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Hematological malignancy

Hematological malignancies (British spelling "Haematological" malignancies) are the types
of cancer that affect blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes. As the three are intimately connected
through the immune system, a disease affecting one of the three will often affect the others as well:
although lymphoma is a disease of the lymph nodes, it often spreads to the bone marrow, affecting
the blood and occasionally producing a paraprotein.
While uncommon in solid tumors, chromosomal translocations are a common cause of these
diseases. This commonly leads to a different approach in diagnosis and treatment of hematological
Hematological malignancies are malignant neoplasms ("cancer"), and they are generally treated by
specialists in hematology and/or oncology. In some centers "Hematology/oncology" is a single
subspecialty of internal medicine while in others they are considered separate divisions (there are
also surgical and radiation oncologists). Not allhematological disorders are malignant ("cancerous");
these other blood conditions may also be managed by a hematologist.
Hematological malignancies may derive from either of the two major blood cell
lineages: myeloid and lymphoid cell lines. The myeloid cell line normally
produces granulocytes,erythrocytes, thrombocytes, macrophages and mast cells; the lymphoid cell
line produces B, T, NK and plasma cells. Lymphomas, lymphocytic leukemias, and myeloma are from
the lymphoid line, while acute and chronic myelogenous leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and
myeloproliferative diseases are myeloid in origin.
Skin cancer
Skin cancers (skin neoplasms) are named after the type of skin cell from which they arise. Basal
cell cancer originates from the lowest layer of the epidermis, and is the most common but least
dangerous skin cancer. Squamous cell cancer originates from the middle layer, and is less common
but more likely to spread and, if untreated, become fatal.Melanoma, which originates in the pigment-
producing cells (melanocytes), is the least common, but most aggressive, most likely to spread and, if
untreated, become fatal.

Most cases are caused by over-exposure to UV rays from the sun or sunbeds.
Treatment is
generally via surgical removal.
Melanoma has one of the higher survival rates among cancers, with over 75% of people surviving 10
years in the UK during 2005–2007.
In the UK in 2010, 12,818 people were diagnosed with malignant
melanoma, and about 100,000 people were diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancer. There were
2,746 deaths from skin cancer, 2,203 from malignant melanoma and 546 from non-malignant
In the US in 2008, 59,695 people were diagnosed with melanoma, and 8,623 people
died from it.

Ultraviolet radiation from sun exposure is the primary cause of skin cancer.
Other factors that
play a role include:
 Smoking tobacco

 HPV infections increase the risk of squamous cell carcinoma.

 Some genetic syndromes
including congenital melanocytic nevi syndrome which is
characterized by the presence of nevi (birthmarks or moles) of varying size which are either
present at birth, or appear within 6 months of birth. Nevi larger than 20 mm (3/4") in size are at
higher risk for becoming cancerous.
 Chronic non-healing wounds.
These are called Marjolin's ulcers based on their appearance,
and can develop into squamous cell carcinoma.
 Ionizing radiation, environmental carcinogens, artificial UV radiation (e.g. tanning beds), aging,
and light skin color.
It is believed that tanning beds are the cause of hundreds of thousands of
basal and squamous cell carcinomas.
The World Health Organization now places people who
use artificial tanning beds in its highest risk category for skin cancer.

 The use of many immunosuppressive medication increase the risk of skin cancer. Cyclosporin A,
a calcineurin inhibitor for example increases the risk approximately 200 times,
and azathioprine about 60 times.

Human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is
a disease of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV).
During the initial infection, a person may experience a brief period of influenza-like
illness. This is typically followed by a prolonged period without symptoms. As the illness progresses, it
interferes more and more with the immune system, making the person much more likely to get
infections, including opportunistic infectionsand tumors that do not usually affect people who have
working immune systems.
Malaria parasites belong to the genus Plasmodium (phylum Apicomplexa). In humans, malaria is
caused by P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale, P. vivax and P. knowlesi.
Among those
infected, P. falciparum is the most common species identified (~75%) followed
by P. vivax (~20%).
Although P. falciparum traditionally accounts for the majority of deaths,
evidence suggests that P. vivax malaria is associated with potentially life-threatening conditions about
as often as with a diagnosis of P. falciparum infection.
P. vivax proportionally is more common
outside of Africa.
There have been documented human infections with several species
ofPlasmodium from higher apes; however, with the exception of P. knowlesi—a zoonotic species that
causes malaria in macaques
—these are mostly of limited public health importance.

Typhoid fever
Typhoid fever — also known simply as typhoid
— is a common worldwide bacterial disease
transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person, which
contain the bacterium Salmonella enterica enterica, serovar Typhi.

The disease has received various names, such as gastric fever, abdominal typhus, infantile
remittant fever, slow fever, nervous fever and pythogenic fever. The name typhoidmeans
"resembling typhus" and comes from the neuropsychiatric symptoms common to typhoid and
Despite this similarity of their names, typhoid fever and typhus are distinct diseases and are
caused by different species of bacteria.

The impact of this disease fell sharply in the developed world with the application of 20th-century
sanitation techniques.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung—affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs
known as alveoli.
It is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly
other microorganisms, certain drugs and other conditions such as autoimmune diseases.

Typical symptoms include a cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.
Diagnostic tools
include x-rays and culture of the sputum. Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are
available. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Pneumonia presumed to be bacterial is
treated with antibiotics. If the pneumonia is severe, the affected person is, in general, admitted to
Pneumonia affects approximately 450 million people globally per year, seven percent of population,
and results in about 4 million deaths, mostly in third-world countries. Although pneumonia was
regarded by William Osler in the 19
century as "the captain of the men of death",
the advent of
antibiotic therapy and vaccines in the 20
century has seen improvements in survival.
in developing countries, and among the very old, the very young, and the chronically ill, pneumonia
remains a leading cause of death
Common cold
The common cold (also known as nasopharyngitis, rhinopharyngitis, acute coryza, head cold,
or simply a cold) is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract which primarily affects the
nose. Symptoms include coughing, sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, and fever which usually resolve
in seven to ten days, with some symptoms lasting up to three weeks. Well over 200 viruses are
implicated in the cause of the common cold; the rhinoviruses are the most common.
Upper respiratory tract infections are loosely divided by the areas they affect, with the common cold
primarily affecting the nose, the throat (pharyngitis), and the sinuses (sinusitis), occasionally involving
either or both eyes via conjunctivitis. Symptoms are mostly due to the body's immune response to the
infection rather than to tissue destruction by the viruses themselves. The primary method of
prevention is by hand washing with some evidence to support the effectiveness of wearing face
masks. The common cold may occasionally lead to pneumonia, either viral pneumonia or
secondary bacterial pneumonia.
The common cold is a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. The most commonly implicated
virus is a rhinovirus (30–80%), a type of picornavirus with 99 known serotypes.
include: human coronavirus (~15%),
influenza viruses (10-15%),
adenoviruses (5%),
parainfluenza viruses, human respiratory syncytial virus,enteroviruses other than rhinoviruses,
and metapneumovirus.
Frequently more than one virus is present.
In total over 200 different viral
types are associated with colds.

The common cold virus is typically transmitted via airborne droplets (aerosols), direct contact with
infected nasal secretions, or fomites (contaminated objects).
Which of these routes is of primary
importance has not been determined; however, hand-to-hand and hand-to-surface-to-hand contact
seems of more importance than transmission via aerosols.
The viruses may survive for prolonged
periods in the environment (over 18 hours for rhinoviruses) and can be picked up by people's hands
and subsequently carried to their eyes or nose where infection occurs.
Transmission is common in
daycare and at school due to the proximity of many children with little immunity and frequently poor
These infections are then brought home to other members of the family.
There is no
evidence that recirculated air during commercial flight is a method of transmission.
people sitting in proximity appear at greater risk.
Rhinovirus-caused colds are most infectious
during the first three days of symptoms; they are much less infectious afterwards.

The traditional folk theory is that a cold can be "caught" by prolonged exposure to cold weather such
as rain or winter conditions, which is how the disease got its name.
Some of the viruses that cause
the common colds are seasonal, occurring more frequently during cold or wet weather.
The reason
for the seasonality has not been conclusively determined.
This may occur due to cold induced
changes in the respiratory system,
decreased immune response,
and low humidity increasing
viral transmission rates, perhaps due to dry air allowing small viral droplets to disperse farther and
stay in the air longer.
It may be due to social factors, such as people spending more time indoors,
near an infected person,
and specifically children at school.
There is some controversy over
the role of body cooling as a risk factor for the common cold; the majority of the evidence suggests
that it may result in greater susceptibility to infection.

Dermatophytosis or ringworm is a clinical condition caused by fungal infection of the skin in
humans, pets such as cats, and domesticated animals such as sheep and cattle. The term "ringworm"
is a misnomer, since the condition is caused by fungi of several different species and not by parasitic
worms. The fungi that cause parasitic infection(dermatophytes) feed on keratin, the material found in
the outer layer of skin, hair, and nails. These fungi thrive on skin that is warm and moist, but may also
survive directly on the outsides of hair shafts or in their interiors. In pets, the fungus responsible for
the disease survives in skin and on the outer surface of hairs.
It has been estimated that currently up to twenty percent
[citation needed]
of the population may be infected
by ringworm or one of the other dermatophytoses. It is especially common among people who play
sports, wrestling in particular. Wrestlers with ringworm may be withheld from competition until their
skin condition is deemed non-infectious by the proper authorities.

Misdiagnosis and treatment of ringworm with a topical steroid, a standard treatment of the superficially
similar pityriasis rosea, can result in tinea incognito, a condition where ringworm fungus will grow
without typical features like a distinctive raised border.
What causes ringworm?
Ringworm is not caused by a worm. It is caused by a fungus. The kinds of fungi (plural of fungus) that
cause ringworm live and spread on the top layer of the skin and on the hair. They grow best in warm,
moist areas, such as locker rooms andswimming pools, and in skin folds.
Ringworm is contagious. It spreads when you have skin-to-skin contact with a person or animal that
has it. It can also spread when you share things like towels, clothing, or sports gear.
You can also get ringworm by touching an infected dog or cat, although this form of ringworm is not