "an- modern A%PAs ha2e the facilit- to generate s-nthetic
maps which can *e stored in a retrie2al s-stem9 ,n some
instances: s!ch maps ma- *e sta*ili<ed thro!gh an electronic
na2igational s-stem: *!t s!ch facilities sho!ld *e !sed in
addition to and not to the e3cl!sion of other s-stems9
1A7P0INT% A wa-point is a position: shown on the chart: where a planned
change of stat!s will occ!r9 ,t will often *e a change of co!rse
*!t ma- also *e an e2ent s!ch asG
1= End or *eginning of sea passage9
4H Change of speed9
3= Pilot em*arkation point9
8= Anchor stations etc9
)a-points ma- also *e !sed as !sef!l reference points to
determine the ship=s passage time and whether or not a
sched!le is *eing maintained: partic!larl- when the- ha2e
*een incl!ded in the appropriate electronic na2igational
s-stem9 )here an electronic na2aid which stores wa-point
information is in !se: care sho!ld *e taken to ens!re that
wa-point designators remain !niform thro!gho!t the plan9
AB0RT%D No matter how well planned and cond!cted a passage ma- *e:
C0NTINGENCIE% there ma- come the time when: d!e to a change in circ!m(
stances: the planned passage will ha2e to *e a*andoned9
AB0RT% )hen approaching constrained waters the ship ma- *e in a
position *e-ond which it will not *e possi*le to do other than
proceed9 Termed the point of no ret!rn: it will *e the position
where the ship enters water so narrow that there is no room to
ret!rn or where it is not possi*le to retrace the track d!e to a
falling tide and ins!fficient &#C9
)hate2er the reason: the plan m!st take into acco!nt the
point of no ret!rn and the fact that thereafter the ship is com(
mitted9 A position needs to *e drawn on the chart showing the
last point at which the passage can *e a*orted and the ship
not commit herself9 The position of the a*ort point will 2ar-
with the circ!mstances pre2ailing(e9g9: water a2aila*ilit-:
speed: t!rning circle: etc9(*!t it m!st *e clearl- shown: as
m!st a s!*se.!ent planned track to safe water9
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Bridge Team Management
The reasons for not proceeding and deciding to a*ort will 2ar-
according to the circ!mstances *!t ma- incl!deG
1= 'e2iation from approach line9
4= "achiner- fail!re or malf!nction9
3= ,nstr!ment fail!re or malf!nction9
8= Non a2aila*ilit- of t!gs or *erth9
>H 'angero!s sit!ations ashore or in the har*or9
@H An- sit!ation where it is deemed !nsafe to
C0NTINGENCIE% +a2ing passed the a*ort position and point of no ret!rn: the
*ridge team still needs to *e aware that e2ents ma- not go as
planned and that the ship ma- ha2e to take emergenc- action9
Contingenc- plans will ha2e *een made at the planning stage
and clearl- shown on the chart: so that the OO) does not ha2e
to spend time looking for and planning safe action when his
d!ties re.!ire him to *e elsewhere9
Contingenc- planning will incl!deG
19 Alternati2e ro!tes9
49 Safe anchorage9
39 )aiting areas9
89 Emergenc- *erths9(
,t will *e appreciated that emergenc- action ma- take the ship
into areas where it is constrained *- dra!ght: in which case
speed will ha2e to *e red!cedA or tidall- constrained: where*- it
can onl- enter s!ch areas within the tidal window9 S!ch
constraints m!st *e clearl- shown9
+a2ing drawn no(go areas: the margins of safet- and the track
to *e followed: the planning sho!ld now *e concentrated on
ens!ring that the ship follows the planned track and that
nothing will occ!r which is !ne3pected or cannot *e corrected9
Page 33 of 83
Bridge Team Management
Page 38 of 83
Bridge Team Management
P0%ITI0N 4I>ING A 2ariet- of position fi3ing methods is now a2aila*le *!t it
m!st not *e ass!med that an- one of these methods will s!it all
PRIMAR7 AND ,n order that the position fi3ing process is smooth: !ne2ent(
%EC0NDAR7 f!l and clearl- !nderstood *- all concerned: the passage plan
P0%ITI0N 4I>ING will incl!de information as to which fi3ing methods are to *e
!sed: which one is to *e considered the primar- method and
which oneEsF are to *e !sed as *ack!p or secondar-9 or
e3ample: whilst the ship is o!t of sight of land it ma- well *e
that the $PS is the primar- s-stem with 1oran C as the
secondar- or *ack(!p s-stem9 As the ship approaches the coast:
the $PS will still *e pro2iding the primar- fi3ing: the 1oran C
*ecoming less important and the radar fi3 confirming the $PS
E2ent!all- the 1oran C: altho!gh r!nning: will *ecome
red!ndant and more reliance placed on the radar fi3 with the
$PS taking the secondar- role9 ,n enclosed waters the $PS
position ma- *ecome inappropriate and position fi3ing
depend !pon radar and 2is!al methods9 ,t is not possi*le to
determine an in2aria*le s-stemA it depends !pon the e.!ip(
ment a2aila*le and the circ!mstances of the indi2id!al case9
The important thing is that all concerned are aware that a
s-stem is in operation and that it sho!ld *e followed as far
is practica*le9
RADAR C0N%PIC202% ,n order to red!ce the work load while na2igating in coastal
0BEECT% D 5I%2A6 waters: the na2igator will ha2e determined and planned his
NA5AID% primar- and secondar- methods of fi3ing9 To red!ce f!rther
the OO)=s workload the na2igator will ha2e st!died his
at the planning stage and decided which radar conspic!o!s
marks and 2is!al aids are to *e !sed at each stage of the
6AND4A66 6IG3T% )hen making a landfall it sho!ld not *e necessar- for the
oow to ha2e to e3amine the chart min!tel- to find which
lights will *e seen first9 These sho!ld ha2e *een clearl-
shown on the chart so that the OO) can concentrate on
act!all- looking for the light concerned: not looking on the
chart tr-ing to disco2er which lights sho!ld *e 2isi*le9
The same applies when passing along a coastline or thro!gh
constrained waters9 All lights shown on a chart look similar
Page 3> of 83
Bridge Team Management
and need to *e st!died to determine their indi2id!al signi(
ficance9 This needs to *e done at the planning stage: not the
operational stage when the OO) concerned ma- *e too *!s-
to spend time *ehind the chart ta*le9
Page 3@ of 83
RADAR TARGET% Similarl- with radar targets(a little time spent at the planning
stage will soon determine which are the targets to look for and
!seA a steep(to islet is going to *e more relia*le than a rock
+ighlight on the chart %acons and other radar conspic!o!s
o*5ect which will *e !sed for position fi3ing9 +ighlight 2is!al
na2aids as appropriate: differentiating *etween floating and
fi3ed na2aids and high(powered and low(powered lights9
B207AGE )hene2er *!o-s or other floating na2marks are *eing !sed as
position fi3ing aids: their own position m!st *e first checked and
confirmed that the- are as shown on the chart9 ,n sit!ations
where *!o- fi3ing is critical: s!ch positions can *e predetermined
at the planning stage *- noting their range and *earing from a
known fi3ed o*5ect9:
4I> 4RE82ENC7 ,rrespecti2e of the method of fi3ing to *e !sed: it is necessar- to
esta*lish the re.!ired fre.!enc- of the fi3ing9 M!ite o*2io!sl-:
this is going to depend on the circ!mstances pre2ailingA a ship
close to danger will need to *e fi3ed m!ch more fre.!entl- than
one in the open sea9
As a g!ideline it is s!ggested that fi3ing sho!ld *e at a time
period s!ch that it is not possi*le for a ship to *e p!t into danger
*etween fi3es9 ,f it is not possi*le to fi3 the position on the chart
at s!ch a fre.!enc- Efi3es at inter2als of less than three min!tes
can *e 2er- demandingF then alternati2e primar- na2igation
methods(for e3ample: parallel inde3ing (sho!ld *e considered9
4I> REG26ARIT7 +a2ing esta*lished the fi3 fre.!enc-: it is good practice to
ens!re that fi3es are in fact made at that fre.!enc-: not as and
when the OO) thinks fit9 The onl- e3ception to this will *e if
the OO) has other priorities with which to contend e9g9: co!rse
alterations for traffic or approaching a critical wheel(o2er
position9 ,n this latter case: the ship=s position sho!ld ha2e *een
esta*lished immediatel- *efore the t!rn and again: as soon as
possi*le: on completion9
ADDITI0NA6 Altho!gh not essential to the safet- of the: ship: a lot of
IN40RMATI0N additional information can *e shown on the plan: which: *-
reminding the OO) of (his o*ligations or reminding him to
make certain preparations: will make the e3ec!tion of the
2o-age simpler9 S!ch information will incl!deG
REP0RTING P0INT% %eporting to the rele2ant a!thorit- as and where re.!ired can
onl- make the 2essel=s ro!ting safer9 S!ch reporting ma- also
*e comp!lsor-9
ANC30RC6EARANCE Positions where anchor stations need to *e called and the
anchors cleared sho!ld *e shown in order not to *e o2erlooked9
PI60T B0ARDING Timel- preparation of the pilot ladder and warning to
AREA in2ol2ed personnel to stand *- as re.!ired9
T2GENGAGEMENT %eminder to OO) to call the crew necessar- to sec!re t!gs9
TRA44IC AREA% Areas where hea2- traffic or where occasionall- hea2- traffic(
e9g9: ferries or fishing *oats ma- *e met9
Safe na2igation of the ship does not onl- re.!ire fi3ing the position of the ship on the chart
at reg!lar inter2als9 The OO) needs to *e constantl- !pdating himself regarding the
position of the ship relati2e to the re.!ired track and its tendenc- to increase or decrease its
de2iation from track9 Altho!gh the reg!lar fi3ing will gi2e this information there are other:
less o*2io!s wa-s ofo*taining s!ch information: often re.!iring little inp!t other than 5!st
o*ser2ing nat!ral feat!res9 "an- of these can *e planned in ad2ance and marked on the
TRAN%IT% ARANGE%B Transits Eknown as ranges in the &SAF(i9e9: the line on the
chart !pon which an o*ser2er wo!ld see two identifia*le
o*5ects in line(can *e !sed to gi2e the OO) a .!ick indication
of his position9 Altho!gh it is onl- a single position line its
ad2antage is that it re.!ires no !se of instr!ments *!t can *e
seen *- e-e9 or e3treme acc!rac- the distance *etween the
o*ser2er and the nearer o*5ect sho!ld *e no more than 3 times
the distance *etween the o*5ects o*ser2ed: tho!gh transits of
greater than this distance can *e !sed to ad2antage9
Transits are sometimes printed on charts of inshore waters: *!t
good !se can *e made of nat!ral and clearl- identifia*le
transits fo!nd at the planning stage and drawn on the chart9
Transits can also *e !sed as a c!e for a pre(arranged action to
*e taken(e9g9: wheel(o2er:(or as a reminder than an e2ent is
a*o!t to occ!r9
C0MPA%%ERR0R Transits ma- *e !sed to determine g-ro and magnetic
compass errors *- comparing charted and o*ser2ed *earings9
6EADING 6INE% 1eading lines are often shown on charts9 ,n this case the
transit printed on the chart is a track line to *e followed to
ens!re that the ship passes clear of danger9 B- o*ser2ing that
the leads are in line the na2igator is ass!red that his ship is on
the planned track9
C6EARING MAR9% Clearing marks can *e !sed to ens!re that a ship is remaining
within a safe area or is not approaching a danger9 ,n diagram B
the clearing mark is shown so that as long as the )estern edge
of %at island remains open of and to the left of Sheep B!o- then
the ship is making a safe approach with reference to that side of
the channel9
3EAD MAR9 Often a ship is re.!ired to follow a track in narrow waters
witho!t the *enefit of a leading line9 ,n this case a s!ita*le head
marker sho!ld *e selected9 This sho!ld *e a readil- identifia*le
conspic!o!s o*5ect shown on the chart: which lies on the
pro5ection of the re.!ired track at that part of the passage9 As
long as the *earing of the head marker: corrected for errors and
prefera*l- taken with a centerline repeater: remains constant
Ei9e9: the same as the re.!ired trackF: the ship is remaining on
track9 ,t sho!ld *e noted that the ship need not necessaril- *e
heading directl- at the o*5ect: onl- that it is on the line of the
re.!ired track9 ,n most cases the ship=s head will need to *e
offset to allow for tide or leewa-9
C6EARING BEARING% ,n the e2ent that no clearing marks are a2aila*le a single
identifia*le charted o*5ect ma- *e similarl- !sed9 ,n diagram 8:
as the ship makes the approach track of ;34LT it will remain
safe as long as the fort on the )estern end of Thorn ,sland
remains within the range of *earings ;48LT N ;84LT9 These
clearing *earings sho!ld *e shown on the chart as N1T ;48LT
and N"T ;84LT Enot less than / not more thanF9
O*ser2ing clearing *earings and clearing marks cannot *e
considered to *e =fi3ing= the ship *!t can assist the OO) in
ens!ring that his ship is not standing into danger9 Similarl-:
!sing dipping distances: whilst not *eing considered to *e an
acc!rate fi3: can make the OO) more awar@ that he is
approaching danger9
RANGE 04 6IG3T% The ma3im!m range at which a na2igational light can *e seen
depends !pon three separate factorsG
19 The com*ined height of e-e of the o*ser2er and the ele2a(
tion of the light9
4( The intensit- of the light9
3 The clarit- of the atmosphere:9
GE0GRAP3ICA6 The greater the ele2ation of the light: the greater the distance
RANGE at which it will *e 2isi*leA e.!all-: the greater the height of e-e
of the o*ser2er: the greater he will see the light9 These two
factors com*ined will gi2e a ma3im!m range of 2isi*ilit- called
the geographical range and ma- *e o*tained from ta*les in the
list of lights9 ,n practice: this range will *e se2erel- red!ced if
the light o*ser2ed is onl- low powered and therefore not
capa*le of *eing seen at its geographical range9
62MIN02% RANGE This is the ma3im!m distance at which the light can *e seen and
is dependent !pon the intensit- of the light and the atmospheric
2isi*ilit- pre2ailing9 ,t takes no acco!nt of the height of the
light nor that of the o*ser2er=s e-e9 O*2io!sl-: the more intense
the light: the f!rther it will *e seen: whate2er the state of the
atmosphere: and the appropriate ta*le will gi2e a good
indication of how far the light can *e e3pected to *e seen9
N0MINA6 RANGE The range shown on the chart: *eside the light star: is !s!all-
the nominal range(i9e9: the l!mino!s range when meteorological
2isi*ilit- is 1; miles9 This is not in2aria*le: tho!gh9 Some
co!ntries: s!ch as Iapan: chart the geographical rangeG some:
s!ch as Bra<il: the geographical or nominal according to
whiche2er is the greater9 ,t is the na2igator=s responsi*ilit- to
make himself aware of which range is shown and to ens!re that
the OO)s are also aware of this fact9
6AND4A66 6IG3T% At the p!nning stage of the 2o-age: the na2igator will ha2e the
opport!nit- to determine the ma3im!m distance at which a
landfall light sho!ld *ecome 2isi*le9 A comparison of the
nominal and geographic ranges can *e made and the lesser of
the two selected as *eing the range at which the light sho!ld *e
seen: ass!ming meteorological 2isi*ilit- of at least 1; miles9 ,t
sho!ld *e noted that onl- lights whose l!mino!s range e3ceeds
their geographical range co!ld *e considered as gi2ing an
appro3imate fi39 ,n an- case the arcs of ma3im!m 2isi*ilit-
sho!ld *e drawn on the landfall chart so that the OO) is aware
of the likelihood of seeing lights and which ones he sho!ld see
E>TREME RANGE Approaching the coast: lights will come into 2iew according to
their height: their intensit- and the am*ient 2isi*ilit-9
Sometimes the first indications of the pro3imit- of the coast
will *e powerf!l lights: which ma- *e seen *efore the radar can
detect them as targets9 )hilst not pretending that sighting the
lights can *e an acc!rate fi3: an o*ser2ation of the compass
*earings the time of sighting and plotting this with the e3treme
range of the light at this time will gi2e the OO) an awareness
of the pro3imit- of danger9
,n the e2ent that a light is not sighted as e3pected: then the
OO) will *e aware that the ship is not where he anticipated it
to *e or that the light is !nlit or o*sc!red in clo!d or that there
is poor 2isi*ilit- *etween the ship and the light9 The act!al
ca!se m!st *e determined *- his own 5!dgement9 The fact is
that there is something not .!ite as it sho!ld *e9
EC30-%02NDER Some ships lea2e an echo(so!nder r!nning at all times9 On
ships where this is not the case: it is good practice to switch the
echo(so!nder on prior to a landfall *eing made9 As in the case
of a light at ma3im!m range: whilst not pro2iding a fi3: the
act!al decrease in so!ndings will make the OO) more aware
that he is approaching danger9
C3ART The information re.!ired to monitor the passage will: in
05ERCR01DING man- instances: *e shown on the working charts9 ,n some
sit!ations this ma- not *e feasi*le: there ma- 5!st *e too m!ch
information needing to *e shown: th!s o2ercrowding the
working area: or e2en *lotting o!t certain chart details9 ,n some
cases this o2ercrowding can *e red!ced *- writing the re.!ired
information clear of the track(e9g9: on the land and drawing
attention to it *- either a connecting line or a reference letter9
P6ANNING B009 ,n an- case: certain information ma- *e *etter written in a
planning *ook(e9g9: times of high and low water: times of
s!nrise and s!nset: 0+ working fre.!encies9 )here a ship
!ses a port reg!larl-: the na2igator ma- prefer to p!t the whole
of his plan into a planning *ook in addition to the chart: so that
it can *e referred to at a later date9
C0NNING N0TE B009 'epending !pon the length and comple3it- of the
passage: or certain parts of it: it is good practice for an
a**re2iated edition of the plan to *e made into a note*ook so
that the person ha2ing the conn: other than a pilot: can !pdate
himself as and when re.!ired witho!t ha2ing to lea2e the
conning position to look at the chart9
MA%TER&% APPR05A6 On completion the plan m!st *e s!*mitted to the "aster for his
P6AN C3ANGE% All mem*ers of the *ridge team will *e aware that e2en the
most thoro!gh plan ma- *e s!*5ect to change d!ring the
passage9 ,t is the responsi*ilit- of the person instigating s!ch
change to ens!re that changes are made with the agreement of
the "aster and that all other mem*ers of the team are ad2ised of
s!ch changes9
Chapter #
TACTIC% The plan ha2ing *een made: disc!ssed and appro2ed: e3ec!tion
of the plan now has to *e determined9 B- this is meant the
methods !sed to carr- o!t the plan: incl!ding the *est !se of
a2aila*le reso!rces9 inal details will ha2e to *e confirmed
when the act!al timing of the passage can *e ascertained9 The
tactics to *e !sed to accomplish the plan can then *e agreed and
sho!ld incl!deG
ETAs -$r TIDE E3pected times of arri2al at critical points to take ad2antage of
fa2ora*le tidal streams9
ETA -$r DA76IG3T ETAs at critical points where it is prefera*le to make a da-light
passage or with the s!n *ehind the ship9
TRA44IC C0NDITI0N% Traffic conditions at focal points9
DE%TINATI0N ETA ETA at destination: partic!larl- where there ma- *e no
ad2antage gained *- earl- arri2al9
TIDA6 %TREAM% Tidal stream information: o*tained from the chart or tidal
stream atlases: can *e incl!ded in the planned passage when the
time of transit of the rele2ant area is known9 ,deall-: co!rses to
steer sho!ld *e calc!lated prior to making the transit: tho!gh in
fact: strict adherence to the planned track will act!all-
compensate for tidal streams9
C!rrent information can also *e o*tained and shown on the
P6AN ,t m!st alwa-s *e *orne in mind that safe e3ec!tion of the
M0DI4ICATI0N passage ma- onl- *e achie2ed *- modification of the plan in the
case of na2igational e.!ipment *ecoming !nrelia*le or
inacc!rate or time changes ha2ing to *e made(e9g9: dela-ed
ADDITI0NA6 ,n order to achie2e safe e3ec!tion of the plan it ma- *e neces(
PER%0NNE6 sar- to manage the risks *- !tili<ing additional deck or engine
personnel9 This will incl!de an awareness of positions at which
it will *e necessar-G
1= To call the "aster to the *ridge for ro!tine sit!ations s!ch
as approaching the coast: passing thro!gh constrained
waters: approaching the pilot station: etc9
4H To change from !nattended to manned machiner- space9
3H To call an e3tra certificated officer to the *ridge9
8H To make personnel: in addition to the watchkeepers:
a2aila*le for *ridge d!ties s!ch as manning the wheel:
keeping looko!t: etc9
>H To make personnel: in addition to the watchkeepers:
a2aila*le for deck d!ties s!ch as preparing pilot ladders:
clearing and standing *- anchors: preparing *erthing
e.!ipment: engaging t!gs: etc9
BRIE4ING Before commencing the 2o-age there is considera*le ad2antage
to *e gained *- *riefing all concerned9 This ma- take place
o2er a considera*le period of time9 As the act!al
commencement of the 2o-age approaches: certain specific
personnel will ha2e to *e *riefed so that work sched!les and
re.!irements can *e planned9
,n partic!lar: an- 2ariation from the ro!tine r!nning of the ship(
e9g9: do!*ling of watches: anchor part- re.!irements: etc9: m!st
*e specificall- ad2ised to in2ol2ed personnel: either *- the
"aster or the na2igator9
S!ch *riefing will re.!ire fre.!ent !pdating and at different
stages there will ha2e to *e re*riefing as the 2o-age progresses9
Briefing will make indi2id!als aware of their own part in the
o2erall plan and contri*!tes to their work satisfaction9
4ATIG2E Prior to the commencement of the passage and: in certain cases:
d!ring the passage: it ma- *e necessar- for the "aster to ens!re
that rested and !nfatig!ed personnel are a2aila*le9 This co!ld
incl!de s!ch times as lea2ing port and entering 2er- hea2-
traffic areas or *ad weather conditions or high risk sit!ations
s!ch as transiting a narrow strait: etc9 This a2aila*ilit- can *e
achie2ed: within the limits of the total n!m*er of persons
a2aila*le: *- ens!ring that watchkeepers of all descriptions are
relie2ed of their d!ties well in ad2ance of *eing re.!ired on
watch in order that the- ma- rest9
This ma- re.!ire changes to ro!tine watchkeeping periods:
e3tending certain watches or e2en c!rtailing watches: *!t it is at
the "aster=s discretion and he sho!ld nothesitate to make s!ch
507AGE One of the *asic principles of management is ens!ring that
PREPARATI0N the workplace is prepared and readied for the ens!ing task9
This will normall- *e the task of a 5!nior officer who will
prepare the *ridge for sea9 S!ch ro!tine tasks are *est achie2ed
*- the !se of a checklist: *!t care has to *e taken to ens!re that
this does not 5!st mean that the checklist is ticked witho!t the
act!al task *eing done9
BRIDGE At the time designated *- the "aster the officer responsi*le
PREPARATI0N sho!ld prepare the *ridge *-G
1 Ens!ring that the passage plan and s!pporting information is
a2aila*le and to hand9 E,t is likel- that the na2igating officer
responsi*le for the constr!ction of the passage plan( will ha2e
made these items read-A ne2ertheless: the- sho!ld still *e
Charts sho!ld *e in order: in the chart drawer and the c!rrent
chart a2aila*le on the chart ta*le9 ,t is *ad practice to ha2e
more than one chart on the ta*le at a time: as information read
from one and transferred to the other ma- not *e correct9
4H Checking that chart ta*le e.!ipment is in order and to hand(e9g9:
pens: pencils: parallel r!les: compasses: di2iders: note pads: scrap
pads: etc9
3H Checking that ancillar- watchkeeping e.!ipment is in order and to
hand(e9g9: *inoc!lars: a<im!th rings: Aldis lamp etc9
89 Confirming that monitoring and recording e.!ipment (e9g9:
co!rse recorder: engine mo2ement recorder(is operational
and recording paper replaced if necessar-
>= Confirming that the master g-ro is f!ll- operational and
follow(!ps aligned9 The magnetic compass sho!ld *e
@= Checking that all instr!ment ill!mination lamps are
operational and their light le2els ad5!sted as re.!ired9
The a2aila*ilit- and wherea*o!ts of spares sho!ld *e
B= Checking na2igation and signal lights9
8= Switching on an- electronic na2igational e.!ipment that
has *een sh!t down and operating mode and position
DH Switching on and confirming the reado!ts of echo(
so!nders and logs and confirming associated recording
1;= After ens!ring that the scanners are clear: switching on
and t!ning radars and setting appropriate ranges and and
11= Switching on and testing control e.!ipment(i9e9: tele(
graphs: com*inators thr!sters and =steering gear as
149 Switching on and testing comm!nication e.!ipment *oth
internal Etelephones and porta*le radiosF and e3ternal
E0+ and " radios: Na2te3: ,nmarsat and $"'SS
s-stems as appropriate9F
13= Testing the whistle9
18= Ens!ring that clear2iew screens and wipers are opera(
tional and that windows are clean9
1>9 Confirming that all clocks and recording e.!ipment are
1@9 Ens!ring that the workplace is in correct order: lighting
is as it sho!ld *e: doors and windows open and close
easil-: temperat!re controls are set as appropriate and
mo2a*le o*5ects are in their correct place9
1B After ens!ring that there is no rele2ant new information on
the tele3: fa3 or Na2te3A ad2ising the "aster that the
*ridge is read- for sea9
The a*o2e list is onl- a general g!ideA each ship will ha2e its own specific checks: which
ha2e to *e incl!ded9 A modified 2ersion of the a*o2e sho!ld also *e carried o!t when
approaching port or an area where other than ro!tine watchkeeping ma- occ!r9
Chapter $
"onitoring is ens!ring that the ship is following the pre(determined passage plan and is a
primar- f!nction of the officer of the watch9 or this: he ma- *e aloneA assisted *- other
shipOs personnelA or acting as *ack !p and information so!rce to another officer ha2ing the
"onitoring consists of following a series of f!nctions: anal-sing the res!lts and taking
action *ased !pon s!ch anal-sis9
4I>ING MET30D The first re.!irement of monitoring is to esta*lish the position
of the ship9 This ma- *e done *- a 2ariet- of methods: ranging
from the 2er- *asic three *earing lines: thro!gh a more
technicall- sophisticated !se of radar ranges/*earings: to instant
reado!t of one of the electronic position fi3ing s-stems(e9g9:
'ecca: 1oran or $PS9 The res!lt: tho!gh: is alwa-s the same9
+owe2er the fi3 has *een deri2ed: -o! finish !p with no more
than a position9 ,t is how this information is !sed that is
5I%2A6 BEARING% As stated a*o2e: fi3ifig methods 2ar-9 Basic fi3ing consists of
more than one position line o*tained from taking *earings !sing
an a<im!th ring on a compass9 $-ro or magnetic: the *earings
are corrected to tr!e: drawn on the chart and the position shown9
Three position lines are the minim!m re.!ired to ens!re
Poor 2isi*ilit- or lack of defina*le 2is!al o*5ects ma- pre2ent a
three(*earing fi3 *eing made9 ,n this case radar(deri2ed ranges
EdistancesF ma- *e incl!ded in the fi3 and !nder some
circ!mstances make !p the whole of the fi39 ,n an- case a
mi3t!re of 2is!al or radar *earings and radar ranges is accept(
a*le9 Other methods ma- *e !sed(e9g9: r!nning fi3es Ewhich
ma- *e inacc!rate a(s the- depend gn an element of '%F
se3tant angles: etc9(*!t these are seldom !sed on modern ships9
An- good chartwork te3t*ook will gi2e a wide range of
less!sed fi3ing methods9
Electronic position fi3ing ma- also *e !sed: partic!larl- where
there are no shore(*ased o*5ects to *e o*ser2ed and the
radar coastline is indistinct9 )hilst these s-stems appear to *e
infalli*le the operator needs to ha2e a good !nderstanding of the
principles and failings of the electronic s-stem *eing !sed: in
order to a2oid a false sense of sec!rit-9
4RE82ENC7 i3 fre.!enc- will ha2e *een determined at the planning stage9
E2en so: this ma- ha2e to *e re2ised: alwa-s *earing in mind
the minim!m fre.!enc- is s!ch that the ship cannot *e allowed
to get into danger *etween fi3es9
REG26ARIT7 i3ing needs not onl- to *e acc!rate and s!fficientl- fre.!ent: it
also needs to *e reg!lar9
E%TIMATED P0%ITI0N%eg!lar fi3ing also allows a fi3 to *e additionall- checked9
Each time a position has *een fi3ed: it is good practice to
estimate the position that the ship sho!ld ha2e reached at the
ne3t fi39 Pro2iding fi3ing is *eing carried o!t at reg!lar
inter2als this is *eing carried o!t at reg!lar inter2als this can
easil- *e picked off as the distance *etween the present and the
pre2io!s fi3 and checked against the anticipated speed9 ,f the
ne3t fi3 coincides with the estimated position EEPF: then this
acts as an additional check that the ship is maintaining its track
and speed9
Sho!ld the fi3 not coincide with the EP: then the OO) is aware
that something is either wrong with the o*tained position or some
e3ternal infl!ence has affected the ship9 The first action is to
check the EP: then check the fi39 ,f the- are *oth correct then
something is infl!encing the shipA either the co!rse *eing steered
is not the one re.!ired or the engine re2ol!tions ha2e changed9 ,f
*oth these feat!res are in order then some e3ternal infl!ence is
affecting the ship: either the wind has changed direction or
strength or the tidal stream has changed9 The OO) is
immediatel- aware that something is infl!encing the ship and can
take immediate action to correct it9
%02NDING% ,t is also good practice to o*ser2e the echo(so!nder at the same
time as fi3ing and writing this reading on the chart
*eside the fi39 ,f the o*ser2ed reading is not the same as that
e3pected from the chart then the OO) is immediatel- aware
that something is not well9 ,t ma- *e that the chart is wrongA
it ma- *e that the ship is standing into danger9
CR0%% TRAC9 ERR0R+a2ing fi3ed the position the OO) will *e aware of whether or
not the ship is following the planned track and whether or not
the ship will *e at the ne3t wa-point at the e3pected time9 ,f the
ship is de2iating from the planned track he m!st deter(
mine whether or not s!ch de2iation will ca!se the ship to stand
into danger and what action he sho!ld take to remed-
the sit!ation9 Apart from de2iating from track to a2oid an
!nplanned ha<ard s!ch as an approaching ship: there is seldom
5!stification not to correct the de2iation and get the ship *ack
onto the planned track9 The OO) m!st !se his 5!dgement as to
how m!ch he needs to alter co!rse to ret!rn to track: *earing in
mind that e2en when he has ret!rned to the planned track he
will need to lea2e some of the co!rse correction on in order to
compensate the ca!se of the earlier de2iation9
INTERNATI0NA6 ,rrespecti2e of the planned passage: no ship can a2oid
REG26ATI0N% 40R conforming with re.!irements of the =%!le of the: %oad=9
PRE5ENTING These r!les are .!ite clear: are internationall- accepted and
C066I%I0N% AT %EA !nderstood *- most OO)s9
%!le 1@ statesG =E2er- 2essel which is directed to keep o!t of the
wa- of another 2essel shall: so far as possi*le: take earl-
and s!*stantial action to keep well clear9=
'espite the re.!irement to maintain track: %!le 8 makes it .!ite
clear that the gi2e(wa- ship m!st keep clear: either *- altering
co!rse or if this is impossi*le then *- red!cing speed: or a
com*ination of *oth these factors9 Proper planning will ha2e
ens!red that the ship will ne2er *e in a sit!ation where s!ch
action cannot *e taken9
,n areas of hea2- traffic and pro3imit- of dangers: the person
ha2ing the conn will ha2e to hold a delicate *alance of other
ship a2oidance and planned track maintenance9 The priorit-
will *e to a2oid collision: *!t not at the e3pense of a
N0N-NA5IGATI0NA6 Similarl-: the *ridge team m!st ne2er allow the reaction to an
EMERGENCIE% emergenc- sit!ation to so dominate their reacti@ii that the ship
is potentiall- ha<arded *- di2erting into an area of high danger9
Again: the planning sho!ld ha2e allowed for s!ch contingencies
*!t e2en the *est plan cannot allow for e2er- concei2a*le
sit!ation9 Sit!ational awareness and caref!l assessment of the
sit!ation: co!pled with principles of *ridge team management
will help pre2ent a *ad sit!ation compo!nding and *ecoming
TIME MANAGEMENT,n the e2ent that the ship is ahead of or *ehind the planned ETA
at the ne3t wa-point: the OO) m!st !se his 5!dgement as to
whether he ad5!sts the speed or not9 ,n some instances: as for
e3ample when it is imperati2e that the ship=s ETA is critical to
make a tide: then ETAs ha2e to *e adhered to:
in either of the instances cited a*o2e: it will *e the practice of
the ship or at the ;O)s discretion as to whether he ad2ises the
600902T The ;O)s sit!ational awareness will *e impro2ed *- *oth the
str!ct!red management of the team and his own self(discipline
ens!ring that he keeps a good professional watch9 This will
incl!de his confirming that a good looko!t is kept9 A good
looko!t does not 5!st mean that he personall- keeps a good
2is!al looko!t of the ship=s s!rro!ndings9
%!le > of the ,nternational %eg!lations for Pre2enting
Collisions at Sea E1DB4: ratified 1DBBF statesG
%&er" &essel shall at all times maintain a proper looko!t *-
sight and hearing as 'ell as *- all a2aila*le means appropriate
in the pre&ailing circ!mstances and conditions so as to make a
f!ll appraisal of the sit!ation and of the risk of collision9
Tho!gh specificall- addressing collision the a*o2e(.!oted r!le
also applies if the OO) is to maintain his sit!ational
awareness9 The keeping of an efficient looko!t needs to *e
interpreted in its f!llest sense and the OO) needs to *e aware
that looko!t incl!des the following itemsG
1 A constant and contin!o!s all(ro!nd 2is!al looko!t ena*ling
a f!ll !nderstanding of the c!rrent sit!ation and the
pro3imit- of dangers: other ships and na2igation marks to *e
,n some instances: partic!larl- poor 2isi*ilit-: radar will gi2e a
*etter pict!re of the ship=s en2ironment than act!al 2is!al
o*ser2ation9 +owe2er: !nless the OO) has considera*le
e3perience of comparing the radar pict!re with the 2is!al scene
he cannot a!tomaticall- interpret his radar pict!re9 ,n an- case:
the 2is!al scene is the real scene not an electronic 2ersion of
realit- and the OO) who fre.!entl- o*ser2es the scene o!tside
the windows will ha2e a *etter !nderstanding of and feel for the
world aro!nd him9
4 0is!al o*ser2ation will also gi2e an instant !pdate of
en2ironmental changes: partic!larl- 2isi*ilit- and wind9
3 0is!al o*ser2ation of the: compass *earing of an encroach(
ing other(ship will .!ickl- show whether or not its *earing
in changing and whether or not it needs to *e considered a
8 0is!al o*ser2ation of characteristics of lights is the onl- wa-
of positi2el- identif-ing them and th!s increases the OO)s
sit!ational awareness9
> The looko!t will also incl!de the ro!tine monitoring of ship
control and alarm s-stems(e9g9: reg!larl- comparinig standard
and g-ro compasses and that the: correct co!rse is *eing
@ Electronic aids sho!ld not *e o2erlooked or ignored: !nder
an- circ!mstances: *!t it sho!ld *e *orne in mind that echo(
so!nders: radars: etc9: are aids to na2igation: not merel-
single means of na2igation9
B Also incl!ded in the concept of looko!t sho!ld *e the
ad2antageo!s !se of 0+9 I!dicio!s monitoring of the
appropriate channels ma- allow the ship to *e aware of
sit!ations arising long *efore it is act!all- in the affected
8 A ro!tine sho!ld *e esta*lished for ma5or co!rse alterations
a Checking astern prior to altering9
* Checking: *oth 2is!all- and *- radar: along the *earing of
the new track9
The OO)=s sit!ational awareness will also *e enhanched *- his o*ser2ation of his
en2ironment !sing all a2aila*le means: not 5!st limiting himself to the ro!tine of fi3ing and
correcting as descri*ed a*o2e9
2NDER 9EE6 %o!tine o*ser2ation of the echo(so!nder sho!ld *ecome one
C6EARANCE of the proced!res of the watch9
1A7P0INT% Besides *eing points noted on the chart where a change of
stat!s or an e2ent will occ!r: wa-points are also good indicators
of whether the ship is on time or not9 ,f not: then something has
occ!rred or is occ!rring which has affected the passage and the
OO) will take steps to correct this occ!rrence9
TRAN%IT% ARANGE%B Transits are often important na2igational feat!res: the- can: for
e3ample: *e !sed to c!e decisions s!ch as a wheel(o2er: *!t can
also *e !sed in a more passi2e role9 The OO) can !se a transit
to confirm that the ship is on sched!le or that it is remaining on
track: partic!larl- when this occ!rs after an alteration9 Of itself:
the confirming transit ma- *e no more than a minor occ!rrence
*!t it will help the o*ser2ant OO) confirm in his own mind
that all is well and as it sho!ld *e9
6EADING 6INE% 1eading lines(i9e9: the transit of two readil- identifia*le land(
*ased marks on the e3tension of the re.!ired gro!nd track and
!s!all- shown on the chart(are !sed to ens!re that the ship is
safel- on the re.!ired track9
NAT2RA6 ,n some instances the OO) ma- *e a*le to pick !p informal
6EADING 6INE% leading lines(e9g9: a na2mark in line with an end of land which
will confirm that the 2essel is on track9
O*ser2ation of a head mark and a .!ick mental calc!lation 'i =ll
gi2e an indication of the distance that the ship has de2iated
from her track9
%e.!ired *rg 9 ( o*ser2ed *rg 3 dist from o*5ect E"ilesF P dist9 off track in
Alternati2el-: the off(track distance can *e readil- e2al!ated
*- looking down the re.!ired *eating and estimating the dis(
tance *etween the headmark and where the o*ser2ed *earing
meets the land9 "an(made feat!res s!ch as cars: *!ses and
lamp posts can aid this estimate9
C6EARING MAR9% As descri*ed in planning: clearing marks and clearing
6 BEARING% *earings: whilst not *eing considered to *e a definiti2e fi3:
will indicate to the OO) that his ship is remaining in safe
RI%INGCDIPPING "aking a landfall or r!nning along a coastline: o*ser2ing
DI%TANCE% rising and dipping distances of powerf!l lights and marking
this on the chart with the o*ser2ed *earing can also help
ass!re the OO) that the ship is in the anticipated position9
6IG3T %ECT0R% The changing colo!rs of sectored lights can also *e !sed to
ad2antage *- the OO) and in certain instances: which the
OO) sho!ld *e 2er- aware of: will indicate that the ship is
standing into danger9 On occasion the flickering sector
change can 2irt!all- *e !sed as a *earing9 Care needs to *e
taken in ic- weather as sectors can *ecome indistinct9
Chapter (
,"O %esol!tion 48> re.!ires that the OO) =ens!res that an efficient looko!t is maintained=
*!t concedes that =there ma- *e circ!mstances in which the officer of the watch can safel-
*e the sole looko!t in da-light9=
+owe2erG =)hen the officer of the watch is acting as the sole looko!t he m!st not
hesitate to s!mmon assistance to the *ridge: and when for an- reason he is !na*le to gi2e
his !ndi2ided attention to the looko!t s!ch assistance m!st *e immediatel- a2aila*le9=
EAnne3 B 49F ,t is normal practice to ha2e the !ncertificated watchkeeper working in the
2icinit- of the *ridge where he can *e called sho!ld he *e re.!ired9 At night the looko!t is
normall- on the *ridge carr-ing o!t his e3cl!si2e looko!t d!ties9
&nder certain conditions the OO) ma- *e the onl- person acti2el- engaged in the
na2igation of the ship: The steering ma- *e in a!tomatic and the looko!t engaged in d!ties
aro!nd the *ridge area9 There is no apparent call for teamworkA the OO) will *e
personall- responsi*le for all aspects of safe na2igation9 Ne2ertheless: he will *e re.!ired
to work within a framework of standing and specific orders so that the "aster will *e
confident that the watch is *eing kept to his: and the compan-=s: standards9
The single watchkeeper stat!s ma- change at short notice9 ,f the OO) *ecomes engaged in
d!ties which re.!ire him to forgo his o*ligations as looko!t then he will ha2e to call his
!nlicensed watchstander to take that role9 +ere we ha2e the first *asics of teamwork9
,t is the responsi*ilit- of the OO) to ens!re that the seaman assigned watchkeeping d!tiesG
1 +as *een properl- instr!cted in looko!t d!ties as to what is e3pected of him9
4 #nows how to report o*ser2ations9
3 ,s ade.!atel- clothed and protected from the weather9
8 ,s relie2ed as fre.!entl- as necessar-9
The watchkeeping officer ma- re.!ire a man on the wheel in addition to the looko!t9 ,t is
the responsi*ilit- of the OO) to see that the 2essel is safel- and efficientl- steered9
)e are now in a sit!ation re.!iring a fair amo!nt of Organi<ation and cooperation9 The
watch officer still has the responsi*ilit- for the watch *!t has to !se and rel- !pon the
assistance of two other people9 ,t is his responsi*ilit- to ens!re that the- are aware of their
d!ties and carr- them o!t in a manner: which will enhance tile: standard of the watch9
Altho!gh neither person: in this case: sho!ld find the d!ties partic!larl- onero!s or
diffic!lt: the watch officer still needs to ens!re that orders are correctl- followed(e9g9: helm
orders are complied with as re.!ired: not as the helmsman thinks fit9
&nder certain circ!mstances the OO) ma- find it is necessar- to call the "aster to the
*ridge9 This ma- *e *eca!se the preplanning re.!ires the presence of the "aster on the
*ridge or the "aster=s standing or night orders ha2e re.!ired him to *e called !nder the
de2eloping circ!mstances or *eca!se the OO) has reali<ed that the sit!ation needs the
e3perience and e3pertise of the "aster9
Calling the "aster to the *ridge will not transfer the conn from the watch officer to the
master9 &ntil s!ch time as the "aster act!all- declares that he has the conn the OO) m!st
still carr- o!t his d!ties as he was prior to the "aster=s arri2al9 Once the "aster has taken
the conn: and the e2ent logged: then the watch officer mo2es into a s!pporti2e role: *!t is
still responsi*le for the actions of his watch mem*ers9
,t is now necessar- to define the role of the indi2id!al team mem*ers9 M!ite o*2io!sl- this
will to a large e3tent depend !pon the indi2id!als in2ol2ed and the practice of the ship: *!t
!nless each indi2id!al=s role is !nderstood *- all in2ol2ed there will *e o2erlapping or a
possi*le ignoring of certain f!nctions9 Teamwork will depend !pon the following role
s!ggestions *eing carried o!t9
The Master controls mo2ement of the 2essel in accordance with the %!le of the %oad and
recommended traffic schemes: reg!lates the co!rse and speed and s!per2ises the safe
na2igation of the 2essel and co(ordinates and s!per2ises the o2erall watch Organi<ation9
The 1at!h $--i!er contin!es to na2igate the ship reporting rele2ant information to the
"aster: ens!ring that s!ch information is acknowledged9 +e will fi3 the 2essel and ad2ise
the conn of the position and other information9 +e will monitor the e3ec!tion of helm and
engine orders: co(ordinate all internal and e3ternal comm!nications: record all re.!ired
entries (in log*ooks and perform other d!ties as re.!ired *- the "aster9
The looko!t and helmsman will still *e carr-ing o!t their d!ties: as a*o2e9
&nder certain circ!mstances: the "aster ma- consider it necessar- to ha2e the s!pport of
two na2igating officers(one as OO): the other as *ack!p9 The "aster=s responsi*ilities
will *e as a*o2e: *!t the responsi*ilities of the two officers will re.!ire caref!l definition9
,t is o*2io!s that a scenario re.!iring two watch officers s!pporting the "aster will indicate
that the ship is in a 2er- high(risk sit!ation9
Pro*a*le factors will *e9 (
1 Narrow margins of safet- re.!iring 2er- caref!l track maintenance9
4 %ed!ced !nderkeel clearance9
3 +ea2- traffic9
8 Poor 2isi*ilit-A or an- com*ination of similar factors9
The OO) will still carr- o!t his d!ties as defined a*o2e and *e generall- responsi*le for
the normal r!nning of the watch9
The additional officer=s role will *e to pro2ide the "aster with radar(*ased traffic
information and to gi2ing general *ack!p to the OO) on the chart9 This will incl!de
pro2iding the chart with na2igational information as re.!ired: confirming important
na2igational decisions and coping with *oth internal and e3ternal comm!nications9
,t is diffic!lt to esta*lish hard and fast r!les a*o!t how the tasks of the *ridge team sho!ld
*e distri*!ted9 ,t will depend !pon the a*ilities and characters of the personnel in2ol2ed:
the circ!mstances re.!iring the additional personnel in2ol2ement and the la-o!t of the
*ridge9 The important thing to *ear in mind is that each mem*er of the team knows the role
that he is re.!ired to carr- o!t and the roles of other mem*ers of the team9 As stated a*o2e
this will precl!de !nnecessar- d!plication of tasks and: more importantl-: ens!re that other
tasks are not ignored or o2erlooked9
The time is ;1;;9 The ship has made a safe landfall and is approaching the destination port9
The ETA at the pilot station was confirmed at 18;; the pre2io!s e2ening and it was agreed
that the pilot wo!ld *oard at ;3;;9 The pilotage to the *erth is e3pected to take a*o!t one
ho!r9 The weathers fine and clear and high water at the *erth is at ;33;: th!s allowing the
ship to *erth on the first of the e**9
The Second "ate is on watch with his stand*- rating and end of sea passage is sched!led
for ;4;;9 The "aster has left night orders to *e called at ;13;9 The anchors were cleared
the pre2io!s afternoon and the pilot ladder has *een p!t on deck: read- for !sing on either
side9 The engine control room has *een manned since 44;; and the engineers ha2e *een
ad2ised that EOP *e at ;4;;9
The Second "ate is fi3ing the ship=s position at 4;(min!te inter2als !sing 1oran C with
2is!al *earing confirmation and is r!nning a straight line parallel inde3 on the radar for
contin!o!s off(track detection9
@13@ The OO) calls the "aster as per night orders: ad2ising him that the 2o-age is
going as sched!led and that there is light traffic in the 2icinit-9
The OO) confirms with the engineroom that the ship is on sched!le and that
red!ction from sea speed will still *e at ;4;;9
The OO) informs his stand*- man: at present acting as looko!t: that the- are
approaching the port and to keep a caref!l looko!t for small inshore craft s!ch as
fishing *oats and that an additional crewmem*er will *e re.!ired at ;4;; for *ridge
@14# The "aster comes to the *ridge: ac.!aints himself with the sit!ation on the chart:
the OO) ha2ing fi3ed the position of the ship onl- fi2e min!tes *efore and then
takes his c!stomar- position at the cenire window9 The OO) ad2ises the "aster of
the present sit!ation and again confirms that e2er-thing is r!nning according to
plan9 The OO) contin!es his watch responsi*ilities as if the "aster were not on
the *ridge9
@1#@ "asterG =Second "ate: , ha2e the Conn9=
The OO) confirms the co!rse and speed: ad2ises the "aster of an- traffic that is
of interest and log the e2ent9
The "aster is now in the sit!ation that he will *e gi2ing the conning orders and the
OO) monitoring and confirming these orders and ad2ising the "aster as
@1#? The OO) fi3es the position of the ship9
OO)? =Captain: last fi3 shows ship on track9 Planned red!ction to mane!2ering
f!ll ahead at ;4;;9=
@2@@ "asterG =Confirmed= and rings the telegraph to red!ce from f!ll sea speed to
mane!2ering f!ll ahead9
Stand*- seaman comes to *ridge and steering gear is changed from a!tomatic to
man!al and the wheel is manned9 The helmsman mo2es the wheel and confirms
that the steering is now !nder man!al control9
@2@# OO)G =As planned , ha2e now changed the fi3 period to 1; min!tes and will *e
fi3ing !sing radar and 2is!al9
The OO) will now *e spending more time at the chart: fi3ing
more fre.!entl- and ad2ising the "aster of the progress of the
ship: *oth rele2ant to the planned track and distance to r!n:
speed and ETA at the pilot station9 +e will also *e !pdating the
parallel inde3 on the appropriate radar so that the "aster can
ac.!aint himself with the sit!ation9 Both the OO) and the
"aster will *e !sing the radars to monitor traffic9
@21# The OO) calls additional Epre2io!sl- warnedF crew for pilot station and anchor
stand*- d!ties in 3; min!tes9
@22@ OO)G =1ast fi3 shows 2essel drifting slightl- right of track9 S!ggest alter co!rse to
;3>L=T9'istance to r!n to pilot station > miles: s!ggest red!ce speed to half ahead9=
"aster acknowledges: corrects co!rse and *rings telegraph to half ahead9
@23@ OO)G =i3 confirms ship has regained track: s!ggest -o! steer ;3DL T9=
"aster confirms and ad5!sts co!rse as rele2ant9
OO)G =)e are on ETA: plan now re.!ires speed of onl- > knots: s!ggest -o!
red!ce to slow ahead9 'o -o! wish me to confirm pilot *oarding9=
"aster acknowledges and red!ces to slow ahead9
"asterG =Qes: confirm ETA with pilot and ask his preferred *oarding speed and
which side he wants the lee9=
@23# OO) confirms pilot *oarding on 0+ and disc!sses *oarding speed and pilot
approach9 +e also dispatches stand*- man/looko!t to prepare the pilot ladder as
appropriate and to ad2ise rele2ant crewmem*ers to stand *- forward and clear the
@24@ '!e to pro3imit- of margins of safet- fi3 time is now red!ced to @ min!tes: parallel
inde3ing still *eing !sed to confirm track maintenance9 Speed is red!ced to dead
slow ahead: !sing the same proced!res as *efore9 (
@24# Stand*- man ret!rns and ad2ises that the pilot ladder and ancillar- gear is rigged as
The OO) ad2ises engineroom of imminence of pilot *oarding9
@2#@ OO)G =1ooks like the pilot 2essel approaching9 'o -o! want me to go down to
meet the pilot9=
"asterG =Qes: *!t take a radio with -o! and keep me informed and get one of the
anchor part- to meet -o! there to ha!l the ladder *ack in9=
@2#2 The OO) fi3es the ship=s position and reminds the "aster that the plan was that
the engines wo!ld *e stopped *!t speed wo!ld *e kept at a*o!t fo!r knots9 The
OO) lea2es *ridge to check the pilot *oarding arrangements and to meet the pilot9
@2#' Pilot *oat alongside9
@2#* Pilot on deckG the OO) ad2ises the "aster on the *ridge 2ia his radio that the pilot
is a*oard9
@3@@ Pilot on the *ridgeG the OO) confirms ship=s position and safet- and temporaril-
res!mes the conn whilst the "aster and pilot disc!ss the ship=s partic!lars and the
pilot=s anticipated plan9
@3@# Pilot takes conn and ship proceeds into the port area9 The "aster still has the
responsi*ilit- for the safet- of the ship and the OO) contin!es with his monitoring
role as *efore9
The a*o2e scenario does not attempt to show how a ship=s *ridge will necessaril- *e
organi<ed9 ,t does: howe2er: show the large n!m*er of interacti2e e2ents: which ma- occ!r
when a ship is in: what is to most seafarers: a relati2el- ro!tine and straightforward
The act!al proced!res e3ercised at the pilot *oarding ma- 2ar- considera*l- from ship to
Ship9 Present re.!irements are that em*arkation and disem*arkation of pilot sho!ld *e
s!per2ised *- a responsi*le officer of the ship9
,n tr-ing to compl- with this: the personnel in2ol2ed need to *e aware that the "aster will
*e alone on the *ridge whilst the OO) is meeting the pilot or that another officer needs to
*e called specificall- for this task9 ,n the first instance the "aster will make s!ch a
*ased !pon the conditions at the time9 ,t wo!ld *e !nwise to lea2e the *ridge witho!t an
OO) in a sit!ation s!ch as hea2- traffic: narrow margins of safet-: strong tides or an-
com*ination of s!ch factors: partic!larl- as !nder s!ch conditions the act!al em*arkation of
the pilot co!ld *e dela-ed9 Calling an additional officer ma- well *e a *etter alternati2e:
partic!larl- if he has either 5!st gone off watch or is re.!ired shortl-9 )hilst the final
decision is at the discretion of the "aster: the circ!mstances sho!ld ha2e *een allowed of
and incl!ded at the planning stage9
,n an- circ!mstances where the "aster has the conn: it is the d!t- of the OO) and an-
other personnel engaged in watchkeeping to pro2ide the "aster with s!fficient information
to ena*le him to make decisions appropriate to the sit!ation9 "ost of these decisions will
*e *ased !pon the original plan: *!t it is not solel- the "asterOs d!t- to see that e2er-thing
is going according to plan or otherwise9 That d!t- is shared with the "aster *- the OO)
who: *- reg!larl- fi3ing the ship=s position: confirms that the original track is *eing
maintained9 ,t is also his d!t- to confirm that orders gi2en *- the "aster: not 5!st
na2igational orders: *!t all aspects of ship control: are carried o!t as re.!ired9 "ost
importantl-: it is for the OO) to ad2ise the "aster when he: the OO): considers that
things are not going according to plan or when a change of circ!mstances occ!rs9
)hene2er possi*le after the s!ccessf!l completion of a passage the opport!nit- sho!ld *e
taken *- the master to disc!ss the planning and e3ec!tion of the passage with his team
mem*ers9 Possi*le weaknesses sho!ld *e openl- admitted so that the- ma- *e corrected or
allowed for in f!t!re planned passages9
S!ch de*rief need not take long and once the corrections to the plan ha2e *een made it can
*e sa2ed for f!t!re !se9 ,n some instances(for e3ample9 where the ship fre.!entl- 2isits a
certain port or reg!larl- transits an area(it ma- *e fo!nd ad2antageo!s to keep the charts
and note*ooks as the- are9 &nless ma5or changes are made to the channels or na2aids: etc9:
a planned passage will !s!all- hold good for f!t!re 2isits: accepting that meteorological
and tidal differences alwa-s ha2e to *e allowed for9
Some ships reg!larl- trading to the same ports find it !sef!l to ha2e two sets of charts: one
for the inward passage and one for the o!tward passage9
Passage plans can easil- *e held in a comp!ter data*ase: allowing for each e3traction and
correction when re.!ired9 Shipowners and managers can !se data*ase(held planning to
their ad2antage in that this s-stem allows for simple standardi<ation thro!gho!t a fleet9
Plans to the owners/managers own standards can *e made and dispatched to all of the
compan-=s ships: sa2ing a d!plication of effort and ens!ring that the correct information
and re.!irements are a2aila*le9 Comp!ter access will then allow the plans to *e easil-
modified in the light of the pre2ailing circ!mstances at 2er- short notice9
Chapter )
The relationship *etween the ship=s team and an emplo-ed pilot is diffic!lt to define9
The ship=s "aster is charged with the responsi*ilit- for the safet- of the shipA pilots are
engaged to assist with na2igation in confined waters and to facilitate port approach:
*erthing and depart!re9 The "aster has the !ltimate responsi*ilit- and has the right to
take o2er from the pilot in the rare e2ent of the pilot=s ine3perience or mis5!dgment9 ,n
practice: the "aster ma- find himself in a position where he is not happ- a*o!t the wa-
the passage is *eing cond!cted *- the pilot: -et is in no position to e2en .!er- the pilot=s
actions as he: the "aster: has no idea as to what sho!ld *e happening9
,deall-: the "aster and his team will *e aware of the pilot=s intentions and *e in a position
to *e a*le to .!er- his actions at an- stage of the passage9 This can onl- *e *ro!ght a*o!t
1 The *ridge team *eing aware of the diffic!lties and constraints of the pilotage area9
4 The pilot *eing aware of the characteristics and pec!liarities of the ship9
3 The pilot *eing made familiar with the e.!ipment at his disposal and aware of the
degree of s!pport he can e3pect from the ship=s personnel9
&nfort!natel- this is not the wa- that things ha2e de2eloped9 Boarding a strange ship:
pilots often feel that the- are !ns!pported9 The- know that the ne3t part of the passage is
going to *e entirel- !p to themsel2es and conse.!entl- get on with and make the *est of a
*ad 5o*9
E.!all-: the OO) ma- feel that he is e3cl!ded from e2ents9 +e doesn=t know where the
ship is going: how it is to get there: nor what is e3pected from him9 Conse.!entl-: he is
2er- likel- to lose interest9
S!ch insec!rities and do!*ts can .!ite easil- *e o2ercome *- the ship=s team operating a
consistent s-stem9
P6ANNING A well planned passage will not stop at the pilot *oarding area9
The planning will contin!e from sea to *erth: or 2ice 2ersa: the
*oarding of the pilot *eing part of the plan9 The areas where the
pilot act!all- has the conn will still ha2e *een planned *- the
na2igator9 This ena*les the "aster and OO) to compare the
progress of the ship with the planned track and also ena*les
them to *e aware of the constraints and other details of the
passage9 A*ort and contingenc- planning will assist sho!ld the
ship e3perience na2igational or other pro*lems9
MA%TERCPI60T As stated a*o2e: the "aster ma- not *e aware of the area: the
IN40RMATI0N pilot !naware of the pec!liarities of the ship9 These pro*lems
E>C3ANGE can *e minimi<ed *- esta*lishing a ro!tine "aster/pilot
e3change9 )hen the pilot enters the *ridge it is good practice
for the "aster to make time for a *rief disc!ssion with the pilot9
The "aster ma- need to delegate the conn to the OO) or other
officer: as appropriate: in order to disc!ss the intended passage
with the pilot9 This will incl!de s!ch items as the pilot=s
planned ro!te: his anticipated speeds and ETAS: *oth en ro!te
and at the destination: what assistance he e3pects from the
shore: s!ch as t!gs and 0TS information and what
contingencies he ma- ha2e in mind9
or his part: the "aster needs to ad2ise the pilot of the handling
characteristics of his ship: in partic!lar an- !n!s!al feat!res and
rele2ant information s!ch as anchor condition: engine t-pe and
control and personnel a2aila*ilit-9 "!ch of this information
can *e readil- a2aila*le on a MasterCpil$t e!hange -$rm=
)hen these *road o!tlines ha2e *een esta*lished: the pilot will
now need to *e ac.!ainted with the *ridge: agreeing a*o!t how
his instr!ctions are to *e e3ec!ted Edoes he want to handle the
controls or wo!ld he rather lea2e that to one of the ship=s staffF:
where the 0+ is sit!ated and how to change channels and
which radar is a2aila*le for his !se9 ,n partic!lar he needs to *e
ad2ised of the present mode of the radar9
The pilot is now *etter placed to take the conn9
The a*o2e will o*2io!sl- depend !pon man- factors9
1 The position of the pilot *oarding area9 Often this is s!ch
that there will *e little time *etween the pilot act!all-
entering the *ridge and taking the conn9
4 The speed of the ship at the pilot *oarding area9 This too
co!ld limit time a2aila*ilit-9
3 En2ironmental conditions s!ch as poor 2isi*ilit-: strong
winds: ro!gh seas: strong tides or hea2- traffic ma- inhi*it
the e3change9
,f the e3change has not *een carried o!t for an- reason: e2en greater care will need to *e
e3ercised *- the *ridge team9 This sit!ation sho!ld *e a2oided if at all possi*le9
RE%P0N%IBI6IT7 'espite the presence of the pilot: the "aster is still responsi*le
for the safet- of the ship9 The pilot is the local e3pert and will
o*2io!sl- cond!ct the ship to the *est of his a*ilit-: ad2ising the
"aster as necessar- and !s!all- act!all- cond!cting the
passage9 This applies whether the pilotage is 2ol!ntar-(i9e9: the
"aster has re.!ested assistance(or comp!lsor-(i9e9: the ship is
re.!ired to take a local pilot within defined areas9
re.!entl- the "aster will remain on the *ridge d!ring the
pilotage9 This o*2io!sl- will depend on the circ!mstances9 ,n
the e2ent of a long pilotage it wo!ld not *e practica*le for the
"aster to remain thro!gho!t9 ,n this case he m!st remem*er to
delegate his a!thorit- to a responsi*le officer: pro*a*l- the
OO): e3actl- as he wo!ld at sea9
,n an- case the "aster is in a poor position to .!estion the pilot
regarding the progress of the ship or its sit!ation at an-
moment: !nless he: the "aster: knows what sho!ld *e
happening at that time9
M0NIT0RING The ship=s progress needs to *e monitored when the pilot has
the conn e3actl- as it has to *e !nder an- other conditions9
S!ch monitoring needs to *e carried o!t *- the OO): and
de2iations from the planned track or speed o*ser2ed and the
"aster made aware e3actl- as if he had the conn9 rom s!ch
information the "aster will *e in a position where he can
.!estion pilotage decisions with diplomac- and confidence9
Chapter *
The .!est for safer means of na2igation has e3isted since prehistoric times and relia*ilit-
on ocean passages onl- *ecame possi*le after the de2elopment of the se3tant: chronometer
and almanac9
,n more recent times: satellite s-stems ha2e pro2ided an a!tomatic read o!t acc!rate to
a*o!t 1;; m: whilst the ships= s-stems ha2e impro2ed with more acc!rate g-ro compasses:
log s-stems and steering gear9 The radar has *een de2eloped to pro2ide tr!e motion and
a!tomatic plotting9 The presentation of the ship=s position on an electronic chart is now
At face 2al!e it might *e e3pected that collisions and gtro!ndings were -esterda-=s
pro*lems: *!t the fact remains that their le2el of incidence remains significant9
The thesis of this *ook is not directed towards technolog- *!t towards people and the wa-
people ha2e to *e prepared in ad2ance in order to *e a*le to e2al!ate the meaning of
displa-s and printo!ts9 "odern e.!ipment is not error(prone or inacc!rate(generall- the
performance standards are e3cellent(*!t if the operator fails to comprehend the significance
of the information a potentiall- dangero!s sit!ation ma- de2elop9
$ood seamanship m!st come first and m!st *e part of all officerOs training for it is that
sense of awareness when things are going wrong and the e3pertise to remed- the sit!ation
!pon which the na2igator m!st depend9
3IG3-%PEED CRA4T "ost high(speed craft operate *etween two terminals a short
distance apartA their main concern for safe na2igation is collision
a2oidance and this is achie2ed directl- from the radar9 ,n
restricted 2isi*ilit- and at night: to ens!re safet-: special night
2ision e.!ipment is fitted and the radar is manned contin!o!sl-
whilst the pilot has an !nrestricted 2iew forward9
4ERRIE% erries operate: an reg!lar ro!tes where na2igational control can
ass!me a 2ariet- of methods9 or e3ample: on a cross strait ferr-:
the na2igation will !s!all- *e carried o!t on the radar screen on
which is s!perimposed the ke- na2igational feat!res of the
s!rro!nding area: incl!ding traffic separation schemes and entr-
REG26AR TRADER% Ships contin!all- operating on a sh!ttle r!n clearl- do not
INC62DING 6INER% need to replan e2er- 2o-age9 Once the ke- elements of the
na2igational pro*lem areas ha2e *een recogni<ed: then taking
into acco!nt weather and tidal information: satna2 s!pported *-
radar parallel inde3 ma- *e s!fficient to meet all the criteria of a
well managed s-stem9 On some ships a Rre2ersi*le= track plotter
works thro!gh a cassette tape: which can also *e !sed as a
Rrecorder= if re.!ired s!*se.!ent to an incident9
0PEN MAR9ET ,n contrast to the liner ser2ices where the ro!te planning can
TRADER% *e prepared *etween fi3ed areas or partic!lar destinations:
those on *oard tramp ships ha2e to *e a*le to prepare a
passage plan: often at short notice an-where in the world9
This places a considera*le e3tra *!rden on the ship9 ,t m!st:
for e3ample: carr- a worldwide portfolio of charts and time
m!st *e made a2aila*le to keep them !p to date9 ,nformation
a*o!t ports: ser2ices: pilotage: pre2ailing weather: tides:
lights and radio aids need to *e a2aila*le9 Ships and compan(
ies sho!ld *e enco!raged to maintain port files of their own so
that dra!ght restrictions and !n!s!al feat!res can *e recorded9
PRECI%I0N NA5IGATI0N )here it is essential to hold a ship within 2er- narrow limits
on a ro!te which has man- na2igational ha<ards it is essential to
control e2er- aspect of the na2igation9 To do so 2essels are fitted
with acc!rate 'oppler logs to meas!re sidewa-s motion: rate of t!rn
indicators: a!tomatic radi!s steering: comp!ter(generated predictors:
path displa- o2erla- on the radar and operate constant radi!s t!rn
E6ECTR0NIC C3ART% ,n f!t!re it can *e en2isaged that the paper chart will *e
displaced *- a three(dimensional comp!ter generated image thro!gh
which the ship is na2igated in accordance with a predetermined
passage plan9 'e2iation from the track will no do!*t so!nd an alarm
and collision a2oidance will *e enhanced *- ad2ice from an e3pert
The e2ol!tion of modern electronic s-stems and their integration are likel- to *e pro2en first
on ships operating on repetiti2e 2o-ages and it will take a n!m*er of -ears !ntil 2essels
na2igating worldwide on the open market will *e pro2ided with s!ch comprehensi2e
)hate2er s-stems are !sed: there is no s!*stit!te for training in good seamanship as this is the
fo!ndation !pon which to *!ild relia*le performance9
This *ook has *een designed to pro2ide an insight into *ridge Organi<ation9 Technical
sol!tions to specific pro*lems *ring *enefits: *!t it is people who plan ahead and ens!re
contin!it- o2er the entire watch s-stem9
BA British Admiralt-
*rg Bearing
'% 'ead %eckoning Position
'"A 'efence "apping Agenc- E&SAF
dist 'istance
EOP End of Sea Passage
EP Estimated Position
E%B1 Electronic %ange 6 Bearing 1ine
ETA Estimated Time of Arri2al
$PS $lo*al Positioning S-stem
$"'SS $lo*al "aritime 'istress and Safet- S-stem
+"SO +er "a5est-=s Stationer- Office E&#F
,CS ,nternational Cham*er of Shipping
,"O ,nternational "aritime Organi<ation
,nmarsat ,nternational "aritime Satellite Organi<ation
" 9999999999999"edi!m re.!enc-
N1T 9999999999999Not 1ess Than
N"T 9999999999999Not "ore Than
OO) 9999999999999Officer of the )atch
P/1 9999999999999Position 1ine
P, 9999999999999Parallel ,nde3
%' 9999999999999%adio 'irection inding
SA% 9999999999999Search and %esc!e
&"S 9999999999999&nattended "achine( r- Space
&#C 9999999999999&nderkeel Clearance
0+ 99999999999990er- +igh re.!enc- %adio
0TS 99999999999990essel Traffic Ser2ices
AIR DRA2G3T The height from the waterline to the highest point of the ship9 This
ma- *e a masthead: *!t if crane 5i*s or derricks are raised co!ld *e
significantl- higher9
AB0RT The final point at which a ship can take action to a2oid passing the
point of no ret!rn9
C6EARING BEARING The limiting *earing of a mark to one side of which the ship will *e
'efined *-(not more than EN"TF or(not less than EN1TF a gi2en
C0NNING 044ICER The person who has control of the ship9 This ma- *e the "aster:
the pilot or the OO) as appropriate9
C02R%E T0 %TEER The compass co!rse steered to achie2e a re.!ired track: allowing
for set: leewa- and compass error9
C2RRENT Non(tidal mo2ement of the sea s!rface d!e mainl- to
meteorological: oceanographical or topographical ca!ses9
DR P0%ITI0N 'ead reckoning(the position o*tained from the res!ltant of the tr!e
co!rse steered and the speed thro!gh the water9
EP P0%ITI0N Estimated position(the position deri2ed from the '% position
ad5!sted for leewa- and set and drift9
3EADING The hori<ontal direction of the ship=s head at a gi2en moment
meas!red in degrees clockwise from north9 EThis term does not
necessaril- re.!ire mo2ement of the ship9F
6EE1A7 The ang!lar effect on the ship=s co!rse ca!sed *- the pre2ailing
wind9 ,t is alwa-s downwind and 2aries according to the ship=s
speed: the wind speed: the ship=s dra!ght and free*oard and the
relati2e direction of the wind9
PARA66E6 INDE>ING A radar(*ased constant !p(date of cross(track tendenc-9
P0INT 04 N0 RET2RNThe position after which the ship is committed to enter a
constrained area9
RAC0N %adar *eacon which transmits when triggered *- a ship=s own radar
REP0RTING P0INT A position where the ship is re.!ired to report to local har*or
%ET AND DRI4T The effect of the tidal stream and/or c!rrent on the ship=s track9 ,t
is alwa-s downstream and 2aries according to the ship=s speed and
the relati2e direction and the strength of the stream9
SET(the direction that the stream r!ns towards
%ATE(the speed of the stream
'%,T(the res!lting distance
drift P rate 3 timeF
%82AT The *odil- sinkage of a ship in the water when making headwa-9
0ar-ing from ship to ship: it is often greater forward than aft and is
more prono!nced in shallow water9
TIDA6 %TREAM The periodic hori<ontal mo2ement of the sea s!rface ca!sed *- the
gra2itational forces of the s!n and moon9
TIDA6 1IND01 The times *etween which: the tide ha2ing achie2ed a re.!ired
height: it is safe for the ship to transit a certain area9
TRAC9 The path followed: or to *e followed: *etween one position and
TRAC9 MADE G00D The mean gro!nd track act!all- achie2ed o2er a gi2en period9
TRAN%IT #nown in the &S and Canada as a %AN$E9 )hen two o*5ects are
seen to *e in line: the- are said to *e in transit9
29C &nderkeel clearance9 The 2ertical distance *etween the sea *ed
and the deepest part of the keel9
1A7P0INT A reference point on the ship=s planned track9
13EE6-05ER The point at which helm m!st *e applied to achie2e a re.!ired
P0%ITI0N co!rse alteration9
Please note that within this *ook the following terms are to *e read asG
NA5IGAT0R The ship=s officer tasked to prod!ce the passage plan9 +e will
also normall- *e responsi*le for all aspects of na2igational
044ICER 04 T3E The ship=s officer responsi*le for the watch at a specific times
1ATC3 A001B
1ATC39EEPER An !ncertificated crew mem*er tasked with *ridge watchkeeping
3EC3IM The masc!line person is to incl!de personnel of whate2er gender9
A--%. /
,"O STC) Con2ention 1DB8
%eg!lation ,,/ 1
1= Parties shall direct the attention of shipowners: ship operators: masters and watchkeeping
personnel to the following principles which shall *e o*ser2ed to ens!re that a safe na2igational watch
is maintained at all times9
49 The master of e2er- ship is *o!nd to ens!re that watchkeeping arrangements are ade.!ate for
maintaining a safe na2igational watch9 &nder the master=s general direction: the officers of the watch
are responsi*le for na2igating the ship safel- d!ring their periods of d!t- when the- will *e
partic!larl- concerned with a2oiding collision and stranding9
3: The: *asic principles: incl!ding *!t not limited to the: following shall *e: taken into acco!nt on all
89 1at!h arrangements
EaF The composition of the watch shall at all times *e ade.!ate and appropriate to the pre2ailing
circ!mstances and conditions and shall take into acco!nt the need for maintaining a proper
E*F )hen deciding the composition of the watch on the *ridge : which ma- incl!de appropriate
deck ratings: the following factors: inter alia: shall *e taken into acco!ntG
EiF at no time shall the *ridge *e left !nattendedA
EiiF weather conditions: 2isi*ilit- and whether there is da-light or darknessA
EiiiF pro3imit- of na2igational ha<ards which ma- make it necessar- for the officer in charge of
the watch to carr- o!t additional na2igational d!tiesA
Ei2F se and operational condition of na2igational aids s!ch as radar or electronic position(
indicating de2ices and an- other e.!ipment affecting the safe na2igation of the shipA
E2F whether the ship is fitted with a!tomatic steeringA
E2iF an- !n!s!al demands on the na2igational watch that ma- arise as a res!lt of special
operational circ!mstances9
>9 4itness -$r d"t.
The watch s-stem shall *e s!ch that the efficienc- of watchkeeping officers and watchkeeping ratings
is not impaired *- fatig!e9 '!ties shall *e so organi<ed that the first watch at the commencement of a
2o-age and the s!*se.!ent relie2ing watches are s!fficientl- rested and otherwise: fit for d!t-(9
@9 Na+igati$n
EaF The intended 2o-age shall *e planned in ad2ance taking into consideration all pertinent
information and an- co!rse laid down shall *e checked *efore the 2o-age commences9
E*F '!ring the watch the co!rse steered: Position and speed shall *e checked at s!fficientl-
fre.!ent inter2als: !sing an- a2aila*le na2igational aids necessar-: to ens!re that the ship follows the
planned co!rse9
EcF The officer of the watch shall ha2e f!ll knowledge of the location and operation of all safet-
and na2igational e.!ipment on *oard the ship and shall *e aware and take acco!nt of the operating
limitations of s!ch e.!ipment9
EdF The officer in charge of a na2igational watch shall not *e assigned or !ndertake an- d!ties
which wo!ld interfere with the safe na2igation of the ship9
B9 Na+igati$nal e;"ipment
EaF The officer of the watch shall make the most effecti2e !se of all na2igational e.!ipment at his
E*F )hen !sing radar: the officer of the watch shall *ear in mind the necessit- to compl- at all times
with the pro2isions on the !se of radar contained in the applica*le reg!lations for pre2enting
collisions at sea9
EcF ,n cases of need the officer of the watch shall not hesitate to !se the helm: engines and so!nd
signaling apparat!s9
89 Na+igati$nal d"ties and resp$nsi/ilities
EaF The officer in charge of the watch shallG
EiF keep his watch on the *ridge which he shall in no circ!mstances lea2e !ntil properl- relie2edA
EiiF contin!e to *e responsi*le for the safe na2igation of the ship: despite the presence of the master
on the *ridge: !ntil the master informs him specificall- that he has ass!med that responsi*ilit- and
this is m!t!all- !nderstoodA
EiiiF notif- the master when in an- do!*t as to what action to take in the interest of safet-A
Ei2F not hand o2er the watch to the relie2ing officer if he has reason to *elie2e that the latter is
o*2io!sl- not capa*le of carr-ing o!t his d!ties effecti2el-: in which case he shall notif- the master
E*F On taking o2er the watch the relie2ing officer shall satisf- himself as to the ship=s estimated or
tr!e position and confirm its intended track: co!rse and speed and shall note an- dangers to na2igation
e3pected to *e enco!ntered d!ring his watch9
EcF A proper record shall *e kept of the mo2ements and acti2ities d!ring the watch relating to the
na2igation of the ship9
D9 6$$)-$"t
,n addition to maintaining a proper look(o!t for the p!rpose of f!ll- appraising the sit!ation and the
risk of collision: stranding and other dangers to na2igation: the d!ties of the look(o!t shall incl!de the
detection of ships or aircraft in distress: shipwrecked persons: wrecks and de*ris9 ,n maintaining a
look(o!t the following shall *e o*ser2edG
EaF the look(o!t m!st *e a*le to gi2e f!ll attention to the keeping of a proper look(o!t and no other
d!ties shall *e !ndertaken or assigned which co!ld interfere with that taskA:
E*F the d!ties of the look(o!t and helmsman are separate and the helmsman shall not *e considered
to *e the look(o!t while steering: e3cept in small ships where an !no*str!cted all(ro!nd 2iew is
pro2ided at the steering position and there is no impairment of night 2ision or other impediment to the
keeping of a proper look(o!t9 The officer in charge of the watch ma- *e the sole look(o!t in da-light
pro2ided that on each s!ch occasionG
EiF the sit!ation has *een caref!ll- assessed and it has *een esta*lished witho!t do!*t that it is safe
to do soA
EiiF f!ll acco!nt has *een taken of all rele2ant factors incl!ding: *!t not limited toG
(state of weather
(traffic densit-
(pro3imit- of danger to na2igation
(the attention necessar- when na2igating in or near traffic separation schemes9
EiiiF assistance is immediatel- a2aila*le to *e s!mmoned to the *ridge when an- change in the
sit!ation so re.!ires9
1;9 Na+igati$n (ith pil$t em/ar)ed
'espite the d!ties and o*ligations of a pilot: his presence on *oard does not relie2e the master or
officer in charge of the watch from their d!ties and o*ligations for the safet- of the ship9 The master
and the pilot shall e3change information regarding na2igation proced!res: local conditions and the
ship=s characteristics9 The master and officer of the watch shall co(operate closel- with the pilot and
maintain an acc!rate check of the ship=s position and mo2ement9
119 Pr$te!ti$n $- the marine en+ir$nment
The master and officer in charge of the watch shall *e aware of the serio!s effects of operational or
accidental poll!tion of the marine en2ironment and shall take all possi*le preca!tions to pre2ent s!ch
poll!tion: partic!larl- within the framework of rele2ant international and port reg!lations9
Anne0 2

Charts and their !$rre!ti$ns
2P9EEP 04 T3E C3ART 02T4IT
Chart $"t-it management
E3tract from The !ariner1s 2andbook3 reprod!ced with the permission of
the +-drographer of the Na2-
Chart $"t-its
An O!tfit of Charts: in addition to the necessar- Standard Admiralt- olios: or selected charts
made !p into folios as re.!ired: sho!ld incl!de the following p!*lications9
Chart Correction Log and 4olio Inde0
Ad!iralt" -otices to 5ariners3 )eekl- Editions: s!*se.!ent to the last Annual Su!!ar" of
Ad!iralt" -otices to 5ariners Earlier ones ma- *e re.!ired to correct a 2ol!me of
Ad!iralt" List of Lights approaching its re(p!*lication date: see 19 1119
Chart $6//7S"!bols and Abbre&iations used on Ad!iralt" Charts
Appropriate &olu!es of3 (
Ad!iralt" Sailing 8irections9
Ad!iralt" List of Lights9
Ad!iralt" List of +adio Signals9
Ad!iralt" Tide Tables9
Tidal Strea! Atlases9
The 5ariner1s 2andbook
The s!pplier of the o!tfit will state the n!m*er of the last Notice to "ariners to which it has
*een corrected9
Chart management s.stem
A s-stem is re.!ired to keep an o!tfit of charts !p(to(date9 ,t sho!ld incl!de arrangements for
the s!ppl- of New Charts9 New Editions of charts and e3tra charts: as well as new editions and
s!pplements of Ad!iralt" Sailing 8irections and other na!tical p!*lications: if necessar- at
short notice9
On notification *- Admiralt- Notice to "ariners that a new edition of one of the *ooks: or a
new S!pplement to one: has *een p!*lished: it sho!ld *e o*tained as soon as possi*le9
Corrections to a *ook s!*se.!ent to s!ch a Notice will refer to the new edition or to the *ook
as corrected *- the S!pplement9
Arrangements sho!ld *e made for the contin!o!s receipt of %adio Na2igational )arnings:
Ad!iralt" -otices to 5ariners3 and notices affecting an- foreign charts carried9
A s-stem of doc!mentation is re.!ired which shows .!ickl- and clearl- that all rele2ant
corrections ha2e *een recei2ed and applied: and that New Charts: New Editions and the latest
editions of p!*lications and their s!pplements ha2e *een o*tained or ordered9
Meth$d= or !sers of Standard Admiralt- olios of charts: the following is a con2enient
method to manage a chart o!tfit9 )here onl- a selection of the charts in the Standard
Admiralt- olios are held: the method can *e readil- adapted9
Chart C$rre!ti$n 6$g and 4$li$ Inde ENP 133aF is s!ita*le9 ,t contains sheets pro2iding a
n!merical inde3 of charts: indicates in which folio the- are held: and has space against each
chart for logging Notices to "ariners affecting it9
,t is di2ided into three partsG
Part , Na2igational Charts Eincl!ding 'ecca: Omega and 1oran(CF9
Part ,, Admiralt- reprod!ctions of A!stralian and New Sealand charts9
Part ,,, "iscellaneo!s Charts9
At the *eginning of Part , are sheets for recording the p!*lication of New Charts and New
Editions: and instr!ctions for the !se of the 1og9
0n re!ei+ing a !hart $"t-it
Charts= Enter the n!m*er of the Notice to which the o!tfit has *een corrected in the Chart
Correction 1og9 ,nsert the olio N!m*er on the th!m*(la*el of each chart9 ,f not !sing
Standard Admiralt- olios: enter the olio N!m*er against each chart of the 1og9
Cons!lt the ,nde3 of Charts Affected in the )eekl- Edition of Notices to "ariners containing
the last Notice to which the o!tfit has *een corrected: and all s!*se.!ent )eekl- Editions9 ,f
an- charts held are mentioned: enter the n!m*ers of the Notices affecting them against the
charts concerned in the 1og: and then correct the charts9
Cons!lt the latest monthl- Notice listing Temporar- and Preliminar- Notices in force: and the
Temporar- and Preliminar- Notices in each )eekl- Edition s!*se.!ent to it9 ,f an- charts are
affected *- those Notices: enter in pencil the n!m*ers of the Notices against the charts in the
1og: and then correct the charts for them Ealso in pencilF9
E3tract all Temporar- and Preliminar- Notices from )eekl- Editions s!*se.!ent to the c!rrent
Annual Su!!ar" of Ad!iralt" -otices to 5ariners and make them into a =Temporar- and
Preliminar- Notices= file9
Radi$ Na+igati$nal 1arnings= rom all )eekl- Editions of the c!rrent -ear: detach Section
,,, and file: or list the messages *- their areas9 'etermine which messages are still in force
from the )eekl- Edition iss!ed monthl-: which lists them9 ,nsert the information from these
messages on an- rele2ant charts9
%ailing Dire!ti$ns= rom )eekl- Editions s!*se.!ent to the c!rrent Annual Su!!ar" of
Ad!iralt" -otices to 5ariners3 detach Section ,0 and file9
Admiralt. 6ist $- 6ights 4r$m )eekl- Editions s!*se.!ent to those s!pplied with the
2ol!mes: detach Section 0 and insert all corrections in the 2ol!mes9
Admiralt. 6ist $- Radi$ %ignals 4r$m )eekl- Editions s!*se.!ent to those anno!ncing
p!*lication of the 2ol!mes: detach section 0, and insert all corrections in the 2ol!mes9
Admiralt. Tide Ta/les rom Ann!al Su!!ar" of Ad!iralt" -otices to 5ariners for the -ear
in progress: insert an- corrigenda to the 2ol!me9
Chart #@11-%.m/$ls and A//re+iati$ns "sed $n Admiralt. Charts= &se an- Notices
s!pplied with the pamphlet to correct it9
0n n$ti-i!ati$n $- the p"/li!ati$n $- a Ne( Chart $r Ne( Editi$n
)hen a New Chart or New Edition is p!*lished: this is anno!nced *- a Notice gi2ing the 'ate
of P!*lication and the n!m*ers of an- Temporar- and Preliminar- Notices affecting it9 rom
s!ch Notices: enter on the appropriate page of Part , of the 1ogG
H N!m*er of the ChartA
H 'ate of P!*licationA
N!m*er of the Notice anno!ncing p!*licationA
N!m*ers of an- Temporar- and Preliminar- Notices affecting the chart Ein pencilF9
&ntil the chart is recei2ed: the n!m*ers of an- s!*se.!ent Permanent: Temporar- or
Preliminar- Notices affecting it sho!ld *e recorded with the a*o2e entr-9
0n re!ei+ing a Ne( Chart $r Ne( Editi$n
Enter the following details in the 1og9
= , ,f a New Chart: the olio N!m*er against the Chart N!m*er in the ,nde39
H On the sheet at the *eginning of Part ,: the date of receipt of the chart9
= Against the Chart N!m*er in the Notices to "ariners col!mn of the ,nde3 Sheet: =NC= or
=NE= with the date of p!*lication: followed *- a do!*le 2ertical line to close the space9
= ,n the Notices to "ariners col!mn of the chart in the ,nde3: the n!m*ers of an- Notices
recorded against the chart on the sheet at the *eginning of Part ,9
Enter the olio N!m*er on the th!m*(la*el of the chart9 Correct the chart for an- Notices
transferred from Part , as descri*ed a*o2e and for an- %adio Na2igational )arnings affecting
it: 'estro- an- s!perseded chart9
0n re!ei+ing a !hart additi$nal t$ the $"t-it
Enter the olio N!m*er on the th!m*(la*el of the chart9 ,f not !sing Standard Admiralt-
olios: enter the olio N!m*er against the chart in the ,nde3 of the 1og9
Enter the n!m*er of the last Notice to which the chart has *een corrected against the chart in
the ,nde3 of the 1og9
Cons!lt the ,nde3 of Charts Affected in each )eekl- Edition of Ad!iralt" -otices to 5ariners
from the one incl!ding the last Small Correction entered on the chart9 ,f an- Notices affecting
the chart ha2e *een iss!ed since the last Notice for which it has *een corrected: enter them
against the chart in the 1og and correct the chart for them9
Cons!lt the file of Temporar- and Preliminar- Notices9 ,f an- Notices affect the chart: enter
their n!m*ers against the chart in the 1og: and correct the chart for them9
rom the file or list of %adio Na2igational )arnings: see if an- )arnings affect the chart9 ,f
so: annotate the chart accordingl-9
0n re!ei+ing a repla!ement !hart
,nsert the olio N!m*er on the th!m*(la*el of the chart9
rom the record kept in the 1og: correct the replacement chart for an- Notices affecting it
p!*lished after the last Notice entered on it !nder Small Corrections9
Cons!lt the file of Temporar- and Preliminar- Notices: enter an- affecting the chart in the 1og:
and correct the chart if rele2ant9
Cons!lt the file or list of %adio Na2igational )arnings9 ,f an- of the )arnings affect the chart
and are re.!ired on it: annotate it accordingl-9
0n re!ei+ing a 1ee)l. Editi$n $- Admiralt. N$ti!es t$ Mariners
Check that the serial n!m*er of the )eekl- Edition is in se.!ence with Editions alread-
recei2ed: thenG
rom the ,nde3 of Charts Affected: enter in the 1og the n!m*ers of the Notices affecting the
charts held9
T!rn to the end of Section ,, to see if an- Temporar- or Preliminar- Notices ha2e *een
p!*lished or cancelled9 ,f the- ha2e *een: add to or amend the entries in the 1og against the
charts accordingl-9
E3amine the =Admiralt- P!*lications= Notice to see if an- rele2ant New Charts or New
Editions ha2e *een p!*lished: or charts withdrawn9 ,f the- ha2e: take action9
'etach and !se Sections ,,, to 0, as followsG
Section ,,,9 Check printed te3t of messages against an- signaled 2ersions9 ile Section: or
note down messages *- their areas: and *ring !p(to(date pre2io!s information on the file and
an- notations made on chartsA
Section ,0G Add to file or listA
Section 0G C!t !p and !se to correct Ad!iralt" List of Lights9
Section 0,G C!t !p and !se to correct Ad!iralt" List of +adio Signals9
%esec!re chart(correcting *locks to Section ,,:
rom folios affected: e3tract and correct charts for the appropriate Notices in Section ,,9
C$rre!ti$n $- !harts
General in-$rmati$n
No correction: e3cept those gi2en in Section 11 of Ad!iralt" -otices to 5ariners3 )eekl-
Editions: sho!ld *e made to an- chart in ink:
Corrections to charts from information recei2ed from a!thorities other than the +-drographic
'epartment ma- *e noted in pencil: *!t no charted danger sho!ld *e e3p!nged witho!t the
a!thorit- of the +-drographer of the Na2-9
All corrections gi2en in Notices to "ariners sho!ld *e inserted on the charts affected9 )hen
the- ha2e *een completed the n!m*ers of the Notices sho!ld *e entered clearl- and neatl-A
permanent Notices in waterproof 2iolet ink: Temporar- and Preliminar- Notices in pencil9
Temporar- and Preliminar- Notices sho!ld *e r!**ed o!t as soon as the Notice is recei2ed
canceling them9
Chart $6//7S"!bols and Abbre&iations used on Ad!iralt" Charts sho!ld *e followed to ens!re
!niformit- of corrections9 These s-m*ols are in2aria*l- indicated on O2erla- Correction
,f se2eral charts are affected *- one Notice: the largest scale chart sho!ld *e corrected first to
appreciate the detail of the correction9
6ast !$rre!ti$n
)hen correcting a chartA first check that the last p!*lished correction to it: which is gi2en at
the end of the new Notice: has *een made to the chart9
Detail re;"ired
The amo!nt of detail shown on a chart 2aries with the scale of the chart9 On a large scale
chart: for e3ample: f!ll details of all lights and fog signals are shown: *!t on smaller scales the
order of red!ction of information is Ele2ation: Period: %ange: !ntil on an ocean chart of the
area onl- lights with a range of 1> miles or more will normall- *e inserted: and then onl- their
light(star: and magenta flare9 On the other hand: radio *eacons are omitted from large scale
charts where their !se wo!ld *e inappropriate: and: !nless the- are long range *eacons: from
ocean charts9
Notices adding detail to charts indicate how m!ch detail sho!ld *e added to each chart: *!t
Notices deleting detail do not alwa-s make this distinction9 ,f a shortened description wo!ld
res!lt in am*ig!it- *etween ad5acent aids: detail sho!ld *e retained9 The insertion of e3cessi2e
detail not onl- cl!tters the chart: *!t also can lead to errors: since the charts .!oted as affected
in each Notice ass!me the "ariner has red!ced with the scale of the charts the details inserted
*- pre2io!s Notices9
Eras!res sho!ld ne2er *e made9 )here necessar-: detail sho!ld *e crossed thro!gh: or in the
case of lines: s!ch as depth conto!rs or limits: crossed with a series of short do!*le strokes:
slanting across the line9 T-ping correction fl!ids: s!ch as =Tipp(E3=: sho!ld not *e !sed9
Alterations to depth conto!rs: deletion of depths to make wa- for detail: etc: are not mentioned
in Notices !nless the- ha2e some na2igational significance9
)here tinted depths conto!rs re.!ire amendment: the line sho!ld *e amended: *!t the tint:
which is onl- intended to draw attention to the line: can !s!all- remain !nto!ched: )here
information is displaced for clarit-: its proper position sho!ld *e indicated *- a small circle and
Some Notices are accompanied *- reprod!ctions of portions of charts Eknown as =Blocks=F9
)hen correcting charts from *locks: the following points sho!ld *e *orne in mind9
H A *lock ma- not onl- indicate the insertion of new information: *!t also the omission of
matter pre2io!sl- shown9 The te3t of the Notice sho!ld in2aria*l- *e read caref!ll-9
H The limiting lines of a *lock are determined for con2enience of reprod!ction9 The- need
not *e strictl- adhered to when c!tting o!t for pasting on the chart: pro2ided that the
preceding paragraph is taken into consideration9
= Owing to distortion the *locks do not alwa-s fit the chart e3actl-9 )hen pasting a *lock on
a chart: therefore: care sho!ld *e taken that the more important na2igational feat!res fit as
closel- as possi*le9 This is *est done *- fitting the *lock while it is dr- and making two or
three pencil ticks ro!nd the edges for !se as fitting marks after the paste is applied to the
C$mpleti$n $- !$rre!ti$ns
)hene2er a correction has *een made to a chart the n!m*er of the Notice and: the -ear Eif not
alread- shownF sho!ld *e entered in the *ottom left(hand corner of the chartG the entries for
permanent Notices as Small Corrections: and those for Temporar- and Preliminar- Notices: in
pencil: *elow the line of Small Corrections9
NB This e3ample co2ers &# Admiralt- charts9 Appropriate g!idance from other charting
a!thorities sho!ld *e st!died for their chart correcting s-stem9