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King Fahd University Of Petroleum & Minerals

College of Engineering Sciences and Applied Engineering


Chemical Engineering Department
CHE 495 - Integrated Design Course




Production of Formaldehyde
from Methanol
Integrated Final Report


Done by team 3:
Mohammed Ahmad Sanhoob ID: 200723450
Abdullah Al-Sulami ID: 200848200
Fawaz Al-Shehri ID: 200763230
Sabil Al-Rasheedi ID: 200715130

Course Instructor: Dr. Reyad Shawabkeh


December 29
th
, 2012

I

Table of Contents
PAGE
EXCUTIVE SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................V
1. LITERATURE REVIEW OF THE PRODUCTION PROCESS ...................1
1.1. Summary of the project ....................................................................................................2
1.2. Problem Information .......................................................................................................3
1.3. Initial Block Diagram .......................................................................................................5
1.4. Kinetic Data for the Problem ..................9
1.5. Safety nad Environment precautions .............10
1.6. Preliminary cost of material..............13
2. MASS BALANCE.................................................. 14
2.1. First Run ................ 16
2.1.1. Mass balance around the reactor...........................................................................16
2.1.2. Mass balance around the absorber.......................................................................18
2.1.3. Mass balance around the distillation column...................................................22
2.2 Second Run.............................................................................................................................................24
2.2.1. Mass balance around mixing point of streams 2, 3 and 15..............24
2.2.2. Mass balance around mixing point of streams 6, 7 and 8...........................24
2.2.3. Mass balance around the reactor...........................................................................25
2.2.4. Mass balance around the absorber.......................................................................26
2.2.5. Mass balance around the distillation column...................................................27
2.2.6. Mass balance around mixing point of streams 17, 18 and 19...................28
3. ENERGY BALANCE................35

3.1. Mixing point of streams 1, 2 and 3........................................................................35
3.2. Pump P-101....................................................................................................................37
3.3. Pump E-101....................................................................................................................38
3.4. Compressor C-101.......................................................................................................39
3.5. Heat exchanger E-102...............40
3.6. Mixing point of streams 6, 7 and 8........................................................................40
3.7. Heat exchanger inside the reactor........................................................................42
3.8. Throttle.............................................................................................................................43
3.9. Absorber...........................................................................................................................44
3.10 Heat exchanger E-103..............................................................................................45
3.11. Distillation tower T-101.............. .46
3.12. Pump P-102..................................................................................................................48
3.13. Pump P-103.....................................................................................................................49
3.14 Mixing point of streams 17, 18 and 18..............................................................50
3.15 Heat exchanger E-106..............................................................................................51
Energy Balance Data Sheet..............................................................................................................51

II


4. PROCESS SIMULATION................................................................................................................................52
4.1. VALIDATION.......................................................................53
4.1.1 Flowrate Spreadsheet...................................................................................................................... 54
4.1.2 Energy Spreadsheet..............................................................................................................................57
4.1.3 Discussion of Mass Balance..............................................................................................................58
4.1.4 Discussion of Energy Balance..........................................................................................................59
4.2. SIMULATION..............................................................................................................................................60
WATER FEED VARIATION TO THE ABSORBER.................................................................................63
VARIATION OF INLET TEMPERATURE TO THE ABSORBER........................................................64
4.3. ALTERNATIVE PROCESS............................................................................................................................66
4.3.1 Reactors Cooler (E-100)...................................................................................................................69
4.3.2 Productivity of the Process................................................................................................................69
4.3.3 Reactors Volume....................................................................................................................................69

4. EQUIPMENT SIZING.................70
EQUIPMENT & LINING LIST............................................................................................71
REACTION DESIGN....................................................................................................................................72
6.1. Reactor Design Equation......................................................72
6.2. Mole BALANCE...........73
6.3. Net Rate Law...........74
6.4. Rate Law...................................................................................................................................................74
6.5. Stoichiometry..........76
6.6. Combination.............................................................................................................................................77
6.7. Pressure Drop.........................................................................................................................................78
6.8. Energy Balance.......................................................................................................................................80
6.9. Heat Exchanger inside the reactor.........83
6.10. Arrangement of The Tubes..............................................................................................................., 88
6.11. Other Parameters Evaluation.........89
6.11.1. Evaluating the number and height of the tubes......................................................89
6.11.2. Evaluating the Volume of the reactor..........................................................................89
6.11.3. Evaluating the height of the reactor.............................................................................89
6.11.4. Evaluating the width of the reactor,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,...................89

6.12. Results......................,,,,,,,,,,,,.............90
6.12.1. POLYMATH REASULTS......................................................................................................90
6.12.1.1. Differential equations......................................................................................90

III

6.12.1.2. Explicit equations........................90
6.12.1.3. The result of the differential and explicit equations..........................93
6.12.1.4. Graphs.....................................................................................................................94
6.12.2. HEAT EXCHANGER RESULTS..........................................................................................96
6.13. Selection of The Material.........97
6.14. COMPARING THE PRODUCTS......................................................................................................98
6.15. Summary Table ........98


5. ABSORBER DESIGN...................................................99
7.1. Packed Bed Absorber...............................................................................................................................99
7.2. Sizing of Packed Tower........................................................................................................................100
7.3. Control Loop System .......................................................................................................................105
7.4. Design Summary....................................................................................................................................106

8.DISTILATION COLUMN DESIGN.................................................................................................................107
8.A. PRELIMINARY CALCULATIONS.......................................................................................................107
8.A.1. Material Balance........................................................................................................................107
8.A.2. Physical properties..................................................................................................................109
8.A.3. Reactive Volatilities.................................................................................................................110
8.B. MINIMUM REFLUX .......................................................................................................................111
8.C.COLUMN DIAMETER .......................................................................................................................113
8.C.1.Rectifying (TOP) Section Diameter....................................................................................113
8.C.2.Striping (BOTTOM) Section Diameter..............................................................................115
8.D.TRAY SPECIFICATIONS........................................................................................................................116
8.D.1.Minimum Number of Stages.................................................................................................116
8.D.2. Total number of Stages .........................................................................................................117
8.D.3. Optimum Feed Stage...............................................................................................................118
8.D.4.Tray Efficiencies & Column Height ...................................................................................119

8.E.TRAY LAYOUT AND HYDROLICS (TOP) ........................................................................................121
8.E.1.Tray Dimensions........................................................................................................................121
8.E.2.Flooding & Weeping Check....................................................................................................125
8.E.3. Design Schematics .......................................................................................................127

8.F.TRAY LAYOUT AND HYDROLICS (BOT) .......................................................................................128
8.F.1.Tray Dimensions.........................................................................................................................128
8.F.2.Flooding & Weeping Check....................................................................................................129

8.G.DESIGN FLOWSHEET .......................................................................................................................130


IV

8.H.DESIGN SIMULATION............................................................................................................................131
8. HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN ........................................................................................................................132
Sample Calculation.........................................................................................................................................132
Design of E-101................................................................................................................................................140
Design of E-102................................................................................................................................................142
Design of E-103................................................................................................................................................143
Design of E-106................................................................................................................................................144
Design of Condenser and Reboiler..........................................................................................................145
Design of Condenser E-104........................................................................................................................146
Design of Reboiler E-105 .......................................................................................................................147
Pinch Analysis for E-101 .......................................................................................................................148
Pinch Analysis for E-102 ....................................................................................................................., 149
Pinch Analysis for E-103 .......................................................................................................................150
Pinch Analysis for E-106 .......................................................................................................................151
Pinch Analysis for Condenser .......................................................................................................152
Pinch Analysis for Reboiler .......................................................................................................................153

9. PUMPS, COMPERSSOR & PIPING DESIGN..............................................................................................154
PUMP P-101.............................................................................................................................................................154
PUMP P-102.............................................................................................................................................................155
PUMP P-103.............................................................................................................................................................156
COMPRESSOR C-101 .......................................................................................................................................157
VISCOSITY ESTIMATION...................................................................................................................................158
DENSITY ESTIMATION.......................................................................................................................................160
PIPING SCHEMATICS..........................................................................................................................................163

HAZOB ANALYSIS..............................................................................................................................................172
ECONOMICS AND COST ESTIMATION......................................................................................................177
A. Carbon Steel...........................................................................................................................................179
B. Stainless Steel.......................................................................................................................................183
CONCLUSION.......................................................................................................................................................187
REFERENCES.......................................................................................................................................................188



V

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This work is a fully integrated and detailed report for the senior design
project on the PRODUCTION OF FORMALDEHYDE FROM METHANOL. The
compilation of this report was done gradually and chronologically over
a period of four months taking into account every aspect of design from
a chemical engineering point of view. The starting point of the design
project was a background research for the process literature. This
research included a summary of the project, problem information and
kinetics, physical and chemical properties of the participating materials
in the plant, literature review of alternative production routes, safety
precautions and environmental preservation for the process. The
second report was a quantitative analysis for the mass and energy
balances of the plant. Detailed calculations were performed in this
report for all equipment and streams in the plant, taking into account
the required process conditions to achieve a production capacity of
60000 ton/year of formalin. The third task was to simulate the plants
units and operations by utilizing the chemical simulation software
Aspen Hysys to gain an optimized view of the process conditions. Design
and sizing for all units and equipment in the plant were performed in
the fourth task. The designed units included the reactor, the absorber,
the distillation column, the compressor, heat exchangers and pumps. A
piping sizing of the plants layout and connections is presented at the
end of end of the design chapter. Operability, efficiency and economic
feasibility were the basis of the design and sizing of these units. The
final task of this project covered the estimation of the capital costs of the
production process and its profitability. Cumulative cash flow diagrams
were the introduced in the analysis to demonstrate these costs in
relation to the production revenues and returns.



IV


1









LITERATURE REVIEW OF
THE PRODUCTION
PROCESS










2

SUMMARY OF THE PROJECT

The main purpose of this project is to conduct a comprehensive study that would
lead ultimately to an integrated design, in a chemical engineering point of view, of a
plant that produces formaldehyde with a production capacity specified in advance.
This study will take into consideration aspects including the entire plants process
unit design, process flow diagrams, cost estimations, operation parameters,
equipment sizing, construction materials and environment/safety precautions. This
project requires the theoretical and practical application of mass transfer, heat
transfer, fluid dynamics, unit operations, reaction kinetics and process control. There
are several tasks that are crucial to the completion of the project outlines including
mass and energy balances, Hysys simulation of the Process Flow Diagrams, design of
the reactor, design of heat exchangers, design of the absorber and distillation
column, energy optimization, economic analysis and hazard analysis.

Formaldehyde (CH
2
O), the target product of the projects plant, is an organic
compound representing the simplest form of the aldehydes. It acts as a synthesis
baseline for many other chemical compounds including phenol formaldehyde, urea
formaldehyde and melamine resin. The most widely produced grade is formalin (37
wt. % formaldehyde in water) aqueous solution. In this projects study, formaldehyde
is to be produced through a catalytic vapor-phase oxidation reaction involving
methanol and oxygen according to the following reactions:

O H HCHO O OH CH
2 2 2
1
3

(1)

2 3
H HCHO OH CH
(2)


The desired reaction is the first which is exothermic with a selectivity of 9, while the
second is an endothermic reaction. The projects target is to design a plant with a
capacity of 60,000 tons formalin/year. This plant is to include three major units; a
reactor, an absorber and a distillation column. Also it includes pumps, compressors
and heat exchangers. All are to be designed and operated according to this
production capacity.

3

PROBLEM INFORMATION

Formaldehyde is to be commercially manufactured on an industrial scale
from methanol and air in the presence of a sliver catalyst or the use of a
metal oxide catalyst. The former of these two gives a complete reaction of
oxygen. However the second type of catalyst achieves almost complete
methanol conversion. The silver catalyzed reactions are operated at
atmospheric pressure and very high temperatures (600
o
C 650
o
C)
presented by the two simultaneous reactions above (1) and (2). The
standard enthalpies of these two reactions are H
o
1
= -156 KJ and H
o
2
= 85
KJ respectively. The first exothermic reaction produces around 50 % -- 60
% of the total formed formaldehyde. The rest is formed by the second
endothermic reaction. These reactions are usually accompanied by some
undesired byproducts such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide
(CO2), Methyl Formate (C
2
H
4
O
2
) and Formic Acid (CH
2
O
2
). Below is table of
these side reactions that may take place in the process:

Number Reaction H
R,973 K
(kJ/mol)
(3) CH
2
O CO+H
2
+12
(4)

676
(5) CH
2
O+O
2
CO
2
+H
2
O 519
(6)

314
(7) CH
3
OH C+H
2
O+H
2
31
(8)
CO+H
2
C+H
2
O
136
(9)
CO+H
2
O CO
2
+H
2

35


4


The reactor in this projects problem (designed for 87.4% methanol
conversion) is to receive two streams; the first is a mixture of fresh
methanol (25
o
C, 1 atm) and recycled methanol (68.3
o
C, 1.2 atm) pumped to
3 atm and vaporized to 150
o
C. The second stream to the reactor mixed with
the first is compressed fresh air (25
o
C, 1 atm). The absorber receives the
reactors outlet (343
o
C) and afresh stream of water (30
o
C, 138 kpa).
Absorption of 99% is expected where the liquid outlet is heated to 102
o
C.
The distillation column receives the liquid then separates the overhead
methanol stream (68.3
o
C, 1.2 atm) then recycles it back to methanol fresh
feed mixing point. The bottom formaldehyde stream is pumped and mixed
with deionized water forming (37 wt. % formaldehyde) formalin stream
which sent for storage. The mixing is presented as follows:


Formaldehyde Water Formalin

The catalyst to be implemented in the reactors design is silver wired
gauze layers or catalyst bed of silver crystals (to be decided) with a bulk
density of 1500 kg catalyst/ m
3
of reactors volume. The catalyst is
spherical with 1mm diameter and a void fraction or porosity of 0.5. The
common design of the silver catalyst is a thin shallow catalyzing bed
with a thickness of 10 to 55 mm. The capacity that the catalyst can
handle could reaches up to 135,000 ton/year. The usual life span of this
catalyst is three to eight months, where the silver can be recovered. The
purity of the feed flowrates is very crucial due to the fact that the
catalyst is very receptive to poisoning that would kill the reaction and
reduces the production to zero if traces of sulfur or a transition metal
are present.


5

PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL PROPERITIES
This section includes all the major participating materials to the
production plant. These properties are based upon operating conditions
of the plants design.
Name Formula
Molecular
weight (g/mol)
Boiling
point
o
C
H
v
kJ/mole
Methanol CH3OH (g) 32.042 64.7 35.27
Oxygen O2 (g) 31.999 -183 6.82
Air Gas 28.851 -194.5 ---
Formaldehyde HCHO (g) 30.026 -19.3 24.48
Hydrogen H2 (g) 2.016 -252.7 0.904
Water H2O (l) 18.015 100 40.656
Formalin HCHO (l) 30.03 96 ---
Silver Ag (s) 107.8682 1950 1950

INITIAL BLOCK FLOW DIAGRAM

This is a tentative initial block flow diagram of the projects
formaldehyde production plant.


6

LITERATURE REVIEW OF PRODUCTION PROCESS
Formaldehyde was discovered in 1859 by a Russian chemist named
Aleksandr Butlerov. Then in 1869, it was ultimately identified by the
German chemist August Hofmann. The manufacture of formaldehyde
started in the beginnings of the twentieth century. Between 1958 and
1968, the annual growth rate for formaldehyde production averaged to
11.7%. In the mid-1970s, the production was 54% of capacity. Annual growth
rate of formaldehyde was 2.7% per year from 1988 to 1997. In 1992,
formaldehyde ranked 22
nd
among the top 50 chemicals produced in the
United States. The total annual formaldehyde capacity in 1998 was estimated
by 11.3 billion pounds. Since then and the production capacity around the
globe is expanding exponentially reaching a worlds production of 32.5
million metric tons by 2012. Due to its relatively low costs compared to
other materials, and its receptivity for reaching high purities,
formaldehyde is considered one of the most widely demanded and
manufactured materials in the world. It is also the center of many
chemical researches and alternative manufacture methods. This also
explains the vast number of applications of this material including a
building block for other organic compounds, photographing washing,
woodworking, cabinet-making industries, glues, adhesives, paints,
explosives, disinfecting agents, tissue preservation and drug testing.

As to be applied in this project, formaldehyde is most commonly
produced in industry through the vapor- phase oxidation reaction
between methanol and air (Oxygen). However, there are several
methods of synthesizing formaldehyde that are notable and efficient.
Here we present several of these alternative processes:


Metal Oxide Catalyst Process
The Formax process developed by Reichhold chemicals to produce
formaldehyde through direct catalytic oxidation of methanol and some other

7

by-products such as carbon monoxide and dimethyl ether forms. In 1921,
the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde with vanadium pentoxide
catalyst was introduced to and patented. Then in 1933, the iron-
molybdenum oxide catalyst was also patented and used till the early
1990s. Improvements to the metal oxide catalyst were done through
the metal composition, inert carriers and preparation methods. The first
commercial plant for the production of formaldehyde using the iron-
molybdenum oxide catalyst was put into action in 1952. Unlike the
silver based catalyst in this project, the iron-molybdenum oxide catalyst
makes formaldehyde from the exothermic reaction (1) entirely. Under
atmospheric pressure and 300 400 oC, methanol conversion inside the
reactor could reach 99% and a yield of 88% - 92%.

The process begins by mixing of vaporized methanol and air prior to
entering the reactors. Inside the heat exchanger reactor, the feed is
passed through the metal oxide catalyst filled tubes where heat is
removed from the exothermic reaction to the outside of the tubes. Short
tubes (1 1.5 m) and a shell diameter 2.5 m is the expected design of
typical reactors. The bottom product leaving the reactors is cooled and

8

passed to the absorber. The composition of formaldehyde in the
absorber outlet is controlled by the amount of water addition. An almost
methanol-free product can be achieved on this process design. The
advantage of this process over the silver based catalyst is the absence of
the distillation column to separate unreacted methanol and
formaldehyde product. It also has a life span of 12 to 18 months, larger
than the sliver catalyst. However, the disadvantage of this process
design is the need for significantly large equipment to accommodate the
increased flow of gases (3 times larger) compared to the original silver
catalyst process design. This increase in equipment sizing clashes with
economic prospect behind the design costs.

Production of Formaldehyde from Methane and Other
Hydrocarbon Gases

Another method of producing formaldehyde is through the oxidation of
hydrocarbon gases. An increase in the amount produced of
formaldehyde is expected in this process. However, the hydrocarbon
formaldehyde is usually obtained as dilute solution which is not
economically concentrated accompanied by other aldehydes and by-
products. However, improvements have been effected by the use of
special catalysts and better methods of control. Wheeler demonstrated
that methane is not oxidized at an appreciable rate below 600C. The
difficulty in this method is in controlling the oxidation of reaction.
Ethylene, ethane and propane oxidations can be controlled to yield
formaldehyde under similar conditions to methane. Higher hydrocarbon
gases can be oxidized at much lower temperatures than methane and
ethane. These methods have been described by Bibb also reported by
Wiezevich and Frolich, who used iron, nickel, aluminum, and other
metals as catalysts and employed pressures up to 135 atmospheres. The
Cities Service Oil Company has developed a commercial process using
this method.

9

KINETIC DATA FOR THE PROBLEM
Kinetic information for the methanol oxidation reaction:
CH OH O HCHO H O
3
1
2
2 2


The rate expression is:

Where p is a partial pressure in atm, and m refers to methanol. The rate
expression is only valid when oxygen is present in excess. The constants
are defined as:


Where T is in Kelvin, the rate data as follows for the side reaction:

The rate expression is:

The constants are defined as:


Standard enthalpies of reaction (298 K, 1 atm) for the two reactions are
given as:
= - 156 kJ/mol methanol = + 85 kJ/mol methanol
m
p k
m
p k
hr catalyst g mole
m
r
2
1
1
] / / [
1


T
k
8774
50 . 12
1
ln
T
k
7439
29 . 17
2
ln
2 3
H HCHO OH CH
5 . 0 '
2
5 . 0 '
1
1
] / / [
2
m
m
p k
p k
hr catalyst g mole
m
r


T
k
12500
9 . 16
'
1
ln
T
k
15724
0 . 25 ln
'
2

o
1
H
o
2
H

10

SAFETY & ENVIRONMENT PRECAUTIONS
The main concern is mainly with precautions and protocols that are to
be followed while handling materials in the plant. Safety equipment
includes: splash goggles, protective coats, gloves and safety shoes are all
required in dealing with these materials regardless of the their
reactivity and stability. These documentations will include the two
target materials and compounds encountered and utilized in the plant
as follows:
METHANOL

Flash point 1112 C
Auto ignition temperature 385 C
Explosive limits 36%
Lower Explosion Limit 6% (NFPA, 1978)
Upper Explosion Limit 36% (NFPA, 1978)
Products of Combustion
Carbon monoxide (CO) and Carbon
Dioxide (CO2)

Its a light, volatile, colorless, clear and flammable liquid. It has a
distinctive sweetish smell and close to alcohol in odor and colorlessness.
Methanol is very toxic to humans if ingested. Permanent blindness is
caused if as little as 10 mL of methanol is received and 30 mL could
cause death. Even slight contact with the skin causes irritation.

11

EXPOSURE
Exposure to methanol can be treated fast and efficiently. If the contact
was to the eyes or skin, flushing with water for 15 minutes would be the
first course of action. Contaminated clothing or shoes are to be removed
immediately. If the contact is much more series, use disinfectant soap,
then the contaminated skin is covered in anti-bacteria cream. Inhalation
of methanol is much more hazardous than mere contact. If breathing is
difficult, oxygen is given, if not breathing at all artificial respiration.

REACTIVITY
Methanol has an explosive nature in its vapor form when in contact with
heat of fires. In the case of a fire, small ones are put out with chemical
powder only. Large fires are extinguished with alcohol foam. Due to its
low flash point, it forms an explosive mixture with air. Reaction of
methanol and Chloroform + sodium methoxide and diethyl zinc creates
an explosive mixture. It boils violently and explodes.

STORAGE
The material should be stored in cooled well-ventilated isolated areas.
All sources of ignition are to be avoided in storage areas.

FORMALIN (FOLRMALDEHYDE 37 WT. % SOLUTION)
Flash point 64 C
Auto ignition temperature 430 C
Explosive limits 36%
Lower Explosion Limit 6% (NFPA, 1978)
Upper Explosion Limit 36% (NFPA, 1978)
Products of Combustion Carbon monoxide (CO) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

12

This material is a highly toxic material that the ingestion of 30 ml is
reported to cause fatal accidents to adult victims. Formaldehyde ranges
from being toxic, allergenic, and carcinogenic. The occupational exposure
to formaldehyde has side effects that are dependent upon the composition
and the phase of the material. These side effects range from headaches,
watery eyes, sore throat, difficulty in breathing, poisoning and in some
extreme cases cancerous. According to the International Agency for
Research on Cancer (IARC) and the US National Toxicology Program:
known to be a human carcinogen, in the case of pure formaldehyde.

FIRE HAZARDS
Formaldehyde is flammable in the presence of sparks or open flames.

EXPOSURE
Exposure to methanol can be treated fast and efficiently. If the contact was
to the eyes or skin, flushing with water for 15 minutes would be the first
course of action. If the contact is much more series, use disinfectant soap,
then the contaminated skin is covered in anti-bacteria cream. Inhalation of
methanol is much more hazardous than mere contact. The inhalator should
be taken to a fresh air.

STORAGE AND HALDLING
Pure Formaldehyde is not stable, and concentrations of other materials
increase over time including formic acid and para formaldehyde solids. The
formic acid builds in the pure compound at a rate of 15.5 3 ppm/d at 30
o
C, and at rate of 10 20 ppm/d at 65
o
C. Formaldehyde is best stored at
lower temperatures to decrease the contamination levels that could affect
the products quality. Stabilizers for formaldehyde product include
hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, Methyl cellulose, ethyl cellulose, and poly
(vinyl alcohols).

13

PRELIMINARY COSTS OF MATERIALS

This table gives an approximate cost (in 2012) for the major plant
materials that are utilizes frequently including*:

Material PELEMINIARY COST
Methanol 250 500 US $ / Metric Ton
Formalin 380 838 US $ / Metric Ton
Silver 1000 - 3,000 US $ / Kilogram
Hydrogen 30 - 100 US $ / 40L cylinder
DI Water 10 cents / gallon

* All costs are based upon prices provided by alibaba.com









14





MASS AND ENERGY
BALANCES

This is a full detailed chapter presenting the Mass and Energy Balances
for the projects plant of producing formaldehyde from methanol. The
analysis and calculations were done manually and collectively by the
project team #3. All process streams and unit operation were accounted
for in this chapter. These calculations are based upon the teams
previous and current Chemical Engineering courses. All required
parameters from the problem statement including; conversion,
selectivity, temperature, pressure and production capacity were
implemented in the mass and energy balance. The following process
flow diagram (PFD) of the formaldehyde plant is the reference for unit
designation and stream numbering.







15

1. MASS BALANCE

The methanol feed input is the basis of calculation throughout the
chapter. The amount of input basis of methanol was n
3
= 10



Definitions of all abbreviations used in our calculations:
n : is the molar flow-rate (kmol/hr.)
m : methanol
water: deionized water
H
2
: hydrogen
N
2
: nitrogen
f: formaldehyde
O
2
: oxygen
x : is the mole fraction
n
m
: methanol flow rate, similarly for the rest components.

Information provided in the statement problem:

Overall conversion of methanol: 0.874
Selectivity of desired reaction to undesired reaction = 9
Production of formaldehyde needed = 60000 ton per year
The outlet temperature from the reactor 343
o
C
The outlet temperature from the reactor 200
o
C
Recycled temperature and pressure is 68.3
o
C and 1.2 atm respectively.
Pressure of the absorber is 138 kPa with formaldehyde absorption recovery
of 99%.
Exist liquid stream from absorber is heated to 102
o
C.



16

1.1. First Run
1.1.1. Mass balance around the reactor:











Conversion = 0.874 =



Selectivity = 9 =



From & :
n
8
= 282.26 kmol/hr.
x
M
= 0.3465
x
O
= 0.1363
x
W
= 0.0046
x
N
= 0.5126




n
9
= 329.21 kmol/hr.
x
M
= 0.0374
x
F
= 0.2596
x
W
= 0.2376
x
H
= 0.0258
x
N
= 0.4395




Reactor


17

1 = 7.866 kmol/h
2 = 0.874 kmol/h
Substituting
1
&
2
in previous equations:
Eqn#1 n
m, 9
= 10 7.866 0.874 = 1.26


Eqn#2 0 = n
O2, 8
(0.5) *
1
n
O2, 8
= (0.5)* 1 = 0.5 * 7.866 =
3.933


n
N2, 8
=n
N2, 9
= n
O2, 8
*



Eqn#3 n
H2, 9
=
2
= 0.874


Eqn#4 n
H2O, 9
=
1
= 7.866


Eqn#5 n
F, 9
=
1
+
2
= 7.866 + 0.874 = 8.74


n
F1
= n
M1
= 1 = 7.866


n
F2
= n
M2
= 2 = 0.874



n
M, 8
= 10

, n
O2, 8
= 3.933

, n
H2O, 8
= 0


n
H2, 8
= 0

, n
F, 8
= 0

, n
N2, 8
= 14.796


Stream 8 (n
8
) = n
i
= 28.729


x
M
=

x
O2
=

x
N2
=


x
i
1
n
M, 9
= 1.26

, n
O2, 9
= 0

, n
H2O, 9
= 7.866


n
H2, 9
= 0.874

, n
F, 9
= 8.74

, n
N2, 9
= 14.796



18

Stream 9 (n
9
) = n
i
= 33.536


y
M
=

y
O2
=

y
H2O
=


y
H2
=

y
F
=

y
N2
=


y
i
1

1.1.2. Mass balance around the absorber:












n
F, 12
= y
F, 10
* (1- 0.99) = 0.2606 * 33.536 (1-0.99) = 0.0874 kmol/h

From solubility at T = 89.37
o
C (obtained from energy balance) :
Solubility of formaldehyde












n
12
= 283.41 kmol/hr
x
F
= 0.0030
x
W
= 0.4565
x
H
= 0.0299
x
N
= 0.5106


n
11
= 182.63 kmol/hr
x
W
= 1.00


n
13
= 228.43 kmol/hr
x
M
= 0.0539
x
F
= 0.3704
x
W
= 0.5756

n
10
= 329.21 kmol/hr
x
M
= 0.0374
x
F
= 0.2596
x
W
= 0.2376
x
H
= 0.0258
x
N
= 0.4395



ABS.

19

0.468 kmol F =====================> 1 kmol water
8.74

======================> X liter water



X = 18.675 kmol H
2
O/h


L
o
, min = n
11
=


Solubility of Methanol







Thus,
0.011255 kmol Methanol ==============>

kmol water
X ======================> 18.675 kmol water
X = 3.78 kmol H
2
O/h

All Methanol will dissolve in water and NO Methanol in the off-gas
because,
n
m, 13
= n
m, 10
n
m, 12
= 1.26 kmol Methanol/h.


20


Assuming that all N
2
,H
2
are streamed out through off gas:
n
N2, 12
= n
N2, 10
= 14.796
n
H2, 12
= n
H2, 10
= 0.874
n
F, 13
= 0.26062 * 33.536 * 0.99 = 8.6528 kmol/h.
Additionally,


)
So,


n
H2O
,
12
= (18.675 + 7.866) x 0.496 = 13.164


n
12
= 0.0874 + 14.796 + 0.874 + 13.164 = 28.9214


n
13
= 1.26 + 8.6526 + 13.378 = 23.29



Water Inlet Stream
L
o
= n
11
= 18.675 kmol/h

21

x
H2O
= 1 , x
M
= 0 , x
F
= 0 , x
N2
= 0, x
H2
= 0 , x
O2
= 0

Gas Inlet Stream
n
10
= 33.536 kmol/h, n
M, 10
= 1.26 kmol/h, n
O2, 10
= 0 kmol/h, n
H2O, 10
=
7.866 kmol/h
n
H2, 10
= 0.874 kmol/h, n
F, 10
= 8.74 kmol/h, n
N2, 10
= 14.796 kmol/h
Thus,
y
M
=

, y
O2
=

, y
H2O
=


y
H2
=

, y
F
=

, y
N2
=


y
i
1

Gas Outlet Stream
n
12
= 28.9214 kmol/h, n
M, 12
= 0 kmol/h, nO2
, 12
= 0 kmol/h, n
H2O, 12
=
13.164 kmol/h
n
H2, 12
= 0.874 kmol/h, n
F, 12
= 0.0874 kmol/h, n
N2, 12
= 14.796 kmol/h
Thus,
y
M
=

, y
O2
=

, y
H2O
=


y
H2
=

, y
F
=

, y
N2
=


y
i
1

Liquid Outlet Stream
n
13
= 23.29 kmol/h, n
M, 13
= 1.26 kmol/h, n
H2O, 13
= 13.378 kmol/h, n
F,
13
= 8.6526 kmol/h
Thus,
y
M
= , y
H2O
= , y
F
=
y
i
1


22

1.1.3. Mass balance around the distillation column:










Assumptions:
1- Light Key : methanol
2- Heavy key: H
2
0
3- Non-heavy key: formaldehyde
4- Constant Molal Overflow (CMO)
n
14
=L
1
= D + B . (1)
Fractional Recovery 1 = 99.7%
Fractional Recovery 1 = 99 %
D
x, M
= frac.1 * n
14
* x
M, 14
= 0.997 * 23.29 * 0.054 = 1.2534 kmol
Methanol/h
B
x, M
= (1 frac.1) * n
14
* x
M, 14
= 0.0038 kmol Methanol/h
B
x, H2O
= frac.2 * n
14
* x
H2O, 14
= 0.99 * 23.29 * 0.5744 = 13.244 kmol
water/h
D
x, H2O
= (1 frac.2) * n
14
* x
H2O, 14
= (1 -0.99) * 23.29 * 0.5744 = 0.1338
kmol water/h

n
15
= 13.61 kmol/hr
x
M
= 0.9034
x
W
= 0.0966



n
17
= 214.82 kmol/hr
x
M
= 0.0002
x
F
= 0.3934
x
W
= 0.6064




n
14
= 228.43 kmol/hr
x
M
= 0.0539
x
F
= 0.3704
x
W
= 0.5756




STILL

23

B
x, F
= 0.3715 * 23.29 = 8.65224 kmol Formaldehyde/h
D = D
x, Di
= 1.2534 + 0.1338 = 1.3872 kmol/h
B = B
x, Bi
= 0.0038 + 13.244 + 8.65224 = 21.9 kmol/h
x
M, D
= 0.90355, x
H2O, D
= 0.09645, x
M, B
= 0.000174, x
H2O, B
=
0.39508, x
F, B
= 0.60475


Material
Mole
Fraction
y
i

n
i
=
y
i
n
tot

Molecular
Weight
m
i
= n
i
MW
Mass Fraction
(x
i
= m
i
/m
tot
)
Methanol
0.00017
4
0.0038 32.042 0.12176 0.000244
Formalde
hyde
0.60475
8.65223
5
30.026 259.792 0.52135
Water 0.39508 13.244 18 238.392 0.4784

Sum =
498.306

Formaldehyde to water ratio


52 wt. % of Formaldehyde.












24

1.2. Second Run

1.2.1. Mass balance around mixing point of streams 2,
3 and 15:
n
3, M
= n
15, M
+ n
2

n
2
= n
3, M
n
15, M
= 10 1.3872 * 0.96355 = 8.7466


n
3, water
= 1.3872 * 0.09645 = 0.13378


n
3
= n
3, M
+ n
3, water
= 10 + 0.13378 = 10.13378



1.2.2. Mass balance around mixing point of streams 6,
7 and 8:
n
6
= n
3

x
3, M
= x
6, M
=


x
3, water
= x
6, water
=


From first run we got n
1O2
and n
1N2

n
1O2
=



n
1N2
=



n
7
= n
5
= n
1
= n
1O2
+ n
1N2
=3.933+14.796=18.729


n
8
= n
6
+ n
7
=10.13387+18.729=28.86287






25

1.2.3. Mass balance around the reactor:

The feed to the reactor is n
8
= 28.86287



Where the composition is shown as follow:
x
m
=10
x
O2
=3.933
x
water
=0.13378
x
N2
=14.796


From conversion:

= 0.874

1
+
2
= 8.74


From selectivity:
1

2
*(9) = 0

1
= 7.866 kmol/h

2
= 0.874 kmol/h
and so,
n
9, M (second run)
= n
9, M (first run)
= 1.26


n
8, O2 (second run)
= n
8, O2 (first run)
= 1/2*
1
=3.933


n
9, N2 (second run)
= n
9, N2 (first run)
= 14.796


n
9, H2 (second run)
= n
9, H2 (first run)
= 0.874


n
9, F (second run)
= n
9, F (first run)
=
1
+
2
= 8.74


n
9, water (second run)
= 0.13378 +
1
= 7.99978







26

1.2.4. Mass balance around the absorber:

n
10, F (second run)
= n
10, F (first run)
= 0.0874


n
10, F
= y
10, F
* (1- 0.99) = 0.2606 * 33.536 (1-0.99) = 0.0874


From solubility:
0.78 kg F = 0.468 kmol F ==============> 1 kmol water
8.74

F ======================> X

water
n
11(second run)
= n
11(first run)
= 18.675



Assuming that all N
2
as well as H
2
are streamed out through off
gas (same as first run):

n
13, N2
= n
12, N2
= 14.796
n
13, H2
= n
12, H2
= 0.874

From vapor pressure for water, the temperature of the column is 89.31
oC which was derived from energy balance around the absorber and the
procedure of calculating the temperature will be shown in the energy
balance.
So,



(






27

n
12, H2O
= (18.657 + 7.99947) * 0.496 = 13.23


n
12
= n
G1,F
+ n
G1, N2
+ n
G1, H2
+ n
G1, H2O
= 0.0874 + 14.796 + 0.874 + 13.23 =
28.988


n
L1, H2O
= n
10
+ n
9, water (second run)
n
12, H2O
= 18.675 + 7.99978 13.23 =
13.445


n
L1, M
= 0 + n
11, M
n
12, M
= 0 + nGo 0 = 1.26


n
13
= n
L1, M
+ n
L1, F
+ n
L1, H2O
= 1.26 + 8.6526 + 13.445 = 23.358





1.2.5. Mass balance around the distillation column:

Assumptions:
5- Light Key : methanol
6- Heavy key: H
2
0
7- Non-heavy key: formaldehyde
8- Constant Molal Overflow (CMO)

n
14
= D + B . (1)
Dx
M
= frac.
1
* n
14
* x
M,n14
= 0.997 * 23.458 * 0.054 = 1.25755


Bx
M
= (1 frac.
1
) * n
14
* x
M,n14
= 0.003784


Bx
H2O
= frac.
2
* n
14
* x
water,n14
= 0.99 * 23.358 * 0.576 = 13.3197


Dx
H2O
= (1 frac.
2
) * n
14
* x
water,n14
= (1 -0.99) * 23.358 * 0.576 = 0.13454



28

Bx
F
= 0.37 * 23.358= 8.6425


D = Dx
Di
= 1.25755 + 0.13454 = 1.39209


B = Bx
Bi
= 0.0038 + 13.3197 + 8.6425 = 21.966


x
M, D
= 0.9335 x
H2O, D
= 0.0.0966

x
M, B
= 0.00173 x
F, B
= 0.39345 x
H2O, B
= 0.60637

Component
Mol
fraction
(yi)
n
j
= y
i
*
n
tot

Molecular
weight
m
i
= n
i
*
M
Mass
faction x
i
=
m
i
/M
tot

Methanol 0.00173 0.0038 32.042 0.12176 0.006244
Formaldehyde 0.39345 8.6425 30.026 259.5 0.51965
Water 0.60637 13.3194 18 239.73 0.4801


1.2.6. Mass balance around mixing point at streams 17,
18 and 19:



Scaling up of the mass balance is needed in order to get the required
production of 60000 ton/year of formaldehyde. Scaling up calculations
was done and it is shown in the following finalized mass balance data
sheets:


29

1.3 Mass Balance Data Sheet
1- Initial mass balance (before Scaling) on 10 kmol methanol/hr. basis:


2- Initial mass balance (before Scaling) on kilogram/year mass unit:



stream number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
methanol 0 8.7466 10 10 0 10 0 10 1.26 1.26 0 0 1.26 1.26 1.25755 0.0038 0.0038 0 0.0038 0.0038
oxygen 3.933 0 0 0 3.933 0 3.933 3.933 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
formaldehyde 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8.74 8.74 0 0.0874 8.6526 8.6526 0 8.6425 8.6425 0 8.6425 8.6425
water 0 0 0.13378 0.13378 0 0.13378 0 0.13378 7.99978 7.99978 18.675 13.23 13.445 13.445 0.13454 13.3197 13.3197 11.16667 24.48637 24.48637
hydrogen 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.874 0.874 0 0.874 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
nitrogen 14.796 0 0 0 14.796 0 14.796 14.796 14.796 14.796 0 14.796 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
summation kmol/hr 18.729 8.7466 10.13378 10.13378 18.729 10.13378 18.729 28.86278 33.66978 33.66978 18.675 28.9874 23.3576 23.3576 1.39209 21.966 21.966 11.16667 33.13267 33.13267
stream number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
methanol 0 280.2586 320.42 320.42 0 320.42 0 320.42 40.37292 40.37292 0 0 40.37292 40.37292 40.29442 0.12176 0.12176 0 0.12176 0.12176
oxygen 125.856 0 0 0 125.856 0 125.856 125.856 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
formaldehyde 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 262.4272 262.4272 0 2.624272 259.803 259.803 0 259.4997 259.4997 0 259.4997 259.4997
water 0 0 2.40804 2.40804 0 2.40804 0 2.40804 143.996 143.996 336.15 238.14 242.01 242.01 2.42172 239.7546 239.7546 201 440.7546 440.7546
hydrogen 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.748 1.748 0 1.748 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
nitrogen 414.288 0 0 0 414.288 0 414.288 414.288 414.288 414.288 0 414.288 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
summation kg/hr 540.144 280.2586 322.828 322.828 540.144 322.828 540.144 862.972 862.8322 862.8322 336.15 656.8003 542.1859 542.1859 42.71614 499.3761 499.3761 201 700.3761 700.3761

30

3- Mass balance (after Scaling) on ton/year mass unit:



4- Mass balance (after Scaling) on kmol/year mass unit:




stream number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
methanol 0 24009.26 27449.82 27449.82 0 27449.82 0 27449.82 3458.678 3458.678 0 0 3458.678 3458.678 3451.953 10.43093 10.43093 0 10.43093 10.43093
oxygen 10781.865 0 0 0 10781.86 0 10781.86 10781.86 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
formaldehyde 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 22481.69 22481.69 0 224.8169 22256.87 22256.87 0 22230.89 22230.89 0 22230.89 22230.89
water 0 0 206.2926 206.2926 0 206.2926 0 206.2926 12335.89 12335.89 28797.39 20401.04 20732.58 20732.58 207.4645 20539.36 20539.36 17219.32 37758.68 37758.68
hydrogen 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 149.7481 149.7481 0 149.7481 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
nitrogen 35491.333 0 0 0 35491.33 0 35491.33 35491.33 35491.33 35491.33 0 35491.33 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
summation ton/yr 46273.198 24009.26 27656.12 27656.12 46273.2 27656.12 46273.2 73929.31 73917.33 73917.33 28797.39 56266.94 46448.12 46448.12 3659.417 42780.68 42780.68 17219.32 60000 60000
stream number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
methanol 0 749306 856682.6 856682.6 0 856682.6 0 856682.6 107942 107942 0 0 107942 107942 107732.1 325.5394 325.5394 0 325.5394 325.5394
oxygen 336933.27 0 0 0 336933.3 0 336933.3 336933.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
formaldehyde 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 748740.6 748740.6 0 7487.406 741253.2 741253.2 0 740388 740388 0 740388 740388
water 0 0 11460.7 11460.7 0 11460.7 0 11460.7 685327.2 685327.2 1599855 1133391 1151810 1151810 11525.81 1141076 1141076 956628.9 2097704 2097704
hydrogen 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 74279.82 74279.82 0 74279.82 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
nitrogen 1267547.6 0 0 0 1267548 0 1267548 1267548 1267548 1267548 0 1267548 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
summation kmol/year 1604480.9 749306 868143.3 868143.3 1604481 868143.3 1604481 2472624 2883837 2883837 1599855 2482706 2001005 2001005 119257.9 1881789 1881789 956628.9 2838418 2838418

31

5- Mass balance (after Scaling) on kmol/hr. mass unit:



6- Mass balance (after Scaling) on kg/hr. mass unit:


stream number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
methanol 0.00 85.54 97.79 97.79 0.00 97.79 0.00 97.79 12.32 12.32 0.00 0.00 12.32 12.32 12.30 0.04 0.04 0.00 0.04 0.04
oxygen 38.46 0.00 0.00 0.00 38.46 0.00 38.46 38.46 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
formaldehyde 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 85.47 85.47 0.00 0.85 84.62 84.62 0.00 84.52 84.52 0.00 84.52 84.52
water 0.00 0.00 1.31 1.31 0.00 1.31 0.00 1.31 78.23 78.23 182.63 129.38 131.49 131.49 1.32 130.26 130.26 109.20 239.46 239.46
hydrogen 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 8.48 8.48 0.00 8.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
nitrogen 144.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 144.70 0.00 144.70 144.70 144.70 144.70 0.00 144.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
summation kmol/hr 183.16 85.54 99.10 99.10 183.16 99.10 183.16 282.26 329.21 329.21 182.63 283.41 228.43 228.43 13.61 214.82 214.82 109.20 324.02 324.02
stream number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
methanol 0 2740.783 3133.542 3133.542 0 3133.542 0 3133.542 394.8262 394.8262 0 0 394.8262 394.8262 394.0585 1.190746 1.190746 0 1.190746 1.190746
oxygen 1230.8065 0 0 0 1230.806 0 1230.806 1230.806 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
formaldehyde 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2566.402 2566.402 0 25.66402 2540.738 2540.738 0 2537.773 2537.773 0 2537.773 2537.773
water 0 0 23.54938 23.54938 0 23.54938 0 23.54938 1408.207 1408.207 3287.373 2328.886 2366.732 2366.732 23.68317 2344.676 2344.676 1965.676 4310.352 4310.352
hydrogen 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17.09453 17.09453 0 17.09453 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
nitrogen 4051.522 0 0 0 4051.522 0 4051.522 4051.522 4051.522 4051.522 0 4051.522 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
summation kg/hr 5282.3285 2740.783 3157.091 3157.091 5282.328 3157.091 5282.328 8439.419 8438.052 8438.052 3287.373 6423.166 5302.297 5302.297 417.7417 4883.639 4883.639 1965.676 6849.315 6849.315

32

6- Mass balance (after Scaling) of wt. compositions (kg/kg):



7- Whole plant process stream conditions (after scaling and used in energy balance calculations):


stream number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
methanol 0.0000 1.0000 0.9868 0.9868 0.0000 0.9868 0.0000 0.3465 0.0374 0.0374 0.0000 0.0000 0.0539 0.0539 0.9034 0.0002 0.0002 0.0000 0.0001 0.0001
oxygen 0.2100 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.2100 0.0000 0.2100 0.1363 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
formaldehyde 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.2596 0.2596 0.0000 0.0030 0.3704 0.3704 0.0000 0.3934 0.3934 0.0000 0.2608 0.2608
water 0.0000 0.0000 0.0132 0.0132 0.0000 0.0132 0.0000 0.0046 0.2376 0.2376 1.0000 0.4565 0.5756 0.5756 0.0966 0.6064 0.6064 1.0000 0.7390 0.7390
hydrogen 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0258 0.0258 0.0000 0.0299 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
nitrogen 0.7900 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.7900 0.0000 0.7900 0.5126 0.4395 0.4395 0.0000 0.5106 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
summation kmol/year 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
stream number 1 2 3 4 5
Temperature (oC) 25 25 31.13 31.13 37.3
Press (atm) 1 1 1 3 3
Total kg/h 5282.328 2740.783 3157.091 3157.091 5282.328
Total kmol/h 183.1599 85.5372 99.1031 99.1031 183.1599
methanol 0.0000 85.5372 97.7948 97.7948 0.0000
oxygen 38.4627 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 38.4627
formaldehyde 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
water 0.0000 0.0000 1.3083 1.3083 0.0000
hydrogen 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
nitrogen 144.6972 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 144.6972
Component kmol/h

33







stream number 6 7 8 9 10
Temperature (oC) 150 150 150 200 165
Press (atm) 3 3 3
Total kg/h 3157.091 5282.328 8439.419 8438.052 8438.052
Total kmol/h 99.1031 183.1599 282.2630 329.2052 329.2052
methanol 97.7948 0.0000 97.7948 12.3221 12.3221
oxygen 0.0000 38.4627 38.4627 0.0000 0.0000
formaldehyde 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 85.4727 85.4727
water 1.3083 0.0000 1.3083 78.2337 78.2337
hydrogen 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 8.4794 8.4794
nitrogen 0.0000 144.6972 144.6972 144.6972 144.6972
Component kmol/h
stream number 11 12 13 14 15
Temperature (oC) 20 89.31 89.31 102 68.3
Press (atm) 1 1 1.2 1.2 1.2
Total kg/h 3287.373 6423.166 5302.297 5302.297 417.742
Total kmol/h 182.6318 283.4139 228.4252 228.4252 13.6139
methanol 0.0000 0.0000 12.3221 12.3221 12.2982
oxygen 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
formaldehyde 0.0000 0.8547 84.6179 84.6179 0.0000
water 182.6318 129.3825 131.4851 131.4851 1.3157
hydrogen 0.0000 8.4794 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
nitrogen 0.0000 144.6972 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Component kmol/h

34





stream number 16 17 18 19 20
Temperature (oC) 110 110 30 48 30
Press (atm) 1 3 3 3 3
Total kg/h 4883.639 4883.639 1965.676 6849.315 6849.315
Total kmol/h 214.8161 214.8161 109.2042 324.0203 324.0203
methanol 0.0372 0.0372 0.0000 0.0372 0.0372
oxygen 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
formaldehyde 84.5192 84.5192 0.0000 84.5192 84.5192
water 130.2598 130.2598 109.2042 239.4640 239.4640
hydrogen 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
nitrogen 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Component kmol/h

35

2. ENERGY BALANCE

Energy balance mostly depends on calculating the heat capacity (Cp) of
each component present on the system. The following table serves as
reference to the upcoming calculations of the plants energy balance:



2.1.1. Mixing point between streams 1 , 2 and 3









From VLE at T = 68.3
0
C and P = 1.2 Methanol is in liquid phase.
Component Phase C1 C2 C3 C4
Methanol Liquid 75.86e-3 16..83e-5 0 0
Gas 42.93e-3 8.301e-5 -1.87e-8 -8.03e-12
water Liquid 75.4e-3 0 0 0
Gas 33.46e-3 0.688e-5 0.7604e-8 -3.593e-12
Formaldehyde Gas 34.28e-3 4.268e-5 0 -8.694e-12
N2 Gas 29e-3 0.2199e-5 0.5723e-8 -2.871e-12
O2 Gas 29.1e-3 1.158e-5 -0.6076e-
8
1.311e-12
H2 Gas 28.84e-3 0.00765e-
5
0.3288e-8 -0.8698e-12


P= 1.2 atm
T
15
=68.3
0
C
n
15,w
=1.32
n
15, m
=12.3

P= 1 atm
T = 25
0
C
n
2
= 85.54
T =??
n
3,w
= 1.31 , x
3, w
=0.0132
n
3,m
= 97.79 , x
3, m
=0.9868

36



E
in
= E
out



T = 31.13
0
C

METHANOL IS
LIQUID AT THIS
POINT

37

2.1.2. Pump P-101


At 30
0
C


From Bernolly equation:


Assume there is no loss in the pump




38

2.1.3. Heat Exchanger E-101

]
[

]

= 4155051.3+6231729=4217368.59









39

2.1.4. Compressor C-101

For Air
C
p
=29.1

, C
v
=20.78

Where


n= coprocessor efficiency,

Where


Assumption:
1. N=0.75
2. Adiabatic.
3. Constant heat capacities.
4. Ideal gas.





40

2.1.5. Heat Exchanger E-102

]

=477150 + 130.580 = 607730



2.1.6. Mixing point between streams 6, 7 and 8:

Since the temperature of stream number 6 is same as the temperature
of stream number, so stream 8 also has same temperature which is 150
o
C.

2.1.7. Reactor
Species n
in
(mole)
in
n
out
(mole)
out

CH
3
OH 97790 H
1
12320 H
5

O
2
38460 H
2
0 H
6

N
2
144700 H
3
144700 H
7

HCHO - - 85470 H
8

H
2
- - 8480 H
9

H
2
o 1.31 H
4
78230 H
10


41

Where,



i
H
f

i,out

i, in

= (156 x 7.866 x 1000 85 x 0.874 x 1000) + 3679029.286
1290397.518
= 1301386 + 3679029.286 1290397.518= 1087245.768 kJ/hr.

42

2.1.8. Heat exchanger inside the reactor

In this problem statement, heat exchange is joined with the reactor and
so, the endpoint reaction is at 343
o
C and then products will cool down
to 200
o
C. Energy balance has done over this heat exchange.
Heat Exchanger inside the Reactor: these are the enthalpies at the end of
the reactor and before interring the cooling section.


Also, these are the enthalpies at the end of the reactor and cooling
section.



43


Q =
i

i,out

i

i, in

= [(12320 X 9.0940) + (144700 X 5.13238)+(85470 X 6.8358)
+ (8480 X 5.0569) + (78230 X 6.01)] [(12320 X 18.2296) +
(144700 X 9.418) + (85470 X 13.368)
+ (8480 X 9.2168) + (78230 X 11.133)]
Q = 1951994.104 3679029.286 = 1727035.182 KJ/hr.
So, this is the heat required to be removed from the system using cold
water.

2.1.9. Throttle
Throttle is used to reduce the temperature; its calculation depends on
the difference in pressure (P) of the inlet and outlet of the reactor. This
leads to the need for the reactors dimensions. In order to fully evaluate
the energy balance around the throttle, it will be done in design section
of the project. The temperature after the throttle was decided to be
chosen 165
o
C(from literature reference) in orderto continue the energy
balance around the absorber.

44

2.1.10. Absorber

Since there is a throttle, the temperature of the stream coming from the
reactor will be reduced further to less than 200
o
C. Since calculating the
temperature after the throttle needs additional design specifications
such as the reactor length and diameter, this will be done afterwards in
the design section. The temperature is chosen through an educated
decision based upon stream load and literature reference of the same
plant to be less than 200
o
C because the throttle is serving the
temperature decrease service. The chosen temperature is 165
o
C.
We have four streams, the temperature of the two inlets streams are 20
and 164
o
C for reaction product and water stream respectively. The
outlet temperature has calculated as follow:



Reference temperature is 25 oC
Heat in at stream n
10
: T=(165-25) oC
Q
n10
=(nCpT)
n10m +
(nCpT)
n10w +
(nCpT)
n10f +
(nCpT)
n10H2 +
(nCpT)
n10N2 =
4080729.58 kJ/hr.

Heat in at stream n
11
: T=(25-25) oC
Q
n11
= (nCpT)
n11w
=-126730 kJ/hr.

45


So, Q
in
= Q
n10
+Q
n11
=



Heat out at stream: T=(T-25)



So temperature of outlets will be 89.31
o
C

2.1.11. Heat Exchanger E-103

n
M
= 12320 moles, n
H2o
= 131490 moles, n
F
= 84260 moles


Also,



46


Thus,
Q =
i

i,out

i

i, in

= [(12320 X 3.7048)+(131490 X 2.6126)+(84260 X 2.8480)
[(12320 X 3.0615)+(131490 X 2.1788)+(84260 X 2.3613)
Q = 629146.39 523171.23 = 105975.16 KJ/hr.

2.1.12. Distillation Column T-101


T
ref =25
0
C



47


Assumption :



48



2.1.13. Pump P-102

Volumetric Flow Rate:



At 68.3
0
C



49



2.1.14. Pump P-103


Volumetric Flow Rate:



50


At 110
0
C



2.1.15. Mixing Point of Streams 17, 18 and 19






Q
in
= Q
out


T = ?
n
19
= 324.02 kmol/h
n
19,w
= 239.46 kmol/h
n
19,m
= 0.04 kmol/h
n
19,m
= 84.52 kmol/h

P= 1 atm
T = 110
0
C
N
17
= 214.82 kmol/h
n
17,m
= 0.04 kmol/h
n
17,f
= 84.52 kmol/h
P= 1 atm
T
18
= 30
0
C
n
18,w
= 109.2 kmol/h

51


Solving for T = 48.66
o
C
2.1.16. Heat Exchange E-106

]=-56.526 335.82 = -392.35


Energy balance data sheet:
The following table summarizes the duties and loads calculated through
the plants energy balance based on the operating second run:
Equipment
Energy balance load
specification
(KJ/hr.)
E-101 4217368.59
E-102 607730
E-103 105975.16
E-104
E-105
E-106 -392.35
C-101
P-101
P-102
P-103

52





PROCESS SIMULATION

This chapter represents a process simulation of the terms project on
the production of formaldehyde from methanol. The simulation mainly
covers the three major units of the plant; the reactor, the absorber and
the distillation column. The purpose of this simulation is to evaluate the
plants processes under given conditions (temperature, pressure and
composition). Also to compare results obtained from said simulation to
previously determined parameters through manual mass & energy
balances. The effect of varying the Flowrate of the utility water supplied
to the absorber is also to be studied. All process parameters that are
imperative to the reaction system are implemented including
conversion, selectivity, stoichiometric coefficients and reaction kinetics.
The process simulator HYSYS was used to simulate the plants processes
utilizing a modified version of the thermodynamic package NRTL as
the basis of simulation and SI as the unit system. An alternative process
design is to be introduced at the end of this chapter where the
distillation column is replaced by a heat exchanger, and results are
compared to the original design. The following is the original process
flow diagram (PFD) of the formaldehyde plant is the reference for unit
designation and stream numbering.


53

A. PROCESS VALIDATION

This first section of the simulation is set to investigate results obtained
from the previous Mass & Energy balances section by means of
validation of said results with values obtained from the HYSYS
simulation of the plants processes. Percentages of error are to be
reported with these validations along with discussions and justifications
in the case of high errors. The error equation used to validate the results
is as follows:


| |



Errors of calculated values that were found to be 100% are in fact zero
and relatively close to the simulated values, for example:

Stream 3- formaldehyde flowrate


| |



Another example was calculating the overall mass balance across the
reactor for both the calculated and simulated which were 8439 kg/h
and 8177 kg/h respectively with error percent of 3.2%.



54

1. Flowrate Spreadsheets




stream number
calculated simulated %Error calculated simulated %Error calculated simulated %Error
methanol 0.0000 0 0.0000 85.5372 85.5372 0.0000 97.7948 90.0964 8.5446
oxygen 38.4627 38.4636 0.0000 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0009 0.0000
formaldehyde 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.1415 100.0000
water 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0 0.0000 1.3083 0.0464 2719.6101
hydrogen 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0007 0.0000
nitrogen 144.6972 144.6963 0.0000 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0325 100.0000
summation kmol/hr 183.1599 183.1599 0.0000 85.5372 85.5372 0.0000 99.1031 90.3184 9.7264
3 1 2
stream number
calculated simulated %Error calculated simulated %Error calculated simulated %Error
methanol 97.7948 90.0964 8.5446 0.0000 0 0.0000 97.7948 90.0964 8.5446
oxygen 0.0000 0.0009 100.0000 38.4627 38.4636 0.0023 0.0000 0.0009 100.0000
formaldehyde 0.0000 0.1415 100.0000 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.1415 100.0000
water 1.3083 0.0464 2719.6101 0.0000 0 0.0000 1.3083 0.0464 2719.6101
hydrogen 0.0000 0.0007 100.0000 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0007 100.0000
nitrogen 0.0000 0.0325 100.0000 144.6972 144.6963 0.0006 0.0000 0.0325 100.0000
summation kmol/hr 99.1031 90.3184 9.7264 183.1599 183.1599 0.0000 99.1031 90.3184 9.7264
5 6 4

55





stream number
calculated simulated %Error calculated simulated %Error calculated simulated %Error
methanol 0.0000 0 0.0000 97.7948 90.0964 8.5446 12.3221 5.241 135.1106
oxygen 38.4627 38.4636 0.0000 38.4627 38.4645 0.0047 0.0000 3.1232 100.0000
formaldehyde 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.1415 100.0000 85.4727 84.9969 0.5598
water 0.0000 0 0.0000 1.3083 0.0464 2719.6101 78.2337 70.7289 10.6107
hydrogen 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0007 100.0000 8.4794 14.1737 40.1749
nitrogen 144.6972 144.6963 0.0000 144.6972 144.7288 0.0218 144.6972 144.7288 0.0218
summation kmol/hr 183.1599 183.1599 0.0000 282.2630 273.4783 3.2122 329.2052 322.9925 1.9235
9 7 8
stream number
calculated simulated %Error calculated simulated %Error calculated simulated %Error
methanol 12.3221 5.241 135.1106 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0086 100.0000
oxygen 0.0000 3.1232 100.0000 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 3.1223 0.0000
formaldehyde 85.4727 84.9969 0.5598 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.8547 0.0105 0.0000
water 78.2337 70.7289 10.6107 182.6318 182.63 0.0010 129.3825 121.1805 6.7685
hydrogen 8.4794 14.1737 40.1749 0.0000 0 0.0000 8.4794 14.1729 40.1715
nitrogen 144.6972 144.7288 0.0218 0.0000 0 0.0000 144.6972 144.6963 0.0006
summation kmol/hr 329.2052 322.9925 1.9235 182.6318 182.63 0.0010 283.4139 283.1911 0.0787
11 12 10

56





stream number
calculated simulated %Error calculated simulated %Error calculated simulated %Error
methanol 12.3221 5.2325 135.4925 12.3221 5.2325 135.4925 12.2982 4.5792 168.5663
oxygen 0.0000 0.0009 0.0000 0.0000 0.0009 100.0000 0.0000 0.0009 100.0000
formaldehyde 84.6179 84.9864 0.4335 84.6179 84.9864 0.4335 0.0000 0.1421 100.0000
water 131.4851 132.1784 0.5245 131.4851 132.1784 0.5245 1.3157 0.0466 2723.4582
hydrogen 0.0000 0.0007 100.0000 0.0000 0.0007 100.0000 0.0000 0.0007 100.0000
nitrogen 0.0000 0.0325 100.0000 0.0000 0.0325 100.0000 0.0000 0.0325 100.0000
summation kmol/hr 228.4252 222.4314 2.6947 228.4252 222.4314 2.6947 13.6139 4.802 183.5052
15 13 14
stream number
calculated simulated %Error calculated simulated %Error calculated simulated %Error
methanol 0.0372 0.6533 94.3116 0.0372 0.6533 94.3116 0.0000 0 0.0000
oxygen 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0 0.0000
formaldehyde 84.5192 84.8443 0.3832 84.5192 84.8443 0.3832 0.0000 0 0.0000
water 130.2598 132.1318 1.4168 130.2598 132.1318 1.4168 109.2042 107 2.0600
hydrogen 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0 0.0000
nitrogen 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0 0.0000
summation kmol/hr 214.8161 217.6294 1.2927 214.8161 217.6294 1.2927 109.2042 107 2.0600
18 17 16

57




2. Energy Spreadsheet:

stream number
calculated simulated %Error calculated simulated %Error
methanol 0.0372 0.6533 94.3116 0.0372 0.6533 94.3116
oxygen 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0 0.0000
formaldehyde 84.5192 84.8443 0.3832 84.5192 84.8443 0.3832
water 239.4640 239.1318 0.1389 239.4640 239.1318 0.1389
hydrogen 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0 0.0000
nitrogen 0.0000 0 0.0000 0.0000 0 0.0000
summation kmol/hr 324.0203 324.6294 0.1876 324.0203 324.6294 0.1876
19 20
Results Hand Calculations Simulation Error %
E-101 4217368.59 3801000 10.95418548
E-102 607730 -103900 684.9181906
E-103 105975.16 387400 72.64451213
E-104 -509157.15 -10850000 95.30730737
E-105 571017.54 19900000 97.13056513
E-106 -392.35 905400 100.0433344
C-101 1215098.58 780444 55.69324385
P-101 1033.025 1020 1.276960784
P-103 1856.6 1785 4.011204482

58

3. Discussion of Mass Balance:
In this section of the validation, justifications are to be reported in the
case of high errors.
Streams 3, 4, 6 and 15: A high error for the flowrate of water is
observed in these streams due to the upstream mixing of the recycle
stream with fresh methanol. This recycle contains traces of water with
recycled methanol. The error occurs because the simulation percentage
is much lower in relation to the amount of water recovered in
calculation which was 1% of water feed to the distillation column.

Stream 9, 10, 13 and 14: Since the product was produced from one
desired and one undesired reactions, which were hand-calculated using
the conversion given by the problem statement. These conversions
were 78.66 and 8.74 for the desired and undesired reactions
respectively. However, the simulated version of the process has
conversions of 78.45 and 15.73 for the desired and undesired reactions
respectively. As a result, larger amount of methanol was consumed
from the undesired reaction. And the amount of methanol remaining
became lesser in simulation. This makes high error in the methanol
amount.

Stream 12: As mentioned previously the conversion of the undesired
reaction which produces hydrogen is found from hand calculation and
simulation software to be 8.74 and 15.73 respectively. Therefore, the
amount of hydrogen leaving the reactor is simulated to be 14.17
kmol/hr instead of the calculated amount (8.48 kmol/hr) which lead to
such high percentage error.



59

4. Discussion of Energy Balance:

E-102: high percentage of error was found in this heat exchanger
because:
The limit of the integration in the hand calculation of the energy
balance was from 37.3
o
C to 150
o
C, however, the inlet
temperature of the heat exchanger in the simulation software
(HYSYS) is 168.9
o
C and the outlet temperature is 150
o
C. So, the
load found by hand calculation was higher which resulted to such
high error.
In the hand calculation, the effect of pressure on the energy
balance was not taken into account.
Variation of utility flows between the simulated process and the
calculated one contributed to the increase in error.

E-103: A relatively high error was observed in this unit's load due to:
The limit of the integration in the hand calculation of energy
balance was from 25
o
C to 89.31
o
C, however, the inlet
temperature of the heat exchanger in the simulation software
(HYSYS) is 199.8
o
C and the outlet temperature is 102
o
C. So, the
load found by hand calculation was higher.
In the hand calculation, the effect of pressure on the energy
balance was not taken into account.


E-106: Reasons of high percentage of error in this heat exchanger are:
The limit of the integration in the hand calculation of energy
balance was from 48.6
o
C to 30
o
C, however, the inlet temperature

60

of the heat exchanger in the simulation software (HYSYS) is 82.22
o
C and the outlet temperature is 48
o
C. So, the load found by hand
calculation was higher.
In the hand calculation, the effect of pressure on the energy
balance was not taken into account.

E-104 & E-105: high percentages of error were found in these heat
exchangers because:
The temperature of the distillate rate was found in the problem
statements to be 68.3
o
C, however, that temperature is calculated
by the simulation software (HYSYS) to be 76.25
o
C. Similarly, the
temperature of the bottom rate was taken in hand calculation to
be 110
o
C, however, that temperature is calculated by the
simulation software (HYSYS) to be 103.4
o
C. Therefore, the load
on the condenser (E-104) and the reboiler (E-105) is found to be
different which resulted to such high error.
In the hand calculation, the effect of pressure on the energy balance was
not taken into account.



B. SIMULATION

This part of the chapter is concerned with virtually simulating the
process of the formaldehyde production from methanol.

61





62




63



WATER FEED VARIATION TO THE ABSORBER






64




VARIATION OF INLET TEMPERATURE TO THE
ABSORBER


65










66

Discussion of results:
One part of simulation is comparing the amount of formaldehyde in the
liquid stream product in the absorber, temperature of the off-gas and
re-boils energy of the bottom in the distillation column with the amount
of water that fed to the absorber. The water fed was varied from 150
kmol/hr to 310 kmol/hr. We noticed as the water increases, the off-gas
temperature, amount of the formaldehyde in the liquid product stream
and the re-boil energy in the bottom of the distillation column will
decrease.
In another comparison, the effect of the feed temperature to the
absorber on the amount of the formaldehyde and methanol in the liquid
product stream was studied. The study was taken between 300 and
120
o
C . It is noticed as the temperature increases, the amount of the
formaldehyde and methanol increase in the liquid product stream.




C. ALTERNATIVE PROCESS

This last part of the chapter is aimed to study an alternative modern
process of the production of formaldehyde from methanol. The goal of
this study is to achieve a 98% conversion of methanol by means of
removing the distillation column and replacing it with a higher duty
cooler to bring the product to 37 wt. % of formaldehyde. A comparison
is to be done between the original design and the alternative and their
efficiencies. Below are screenshots of the simulated plant using HYSYS:

67


68



69


1. Reactors Cooler E-100:
The cooling duty is observed to be varied between the original design
(87.4% conversion) and the alternative design (98% conversion). The
duty on the original design was 2.366 *10
6
kj/hr. while to be much
higher in the alternative with 6.105*10
6
kj/hr. The large duty in the
alternative design is a disadvantage because it leads to a higher capital
cost which must be tolerated in order to accomplish the 98%
conversion.

2. Productivity of the Process:
Each of the two designs is supplied with the same flowrate of fresh
methanol, yet their respective production rates are different. With a
conversion of 98%, the alternative design produces 5481 kg/hr.
However the original design produces a higher rate of formaldehyde
with 6876 kg/hr. giving it an advantage over the alternative design by a
margin of 1395 kg/hr with an error of 20.3%.

3. Reactors Volume:
One of the downsides of the alternative design is that, when simulated,
it requires a much higher net volume for the reactor in order to achieve
the specified conversion (98%). While the aternative reactor is 70000
m
3
in volume, the original processs reactor has a net volume of just
4000 m
3
. More details and evaluations are to be presented when
performing the design of the plant later.

70



EQUIPMENT SIZING
This chapter covers the equipment design and sizing of the
formaldehyde production plant. The main units to be designed are the
reactor, absorber, distillation column, heat exchangers, pumps and the
compressor. The reactor design covered mainly the volume of the
reactor, the weight of the silver catalyst with its distribution along the
packed bed reactor, the temperature inlet and outlet of the reactor, the
pressure drop across the reactor. The absorber design is concerned
with determining the height of the packed tower, the diameter and the
type of packing. The design of the distillation tray column covered the
minimum reflux ratio, the minimum and actual number of stages, the
diameter and height of the column, the efficiency of the trays, and the
detailed layout of the sieve tray dimensions for the rectifying and
stripping sections. The heat exchangers design covered the
determination of the shell side and tube side diameter and the length of
the tubes. A detailed pinch analysis was done on all heat exchangers to
optimize the heating cooling Q to a minimum and ultimately lower the
fixed capital cost. The compressor and the pumps were designed by
determining the work of the shaft according to the pressure drop across
the unit. The design pipes were done by taking into account the
mechanical limits of the flowing fluids and the pressure drop across the
pipe.



71

EQUIPMENT & LINING LIST (referring to the PFD on page )
Below is a listing of the units and pipe lines to be presented in the
design.
Design Equipment Designation
Reactor R-101
Absorber T-101
Distillation column T-102
Methanol heater E-101
Air heater E-102
Absorber effluent heater E-103
Distillation condenser E-104
Distillation reboiler E-105
Formalin cooler E-106
Air compressor C-101
Methanol feed and recycle pump P-101
Distillation bottom product pump P-103
Fresh air line stream 1
Fresh methanol line stream 2
Fresh methanol and recycle line stream 3
Methanol line pumped by P-101 stream 4
Compressed Air line by C-101 stream 5
Methanol line heated by E-101 stream 6
Air line heated by E-102 stream 7
Mixing line of methanol and air stream 8
Reactor effluent stream 9
Absorber inlet line stream 10
Fresh water inlet to absorber stream 11
Absorber off gas line stream 12
Absorber effluent stream 13
Heated distillation tower inlet by E-103 stream 14
Distillation top recycle line stream 15
Distillation bottom line stream 16
Pumped distillation bottom product by P-103 stream 17
Dilution deionized water line stream 18
Water and formaldehyde mixing line stream 19
Cooled formalin product by E-106 stream 20

72

REACTOR DESIGN
In this section, designing a plug flow reactor for multi reaction and non-
isothermal condition has been done. this reactor is supported with a
heat exchange to remove the heat generated from the exothermic
reaction. in this designing section, mole balances were considered to be
in the form of the final mole which is the remaining at the end of the
reaction period. Since the reaction is parallel, taking in mind the
reaction rates is too important by combining all these rates for each
material. Then evaluating the rest of these rate using the stoichiometric
coefficients. Evaluating the concentration of each material were done in
which all the pressure and temperature effect was considered. Here one
assumption was used which is the ideality of the gas introduced to the
reactor. By the end of this step, combination all previous steps can be
done to reduce the number of equations. Using Ergun equation,
pressure drop across the reactor was evaluated. In energy balance, to
increase the accuracy of the results, we use the integrated heat capacity
instead of assuming it constant. This is also has been done for
calculation of viscosity.
1- REACTOR DESIGN EQUATIONS
The reactions involved are:
CH
3
OH

+1/2 O
2
HCHO + H
2
O (Desired Reaction)
CH
3
OH

HCHO + H
2
(Undesired Reaction)
More convenient representation of all reactions equations:
A + 1/2 B C+D (Desired Reaction)
A C+ E (Undesired Reaction)


73

Where:
A is methanol
B is Oxygen.
C is formaldehyde.
D is Water.
E is hydrogen
I is Nitrogen inert gas

2- MOLE BALANCE

The basic mole balances of all components involved in the main
reaction are:
Methanol(A):



Oxygen (B):



Formaldehyde (C):



Water (D):



Hydrogen (E):



Where:
F
i
is the molar flow rate in (mol/s).
W is the weight of the catalyst in (Kg)
r'
i
is the reaction rate in (mole i reacted/ (Kg cat. hr))


74

3- NET RATE LAWS



4- RATE LAWS
The reaction rate expressions are:



The reaction rate constant (k) is given in the form:


to get an expression for k
i
at each certain temperature point,

75

)
where:


so, to get the value of the k
i
, it has to be evaluated at each temperature:
to evaluate the partial pressure of methanol, ideal gas law is needed in
which:


Where:
- C
A
is the molar concentration of methanol in (kmol/m
3
)
- T is in (K)
- R is the gas constant= 0.082 (atm.m
3
/kmol.K)
And so the reaction rate expressions will be:

76



Based on the stoichiometric coefficients, the relative rates can be found
using these relationship:


5- STOICHIOMETRY
In this design problem, the calculation will be done in case there is a
variation in both temperature and pressure. So for gas phase, the
concentration can be found as follow:

) (

) (


Therefore,

) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

) (


in our design we decided to make the inlet pressure P
o
to be 5.7 atm.
where the following parameters mean:

77

C
To
= P
o
/(R*T
o
)= 820.732.5kPa*/(8.314 kPa.m
3
/(kmol.K)*500K) =
0.1974338 (kmol/m
3
)
F
T
(kmol/h)= F
A
+F
B
+F
C
+F
D
+F
E
+ F
I

y
Ao
=F
Ao
/F
To
=97.7948/282.26=0.34647
C
Ao
=y
Ao
*C
To
=0.34647* 0.1974338 = 0.0684 (kmol/m
3
)
So, the final reaction rate expression is

)

Substituting back in the mole balances:
Methanol(A):



Oxygen (B):



Formaldehyde (C):



Water (D):



Hydrogen (E):




6- COMBINATION
Mole balances, rate equation and stoichiometric relations are combined
together to form the main design equation. Note, the temperature
Methanol(A):

)
(1)

78


Oxygen (B):

)
(2)

Formaldehyde (C):

)
(3)


Water (D):

)
(4)

Hydrogen (E):

)
(5)

Conversion equation:

(6)
7- PRESSURE DROP
Pressure drop can be calculated using the differential equation of Ergun
equation:

(7)
Where:



79


- P
o1
=820.732.5kPa
- T
o
=500 (K)
- F
To
=282.26 (kmol/hr)
- F
T
= F
A
+F
B
+F
C
+F
D
+F
E
+F
F
+F
I
(kmol/hr)
- F
I
= F
Bo
*(0.79/0.21)
-


- m=8439.419 kg/hr from mass balance
-
-

(8)

(9)

80

8- ENERGY BALANCES
Using the energy balance design equation of a PBR with heat exchange:

Reactor:


for to reaction :

)

(

(10)
For variable coolant temperature, T
a
, the energy balance equation is:
Coolant:


but in our case we will use a constant coolant with T= 480K
The following parameters are evaluated in order to substitute them
back in the energy balance equations:
1)


2)


by simplification:
1)

(11)
2)

(12)
by integration the Cp
i
where t in Celsius:
FOR THE FIRST REACTION:



81


FOR THE SECOND REACTION:



The heat of the reaction at reference temperature

is:


Methanol(A): H
o
A
= -201200 (kJ/kmol)
Oxygen (B): H
o
B
=0
Formaldehyde (C): H
o
C
= -115900 (kJ/kmol)
Water (D): H
o
D
= -241830 (kJ/kmol)

82

Hydrogen (E): H
o
E
=0
Nitrogen (I): H
o
I
=0

Thus, the heat of reaction at the reference temperature is:


To calculate

summation of FCp is needed











COOLANT FLOWRATE:
In our design system, saturated water is used to cool the reactor.
This stream is designed to be at medium pressure steam where the
pressure range has to be between 10 to 18 atm. We chose the pressure

83

to be 18 atm with its saturated temperature equal to 480K. Water inter
the reactor is 480K and leave at same temperature but in steam phase.
So the heat of vaporization is needed. Heat of vaporization is equal to
1910 kJ/kg of water
To evaluate the flow rate of this water in the shell side of the reactor,
energy balance is needed. by applying the following equation:



(13)
where Q can be calculated using energy balance around the heat
exchanger which will be shown later.

9- HEAT EXCHANGER INSIDE THE REACTOR
For the co-current heat exchanger, the log mean temperature
difference is:

)
(

(14)
Therefore,


So
T
C1
=480 K
T
C2
=480 K
T
h1
=500 K T
h2
=616 K

84

The procedure used to solve this cooling system is same as normal heat
exchanger. First of all, the length of the tube and the diameter of the
inside tubes were chosen. It is assumed that stainless steel is the
material of construction. Since our aim for cooling is just converting the
water of cooling to steam at same temperature. So correction factor is 1.
overall heat transfer was assumed at the first time to be 700 kJ/hr.m
2
.K.
Using this guessed overall heat transfer, the provisional area was
determined:

(15)
Where Q is gotten from our last calculation in mass and energy balance.
Based on the assumption of the length and the diameter of the tubes,
number of tubes needed is calculated:

(16)
Then, tube pitch and the bundle diameter were calculated:
pitch:

(17)

(18)
Where K1 and n1 are constant and they were chosen from the following
table to be 0.215 and 2.207 respectively.


85

The type of floating head of the exchanger to be outside packed head
and the bundle diameter clearance, BDC is gotten from the following
graph to be 0.038 m.


from information derived above, the shell diameter , baffle space, cross
sectional area, shell side mass velocity and the equivalent diameter
were calculated:

(19)
(20)

86


(

(21)

(22)

(23)
To find the heat transfer coefficient of the shell side , Reynolds, Prandtle
and Nauseate number are needed.

(24)

(25)

(26)
where jh is calculated from chart below:

So, the heat transfer of the shell side can be evaluated:

87

(27)
Pressure drop in the shell can be calculated from the following relation:

) (

) (

) (

(28)
where jf is calculated from the following chart:

for tube side calculation, tube-side mass velocity, tube side velocity,
Reynolds, Nauseate and Prandtle numbers were calculated:

(29)

(30)

(31)

88

(32)
Since the Reynolds number is in the range of the turbulent flow, heat
transfer coefficient was calculated from the following relation:

(33)
Finally overall transfer coefficient was calculated:

)(

)(

)
(34)
By the end of this step we will get the calculated result of the overall
heat transfer coefficient. Since this value is neither equal nor close to
the guessed one. So this value was looped several time until the prober
overall transfer coefficient was obtained.
10- ARRABGMENT OF THE TUBES
Tube bank is chosen to be in line. To find the arrangement of the tube,
modified correlation of Grimson for heat transfer in tube banks is
chosen in which the ratio of the Sp/d and Sn/d is 1.25.










Sn
Sp

89

11- EVALUATING OTHER PARAMETERS

11.1. Evaluating the number and height of the tubes:
Number of tubes and height were calculated using the correlations from heat
exchanger and equation 16 mentioned above. Then, the ratio of the total
length to the total diameter was manipulated until it became between the
range of 2-3

11.2. Evaluating the Volume of the reactor:
The size of the reactor needed is calculated from the weight of catalyst
needed to achieve our reaction conversion:



(35)
11.3. Evaluating the height of the reactor:
The height of the reactor is assumed to be once and a halve of the tube
height.

(36)
11.4. Evaluating the width of the reactor:
The shell size of the reactor was calculated. assuming the cover of the shell
size is 10 cm.
So, The width of the reactor can be found using this equation:

(37)



90

12- RESULTS
12.1. POLYMATH REASULTS:
12.1.1. Differential equations

1 d(FA)/d(W) = rA1+rA2

kmoleA/(kg cat. hr)
2 d(FB)/d(W) = 0.5*rA1

kmoleA/(kg cat. hr)
3 d(FC)/d(W) = -rA1-rA2

kmoleA/(kg cat. hr)
4 d(FD)/d(W) = -rA1

kmoleA/(kg cat. hr)
5 d(FE)/d(W) = -rA2

kmoleA/(kg cat. hr)
6
d(T)/d(W) = ((306.495*4/1500/0.0092456)*(480-
T)+(rA1*DHrxn1)+(rA2*DHrxn2))/(sumFiCPi)
7 d(y)/d(W) = (-alpha)*(FT/FTo)*(T/To)/2/y
8 d(V)/d(W) = 1/1500



12.1.2. Explicit equations
1
To = 500

K
2
FI = 144.693

kmol/hr
3
k1 = exp(12.5-(8774/T))
4
k2 = exp(-17.29+(7439/T))
5
k3 = exp(16.9-(12500/T))
6
k4 = exp(25-(15724/T))
7
CTo = 8.2/(0.082*To)

kmole/m3
8
FT = FA+FB+FC+FD+FE+FI

91


kmole/hr
9
CA = CTo*(FA/FT)*(To/T)*y

kmole/m3
10
Pa = 0.082*CA*T

atm
11
rA1 = -((Pa*k1)/(1+Pa*k2))
12
rA2 = -((Pa^0.5*k3)/(1+Pa^0.5*k4))
13
CB = CTo*(FB/FT)*(To/T) *y

kmole/m3
14
CC = CTo*(FC/FT)*(To/T) *y

kmole/m3
15
CD = CTo*(FD/FT)*(To/T) *y

kmole/m3
16
CE = CTo*(FE/FT)*(To/T) *y

kmole/m3
17
FTo = 282.26

kmol/hr
18
CI = CTo*(FI/FT)*(To/T) *y

kmole/m3
19
CAo = 0.3465*CTo

kmole/m3
20
Conversion = (97.79-FA)/97.79
21
Si = rA1/rA2
22
alpha = 2*(((8439.419/(3600*(3.14*(1/2)^2)))*(1-0.5)/(1.858*1*0.001*0.5^3)*((150*(1-
0.5)*4.894e-
5/0.001)+(1.75*(8439.419/(3600*(3.14*(1/2)^2)))))))/((3.14*(1/2)^2)*3000*(1-
0.5)*101.325*8.2)/1000
23
DHrxn1 = 1000*(((-115.9+(34.28E-3*((T-273.15)-(To-273.15))+2.134e-5*((T-273.15)^2-
(To-273.15)^2)-2.1735e-12*((T-273.15)^4-(To-273.15)^4)))+(-241.83+(33.46E-3*((T-
273.15)-(To-273.15))+3.44e-6*((T-273.15)^2-(To-273.15)^2)+2.535e-9*((T-273.15)^3-
(To-273.15)^3)-8.9825e-13*((T-273.15)^4-(To-273.15)^4)))-(-201.2+(42.93E-3*((T-

92

273.15)-(To-273.15))+4.1505e-5*((T-273.15)^2-(To-273.15)^2)-6.233e-9*((T-273.15)^3-
(To-273.15)^3)-2.0075e-12*((T-273.15)^4-(To-273.15)^4)))-(0+0.5*((29.1E-3*((T-
273.15)-(To-273.15))+5.79e-6*((T-273.15)^2-(To-273.15)^2)-2.0253e-9*((T-273.15)^3-
(To-273.15)^3)+3.2775e-13*((T-273.15)^4-(To-273.15)^4))))))

kJ/kmol
24
DHrxn2 = 1000*(((-115.9+(34.28E-3*((T-273.15)-(To-273.15))+2.134e-5*((T-273.15)^2-
(To-273.15)^2)-2.1735e-12*((T-273.15)^4-(To-273.15)^4)))+(0+(28.84E-3*((T-273.15)-
(To-273.15))+3.825e-8*((T-273.15)^2-(To-273.15)^2)+1.096e-9*((T-273.15)^3-(To-
273.15)^3)-2.1745e-13*((T-273.15)^4-(To-273.15)^4)))-(-201.2+(42.93E-3*((T-273.15)-
(To-273.15))+4.1505e-5*((T-273.15)^2-(To-273.15)^2)-6.233e-9*((T-273.15)^3-(To-
273.15)^3)-2.0075e-12*((T-273.15)^4-(To-273.15)^4)))))

kJ/kmol
25
CPIg = 29e-3+0.2199e-5*(T-273.15)+0.5723e-8*(T-273.15)^2-8.69e-12*(T-273.15)^3
26
CPAg = 42.93e-3+8.301e-5*(T-273.15)-1.87e-8*(T-273.15)^2-8.03e-12*(T-273.15)^3
27
CPBg = 29.1e-3+1.158e-5*(T-273.15)-0.6076e-8*(T-273.15)^2+1.311e-12*(T-273.15)^3
28
CPCg = 34.28e-3+4.268e-5*(T-273.15)-8.69e-12*(T-273.15)^3
29
CPDg = 33.46e-3+0.688e-5*(T-273.15)+0.7604e-8*(T-273.15)^2-3.593e-12*(T-273.15)^3
30
CPEg = 28.84e-3+0.00765e-5*(T-273.15)+0.3288e-8*(T-273.15)^2-0.8698e-12*(T-
273.15)^3
31
sumFiCPi = (FA*CPAg+FB*CPBg+FC*CPCg+FD*CPDg+FE*CPEg+FI*CPIg)*1000

kJ/h
32
Q = 58.8527*305.2868*60.514

kJ/hr
33
mc = Q/(1910)

kg/hr
34
XA = FA/FT
35
XB = FB/FT
36
XC = FC/FT
37
XD = FD/FT
38
XE = FE/FT

93

39
XI = FI/FT

12.1.3. The result of solving these differential and explicit equations were:


Variable Initial value Minimal value Maximal value Final value
1 alpha 0.0001169 0.0001169 0.0001169 0.0001169
2 CA 0.0679586 0.0046567 0.0679586 0.0046567
3 CAo 0.0693 0.0693 0.0693 0.0693
4 CB 0.0305775 0.0020098 0.0305775 0.0020098
5 CC 0 0 0.0364541 0.0364541
6 CD 0.0009104 0.0009104 0.0335263 0.0335263
7 CE 0 0 0.0034786 0.0034786
8 CI 0.1005535 0.0598285 0.1005535 0.0608288
9 Conversion 0 0 0.8867272 0.8867272
10 CPAg 0.0607048 0.0607048 0.0701898 0.0688707
11 CPBg 0.0314296 0.0314296 0.0325628 0.0324091
12 CPCg 0.0438605 0.0438605 0.0493426 0.0485641
13 CPDg 0.0353701 0.0353701 0.0367835 0.0365682
14 CPEg 0.0290164 0.0290164 0.0292586 0.0292177
15 CPIg 0.0296919 0.0296919 0.0301356 0.0300765
16 CTo 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
17 DHrxn1 -1.565E+05 -1.565E+05 -1.564E+05 -1.564E+05
18 DHrxn2 8.53E+04 8.53E+04 8.669E+04 8.652E+04
19 FA 97.79 11.07695 97.79 11.07695
20 FB 44. 4.780681 44. 4.780681
21 FC 0 0 86.71305 86.71305
22 FD 1.31 1.31 79.74864 79.74864
23 FE 0 0 8.274411 8.274411
24 FI 144.693 144.693 144.693 144.693
25 FT 287.793 287.793 335.2867 335.2867
26 FTo 282.26 282.26 282.26 282.26
27 k1 0.0064222 0.0064222 0.2724181 0.1750521
28 k2 0.0896358 0.0037374 0.0896358 0.0054376
29 k3 0.0003035 0.0003035 0.0632314 0.0336744
30 k4 0.0015837 0.0015837 1.307468 0.5918646
31 mc 569.242 569.242 569.242 569.242
32 Pa 2.786301 0.2352352 2.786301 0.2352352

94

33 Q 1.087E+06 1.087E+06 1.087E+06 1.087E+06
34 rA1 -0.0143181 -0.1176075 -0.0143181 -0.0411258
35 rA2 -0.0005053 -0.0217943 -0.0005053 -0.0126897
36 Si 28.3337 3.240879 28.3337 3.240879
37 sumFiCPi 1.166E+04 1.166E+04 1.274E+04 1.264E+04
38 T 500. 500. 635.7779 616.0361
39 To 500. 500. 500. 500.
40 V 0 0 1.198667 1.198667
41 W 0 0 1798. 1798.
42 XA 0.3397928 0.0330373 0.3397928 0.0330373
43 XB 0.1528877 0.0142585 0.1528877 0.0142585
44 XC 0 0 0.2586236 0.2586236
45 XD 0.0045519 0.0045519 0.2378521 0.2378521
46 XE 0 0 0.0246786 0.0246786
47 XI 0.5027676 0.43155 0.5027676 0.43155
48 y 1. 0.8683294 1. 0.8683294

As it is clear in the result of the polymath, we need 1798 kg of catalyst with diameter of 0.001 m
and porosity of 0.5 to achieve this reaction. this amount lead to 88.67% conversion of methanol
to formaldehyde.
12.1.4. Graphs:




95







96


12.2. HEAT EXCHANGER RESULTS:
Heat exchanger was calculated as the procedure mentioned above. the results are shown below:
Q (kJ/hr) 1087245.768
K1 0.215
n1 2.207
A m2 58.8527
n 910.5372
Bundle diameter m 0.6034
BDC 0.0380
DS 0.6414
BS 0.2565
pt 0.0171
As m2 0.0329
GS (kg/hr/m2) 16354.9775
equivalent dia. m 0.0135
Re s 562.5432
pr 0.0057
Nu shell 0.4652
ho 82.2360
dPs (kPa) 0.0000
GM kg/hr/m2 138032.6281
Velocity m/s 74259.9563
Ret 7243.2726
Prt 0.0009
hi 732.6217


97

UTILITY PROPERTIES
k
f
(kJ/(hr.m.K)) 2.394
Viscosity kg /(m.hr) 0.393754633
Density kg/m3 936.76
C
pc
kJ/kg K 1.833333333
m
c
(kg/hr) 538.1871933

REACTION PROPERTIES
Viscosity kg /(m.hr) 0.176190312
Density kg/m3 1.858776048
C
ph
kJ/kg K mix 0.667622394
m
h
(kg/hr) 8438

TUBES PROPERTIES
k (kJ/(hr.mK)) 126
di (m) 0.0092456
do (m) 0.013716
Ai (m) 6.71367E-05
Ao (m) 0.000147756
guess L (m) 1.5

Guess U (kJ/hrm2 k) 305.2868
UO calculated 307.8752222
error% 0.840737431

L/D 2.228554938

13- MATERIAL CONSTRUCTION
Stainless steel is chosen as a material of construction since our reaction will be at
high pressure and temperature. Also because formaldehyde is corrosive.


98

14- RESULTS COMPARISON
Flow rates produced from our design is compared with the one gotten from mass balance:

Product Mass balance Design %error
Methanol 12.32 11.07695 10.08969
Water 78.23 79.74 1.930206
Formaldehyde 85.47 86.713 1.454311
Hydrogen 8.48 8.27 2.476415


15- SUMMARY TABLE
R-101
T
in
(
o
C) 227
T
out
(
o
C) 343
P (atm) 7.12
Totall weight of catalyst (kg) 1798
Weight of catalyst per tube
(kg)
1.976
Volume (m
3
) 1.199
Diameter (m) 0.8414
Height (m) 1.875
Length of the tube (m) 1.5
Number of tubes 910
MOC stainless Steel
Orientation Vertical





99

ABSORBER DESIGN
One of the most common unit operations in the industry is the
absorption process. Absorption is the mechanism of transporting
molecules or components of gases into liquid phase. The component
that is absorbed is called the solute and the liquid that absorbs the
solute is called the solvent. Actually, the absorption can be either
physical where the gas is removed due to its high solubility in the
solvent, or chemical where the removed gas reacts with the solvent and
remains in solution.


1- Packed-Bed Absorber
The packed-bed absorbers are the most common absorbers used for gas
removal. The absorbing liquid is dispersed over the packing material,
which provides a large surface area for gas-liquid contact. Packed beds
are classified according to the relative direction of gas-to-liquid flow
into two types. The first one is co-current while the second one the
counter current packed bed absorber. The most common packed-bed
absorber is the countercurrent-flow tower. The gas stream enters the
bottom of the tower and flows upward through the packing material
and exits from the top after passing through a mist eliminator. Liquid is
introduced at the top of the packed bed by sprays or weirs and flows
downward over the packing. In this manner, the most dilute gas
contacts the least saturated absorbing liquid and the concentration
difference between the liquid and gas phases, which is necessary or
mass transfer, is reasonably constant through the column length. The
maximum (L/G) in countercurrent flow is limited by flooding, which
occurs when the upward force exerted by the gas is sufficient to prevent
the liquid from flowing downward. The minimum (L/G) is fixed to
ensure that a thin liquid film covered all the packing materials.

100


Packing material

The main purpose of the packing material is to give a large surface area
for mass transfer. However, the specific packing selected depends on
the corrosiveness of the contaminants and scrubbing liquid, the size of
the absorber, the static pressure drop, and the cost. There are three
common types of packing material: Mesh, Ring, and Saddles. In our
project Ceramic Berl Saddles packed was selected since it is good liquid
distribution ratio, good corrosion resistance, most common with
aqueous corrosive fluids and Saddles are beast for redistributing liquids
low cost. Also we use 2 inches diameter packing.

2- Sizing of Packed Tower
ASSUMPTIONS:
Some assumptions and conditions were design calculation based on:
1. G and L are representing the gas and liquid flow rates.
2. x and y are for the mole fraction of Methanol in liquid and gas
respectively.
3. Assuming the column is packed with (2 Ceramic Berl_ Saddle).

101


PACKED TOWER DIAMETER:
Gas velocity is the main parameter affecting the size of a packed
column. For estimating flooding velocity and a minimum column
diameter is to use a generalized flooding and pressure drop
correlation. One version of the flooding and pressure drop
relationship for a packed tower in the Sherwood correlation, shown
in Figure 2.


Packing diameter calculation:
The gas flow rate G= 335.205

= 8873.33


The liquid flow rate L= 182.63

= 3291.2


Calculate the value of the abscissa


Where: L and G = mass flow rates (

= density of the gas stream (

= density of the absorbing liquid (

)

102

= 1.620

= 995.65

= 150 m
-1



= 0.797
-3
P




From the figure 2, and using the flooding line: = 0.20
G
flooding
=



Where: G' = mass flow rate of gas per unit cross-sectional area of column, g/sm2

= density of the gas stream (

= density of the absorbing liquid (

= gravitational constant, 9.82


F = packing factor given
= ratio of specific gravity of the scrubbing liquid to that of water
= viscosity of liquid

103




54
G
operating
= 0.55 (G
flooding
) = 5.247 [heuristic rule#8, table 11-
15]
Area of packing =

= 0.469


Area =

= 0.469

D
packing
= 0.77 M

Packing diameter calculation:



PACKING HEIGHT:
Equilibrium data table:
Y X
0 0
0.128131 0.020408
0.256075 0.041667
0.383319 0.06383
0.509738 0.086957
0.63521 0.111111
0.759703 0.136364
0.883187 0.162791
1.005826 0.190476
1.128138 0.219512
1.250327 0.25


104



Calculating

and Z :

Z= H
OG

= number of transfer units based on an overall gas-film coefficient.


H
OG
= height of a transfer unit based on an overall gas-film coefficient, m

= mole fraction of solute in entering gas

= mole fraction of solute in exiting gas


H
OG
was obtained from table 15-4 in Separation Process Engineering. For
ceramic packing with size 2 in, H
OG
= 3 ft = 0.9 m
Z = H
OG



y = 5.8413x
y = 7.481x + 0.0073
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
Y
X
Y vs X

105



3- Control Loop System
For the control ability of the absorber three different loops will be added to
the process. The first one will be added to the inlet of the liquid and gas to
control the flow rate. The second one will be added to the gas outlet to
control the pressure of the absorber. The third one will be added to the
liquid outlet to control the level as in Figure.

106



4- Design Summary

Absorber Summary Table
Diameter (m)
Height (m)
Orientation Vertical
Internals 2 Ceramic, saddles







107

DISTILLATION COLUMN DESIGN
This section represents an equipment design and sizing for the
distillation unit of the terms project on the production of formaldehyde
from methanol. The basis for this equipment sizing is the previously
obtained process data for the simulation of the project, which proved to
be reliable and accurate (available in APPENDIX). Preliminary
calculations are to be presented first to serve as a baseline of all the
calculations that follows. These calculations include a mass balance of
the distillation unit, average physical properties of the components and
relative volatilities. The minimum reflux ratio of the column is obtained
through underwoods equations. The diameter of the column is sized in
the rectifying section and the stripping section. The minimum tray
number is obtained through Fenskes relation along with their
correlated efficiencies (top & bot). The layout of the sieve trays and
their hydrodynamic effects are then obtained in a detailed fashion for
the top and bottom sections. The process simulator HYSYS was used to
simulate the distillation unit utilizing a modified version of the
thermodynamic package NRTL.

A. PRELIMINARY CALCULATIONS

This first section of the design is set to present the initial calculations
needed in the design and sizing of the distillation column. These
calculations include material balance, physical properties of the system
and the relative volatilities of the participating components.
1. Material Balance
This initial mass balance around the distillation column gives an
indication of the accuracy of the simulated parameters that are to be
used in the upcoming calculations on a kmol/hr. basis.

108

Assumptions:
9- Light Key : methanol
10- Heavy key: H
2
0
11- Non-heavy key: formaldehyde
12- Constant Molal Overflow (CMO)
n
14
= D + B . (1)
Dx
M
= frac.
1
* n
14
* x
M,n14
= 0.997 * 23.458 * 0.054 = 1.25755


Bx
M
= (1 frac.
1
) * n
14
* x
M,n14
= 0.003784


Bx
H2O
= frac.
2
* n
14
* x
water,n14
= 0.99 * 23.358 * 0.576 = 13.3197


Dx
H2O
= (1 frac.
2
) * n
14
* x
water,n14
= (1 -0.99) * 23.358 * 0.576 = 0.13454


Bx
F
= 0.37 * 23.358= 8.6425


D = Dx
Di
= 1.25755 + 0.13454 = 1.39209


B = Bx
Bi
= 0.0038 + 13.3197 + 8.6425 = 21.966


x
M, D
= 0.9335 x
H2O, D
= 0.0.0966

x
M, B
= 0.00173 x
F, B
= 0.39345 x
H2O, B
= 0.60637

Component
Mol
fraction
(yi)
n
j
= y
i
* n
tot

Molecular
weight
m
i
= n
i
* M
Mass
fraction x
i

= m
i
/M
tot

Methanol 0.00173 0.0038 32.042 0.12176 0.006244
Formaldehyde 0.39345 8.6425 30.026 259.5 0.51965
Water 0.60637 13.3194 18 239.73 0.4801




109

2. Physical Properties
The physical parameters to be included are the molecular weight and
average density on the basis of mole fractions of the components in
both the rectifying and stripping section.
Molecular Weight
Rectifying Section:


= 31.57g/mol

Stripping Section:


= 22.63 g/mol

Average Density
Rectifying Section:


= 0.791*62.4*0.9034 + 0.815*62.4*0.0966 + 1*62.4*0.0296 = 51.35



Stripping Section:


= 0.791*62.4*0.003 + 0.815*62.4*0.3899 + 1*62.4*0.6071 = 57.8




110

3. Relative Volatilities
The volatility of each component is to be calculated for the rectifying
and stripping sections and their average relative to an reference
component with is methanol in our case.
Rectifying Section



Stripping Section

78547

Geometric Average (used for FENSKEs equation)






111

B. MINIMUM REFLUX

This is concerned with the determination of the minimum external and
internal reflux ratios for the distillation column T-101. The application
is done by utilizing underwoods shortcut method. To facilitate the
underwoods approach, we use the following assumptions:
- Constant Molal Overflow (CMO)
- Non keys are undistributed with (Dx
F
) = 0 kmol/hr.
- Constant Relative volatilities
- Since liquid fraction q=0.9963, saturated liquid feed is assumed.

Using underwoods second equation (at q1):

.43 (1-1) = 0










Solving for = 0.8758

112

Using underwood first equation to find minimum vapor:


From the material balance around the condenser:

= 32.063



Minimum refluxes
External Reflux:


Internal Reflux:



Actual reflux ratios
A conventional multiplier is used to allocate the actual refluxes.
According to Wankat (1987), this multiplier is ranging 1.05 to 1.5. The
chosen factor is 1.145 for an economic conservative design.

External Reflux:


Internal Reflux:




113

C. COLUMN DIAMETER
Sieve tray column is decided to be used in the design. This decision is
based upon the compatibility of this tray type with our methanol-
formaldehyde-water separation process. Also depends on the many
features that serve the upcoming economical evaluation of the column.
These features include high capacity, relatively high efficiency, low cost,
low fouling tendency and low maintenance requirements. We are to use
Fairs (1963) approach to calculating the diameter of the column
starting with determining the vapor flooding velocity, then the
operating velocity and finally sizing the actual diameter of the column.
This approach is to be applied to the rectifying section and extended to
the stripping section of the column.

1. Rectifying (TOP) Section Diameter
The first step is the determination of the flow parameter as
follows:


18 inch tray spacing is to be used as moderate average of the
capacity factor of flooding. Utilizing a nonlinear regression of the
capacity factor chart by Kessler and Wankat (1987) as follows:

. This is correlated by the following chart:



114


Then, the operation velocity is calculated as follows:



From external mass balance:


According to Wankat (1987), the fraction of flooding that is
utilized by the operational velocity is ranging between 0.65 and
0.9. Jones and Mellbom (1982) suggested an average fraction of
0.75.

As for the fraction of cross-sectional area that is available for
vapor flow , Wankat (1987) presented a rage of 0.85 and 0.95.
An average of =0.9 is to be used in our design.


115

Diameter sizing of the top section:






2. Stripping (BOTTOM) Section Diameter
Since a saturated/ homologous liquid is being distillated, an increase is
the bottom diameter is probable to account for the increase in the flow
parameter. Similar sequence to the top side calculations is followed.
From the external mass balance around the reboiler:

) 1.145 * 7.9039



116

Diameter sizing of the bottom section:
(

) (

)

(

)

(




D. TRAY SPECIFICATIONS
This section is aimed to investigate the design specifications of the
column in relation to the tray instillation. These specifications include
the minimum number of stages, the theoretical number of stages, the
optimum feed stage, the tray efficiency and the actual construction
stages.

1. Minimum Number of Stages
An indication of the minimum allowable number of stages is determined
using Fenskes rigorous solution (1932). The application of the
relationship is as follows (assuming equilibrium stages):


[(


[(

=



117

2. Total Number of Stages (theoretical)
The calculation of the theoretical number of stages of the distillation
column is presented here through two distinct approaches: Gilliland
correlation (1940) and Molokanov correlation (1972) as follows:

First Approach: GILLILAND CORRELATION
This correlation gives the theoretical number of stages with an accuracy
of in the following sequence:
(

)
Using the following Gilliland chart:

Abscissa =
(

)(

Ordinate = 0.62


Solving for N (theoretical) = 19.66 stages


118

Second Approach: MOLOKANOV CORRELATION
This method is a refined modern version of the Gilliland correlation that
is more accurate and compatible with our system. It is dependent upon
two parameters X and Y as follows:






[(


) (

)]
[(


)(

)]






This correlation is to be used since it provides more accuracy.

3. Optimum Feed Stage
The approach to allocating the feed stage is to apply Fenskes Equation
to the rectifying section and the stripping section all together as follows:



Since,

, The optimum feed stage:




119

4. Tray Efficiencies & Column Height
Since the Diameters of the rectifying section and the stripping section
are different, a slight change in the tray efficiency is to be considered in
the column design. The efficiency of the trays is to be determined using
OConnell Correlation which is estimated the efficiency as a function of
the product of the feed liquid viscosity and the volatility of the key
components in the following manner:

TOP SIDE EFFICIENCY
Viscosity (, simulated) = 0.1329
Relative volatility (
Key, top
) = 0.0709


= 0.8573 85.7%
Actual Number of stages in top side N
TOP
=




120

BOTTOM SIDE EFFICIENCY
Viscosity (, simulated) = 0.1329
Relative volatility (
Key, top
) = 0.78547


= 0.841 84.1%
Actual Number of stages in bottom side N
TOP
=




COLUMN HEIGHT

The column height is heavily dependent upon the spacing between the
sieve trays. In our design, 18 inches were chosen for spacing to provide
a reasonable space to ease the accessibility for manual workers to crawl
between the plates for maintenance. According to Turtons Distillation
Column Design Heuristics (1955), a safety factor of 10% is to be added to
the final design height. The column height is determined as follows:
1 stage of partial condenser is to be added to the total height.
Total Actual number of stages= 4+15 = 19 stages
Safety Factor = 19*(0.1) = 1.9 stage
Total Construction stages = 1.9+19+1 22 STAGE including
reboiler
Column Height = Tray Spacing * (Num. of stages + safety factor)
= 18 * (20+1.9) (

10.06 m

121

E. TRAY LAYOUT AND HYDROULICS (TOP)
This section is a detailed representation of the design layout
calculations for the sieve plates in the top section. The decided type of
tray is a single pass sieve plate counter-flow tray with a straight
segmental vertical downcomer and a weir. The use of single pass tray is
due to the relatively small diameter of the column and its liquid load.
Also to avoid the propagation of mal-distribution of the liquid, this could
lead to a major decrease in the efficiency of the tray and the capacity of
the column if a multiple-pass tray was used. The decision to use a
segmental straight downcomer is due to its simple geometry, low cost.
Also because it utilizes most of the column area for the large downflow
in our system and the ease at which its operated and maintained. The
sequence of the tray layout design is applied as follows:
1. Tray Dimensions
Dia
top
= 8.115 ft.
ENTRAINMENT AT A FLOODING POINT OF 75%:
FP= 0.03993 from below chart: fractional entrainment () = 0.07


122

(


ENTRAINED LIQUID:
(e) =


AMOUNT ENTRAINED ON TOP:
L + e =


COLUMN CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA:
A
tot
=
(


DOWNCOMER AREA:
A
d
= A
tot
=


Value of is chosen 0.1 according to Wankat (1987) as a common
standard of the relation between the weir length and diameter.
The

ratio is provided by Wankat (1987) as 0.726


WEIR LENGTH:

= (Dia)* 0.726 = 8.115*0.726 = 5.8915 ft.


ACTIVE AREA OF THE TRAY:


TOTAL AREA OF THE HOLES:
A
hole
= A active * = 41.38 * 0.1 = 4.138

= 595.872 in
2

Chosen tray is a std. 14 gauge tray with thickness (T
tray
) = 0.078 in with
a common hole diameter d
o
= 3/16 inch for normal operation and clean
service. Pitch Std. spacing between the holes of 3.8d
o
= 0.1725 inches. A
2.5 in space between the edge holes and the column wall is chosen, and
a space of 4 in between the edge hole and the tray weir.

123

Since a non-fouling operation is aimed, the tray holes are punched from
the bottom down to provide safer maintenance of personnel.
VAPOR VELOCITY THROUGH THE TRAY HOLES:



ORIFICE COEFFICIENT:
Determined through a correlation by Hughmark and OConnell (1957)
in the following fit equation:

) (



TOTAL HEAD OF LIQUID:
Required to overcome the pressure drop of gas on a dry tray is
estimated by Ludwig (1995) as follows:



The chosen weir height is h
weir
= 2 inch. This optimum height is enough
to retain the down flowing liquid and provide the downcomer with
enough head to remain sealed. It also provides a reasonable residence
time of the liquid in the sieve tray.

124

WEIR CORRECTION FACTOR
The liquid correction factor F
weir
is determined through calculating the
liquid load on the tray in (gal/min) as follows:


The following chart by Bolles (1946) provides a F
weir
correlation:

The abscissa =


The

ratio = 0.726 the ordinate F


weir
= 1.02

LIQUID CREST HEIGHT
The liquid crest over the weir is determined through a relation by
Francis as follows:





125

LIQUID FRACTIONAL LOSS
The flow area under the downcomer is calculated as follows:


With a gap between the downcomer apron and the lower tray is chosen
to be 1 inch as a standard. The fractional loss of the liquid head is
encountered during down flow through the downcomer and the lower
tray and is estimated by the empirical equation by Ludwig (1997):



LIQUID RESIDENCE TIME
Time for liquid to disengage from one tray to another is estimated:






2. Flooding & Weeping Check
FLOODING CHECK
The total pressure head on the downcomer is the summation of all the
hydrodynamic effects determined previously as follows:


The actual aerated head:


Since the aerated liquid head is much less than the tray
spacing which is 18 inch, there would be no operational problem and
the liquid flooding is regulated.

126

WEEPING CHECK

An analysis is done to check for the operation to be above the weeping
and dumping points and avoid excessive weeping. An approximate
estimation given by Kessler and Wankat (1987) provides an indication
of the state of operation by utilizing the surface tension head as follows:


Correlation parameter:
X=


Correlation term:
(X=: 0.10392+0.25199X-0.021675X
2
= 0.66241
Condition:

0.10392+0.25199X-0.021675X
2

0.66241
Since the correlated weeping check condition is satisfied, the operation
is free of excessive weeping and dumping.






127

3. Design Schematics



128

F. TRAY LAYOUT AND HYDROULICS (BOT)
Since the diameters of the top section and the bottom section are
different, a different layout parameters and to be determined. A similar
procedure to the top side is used in the bottom side and the following
parameters were obtained:

1. Tray Dimensions
Dia
bot
= 9.244 ft.
A
tot
=


A
d
=

= 6.7111 ft.


A
hole
= 5.37

= 773.28 in
2
h
weir
= 0.5 inch

0.83118

0.365



129

2. Flooding & Weeping Check
FLOODING CHECK
The total pressure head on the downcomer is the summation of all the
hydrodynamic effects determined previously as follows:



The actual aerated head:


Since the aerated liquid head is much less than the tray
spacing which is 18 inch, there would be no operational problem and
the liquid flooding is regulated.

WEEPING CHECK


X=


(X=: 0.10392+0.25199X-0.021675X
2
= 0.303
Condition:

0.10392+0.25199X-0.021675X
2

0.303
Since the correlated weeping check condition is satisfied, the operation
is free of excessive weeping and dumping.

130

G. DESIGN FLOWSHEET
This following is a detailed design flow sheet of the distillation column
based upon the previously determined parameters. Due to the corrosive
nature of concentrated formaldehyde at relatively elevated
temperatures, a stainless steel Material of Construction (MOC) is
decided to be chosen for the column interior walls and sieve trays.
DESIGN ITEM SPECIFICATION
Material of Construction Stainless Steel
Tray Type SS Sieve Trays
Flow Type Gas-liquid Counter-flow
Number of Trays 20 plus a Reboiler
Reflux Ratio 7.05
Feed Tray 13 from top
Number of Tray Passes Single
Downcomer Type Vertical Straight Segment
Top Downcomer Area 5.17


Bottom Downcomer Area 6.71


Top Tray Efficiency 85%
Bottom Tray Efficiency 84%
Tray Spacing 18 inch
Tray Thickness 0.078 in
Top Weir Height 2 inch
Bottom Weir Height 0.5 inch
Top Weir Length 5.89 ft.
Bottom Weir Length 6.71 ft.
Top Hole Area 4.14


Bottom Hole Area 5.37


Hole Diameter 3/16 in
Hole Hole Spacing 0.1725 in
Hole Wall Spacing 2.5 in
Hole Weir Spacing 4 in
Top Column Diameter 8.115 ft.
Bottom Column Diameter 9.244 ft.
Column Height 33 ft.


131

H. DESIGN SIMULATION
As a measure of accuracy and consistency, this final part of the design is
set to present a simulated version of the design as a reference and a
comparison to the actual design parameters obtained through rigorous
calculations previously. A snapshot of the simulated column is the
following:

Below is a listing of the calculated design and simulated design
parameters:
Design Parameter rigorous solution simulated solution
Minimum Reflux Ratio 0.8697 0.8601
Minimum Stages 7 9.031
Theoretical Stages 16 10.28

The deviation between the results is due to the assumption of binary
system for the Multicomponent non-ideal mixture which facilitated the
formaldehyde (light key) to be distilled through the bottom stream.




132

HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN
This section presents the design of six heat exchangers involved in the
project, including the condenser and the reboiler. The type of all these
heat exchangers is shell and tube heat exchanger, and the utilities are
either medium pressure steam in the heaters or cooling water in the
cooler. All parameters and specifications are to be determined and
tabulated for each heat exchanger. For example, tube length, inner and
outer tube diameters, shell diameter, total surface area of tubes, number
of tubes, tube and shell heat transfer coefficients , heat duty and other
design specification. In the case of designing the condenser and the
reboiler, the local heat transfer coefficients should be used. In each heat
exchanger, we are trying to follow the heuristic that say ' the ratio of the
shell length to its diameter should be close to 3 '. Many trials may need
to be performed, depends on the first guess of the overall heat transfer
coefficient. For simplicity, Microsoft Excel could be used to implement
the trials faster. Pinch analysis for each equipment was performed to set
an energy target for the project.

1- SAMPLE CALCULATION FOR HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN:
FOR HEAT EXCHANGER (E-101) FIRST TRIAL:

1. Assumed tube diameter = 0.02 m
Assumed wall thickness = 0.00064 m = 6.4E-4 m
Assumed tube length = 1.5 m
2. Assumed fouling factors: h
do
= h
di
= 2000 W/m
2
.
o
C


o
C and


o
C
3. Material of construction is Carbon steel with thermal conductivity (k)
equal to 45 W/m.
o
C

133

4. Assuming T
shell, in
=

= 180
o
C and T
shell, out
=

= 155
o
C.

]
[

]
= 4155051.3+6231729 = 4217368.59

= 1171491.275 W.




134


5. LMTD for Counter-Current Flow:



(

) (

)
(



135

LMTD = 66.197
o
C
6. for one shell pass and two tube passes:


So, F
t
= 0.83 ( Temperature Correction Factor )
7. Mean Temperature Difference DT
m
= F
t
x LMTD = 54.94
o
C
8. Initial guess of the overall heat transfer coefficient: U=1000 W/m
2
.
o
C
9. Provisional Area =


10. Number of tubes N
t
=




11. Tube pitch = 1.25d
o
=1.25(0.02+6.4E-4) = 0.0258 m
Bundle diameter =



136

For square pitch and two tubes passes, k1 and n1 can be found by:

So, Bundle diameter =


= 0.489 m
12. For fixed and U-tube heat exchanger with bundle diameter 0.50 m

Bundle Diameter Clearance (BDC) = 13 mm
13. Shell diameter = bundle diameter + Bundle Diameter Clearance
= 0.489 + 0.013 = 0.502 m
14. Baffle spacing = 0.40 x shell diameter = 0.201 m
15. Cross flow area =



137

16. Shell-side mass velocity =
(


17. Shell equivalent diameter for a square pitch arrangement:


18. Shell-side Reynolds number:


19. Prandtle number:


20. Shell-side heat transfer coefficient:


j
h
can be obtained from the following chart:


138

So, j
h
=2.7E-3



21. Pressure drop in the shell:

) (


Where,

and


For 45% of baffle cuts and Re = 31631.85; j
f
can be obtained by:

Thus, j
f
= 2.8E-2

) (



139

22. Number of tubes per pass (N
tpp
) =


23. Tube-side mass velocity G
m
=


= 25.38 kg/m
2
.
o
c
24. Tube-side velocity:

i
= x
m

m
+ x
w

w
, where m and w refer to methanol and water.
x
m
(stream 4) = 0.987 ; x
w
(stream 4) = 0.0132

m
=



i
= 0.987 (780.8) + 0.0132 (995) = 783.78 kg/m
3


25.


Because the composition of methanol is very high (0.987);



140

So,


Also,



26. Because

, assuming that


27. Tube-side pressure drop:
(

])

, assuming that


( [

])


28. Overall heat transfer factors based on inside and outside tube flow:


Because the assumed overall heat transfer coefficient (U=1000 W/m
2
.
o
C) is not in
the range (between U
i
and U
o
), use the calculated value in step 8 and do loop using
Excel sheet until the difference between the calculated U in the two consecutive
iterations is small.

141

Design of E-101


Inner Tube Diameter (m) 0.011 Number of Tubes (N
t
) 364 Shell Diameter (m) 0.357
Wall Thickness (m) 0.001 Tube Pitch (m) 0.015 Baffle Spacing (m) 0.143
Tube Length (m) 1.10 Bundle Diameter (m) 0.344
Cross Flow Area (m
2
)
0.010
Outer Tube Diameter (m) 0.012 Bundle Diameter Clearance (m) 0.013 Shell-Side Flowrate (mol/hr) 1105398.773
h
do
(W/m
2
.
o
C)
2000 Number of Tubes per Pass 182 Shell-Side Flowrate (kg/s) 5.527
h
di
(W/m
2
.
o
C)
2000 Tube-Side Flowrate (kg/s) 0.877
Shell-Side Mass Velocity (kg/m
2
.s)
542.967
T
st ream 4
(
o
C)
31.13
Tube-Side Mass Velocity (kg/m
2
.s)
50.666 Shell Equivalent Diameter (m) 0.011
T
st ream 6
(
o
C)
150 Tube-Side Velocity (m/s) 0.065 Shell-Side Reynolds Number 8147
K
carbon st eal
(W/m
2
.
o
C)
45 Prandtle Number 6.577 Prandtle Number 5.140
T
shell in
(
o
C)
180 Reynolds Number 1066
Shell-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m
2
.
o
C)
2054
T
shell in
(
o
C)
155
Tube-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m
2
.
o
C)
140 Velocity of the flow in the Shell (m/s) 0.546
LMTD (
o
C)
66.197
Tube-Side Pressure Drop ( kg/m.s
2
)
15453
Pressure Drop in Shell-Side ( kg/m.s
2
)
7940
F
t
0.90
DT
m
59.578
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient - Ui (W/m
2
.
o
C)
116
U (W/m
2
.
o
C)
306
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient - Uo (W/m
2
.
o
C)
491
q (W) 267138
Average Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m
2
.
o
C)
303
Provisional Area (m
2
)
14.653 Error 0.854
TUBE-SIDE CLACULATION SHELL-SIDE CLACULATION

142

Design of E-102


Inner Tube Diameter (m) 0.011 Number of Tubes (N
t
) 550 Shell Diameter (m) 0.422
Wall Thickness (m) 0.001 Tube Pitch (m) 0.015 Baffle Spacing (m) 0.169
Tube Length (m) 1.30 Bundle Diameter (m) 0.412
Cross Flow Area (m
2
)
0.014
Outer Tube Diameter (m) 0.012 Bundle Diameter Clearance (m) 0.010 Shell-Side Flowrate (mol/hr) 119425.290
h
do
(W/m
2
.
o
C)
2000 Number of Tubes per Pass 275 Shell-Side Flowrate (kg/s) 0.597
h
di
(W/m
2
.
o
C)
2000 Tube-Side Flowrate (kg/s) 1.467
Shell-Side Mass Velocity (kg/m
2
.s)
41.978
T
st ream 5
(
o
C)
37.300
Tube-Side Mass Velocity (kg/m
2
.s)
56.087 Shell Equivalent Diameter (m) 0.011
T
st ream 7
(
o
C)
150 Tube-Side Velocity (m/s) 47.693 Shell-Side Reynolds Number 710
K
carbon st eal
(W/m
2
.
o
C)
45 Prandtle Number 0.694 Prandtle Number 4.505
T
shell in
(
o
C)
180 Reynolds Number 33170
Shell-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m
2
.
o
C)
276
T
shell in
(
o
C)
155
Tube-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m
2
.
o
C)
208 Velocity of the flow in the Shell (m/s) 0.042
LMTD (
o
C)
64.158
Tube-Side Pressure Drop ( kg/m.s
2
)
26244879
Pressure Drop in Shell-Side ( kg/m.s
2
)
68
F
t
0.87
DT
m
55.817
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient - Ui (W/m
2
.
o
C)
109
U (W/m
2
.
o
C)
114
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient - Uo (W/m
2
.
o
C)
118
q (W) 166512
Average Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m
2
.
o
C)
113
Provisional Area (m
2
)
26.168 Error 0.770
TUBE-SIDE CLACULATION SHELL-SIDE CLACULATION

143

Design of E-103


Inner Tube Diameter (m) 0.011 Number of Tubes (N
t
) 151 Shell Diameter (m) 0.244
Wall Thickness (m) 0.001 Tube Pitch (m) 0.015 Baffle Spacing (m) 0.098
Tube Length (m) 1.00 Bundle Diameter (m) 0.234
Cross Flow Area (m
2
)
0.005
Outer Tube Diameter (m) 0.012 Bundle Diameter Clearance (m) 0.010 Shell-Side Flowrate (mol/hr) 752408.330
h
do
(W/m
2
.
o
C)
2000 Number of Tubes per Pass 76 Shell-Side Flowrate (kg/s) 3.762
h
di
(W/m
2
.
o
C)
2000 Tube-Side Flowrate (kg/s) 1.473
Shell-Side Mass Velocity (kg/m
2
.s)
788.966
T
st ream 13
(
o
C)
89.31
Tube-Side Mass Velocity (kg/m
2
.s)
205.053 Shell Equivalent Diameter (m) 0.011
T
st ream 14
(
o
C)
102 Tube-Side Velocity (m/s) 0.332 Shell-Side Reynolds Number 27902
K
carbon st eal
(W/m
2
.
o
C)
45 Prandtle Number 1.693 Prandtle Number 2.019
T
shell in
(
o
C)
120 Reynolds Number 12331
Shell-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m
2
.
o
C)
10164
T
shell in
(
o
C)
105
Tube-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m
2
.
o
C)
2119 Velocity of the flow in the Shell (m/s) 0.817
LMTD (
o
C)
16.819
Tube-Side Pressure Drop ( kg/m.s
2
)
149011
Pressure Drop in Shell-Side ( kg/m.s
2
)
19622
F
t
0.90
DT
m
15.137
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient - Ui (W/m
2
.
o
C)
648
U (W/m
2
.
o
C)
727
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient - Uo (W/m
2
.
o
C)
807
q (W) 60836
Average Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m
2
.
o
C)
727
Provisional Area (m
2
)
5.528 Error 0.338
TUBE-SIDE CLACULATION SHELL-SIDE CLACULATION

144

Design of E-106

Inner Tube Diameter (m) 0.011 Number of Tubes (N
t
) 635 Shell Diameter (m) 0.455
Wall Thickness (m) 0.001 Tube Pitch (m) 0.015 Baffle Spacing (m) 0.182
Tube Length (m) 1.40 Bundle Diameter (m) 0.438
Cross Flow Area (m
2
)
0.017
Outer Tube Diameter (m) 0.012 Bundle Diameter Clearance (m) 0.017 Shell-Side Flowrate (mol/hr) 1200796
h
do
(W/m
2
.
o
C)
2000 Number of Tubes per Pass 318 Shell-Side Flowrate (kg/s) 6.004
h
di
(W/m
2
.
o
C)
2000 Tube-Side Flowrate (kg/s) 1.903
Shell-Side Mass Velocity (kg/m
2
.s)
362.380
T
st ream 19
(
o
C)
48
Tube-Side Mass Velocity (kg/m
2
.s)
63.060 Shell Equivalent Diameter (m) 0.011
T
st ream 20
(
o
C)
30 Tube-Side Velocity (m/s) 0.084 Shell-Side Reynolds Number 7411
K
carbon st eal
(W/m
2
.
o
C)
45 Prandtle Number 3.014 Prandtle Number 3.643
T
shell in
(
o
C)
25 Reynolds Number 1808
Shell-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m
2
.
o
C)
7028
T
shell in
(
o
C)
35
Tube-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m
2
.
o
C)
303 Velocity of the flow in the Shell (m/s) 0.366
LMTD (
o
C)
8.372
Tube-Side Pressure Drop ( kg/m.s
2
)
83315
Pressure Drop in Shell-Side ( kg/m.s
2
)
7280
F
t
0.90
DT
m
7.535
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient - Ui (W/m
2
.
o
C)
227
U (W/m
2
.
o
C)
490
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient - Uo (W/m
2
.
o
C)
752
q (W) 120050
Average Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m
2
.
o
C)
489
Provisional Area (m
2
)
32.514 Error 0.541
TUBE-SIDE CLACULATION SHELL-SIDE CLACULATION

145

DESIGN OF CONDENSER AND REBOILER
All steps followed for design heat exchangers are the same in the case of
condenser and reboiler, except using of the local heat transfer coefficient where
changing of phase is taking place.

In the case of condenser, when the tubes are arranged horizontally, the
tube-side heat transfer coefficient can be calculated as follow:
[

)
]


Because


g = 9.8 m/s
T
g
: Vapor temperature at the edge of the film (saturation temperature).
T
w
: Wall temperature.
h
fg
: Latent heat of vaporization.
For tube-side:
h
fg
=



In the case of film-boiling inside the reboiler and all the tubes are arranged
horizontally, the tube-side heat transfer coefficient can be calculated by the
following equation:


Because


For tube-side: h
fg
=



146

Design of Condenser (E-104)


Inner Tube Diameter (m) 0.011 Number of Tubes (N
t
) 397 Shell Diameter (m) 0.371
Wall Thickness (m) 0.001 Tube Pitch (m) 0.015 Baffle Spacing (m) 0.148
Tube Length (m) 1.20 Bundle Diameter (m) 0.357
Cross Flow Area (m
2
)
1.101E-02
Outer Tube Diameter (m) 0.012 Bundle Diameter Clearance (m) 0.014 Shell-Side Flowrate (mol/hr) 2726344
h
do
(W/m
2
.
o
C)
2000 Number of Tubes per Pass 199 Shell-Side Flowrate (kg/s) 13.632
h
di
(W/m
2
.
o
C)
2000 Tube-Side Flowrate (kg/s) 0.328
Shell-Side Mass Velocity (kg/m
2
.s)
1237.863
T
Tube in
(
o
C)
100
Tube-Side Mass Velocity (kg/m
2
.s)
17.348 Shell Equivalent Diameter (m) 0.011
T
Tube out
(
o
C)
68 Tube-Side Velocity (m/s) 0.025 Shell-Side Reynolds Number 18574
K
carbon st eal
(W/m
2
.
o
C)
45 Prandtle Number 3.710 Prandtle Number 5.140
T
shell in
(
o
C)
30 Reynolds Number 830
Shell-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m
2
.
o
C)
12490
T
shell in
(
o
C)
40
Tube-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m
2
.
o
C)
1604 Velocity of the flow in the Shell (m/s) 1.244
LMTD (
o
C)
48.341
Tube-Side Pressure Drop ( kg/m.s
2
)
3245
Pressure Drop in Shell-Side ( kg/m.s
2
)
64314
F
t
0.95
DT
m
45.924
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient - Ui (W/m
2
.
o
C)
596
U (W/m
2
.
o
C)
713
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient - Uo (W/m
2
.
o
C)
833
q (W) 571018
Average Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m
2
.
o
C)
714
Provisional Area (m
2
)
17.439 Error 0.156
TUBE-SIDE CLACULATION SHELL-SIDE CLACULATION

147

Design of Reboiler (E-105)

Inner Tube Diameter (m) 0.011 Number of Tubes (N
t
) 132 Shell Diameter (m) 0.231
Wall Thickness (m) 0.001 Tube Pitch (m) 0.015 Baffle Spacing (m) 0.092
Tube Length (m) 1.00 Bundle Diameter (m) 0.221
Cross Flow Area (m
2
)
4.262E-03
Outer Tube Diameter (m) 0.012 Bundle Diameter Clearance (m) 0.010 Shell-Side Flowrate (mol/hr) 36478
h
do
(W/m
2
.
o
C)
2000 Number of Tubes per Pass 66 Shell-Side Flowrate (kg/s) 0.182
h
di
(W/m
2
.
o
C)
2000 Tube-Side Flowrate (kg/s) 0.233
Shell-Side Mass Velocity (kg/m
2
.s)
42.799
T
Tube in
(
o
C)
110
Tube-Side Mass Velocity (kg/m
2
.s)
37.037 Shell Equivalent Diameter (m) 0.011
T
Tube out
(
o
C)
120 Tube-Side Velocity (m/s) 0.061 Shell-Side Reynolds Number 642
K
carbon st eal
(W/m
2
.
o
C)
45 Prandtle Number 1.392 Prandtle Number 5.140
T
shell in
(
o
C)
140 Reynolds Number 2589
Shell-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m
2
.
o
C)
252
T
shell in
(
o
C)
125
Tube-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m
2
.
o
C)
204 Velocity of the flow in the Shell (m/s) 0.043
LMTD (
o
C)
17.380
Tube-Side Pressure Drop ( kg/m.s
2
)
4138
Pressure Drop in Shell-Side ( kg/m.s
2
)
53
F
t
0.85
DT
m
14.773
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient - Ui (W/m
2
.
o
C)
104
U (W/m
2
.
o
C)
107
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient - Uo (W/m
2
.
o
C)
109
q (W) 7640
Average Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (W/m
2
.
o
C)
106
Provisional Area (m
2
)
4.833 Error 0.725
TUBE-SIDE CLACULATION SHELL-SIDE CLACULATION

148

Pinch Analysis for E-101



1. Select Input Method from the Dropdown list:
2. Input Global dTmin & select input temperature units: 10 C
3. Select appropriate units for the input data from the drop down lists below (E15/F15). Requires Input -
Optional Input -
4. Input data: Stream Name, Temperatures & Heat/Flow Data (max 50 streams). Calculation cell -
5. Select desired output unit set:
Stream
Name
Supply
Temperature
Target
Temperature
dT Min
Contrib
Mass Flowrate
Specific Heat
Capacity
Heat Flow
Stream
Type
Supply
Shift
Target
Shift
C C C kg/s kJ/kgK kW C C
1 31.13 150 10 0.877 2.5625 267.138 COLD 41.1 160.0
2 180 155 10 5.527 4.174 576.7425 HOT 170.0 145.0
Mass Flowrate & Specific Heat Capacity
SI-based (kW/K)

149

Pinch Analysis for E-102



1. Select Input Method from the Dropdown list:
2. Input Global dTmin & select input temperature units: 10 C
3. Select appropriate units for the input data from the drop down lists below (E15/F15). Requires Input -
Optional Input -
4. Input data: Stream Name, Temperatures & Heat/Flow Data (max 50 streams). Calculation cell -
5. Select desired output unit set:
Stream
Name
Supply
Temperature
Target
Temperature
dT Min
Contrib
Mass Flowrate
Specific Heat
Capacity
Heat Flow
Stream
Type
Supply
Shift
Target
Shift
C C C kg/s kJ/kgK kW C C
1 37.3 150 10 1.467 1.007 166.4882 COLD 47.3 160.0
2 180 155 10 0.597 4.174 62.297 HOT 170.0 145.0
Mass Flowrate & Specific Heat Capacity
SI-based (kW/K)

150

Pinch Analysis for E-103



1. Select Input Method from the Dropdown list:
2. Input Global dTmin & select input temperature units: 10 C
3. Select appropriate units for the input data from the drop down lists below (E15/F15). Requires Input -
Optional Input -
4. Input data: Stream Name, Temperatures & Heat/Flow Data (max 50 streams). Calculation cell -
5. Select desired output unit set:
Stream
Name
Supply
Temperature
Target
Temperature
dT Min
Contrib
Mass Flowrate
Specific Heat
Capacity
Heat Flow
Stream
Type
Supply
Shift
Target
Shift
C C C kg/s kJ/kgK kW C C
1 89.3 102 10 1.473 3.2546 60.8841 COLD 99.3 112.0
2 120 105 10 3.762 4.2 237.006 HOT 110.0 95.0
Mass Flowrate & Specific Heat Capacity
SI-based (kW/K)

151


Pinch Analysis for E-106



1. Select Input Method from the Dropdown list:
2. Input Global dTmin & select input temperature units: 10 C
3. Select appropriate units for the input data from the drop down lists below (E15/F15). Requires Input -
Optional Input -
4. Input data: Stream Name, Temperatures & Heat/Flow Data (max 50 streams). Calculation cell -
5. Select desired output unit set:
Stream
Name
Supply
Temperature
Target
Temperature
dT Min
Contrib
Mass Flowrate
Specific Heat
Capacity
Heat Flow
Stream
Type
Supply
Shift
Target
Shift
C C C kg/s kJ/kgK kW C C
1 48 30 10 1.903 3.5047 120.05 HOT 38.0 20.0
2 25 35 10 6.004 4.174 250.607 COLD 35.0 45.0
Mass Flowrate & Specific Heat Capacity
SI-based (kW/K)

152

Pinch Analysis for Condenser



1. Select Input Method from the Dropdown list:
2. Input Global dTmin & select input temperature units: 10 C
3. Select appropriate units for the input data from the drop down lists below (E15/F15). Requires Input -
Optional Input -
4. Input data: Stream Name, Temperatures & Heat/Flow Data (max 50 streams). Calculation cell -
5. Select desired output unit set:
Stream
Name
Supply
Temperature
Target
Temperature
dT Min
Contrib
Mass Flowrate
Specific Heat
Capacity
Heat Flow
Stream
Type
Supply
Shift
Target
Shift
C C C kg/s kJ/kgK kW C C
1 100 68 10 0.328 3.1934 33.5179 HOT 90.0 58.0
2 30 40 10 13.632 4.174 568.9997 COLD 40.0 50.0
Mass Flowrate & Specific Heat Capacity
SI-based (kW/K)

153

Pinch Analysis for Reboiler



1. Select Input Method from the Dropdown list:
2. Input Global dTmin & select input temperature units: 10 C
3. Select appropriate units for the input data from the drop down lists below (E15/F15). Requires Input -
Optional Input -
4. Input data: Stream Name, Temperatures & Heat/Flow Data (max 50 streams). Calculation cell -
5. Select desired output unit set:
Stream
Name
Supply
Temperature
Target
Temperature
dT Min
Contrib
Mass Flowrate
Specific Heat
Capacity
Heat Flow
Stream
Type
Supply
Shift
Target
Shift
C C C kg/s kJ/kgK kW C C
1 110 120 10 0.233 3.2846 7.6531 COLD 120.0 130.0
2 140 125 10 1.113 4.174 69.6849 HOT 130.0 115.0
Mass Flowrate & Specific Heat Capacity
SI-based (kW/K)

154

PUMPS, COMPERSSOR & PIPING DESIGN
Here is a comprehensive design of the fluid flow related equipment
including the pumps, compressor and pipes across the entire plant.
Schematic sketches for the pipes dimensions are presented at the end of
this section.
PUMP P-101


At 30
0
C


From Bernoulli equation:


Assume there is no loss in the pump



155

PUMP P-102

Volumetric Flow Rate:



At 68.3
0
C



156






PUMP P-103

Volumetric Flow Rate:


At 110
0
C



157

COMPRESSOR C-101

For Air
C
p
=29.1

, C
v
=20.78

Where


n= coprocessor efficiency,

Where


Assumption:
5. N=0.75
6. Adiabatic.
7. Constant heat capacities.
8. Ideal gas.




158

VISCOSITY ESTIMATION







methanol water formaldehyde hydrogen nitrogen oxygen
C1 -25.317 -52.843 -11.24 -11.661 16.004 -4.1476
C2 1789.2 3703.6 751.69 24.7 -181.61 94.04
C3 2.069 5.866 -0.024579 -0.261 -5.1551 -1.207
C4 0 -5.88E-29 0 -4.10E-16 0 0
C5 0 10 0 10 0 0

stream number 1 2 3 4 5
material
condition
g l l l g
temperature C 20 89.31 89.31 102 68.3
temperature K 293.15 362.46 362.46 375.15 341.45
Pressure (atm) 1 1 1.2 1.2 1.2

composition viscosity composition viscosity composition viscosity composition viscosity composition viscosity
methanol 0.000 5.75E-04 0.000 2.78E-04 0.054 2.78E-04 0.054 2.53E-04 0.903 3.33E-04
oxygen 0.000 2.29E-05 0.000 1.67E-05 0.000 1.67E-05 0.000 1.59E-05 0.000 1.82E-05
formaldehyde 0.000 1.48E-04 0.003 9.04E-05 0.370 9.04E-05 0.370 8.42E-05 0.000 1.03E-04
water 1.000 1.02E-03 0.457 3.16E-04 0.576 3.16E-04 0.576 2.73E-04 0.097 4.18E-04
hydrogen 0.000 0.00E+00 0.030 0.00E+00 0.000 0.00E+00 0.000 0.00E+00 0.000 0.00E+00
nitrogen 0.000 9.19E-07 0.511 3.46E-07 0.000 3.46E-07 0.000 2.95E-07 0.000 4.57E-07
Summation 1 1.02E-03 1.000 1.45E-04 1.000 2.30E-04 1.000 2.02E-04 1.000 3.41E-04


159




stream number 6 7 8 9 10
material
condition
g g g g g
temperature C 110 110 30 48 30
temperature K 383.15 383.15 303.15 321.15 303.15
Pressure (atm) 1 3 3 3 3

composition viscosity composition viscosity composition viscosity composition viscosity composition viscosity
methanol 0.000 2.39E-04 0.000 2.39E-04 0.000 5.04E-04 0.000 4.08E-04 0.000 5.04E-04
oxygen 0.000 1.54E-05 0.000 1.54E-05 0.000 2.18E-05 0.000 2.00E-05 0.000 2.18E-05
formaldehyde 0.393 8.07E-05 0.393 8.07E-05 0.000 1.36E-04 0.261 1.18E-04 0.261 1.36E-04
water 0.606 2.52E-04 0.606 2.52E-04 1.000 8.20E-04 0.739 5.79E-04 0.739 8.20E-04
hydrogen 0.000 0.00E+00 0.000 0.00E+00 0.000 0.00E+00 0.000 0.00E+00 0.000 0.00E+00
nitrogen 0.000 2.67E-07 0.000 2.67E-07 0.000 7.89E-07 0.000 6.06E-07 0.000 7.89E-07
Summation 1.000 1.84E-04 1.000 1.84E-04 1.000 8.20E-04 1.000 4.59E-04 1.000 6.41E-04

stream number 11 12 13 14 15
material
condition
l g l l l
temperature C 25 25 31.13 31.13 37.3
temperature K 298.15 298.15 304.28 304.28 310.45
Pressure (atm) 1 1 1 3 3
methanol 0.0000 5.38E-04 1.0000 5.38E-04 0.9868 4.97E-04 0.9868 4.97E-04 0.0000 4.61E-04
oxygen 0.2100 2.23E-05 0.0000 2.23E-05 0.0000 2.17E-05 0.0000 2.17E-05 0.2100 2.10E-05
formaldehyde 0.0000 1.42E-04 0.0000 1.42E-04 0.0000 1.35E-04 0.0000 1.35E-04 0.0000 1.28E-04
water 0.0000 9.13E-04 0.0000 9.13E-04 0.0132 8.01E-04 0.0132 8.01E-04 0.0000 7.07E-04
hydrogen 0.0000 0.00E+00 0.0000 0.00E+00 0.0000 0.00E+00 0.0000 0.00E+00 0.0000 0.00E+00
nitrogen 0.7900 8.51E-07 0.0000 8.51E-07 0.0000 7.76E-07 0.0000 7.76E-07 0.7900 7.08E-07
Summation 1 5.36E-06 1 5.38E-04 1 5.01E-04 1 5.01E-04 1 4.97E-06


160




DENSITY ESTIMATION

((



stream number 16 17 18 19 20
material
condition
l l l l l
temperature C 150 150 150 343 165
temperature K 423.15 423.15 423.15 616.15 438.15
Pressure (atm) 3 3 3 3 3
methanol 0.9868 1.89E-04 0.0000 1.89E-04 0.3465 1.89E-04 0.0374 1.09E-04 0.0374 1.75E-04
oxygen 0.0000 1.33E-05 0.2100 1.33E-05 0.1363 1.33E-05 0.0000 7.90E-06 0.0000 1.27E-05
formaldehyde 0.0000 6.69E-05 0.0000 6.69E-05 0.0000 6.69E-05 0.2596 3.80E-05 0.2596 6.29E-05
water 0.0132 1.79E-04 0.0000 1.79E-04 0.0046 1.79E-04 0.2376 6.67E-05 0.2376 1.62E-04
hydrogen 0.0000 0.00E+00 0.0000 0.00E+00 0.0000 0.00E+00 0.0258 0.00E+00 0.0258 0.00E+00
nitrogen 0.0000 1.68E-07 0.7900 1.68E-07 0.5126 1.68E-07 0.4395 2.76E-08 0.4395 1.42E-07
Summation 1 1.88E-04 1 2.93E-06 1 6.81E-05 1 2.98E-05 1 6.16E-05

methanol water formaldehyde hydrogen nitrogen oxygen
C1 2.3267 17.863 1.9415 5.414 3.2091 3.9143
C2 0.27073 58.616 0.22309 0.34893 0.2861 0.28772
C3 512.5 -95.396 408 33.19 126.2 154.58
C4 0.24713 2.14E+02 0.28571 2.71E-01 0.2966 0.2924
C5 -141.26


161





stream number 1 2 3 4 5
material
condition
g l l l g
temperature C 25

25

31.13

31.13

37.3

temperature K 298.15

298.15

304.28

304.28

310.45

Pressure (atm) 1

1

1

3

3

methanol 0.000 788.577 1.000 788.577 0.987 782.664 0.987 782.664 0.000 3.769
oxygen 0.210 1.308 0.000 1015.182 0.000 1.282 0.000 3.845 0.210 3.769
formaldehyde 0.000 732.164 0.000 732.164 0.000 719.981 0.000 719.981 0.000 3.533
water 0.000 993.996 0.000 993.996 0.013 991.694 0.013 991.694 0.000 2.120
hydrogen 0.000 0.082 0.000 0.082 0.000 0.080 0.000 0.240 0.000 0.236
nitrogen 0.790 1.145 0.000 1.145 0.000 1.121 0.000 3.364 0.790 3.298
Summation 1.000 1.175 1.000 788.577 1.000 784.848 1.000 784.848 1.000 3.386

stream number 6 7 8 9 10
material
condition
g g g g g
temperature C 150 150 150 343 165
temperature K 423.15 423.15 423.15 616.15 438.15
Pressure (atm) 3 3 3 3 3
methanol 0.987 2.765 0.000 2.765 0.346 2.765 0.037 1.899 0.037 2.670
oxygen 0.000 2.765 0.210 2.765 0.136 2.765 0.000 1.899 0.000 2.670
formaldehyde 0.000 2.592 0.000 2.592 0.000 2.592 0.260 1.780 0.260 2.503
water 0.013 1.555 0.000 1.555 0.005 1.555 0.238 1.068 0.238 1.502
hydrogen 0.000 0.173 0.000 0.173 0.000 0.173 0.026 0.119 0.026 0.167
nitrogen 0.000 2.419 0.790 2.419 0.513 2.419 0.440 1.661 0.440 2.336
Summation 1.000 2.737 1.000 2.485 1.000 2.568 1.000 1.150 1.000 1.617


162





stream number 11 12 13 14 15
material
condition
l g l l l
temperature C 20 89.31 89.31 102 68.3
temperature K 293.15 362.46 362.46 375.15 341.45
Pressure (atm) 1 1 1.2 1.2 1.2
methanol 0.000 793.339 0.000 1.076 0.054 721.509 0.054 706.631 0.903 744.784
oxygen 0.000 1.330 0.000 1.076 0.000 1.291 0.000 1.247 0.000 1.371
formaldehyde 0.000 741.891 0.003 1.009 0.370 582.103 0.370 541.967 0.000 638.064
water 1.000 995.773 0.457 0.605 0.576 962.786 0.576 954.676 0.097 974.749
hydrogen 0.000 0.083 0.030 0.067 0.000 0.081 0.000 0.078 0.000 0.086
nitrogen 0.000 1.164 0.511 0.941 0.000 1.130 0.000 1.092 0.000 1.199
Summation 1.000 995.773 1.000 0.573 1.000 763.935 1.000 733.787 1.000 762.162

stream number 16 17 18 19 20
material
condition
l l l l l
temperature C 110 110 30 48 30
temperature K 383.15 383.15 303.15 321.15 303.15
Pressure (atm) 1 3 3 3 3
methanol 0.000 696.882 0.000 696.882 0.000 783.761 0.000 765.931 0.000 783.761
oxygen 0.000 1.018 0.000 3.054 0.000 3.859 0.000 3.643 0.000 3.859
formaldehyde 0.393 512.462 0.393 512.462 0.000 722.250 0.261 684.755 0.261 722.250
water 0.606 949.208 0.606 949.208 1.000 992.129 0.739 984.651 0.739 992.129
hydrogen 0.000 0.064 0.000 0.191 0.000 0.241 0.000 0.228 0.000 0.241
nitrogen 0.000 0.891 0.000 2.672 0.000 3.377 0.000 3.188 0.000 3.377
Summation 1.000 710.815 1.000 710.815 1.000 992.129 1.000 883.671 1.000 903.990


163


PIPING SCHEMATICS
The plant piping layout is designed to accommodate all process units in the PFD inside a confined
rectangular space of 80 meters by 40 meters. The plant area is divided into three sections as follows:

The first section includes the feed areas of methanol and air, the reactor feed mixing, the reactor and the
absorber. The second section accommodates the the distillation tower and its reflux area. The third and final
section side of the plant is where the product is mixed with deionized water and pumped for storage
loading. The following are pipes sizing and dimensions tables for each section in the formaldehyde
production plant.

164


SECTION 1



165





STREAM
#
PIPE CODE
weight
kg/hr
density
kg/m3
flow rate m3/hr D1 A m2
velocity 1
m/s
1
10 in,
Sche.40
5282.328 1.175390216 4494.105811 0.24765 0.04816888 25.91637448
2 6 in, Sche.40 2740.783 788.5773877 3.475604351 0.154054 0.018639568 0.051795495
3 6 in, Sche.40 3158.5247 784.8484078 4.024375496 0.4 0.125663706 0.008895823
4 6 in, Sche.40 3158.5247 784.8484078 4.024375496 0.154054 0.018639568 0.059973605
5
10 in,
Sche.40
5282.328 1.175390216 4494.105811 0.24765 0.04816888 25.91637448
6

3158.5247 2.736824764 1154.083645 0.24765 0.04816888 6.65530924
7
10 in,
Sche.40
5282.328 1.175390216 4494.105811 0.24765 0.04816888 25.91637448
8
10 in,
Sche.40
8440.8527 2.56763335 3287.405773 0.254508 0.050873634 17.94973557
9 8440.8527 1.149918745 7340.39056 1.4 1.5393804 1.32455719
10 10 in,
Sche.40
8440.8527 1.149918745 7340.39056 0.254508 0.050873634 40.079649
11 6 in, Sche.40 3287.373 995.7732285 3.301326955 0.154054 0.018639568 0.049198311
12 6423.166 0.573238289 11205.05403 0.77 0.465662571 6.684056658


166





STREAM
#
/D viscosity Re profile of
flow
f L
1 0.000254 0.001025641 5.36336E-06 1406558.519 Turbulent 0.00499 5
2 0.000254 0.001648773 0.000537992 11695.8874 Turbulent 0.0080587 8
3 0.000254 0.000635 0.000501236 5571.728029 Turbulent 0.0092525 2
4 0.000254 0.001648773 0.000501236 14466.94803 Turbulent 0.00772764 3
5 0.000254 0.001025641 4.97133E-06 1517476.457 Turbulent 0.0049897 6
6 0.000254 0.001025641 0.000188464 23934.52002 Turbulent 0.00677 8.5
7 0.000254 0.001025641 2.93309E-06 2571986.956 Turbulent 0.00497 6.3
8 0.000254 0.000998004 6.80734E-05 172311.7307 Turbulent 0.0053 10.125
9 0.000254 0.000181429 2.98101E-05 71532.41049 Turbulent 0.0050414 3
10 0.000254 0.000998004 2.98101E-05 393486.1564 Turbulent 0.0050928 2
11 0.000254 0.001648773 0.001021406 7388.99484 Turbulent 0.00871225 44.14
12 0.000254 0.00032987 0.000144745 20382.71052 Turbulent 0.0065198 3

STREAM
#
A1 D2 A2 velocity 2 LOSS PIPE
LOSS
expand
m constant
1 0.04816888 0.254508 0.050873634 24.53850133 0.201494044 0 0
2 0.018639568 0.4 0.125663706 0.007682772 0.836974048 32.96793914 0
3 0.125663706 0.154054 0.018639568 0.059973605 0.092525 0 1.109
4 0.018639568 0.154054 0.018639568 0.059973605 0.300971348 0 0
5 0.04816888 0.254508 0.050873634 24.53850133 0.241778316 0 0
6 0.04816888 0.254508 0.050873634 6.301472251 0.464728447 0.003152989 0
7 0.04816888 0.254508 0.050873634 24.53850133 0.25286493 0.003152989 0
8 0.050873634 1 0.785398163 1.162681953 0.421695978 208.4620923 0.044
9 1.5393804 0.254508 0.050873634 40.079649 0.021606 0.934995931 0
10 0.050873634 0.254508 0.050873634 40.079649 0.080041492 0 0
11 0.018639568 0.77 0.465662571 0.001969313 4.992518403 575.1591911 0
12 0.465662571 0.15405 0.0186386 166.9929618 0.050803636 0 1.0105


167



SECTION 2

STREAM
#
LOSS
contra
# of elbow
loss 90
elbow
Gate valve 0.25
open
lv (m2/s2) Po (Pa) Pf (Pa)
1 0 0 0 0 121.3272302 101325 101192.6074
2 0 4 3 0 0.00217241 101325 101323.5455
3 0.42915279 0 0 0 0.001876388 111457.5 111455.6822
4 0 0 0 0 0.001082544 303975 303974.1504
5 0 0 0 0 145.5839232 303975 303814.0963
6 0 1 0.75 0 48.36030898 303975 303844.2147
7 0 1 0.75 0 605.7616654 303975 303273.2079
8 841.9473529 3 2.25 0 1423.585967 303975 300422.7285
9 0 2 1.5 24 42499.31029 303302 254200.5981
10 0 3 2.25 0 3742.928007 254201 249896.9369
11 0 2 1.5 0 0.002255758 101325 101323.0546
12 0.882082046 0 0 0 26015.05587 120000 103092.1633


168





STREAM
#
PIPE CODE weight
kg/hr
density
kg/m3
flow rate m3/hr D1 A m2 velocity 1
m/s
13 5302.297 763.9345926 6.940773532 0.77 0.465662571 0.004140321
14 5 in, Sche.40 5302.297 733.7866677 7.225938046 0.1281938 0.012906959 0.155513397
15 5 in, Sche.40 417.7417 762.1619183 0.548100987 0.1281938 0.012906959 0.011795984
21 5 in, Sche.40 8139.398333 710.8153975 11.45079069 0.1281938 0.012906959 0.246438781
22 5 in, Sche.40 8139.398333 710.8153975 11.45079069 0.1281938 0.012906959 0.246438781
23 5 in, Sche.40 3255.759333 710.8153975 4.580316275 0.1281938 0.012906959 0.098575512
24 5 in, Sche.40 696.2361667 762.1619183 0.913501646 0.1281938 0.012906959 0.019659973
25 5 in, Sche.40 696.2361667 762.1619183 0.913501646 0.1281938 0.012906959 0.019659973
26 5 in, Sche.40 278.4944667 762.1619183 0.365400658 0.1281938 0.012906959 0.007863989

STREAM
#
/D viscosity Re profile of
flow
f L
13 0.000254 0.00032987 0.000230429 10569.24844 Turbulent 0.0083535 30
14 0.000254 0.001981375 0.00020225 72329.75441 Turbulent 0.0064128 9.18
15 0.000254 0.001981375 0.000340995 3379.875473 laminar 0.004733902 38.68
21 0.000254 0.001981375 0.00018442 121765.7117 Turbulent 0.0062 1
22 0.000254 0.001981375 0.00018442 121765.7117 Turbulent 0.0062 21
23 0.000254 0.001981375 0.00018442 48706.28468 Turbulent 0.00664 3
24 0.000254 0.001981375 0.000340995 5633.125788 Turbulent 0.0096 4
25 0.000254 0.001981375 0.000340995 5633.125788 Turbulent 0.0096 1
26 0.000254 0.001981375 0.000340995 2253.250315 laminar 0.007100853 1.6

STREAM
#
A1 D2 A2 velocity 2 LOSS PIPE LOSS
expand
m constant
13 0.465662571 0.15405 0.0186386 0.103440851 0.650922078 0 1.0105
14 0.012906959 0.4572 0.164173223 0.012226141 0.918445416 137.35242 0
15 0.012906959 0.4 0.125663706 0.001211569 2.85672689 76.31980124 0
21 0.012906959 0.1281938 0.012906959 0.246438781 0.096728547 0 0
22 0.012906959 0.1281938 0.012906959 0.246438781 2.031299486 0 0
23 0.012906959 0.1281938 0.012906959 0.098575512 0.31077946 0 0
24 0.012906959 0.4 0.125663706 0.002019282 0.599092936 76.31980124 0
25 0.012906959 0.4 0.125663706 0.002019282 0.149773234 76.31980124 0
26 0.012906959 0.4 0.125663706 0.000807713 0.177252961 76.31980124 0


169




SECTION 3



STREAM
#
LOSS
contra
# of elbow loss 90
elbow
Gate valve 0.25
open
lv (m2/s2) Po (Pa) Pf (Pa)
13 0.882082046 2 1.5 0 0.032453174 101325 101299.1878
14 0 2 1.5 0 0.020892743 101299.1878 101286.0615
15 0 3 2.25 0 0.000119526 121590 121589.922
21 0 0 0 0 0.005874525 101303 101298.8243
22 0 2 1.5 0 0.214463137 101303 101150.5563
23 0 1 0.75 0 0.010307734 101303 101295.6731
24 0 2 1.5 0 0.000319753 121590 121589.7927
25 0 1 0.75 0 0.000314863 121590 121589.7965
26 0 0 0 0 4.99067E-05 121590 121589.9678


170





STREAM
#
PIPE CODE weight
kg/hr
density
kg/m3
flow rate m3/hr D1 A m2 velocity 1
m/s
16 5 in, Sche.40 4883.639 710.8153975 6.870474412 0.1281938 0.012906959 0.147863268
17 5 in, Sche.40 4883.639 710.8153975 6.870474412 0.1281938 0.012906959 0.147863268
18 5 in, Sche.40 1965.676 992.1287895 1.981271001 0.1281938 0.012906959 0.042640026
19 5 in, Sche.40 6849.315 883.6712054 7.750976786 0.1281938 0.012906959 0.166813046
20 5 in, Sche.40 8814.991 903.990441 9.751199349 0.1281938 0.012906959 0.209860938

STREAM
#
/D viscosity Re profile of
flow
f L
16 0.000254 0.001981375 0.00018442 73059.42702 Turbulent 0.00502189 3
17 0.000254 0.001981375 0.00018442 73059.42702 Turbulent 0.006408 1
18 0.000254 0.001981375 0.000819619 6616.687609 Turbulent 0.009248 57.04
19 0.000254 0.001981375 0.000459201 41151.38768 Turbulent 0.00676 1
20 0.000254 0.001981375 0.000641335 37920.8021 Turbulent 0.00682 1

STREAM
#
A1 D2 A2 velocity 2 LOSS PIPE LOSS
expand
m constant
16 0.012906959 0.1281938 0.012906959 0.147863268 0.235045221 0 0
17 0.012906959 1 0.785398163 0.002429933 0.099973634 0 0.06
18 0.012906959 1 0.785398163 0.000700731 8.229819539 0 0.06
19 0.012906959 0.1281938 0.012906959 0.166813046 0.105465319 0 0
20 0.012906959 0.1281938 0.012906959 0.209860938 0.106401402 0 0

STREAM
#
LOSS
contra
# of elbow loss 90
elbow
Gate valve 0.25
open
lv (m2/s2) Po (Pa) Pf (Pa)
16 0 0 0 0 0.005138922 101286.0615 101282.4087
17 813.2432284 0 0 0 0.004802446 101282.4087 101280.9371
18 813.2432284 0 0 0 0.000403363 101325 101324.8252
19 0 0 0 0 0.00293474 101324.8252 101322.2319
20 0 0 0 0 0.004686089 101322.2319 101317.9957


171

Equations used in piping calculations:

) )

)
(

((

) )



Bernoulli equation for the pressure drop across the pipe:




172

HAZOP ANALYSIS
This chapter of the report is aimed to investigate some of the problems during normal production hours. A
troubleshooting sequence is to be presented through the HAZOP (Hazard & Operability) tables with a
contingency protocol to prevent reoccurrence of the problem in the future.
Unit: REACTOR

Node: METHANOL INLET FLOW (STREAM 8)
Parameter: FLOW
Guide Word Deviation Cause Consequence Action
No No methanol inlet flow
Pump(P- 101) tripping Low quality Product
Install a micrometer in
the reactor section
Pipe Blockage Pressure Drop, Leakage
Regular inspection of
transferring lines
More
More Methanol Inlet
Flow
Feed valve failure
and open
Increasing unused
Methanol
Install flow meter
before the reactor
Leakage in heat
exchanger tubes
Low quality Product
Install Ratio Sensor
after the Mixer
Less
Less Methanol Inlet
Flow
Feed valve failure
and close
Low quality Product
Regular inspection of
transferring lines
Plugging of pipelines Pump Damage
Install a Controller for
Valves

173


Unit: HEAT EXCHANGER (E-102)

Node: AIR INLET FLOW (STREAM 5)
Parameter: FLOW
Guide Word Deviation Cause Consequence Action
No No Air inlet flow
Compressor(C- 101)
tripping
No Oxygen inlet to
the Reactor
Install a spare
compressor for
Emergency
Pipe Blockage Deficient Product
Regular inspection
of transferring lines
More More Air Inlet Flow
Feed valve failure
and open
Excess Oxygen and
Inert (N2)
Install flow meter
before the Mixer
Filters Failure Low quality Product
Perform Regular
Maintenance and
provide spare Filters
Less Less Air Inlet Flow
Feed valve failure
and close
Low quality Product
Regular inspection
of transferring lines
Plugging of
pipelines due to dust
Compressor Damage
Use More Filters for
Purification


174


Unit: PUMP (P-103)

Node: DISTILLATION COLUMN EFFLUENT FLOW (STREAM 16)
Parameter: PRESSURE DROP
Guide Word Deviation Cause Consequence Action
Very High
Very High Pressure
Drop
Failure in Pump
Control
Unwanted Outlet
Stream Properties
Install a spare Pump
for Emergency
Pressure
Transmitter Faulty
Deficient Control
System
Regular inspection of
Instrumentation

Very Low
Very Low Pressure
Drop
Pump Tripping Low quality Product
Perform Regular
Maintenance and
provide spare Pump
No Inlet Flow due to
low liquid
entrainment in
Distillation Column
Trays
Pump Damage
Inspect the
Distillation Column
and its Effluent


175


Unit: ABSORBER (T-101)

Node: GAS PRODUCT FLOW (STREAM 10)
Parameter: PRESSURE

Guide Word Deviation Cause Consequence Action
High



High pressure
Relief valve failure
and open
Pressure increased
absorber tank
leakage
Install back up relief
valve
Effluent (stream
13) Blocked
Temperature
increase
Regular inspection
of transferring lines
low

Low pressure
Relief valve failure
and closed
Low gas absorbed
Install pressure
sensor
Product pipe line
blocked
No absorption take
place
Install flow meter
before absorber



176


Unit: DISTILLATION COLUMN (T-102)

Node: COLUMN TOP AREA (REFLUX)
Parameter: FLOW

Guide Word Deviation Cause Consequence Action
No No Reflux Flow
Pump(P- 103)
tripping
Desired Product
loss
Install a micrometer
in the reflux section
Pipe Blockage
Accumulation in the
reactor
Regular inspection
of transferring lines
More More Reflux Flow
Plugging recycle
stream
Increasing try
flooding
Install flow meter
before the column
Fluctuation of
pressure drop in the
pump
Low quality Product
Regular inspection
of pump
Less Less Reflux Flow
Accumulation in
V-101
Leakage in V-10l
Install a Level
transmitter
Condenser fouling Low quality Product
Regular inspection
of Condenser

177

ECONOMICS AND COST ESTIMATION
This last part of the design project is done to determine a detailed yet
approximate analysis for the economic feasibility of the project in
relation to the Cost of Manufacturing (COM) for the formaldehyde
project. This analysis covers the three major costs for the plant; Direct
Manufacturing Cost (DMC), Fixed Manufacturing Costs (FMC) and
General Expenses (GE). The determination of these items requires the
analysis of several costs including the Fixed Capital Investment (FCI), the
cost of operating labor (C
OL
), Cost of utilities (C
UT
), cost of waste
Treatment (C
WT
) and the cost of raw materials (C
RM
). The cash flow
diagram is to be utilized to present the cost in relation to the production
profitability. In this analysis we make use of the cost analysis Excel
implemented CAPCOST, where the total bare module cost (C
BM
), total
module cost (C
TM
) and fixed capital investment (FCI) are to obtained
from this software package.
1- Operating Labor Cost
Assumptions:
Average total working period of single operator is 49 weeks/year.
3 weeks of vacation are off and sick leave.
Cost of Labor:
5 shifts/week for single operator and 245 shifts/year.
Since the plant is operating all year, (3 eight hours shift X 365
days) = 1095 shifts are required per year.
The number of operators needed to fill 1095 shifts is (1095
shifts/245 shift) = 4.5 operators.
The number of non-particulate steps in the formaldehyde plant:




178

The number of operators per shift (N
OL
) is as follows:



Operating labor = (4.5)*(2.9308) = 13.19 14 operators
Assume: 48 SR/hr. for single operator or $ 12.8/hr.
Yearly Payment for single operator:


Total Operating Labor Cost= 14*25088 = $ 351232/year.

2- Economical Assessment Scenarios
In the course of estimation the capital cost of the formaldehyde plant,
two scenarios are viable in relation to the material of construction
(MOC).

FIRST SCENARIO: Carbon steel MOC is to be used for construction.
This material is relatively cheap and good for plant operability. The
downside of this material is that it requires regular inspection and
maintenance. It also has moderate reactivity to hot formaldehyde.

SECOND SCENARIO: Stainless Steel MOC is to be used for construction.
This material is expensive relative to Carbon Steel and excellent for
safe and risk-free operation. Stainless Steel is highly resistant to
corrosion from formaldehyde at elevated temperatures.

The following is a detailed study of these two scenarios (carbon steel
then stainless steel) and their effect on the Fixed Capital Cost with the
use of CAPCOST. A decision is to be made and justified at the end of this
study.

179

CARBON STEEL MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
1- EQUIPMENT SUMMARY

Compressors Compressor Type
Power
(kilowatts) # Spares MOC
Purchased
Equipment Cost
Bare Module
Cost
C-101 Centrifugal 183 0 Carbon Steel $189,000.00 $517,000.00
Drives Drive Type
Power
(kilowatts) # Spares
Purchased
Equipment Cost
Bare Module
Cost
D-101 Electric - Explosion Proof 183 0 $70,900.00 $106,000.00
Exchangers Exchanger Type
Shell Pressure
(barg)
Tube Pressure
(barg) MOC
Area
(square meters)
Purchased
Equipment Cost
Bare Module
Cost
E-101 Fixed, Sheet, or U-Tube 2.02 1.01 Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 13.8 $19,600.00 $64,400.00
E-102 Fixed, Sheet, or U-Tube 1.01 4 Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 24.7 $20,900.00 $68,700.00
E-103 Fixed, Sheet, or U-Tube 2.3 2.71 Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 5.22 $19,300.00 $63,500.00
E-104 Fixed, Sheet, or U-Tube 11.9 1.22 Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 16.5 $19,900.00 $66,300.00
E-105 Fixed, Sheet, or U-Tube 0.599 0.972 Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 4.56 $19,300.00 $63,500.00
E-106 Fixed, Sheet, or U-Tube 9.03 2.21 Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 30.7 $21,700.00 $71,800.00
E-107 Floating Head 10 2.5 Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 140 $37,400.00 $124,000.00
Pumps
(with drives) Pump Type
Power
(kilowatts) # Spares MOC
Discharge
Pressure (barg)
Purchased
Equipment Cost
Bare Module
Cost
P-101 Centrifugal 0.3 1 Carbon Steel 3 $6,170.00 $24,600.00
P-102 Centrifugal 1.7 1 Stainless Steel 1.5 $6,470.00 $32,200.00
P-103 Centrifugal 0.5 1 Stainless Steel 3.5 $6,170.00 $30,700.00
Towers Tower Description
Height
(meters)
Diameter
(meters) Tower MOC Demister MOC
Pressure
(barg)
Purchased
Equipment Cost
Bare Module
Cost
T-101 9.85 meters of Ceramic 12.3 1 Carbon Steel 2.41 $24,800.00 $67,500.00
T-102 20 Carbon Steel Sieve Trays 9.6 2.65 Carbon Steel 1.21 $137,000.00 $292,000.00
Vessels Orientation
Length/Height
(meters)
Diameter
(meters) MOC Demister MOC
Pressure
(barg)
Purchased
Equipment Cost
Bare Module
Cost
V-101 Horizontal 4.41 1.1 Carbon Steel 2 $8,450.00 $25,400.00
Total Bare Module Cost 1,617,600 $

180

2- CASH FLOW ANALYSIS




Discounted Profitibility Criterion Non-Discounted Profitibility Criteria
Net Present Value (millions) 52.20 Cumulative Cash Position (millions) 118.26
Discounted Cash Flow Rate of Return 52.23% Rate of Return on Investment 76.00%
Discounted Payback Period (years) 1.4 Payback Period (years) 1.2
Year Investment dk FCIL-Sdk R COMd (R-COMd-dk)*(1-t)+dk
Cash Flow
(Non-discounted)
Cash Flow
(discounted)
Cumulative Cash
Flow (discounted)
Cumulative Cash Flow
(Non-discounted)
0 1.00 15.56 (1.00) (1.00) (1.00) (1.00)
1 9.34 15.56 (9.34) (8.49) (9.49) (10.34)
2 8.48 15.56 (8.48) (7.01) (16.50) (18.82)
3 1.56 12.45 34.20 12.41 13.23 13.23 9.94 (6.56) (5.59)
4 1.56 10.89 34.20 12.41 13.23 13.23 9.03 2.47 7.63
5 1.56 9.34 34.20 12.41 13.23 13.23 8.21 10.69 20.86
6 1.56 7.78 34.20 12.41 13.23 13.23 7.47 18.15 34.09
7 1.56 6.22 34.20 12.41 13.23 13.23 6.79 24.94 47.31
8 1.56 4.67 34.20 12.41 13.23 13.23 6.17 31.11 60.54
9 1.56 3.11 34.20 12.41 13.23 13.23 5.61 36.72 73.77
10 1.56 1.56 34.20 12.41 13.23 13.23 5.10 41.82 86.99
11 1.56 0.00 34.20 12.41 13.23 13.23 4.64 46.45 100.22
12 1.56 - 34.20 12.41 13.23 18.04 5.75 52.20 118.26
Economic Options
Cost of Land 1,000,000 $
Taxation Rate 42%
Annual Interest Rate 10%
Salvage Value 1,556,000 $
Working Capital 2,260,000 $
FCI
L
15,560,000 $
Total Module Factor 1.18
Grass Roots Factor 0.50
Economic Information Calculated From Given Information
Revenue From Sales 34,200,000 $
C
RM
(Raw Materials Costs) 6,722,144 $
C
UT
(Cost of Utilities) 310,329 $
C
WT
(Waste Treatment Costs) - $
C
OL
(Cost of Operating Labor) 351,232 $

181

3- SIMULATION



Net Present Value Data
Low NPV 48.6
High NPV 86.4
Bins Upper Value # points/bin Cumulative
0 48.6 0 0
1 52.4 6 6
2 56.2 38 44
3 59.9 107 151
4 63.7 183 334
5 67.5 225 559
6 71.3 206 765
7 75.1 135 900
8 78.8 66 966
9 82.6 23 989
10 86.4 11 1000
0
250
500
750
1000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
C
u
m
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D
a
t
a

P
o
i
n
t
s
Net Present Value (millions of dollars)
Discounted Cash Flow Rate of Return Data
Low DCFROR 1.09
High DCFROR 1.51
Bins Upper #/bin Cumulative
0 1.09 0 0
1 1.13 5 5
2 1.17 30 35
3 1.21 82 117
4 1.26 160 277
5 1.30 203 480
6 1.34 226 706
7 1.38 172 878
8 1.43 81 959
9 1.47 31 990
10 1.51 10 1000
0
250
500
750
1000
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60
C
u
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DCFROR

182

4- CASH FLOW DIAGRAM








183

STAINLESS STEEL MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
1- EQUIPMENT SUMMARY

Compressors Compressor Type
Power
(kilowatts) # Spares MOC
Purchased
Equipment Cost
Bare Module
Cost
C-101 Centrifugal 183 0 Carbon Steel 189,000 .. 517,000 ..
Drives Drive Type
Power
(kilowatts) # Spares
Purchased
Equipment Cost
Bare Module
Cost
D-101 Electric - Explosion Proof 183 0 70,900 .. 106,000 ..
Exchangers Exchanger Type
Shell Pressure
(barg)
Tube Pressure
(barg) MOC
Area
(square meters)
Purchased
Equipment Cost
Bare Module
Cost
E-101 Fixed, Sheet, or U-Tube 2.02 1.01 Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 13.8 19,600 .. 64,400 ..
E-102 Fixed, Sheet, or U-Tube 1.01 4 Carbon Steel / Carbon Steel 24.7 20,900 .. 68,700 ..
E-103 Fixed, Sheet, or U-Tube 2.3 2.71 Stainless Steel / Stainless Steel 5.22 19,300 .. 119,000 ..
E-104 Fixed, Sheet, or U-Tube 11.9 1.22 Stainless Steel / Stainless Steel 16.5 19,900 .. 125,000 ..
E-105 Fixed, Sheet, or U-Tube 0.599 0.972 Stainless Steel / Stainless Steel 4.56 19,300 .. 119,000 ..
E-106 Fixed, Sheet, or U-Tube 9.03 2.21 Stainless Steel / Stainless Steel 30.7 21,700 .. 135,000 ..
E-107 Floating Head 4 8 Stainless Steel / Stainless Steel 43 24,600 .. 152,000 ..
Pumps
(with drives) Pump Type
Power
(kilowatts) # Spares MOC
Discharge
Pressure (barg)
Purchased
Equipment Cost
Bare Module
Cost
P-101 Centrifugal 0.3 1 Carbon Steel 3 6,170 $ 24,600 $
P-102 Centrifugal 1.7 1 Stainless Steel 1.5 6,470 $ 32,200 $
P-103 Centrifugal 0.5 1 Stainless Steel 3.5 6,170 $ 30,700 $
Towers Tower Description
Height
(meters)
Diameter
(meters) Tower MOC Demister MOC
Pressure
(barg)
Purchased
Equipment Cost
Bare Module
Cost
T-101 9.85 meters of Ceramic 12.3 1 Stainless Steel 2.41 24,800 .. 121,000 ..
T-102 20 Stainless Steel Sieve Trays 9.6 2.65 Stainless Steel 1.21 137,000 .. 562,000 ..
Vessels Orientation
Length/Height
(meters)
Diameter
(meters) MOC Demister MOC
Pressure
(barg)
Purchased
Equipment Cost
Bare Module
Cost
V-101 Horizontal 4.41 1.1 Stainles Steel 2 8,450 .. 52,500 ..
Total Bare Module Cost 2,229,100 $

184





Discounted Profitibility Criterion Non-Discounted Profitibility Criteria
Net Present Value (millions) 51.34 Cumulative Cash Position (millions) 117.17
Discounted Cash Flow Rate of Return 50.44% Rate of Return on Investment 72.06%
Discounted Payback Period (years) 1.5 Payback Period (years) 1.2
Year Investment dk FCIL-Sdk R COMd (R-COMd-dk)*(1-t)+dk
Cash Flow
(Non-discounted)
Cash Flow
(discounted)
Cumulative Cash
Flow (discounted)
Cumulative Cash Flow
(Non-discounted)
0 1.00 16.26 (1.00) (1.00) (1.00) (1.00)
1 9.76 16.26 (9.76) (8.87) (9.87) (10.76)
2 8.83 16.26 (8.83) (7.30) (17.17) (19.59)
3 1.46 13.17 34.20 12.54 13.18 13.18 9.90 (7.27) (6.41)
4 1.46 11.71 34.20 12.54 13.18 13.18 9.00 1.73 6.77
5 1.46 10.24 34.20 12.54 13.18 13.18 8.18 9.92 19.95
6 1.46 8.78 34.20 12.54 13.18 13.18 7.44 17.36 33.13
7 1.46 7.32 34.20 12.54 13.18 13.18 6.76 24.12 46.31
8 1.46 5.85 34.20 12.54 13.18 13.18 6.15 30.27 59.49
9 1.46 4.39 34.20 12.54 13.18 13.18 5.59 35.86 72.67
10 1.46 2.93 34.20 12.54 13.18 13.18 5.08 40.94 85.85
11 1.46 1.46 34.20 12.54 13.18 13.18 4.62 45.56 99.03
12 1.46 - 34.20 12.54 13.18 18.14 5.78 51.34 117.17
Economic Options
Cost of Land 1,000,000 $
Taxation Rate 42%
Annual Interest Rate 10%
Salvage Value 1,626,000 $
Working Capital 2,330,000 $
FCI
L
16,260,000 $
Total Module Factor 1.18
Grass Roots Factor 0.50
Economic Information Calculated From Given Information
Revenue From Sales 34,200,000 $
C
RM
(Raw Materials Costs) 6,722,144 $
C
UT
(Cost of Utilities) 310,329 $
C
WT
(Waste Treatment Costs) - $
C
OL
(Cost of Operating Labor) 351,232 $

185

3- SIMULATION


Net Present Value Data
Low NPV -172.9
High NPV 186.4
Bins Upper Value # points/bin Cumulative
0 -172.9 0 0
1 -137.0 5 5
2 -101.0 22 27
3 -65.1 74 101
4 -29.2 156 257
5 6.7 232 489
6 42.7 235 724
7 78.6 156 880
8 114.5 99 979
9 150.5 19 998
10 186.4 2 1000
0
250
500
750
1000
-200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250
C
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o
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t
s
Net Present Value (millions of dollars)
Discounted Cash Flow Rate of Return Data
Low DCFROR 0.00
High DCFROR 0.27
Bins Upper #/bin Cumulative
0 0.00 0 0
1 0.03 63 63
2 0.05 68 131
3 0.08 126 257
4 0.11 140 397
5 0.13 169 566
6 0.16 159 725
7 0.19 108 833
8 0.21 68 901
9 0.24 29 930
10 0.27 3 933
0
250
500
750
1000
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
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DCFROR

186

4- CASH FLOW DIAGRAM





187

Cost Analysis (MOC - Carbon Steel)
Total Bare Module Cost (C
BM
) By CAPCOST $ 1617600
Total Module Cost (C
TM
) By CAPCOST $ 1908768
Grassroots Cost or Fixed
Capital Investment (FCI)
By CAPCOST $ 15560000
Contingency Cost 0.15 C
BM
$ 242640
Fees Cost 0.03 C
BM
$ 48528
Cost of Manufacturing Without
Depreciation (COM
d
)
0.18 FCI+2.73 C
OL
+1.23(C
UT
+ C
WT
+C
RM
) $ 12409606
Cost Item
Equation Used for Calculation
(if available)
Value ($)
1. Direct Manufacturing cost
a. Raw Materials C
RM
6722144
b. Waste Treatment C
WT
0
c. Utilities C
UT
310329
d. Operating Labor C
OL
351232
e.
Direct Supervisory and
Electrical Labor
0.18 C
OL
63222
f. Maintenance and Repairs 0.06 FCI 933600
g. Operating Supplies 0.009 FCI 140040
h. Laboratory Charges 0.15 C
OL
52684.8
i. Patents and Royalties 0.03 COM 418968
2. Fixed Manufacturing Cost
a. Depreciation 0.1 FCI 1556000
b. Local Taxes and Insurance 0.032 FCI 497920
c. Plant Overhead Costs 0.708 C
OL
+ 0.036 FCI 808832
3. General Manufacturing Expenses
a. Administration Costs 0.177 C
OL
+ 0.009 FCI 202208
b.
Distribution and Selling
Costs
0.11 COM 1536217
c. Research & Development 0.05 COM 698280

188

Cost Analysis (MOC - Stainless Steel)
Total Bare Module Cost (C
BM
) By CAPCOST $ 2229100
Total Module Cost (C
TM
) By CAPCOST $ 2630338
Grassroots Cost or Fixed
Capital Investment (FCI)
By CAPCOST $ 16260000
Contingency Cost 0.15 C
BM
$ 334365
Fees Cost 0.03 C
BM
$ 66873
Cost of Manufacturing Without
Depreciation (COM
d
)
0.18 FCI+2.73 C
OL
+1.23(C
UT
+ C
WT
+C
RM
) $ 12535606
Cost Item
Equation Used for Calculation
(if available)
Value ($)
1. Direct Manufacturing cost
a. Raw Materials C
RM
6722144
b. Waste Treatment C
WT
0
c. Utilities C
UT
310329
d. Operating Labor C
OL
351232
e.
Direct Supervisory and
Electrical Labor
0.18 C
OL
63222
f. Maintenance and Repairs 0.06 FCI 975600
g. Operating Supplies 0.009 FCI 146340
h. Laboratory Charges 0.15 C
OL
52684.8
i. Patents and Royalties 0.03 COM 424848
2. Fixed Manufacturing Cost
a. Depreciation 0.1 FCI 1626000
b. Local Taxes and Insurance 0.032 FCI 520320
c. Plant Overhead Costs 0.708 C
OL
+ 0.036 FCI 834032
3. General Manufacturing Expenses
a. Administration Costs 0.177 C
OL
+ 0.009 FCI 208508
b.
Distribution and Selling
Costs
0.11 COM 1557777
c. Research & Development 0.05 COM 708080

189


3- DECISION FOR CONSTRUCTION

Based upon the previously conducted study for the estimation of the capital
cost for the construction of the plants equipment using carbon steel &
stainless steel, a decision has been made to go for the SS scenario of MOC.
This decision is based upon the following items:
Total Bare Module Cost:
The CS project costs $ 1617600, while the SS model costs $ 2229100. This
advantage of the CS model is not large compared to the yearly revenue after
two years of construction.

Payback Period & Rate of Return:
The ROR for the CS model is 52.22 % and the discounted PBP is 1.4 years. The
ROR for the SS model is 50.44 % and the discounted PBP is 1.5 years. These
small differences can be economically tolerated over the assumed minimum
years of plant lifetime which favors the one with highest lifetime - stainless
steel.

Salvage Value:
Carbon steel has a moderate resistance to corrosion by formaldehyde at
elevated temperatures. This requires regular maintenance and reduces the
life time of the equipment. Stainless steel is much more durable to corrosion
and increases the life time of the plant. This has an impact on the salvage
value at the end of the plants lifetime. The increase of Stainless Steel salvage
value over the carbon steel adds to the strong suits of the SS model to be
chosen for the material of construction.


187

CONCLUSION
Our Chemical Engineering senior project design was aimed to bring forth an
integrated detailed design for the PRODUCTION OF FORMALDEHYDE FROM
METHANOL. This project covered several aspects of the plants design
including firstly a literature background on the production of formaldehyde
through different routes. Rigorous comprehensive mass and energy balances
were done throughout the plant including the reaction area. The third task
was set to simulate the process to obtain an optimized view of the plants
operations. The fourth task was the detailed design and sizing of the plants
equipment including the three major units in the plant; the reactor, the
absorber and the distillation column. The final task was to estimate the
economical feasibly of the formaldehyde manufacturing process. The
guidance and support from our mentor prof. Shawabkeh is much
appreciated, and the knowledge he passed on to us is something to
cherished, so for that we express our deep gratitude.













188

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189

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