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Faculty of Computing

,
Engineering & Technology
Communications
COMMS (CE700038-2)
Alison L Carrington
C203
A.L.Carrington@staffs.ac.uk
www.fcet.staffs.ac.uk/alg1
2008/9
Multiplexing, (FDM, TDM, CDM)
& mobile communications
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Overview & Objectives
Introduction
Multiplexing Schemes
FDM, TDM & CDM
History/future of Mobile communication
systems
1G, 2G, 3G & 4G?
Mobile Multiple Access Schemes
Advantages and disadvantages
FDMA, TDMA, CDMA & Combinations
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Introduction (1)
Multiplexing: name given to techniques which
allow more than one message to be transferred
via the same communication channel.
Channel: could be a transmission line
Twisted pair
Co-axial cable
A radio system
Fibre optic cable
Etc..
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Introduction (2)
Channel will offer a specified bandwidth, which
is available for a time, t, where t->∞.
With reference to the channel there are 3
‘degrees of freedom’
Bandwidth or frequency
Time
Code
Channel
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Bandwidth
freq
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Introduction (3)
Multiplexing are techniques which
allow k users to occupy a channel
for the duration in time, that the
channel is available
freq
time
code
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Multiplexing
It costs significant amounts to change a
telephone system, not least the cost of the
“construction”
Hence the more calls you can pump down a
cable the more profitable the cable becomes
Telco’s (Telephone companies) have
developed elaborate multiplexing schemes
The schemes can be divided into three
categories
Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM)
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)
Code Division Multiplexing (CDM)
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Sharing a medium
Time division multiplexing brought digital
technology to mobile communications
Recall, “multiplexing describes how several
users can share the same medium with
minimum or no interference” [Schiller 2003]
In mobile communications multiplexing can be
applied in 4 dimensions
Space
Frequency
Time
Code
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Space Division Multiplexing (SDM)
Premise that if we have entities wishing to
communicate using a single channel, then as long as
we space them far enough apart interference will not
occur
To reduce further, the risk of interference place guard
space between the frequency spaces
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Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM)
Divides the available frequency into non-overlapping
bands with guard spaces between to avoid overlapping
(adjacent channel interference)
Receiver only has to know the frequency to tune in to
Used in analogue systems
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Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)
Allows access to entire frequency bandwidth but for a
limited amount of time
All senders use same frequency in at different time
If two transmissions overlap known as co-channel
interference
Precise clock synchronisation required
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Combining FDM/TDM
By allowing a channel to use a certain frequency for a
certain period of time more efficient use of resource is
achieved
More robust against interference and tapping
This is the scheme used by GSM between the handset
and base station
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Combining FDM/TDM
Requires coordination between the different
senders
Two senders will interfere if they select the
same frequency
To avoid this the senders hop between
frequencies:
if the hop is fast enough the period of interference
may be so small that if the coding of the data signal
is sufficient to allow the receiver to recover the data
the interference is deemed acceptable
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Code Division Multiplexing (CDM)
All channels use the same frequency, however,
each channel is given its own unique code
Each code must be sufficiently orthogonal to
allow appropriate guard spaces
Large range of codes provides significant
expansion, security, etc
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Code Division Multiplexing (CDM)
Highly complex scheme
Receiver has to know the code & be able to
separate out other traffic on different codes
which appear as background noise
Receiver & transmitter must be synchronised to
provide correct decoding
All signals must reach the receiver with
relatively equal strength or the receiver will not
be able to distinguish between them
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Mobile Introduction
Public mobile radio services developed during
the 1950’s
With a limited coverage area
With a service available to a limited number of
subscribers.
The rapid development of radio and electronic
technology made possible the development of
cellular systems during the 1980’s.
During the 1990’s, digital cellular radio was
introduced
During the 2000’s truly multimedia tether less
communications will be introduced
This section provides a review of these
developments
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Radio Band Classification
100-10km 3-30kHz VLF Very Low frequency
10-1m 30-300MHz VHF Very high frequency
1000 -10m 3-30MHz HF High frequency
1-0.1cm 30-300GHz EHF Extra high frequency
10-1cm 3-30GHz SHF Super high frequency
100-10m 300-3000MHz UHF Ultra high frequency
1000-100m 300-3000kHz MF Medium frequency
10-1km 30-300kHz LF Low frequency
λ Range Freq Range ABB Classification
The frequency & corresponding wavelength may be
determined using c = f λ, with c = 3x10
8
m/s, f = frequency in Hz
& λ = wavelength in metres.
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Worldwide cellular subscriber growth
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
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Note that the curve starts to flatten in 2000
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller, http://www.jochenschiller.de/
http:/ / www.cellular-news.com/ story/ 30361.php
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Cellular subscribers per region (June 2002)
Asia Pacific;
36,9
Europe; 36,4
Americas (incl.
USA/Canada);
22
Africa; 3,1
Middle East;
1,6
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller, http://www.jochenschiller.de/
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Medium Access Control (MAC)
Whilst SDM, FDM, TDM, CDM describe how the
medium is accessed at the physical layer, how
the selected multiplexing scheme is “regulated”
is called the Medium Access scheme
(equivalent to OSI Layer 2 the Data Link Layer)
In mobile this layer is divided between the
Logical Link Control (2b) and the MAC (2a)
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Medium Access Control (MAC)
Why can we not simply use proven data MAC’s
such ac CSMA/CD used on ethernet?
On a fixed wire, the propagation etc, is a known
factor, the sender is responsible for detecting
collisions, etc. If collision occurs everyone using the
medium will be aware
In wireless networks attenuation, etc means signal
decreases as it propagates out from the transmitter,
therefore a collision may occur but will not be
detected by the sender
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The role of the Access Scheme
Clearly conventional digital access
schemes cannot be transferred to mobile
Each access scheme has its own solution
Mobile networks use a combination of
the schemes to overcome the problems
Space Division Multiple Access
Frequency Division Multiple Access
Time Division Multiple Access
Code Division Multiple Access
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Telephone Network
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Cellular Communication System
Cellular telephones are personally portable devices that
may be used in motor vehicles or by pedestrians
communicating by radio-wave at 800-900-MHz band
they permit a significant
degree of mobility within a
defined serving region that
may be hundreds of square
kilometers in area.
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Cellular Telephone System
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Cellular Coverage
The geographic area to be served by a cellular
radio system is broken up into smaller
geographic areas, or cells.
Uniform hexagons most frequently are
employed to represent these cells on maps and
diagrams;
In practice, though, radio-waves do not confine
themselves to hexagonal areas, so that the
actual cells have irregular shapes.
All communication with a mobile or portable
instrument within a given cell is made to the
base station that serves the cell.
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Cellular Migration Paths
First Major Migration Path
I Gen, 80’s, ETACS (C-450,NMT-450..), (FDMA),
Analogue
II Gen 90’s - GSM,
II.5 Gen - GPRS, EDGE, (TDMA) Digital
III Gen, 00’s, W-CDMA , (CDMA), All Digital
Second Major Migration Path
I Gen, 80’s, AMPS, (FDMA), Analogue
II Gen, 90’s, IS-54 (TDMA), IS-95 (CDMA), Digital
III Gen, 00’s, Cdma2000 (CDMA), All Digital
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Mobile Communication #1
Two aspects of mobility:
user mobility: users communicate (wireless)
“anytime, anywhere, with anyone”
device portability: devices can be connected
anytime, anywhere to the network
Example Wireless vs Mobile
Stationary PC
Laptop in a hotel
Wireless LAN in
historic building
Personal Digital Assistant
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Mobile Communication #3
The demand for mobile communication creates
the need for integration of wireless networks
into existing fixed networks:
local area networks: standardization of IEEE
802.11,ETSI (HIPERLAN)
Internet: Mobile IP extension of the internet
protocol IP
wide area networks: e.g., internetworking of GSM
and ISDN
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Mobile Communication #4
Started with Mobile phones
Which were voice only
Limited battery life
Limited roaming capability
Limited quality
Unsecured
Advent of Digital phones
Allowed for better use of this phone technology
Allowed the user to roam and receive calls
anywhere
Call were encrypted
The use of digital communications allowed data calls
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Mobile Communication #5
Roaming capability
Brought forward technology
Dual/Tri Band phones
Satellite phones
Expensive about £1.20 a minute for a world phone call
This allowed the user to move from the office/home
environment and still be connected.
Laptops
As computers got smaller it was now possible to carry it with
you
As the computer is available the data was required for
it
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Mobile Communication #6
Data Use
GSM phones allowed 9.6 Kbps data communications
Enough for email and simple file transfers
SMS messaging is the most popular data use
Voice calls are coming to the peak of the popularity
Additional avenues of revenue are required
Increased data is a obvious choice
Charge the user for the packet received
Charge for the services they are accessing
i.e. Football results service
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Personal Communication Services (PCS)
We will soon have the ability for anyone to access
digital information like the Internet.
Unlike the Internet, there will be value added service
from day one
Video on Demand
Paying your credit card bill
Ordering services
Value added services will be the primary goal of the
PCS
This will be needed to pay for the infrastructure and licenses
paid for
Each user will be able to view the information as they
want it
Central control will not be put upon on the users
Differing levels of hardware capability will effect the end
presentation
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Applications
Vehicles
transmission of news, road condition, weather, music via DAB
personal communication using GSM
position via GPS
local ad-hoc network with vehicles close-by to prevent
accidents, guidance system, redundancy
vehicle data (e.g., from busses, high-speed trains) can be
transmitted in advance for maintenance
Emergencies
early transmission of patient data to the hospital, current
status, first diagnosis
replacement of a fixed infrastructure in case of earthquakes,
hurricanes, fire etc.
crisis, war, ...
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Typical Application – Road Traffic
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Mobile & Wireless Services: Best Connected
GSM 53 kbit/s
Bluetooth 500 kbit/s
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Evolution path of cellular communication
1G
2G
2.5G
3G
4G
Analogue Digital Multimedia
1980’s
1990’s
2000 +
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Tutorial - For Each Generation 1-4G define:
Strengths
Weaknesses
Technical
Specification
Reasons to
Upgrade
?G
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Solution: 1G Technology #1
Strengths
Fairly High Range – Up to 50 miles from BS
Uses FDMA to increase potential users
Cell based network allows for the same frequency to be reused
within different cells
Weaknesses
High Power Usage – Required large battery
Finite amount of possible phone numbers provided by the
service
No counteraction for noise, or scanning due to being an
analogue signal
Interference with radio
Limited capacity due to available spectrum
Calls disconnected due to handover – no priority
Voice only traffic
Roaming was impossible due to different standards
Expansion difficult – frequency planning
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Solution: 1G Technology #2
Technical Specifications
Range of 50 km
AMPS (advanced mobile phone system) base
Uses a hexagonal cell based network
AMPS Operates on a signal range of 800 MHz
Analogue AMPS, TACS, NMT, FDMA
TACS uses 900 MHz, 25 kHz channels, 1000 channels
Reasons to Upgrade
High power usage
The amount of phones trying to be used exceeded the possible
usage
Analogue Technology prone to scanning or noise (security)
Increased demand
Smaller devices
Tracking of device
Interference limited also improved error checking
Ability to expand the network
Requirement for standard design rather than many (e.g. tacs, amps)
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Solution: 2G Technology #1
Strengths
Voice data can be compressed allowing greater throughput
Less power intensive – longer battery life, small batteries
Digital error checking removes noise
Introduction of SMS and email availability on mobile handsets
(digital data services)
Harder to intercept digital signals and reduced scanning
Less signal power needed on handset so cells can be made
smaller
Clearer voice data
GSM allows signal roaming
Standards based allows roaming
Provides security
Expanded capacity – digital based more efficient
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Solution: 2G Technology #2
Weaknesses
Digital signals can produce dropouts rather than a
static noise
Smaller cells cause some phones to struggle to
receive a reasonable signal strength
Loss of tone on voice
Limited data on control channel
Designed for voice
Still not one standard throughout the globe
Difficult to expand network – freq planning required
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Solution: 2G Technology #3
Technical Specifications
GSM (European standard)
Operates in 4 different signal ranges (900 MHz or
1800 MHz for European and 850 MHZ or 1900 MHZ
on the American Continent.
25 MHz bandwidth is divided into 124 carrier
frequency channels, each spaced 200 kHz apart.
Uses TDMA (Time Division Multiplexing) to give 8
full rate or 16 half rate speech channels per radio
frequency channel.
Transmission power of 2 watt in 850/900 and 1 watt
in 1800/ 1900.
22 km range on GSM
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Solution: 2G Technology #4
Uses a GMSK (Gaussian minimum-shift keying) a
modulation which is a continuous phase frequency
shift keying which reduces interference from cross
channel
Introduced the SIM (Subscriber Identity module) to
contain the users subscription information and
phone book.
Reasons to Upgrade
Support more users, higher data rates are required
Use of more data centric applications
Requirement for a single global standard
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Solution: 2.5G Technology #1
Strengths
Frees up control channel
Higher data rate then 2G and 1G due to dedicated channels
GPRS
Added the application of WAP
Enabled to work within the GSM technology framework with little
in the way of change
Data is sent in packets thus lowering the resource requirements
Capable of switching between voice and data communications
and also providing simultaneous data and voice transfer
Packet and voice roaming possible
EDGE
Improved air interface technology
QOS supported
Builds on GPRS technology
3 times faster than GPRS
Improved forward error checking
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Solution: 2.5G Technology #2
Weaknesses
To use GPRS you need a GSM device
Still not a global standard
Due to backward compatibility system not designed
optimally
Because channels dedicated to packets there are
less voice channel available
No 2.5G evolution in USA
Uplink and downlink is still symmetrical
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Solution: 2.5G Technology #3
Technical Specifications
FDM, FDMA and TDMA
Users can access more than 1 channel at a time
hence the higher data rates. Data channels are
shared.
GPRS
QPSK modulation
171 kbps theoretical maximum data rate, actual 30 – 40
Kbps
EDGE
384 kbps theoretical, 80 – 100 actual. Increases down to
change in coding schemes
8PSK modulation
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Solution: 2.5G Technology #4
Reasons to Upgrade
Still not fully compatible globally
Voice and data still treated separately – require a
standard so multimedia can be transmitted and
received
Higher data rates and increased capacity
Higher security measures (CDMA is more difficult to
intercept therefore more secure)
Dynamically allocated direction of channel (TDM)
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Solution: 3G Technology #1
W-CDMA replaced TDMA to increase the amount of users and
allow higher speeds
Strengths
3 different data rates based on distance. 2Mbps for fixed in building
services (Pico cell), 384 kbps in urban environments (micro cell) and
144 in wide area mobile environments (macro cell) in FDD mode with
a modulation of QPSK
UMTS Incorporates the developments made for the GPRS and EDGE
networks
Without the chipping code the data is essentially useless so a
moderate level of security (scrambling codes can be used)
Ability to extend network easily by adding cells or sectoring existing
cells
Capacity not limited by bandwidth but other user interference
Higher data rate then previously and also is flexible and variable
depends on cell size, user mobility and requirements.
Dynamic allocation of bandwidth, i.e. direction of flow (TDD)
Power control can save battery
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Solution: 3G Technology #2
Weaknesses
Still not one single global standard i.e. frequencies, duplex,
multiple access technique, nodes in infrastructure – due to
backward compatibility issues
Expensive licences – pass cost to user. Not fair competition i.e.
not many providers (operators) difficult for new operators
Lack of coverage – too new hence migration to standard
systems
Always on = drain of battery
Power control – requires signalling therefore a drain on
resources
Technical Specifications
Uses 3 main technical implications - UMTS (Europe),
CDMA2000(America) and TD-SCDMA (China)
UMTS uses ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Method) which allows
circuit switched transfer of data using packets
UMTS using ATM also allows a high speed of data transfer up
to 10Gbps and provides a QOS for the duration of packet
transfer.
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Solution: 3G Technology #3
Technical Spec continued….
UMTS uses Wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA)
which uses 10x the current processing power of 2G to encode
the signal and is done with QPSK
W-CDMA supports two modes of operation TDD (time division
duplex) and FDD (frequency division duplex)
W-CDMA allows multiple users to communicate at the same
time over the same frequency. Utilising “Chipping Codes”
which is supplied by the base station to the device. The
chipping code is used to identify the signals from the device
and it can also be used to adjust the frequency of data
transferred during the transfer.
UMTS uses 5Mhz for the signal and CDMA uses only 200 KHz
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Solution: 3G Technology #4
Reasons to upgrade
1 standard required
1 device should connect to fixed network
best/fast/lowest error rate
Reconfigure itself dynamically
Software radio
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Solution: Reasons for Future G???? #1
Higher data rates, more secure and more reliable
Single Standard
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency division modulation)
QAM (Quadrature amplitude modulation)
MIMO (Multiple input, multiple output) antenna arrays
Killer app – What will be the new application that is a
must for phone technology
Single device that can reconfigure itself dependant on
access method
I.e. pda phone/laptop, personal organiser in one!
Mp3 player
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Solution: Reasons for Future G???? #2
Beheshti, B.
“Study of the technology migration path
of the cellular wireless industry from 3G
to 3.5G and beyond”;
Long Island Systems, Applications and
Technology, 2005. IEEE Conference
6 May, 2005 Page(s):15 - 28
o
3
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5
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L
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I
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S
y
s
t
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m
s
,
A
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Solution: Development of 4G - Future
Voice
Packet
Switched
M
3
Circuit
Switched
Fixed
Network:
ATM, IPv4/6,
Diff Serv, MPLS
PSTN, ISDN
xDSL
Wireless
Personal Area
Net (WPAN)
Mobile
Access Network
(UTRAN)
Hierarchical
Cell Structure
M
3
Satellite
Access
Network
Bluetooth, WI-FI, WLAN, Cellular, Satellite
Ad-Hoc
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Overlay Networks - the global goal
regional
metropolitan area
campus-based
in-house
vertical
handover
horizontal
handover
integration of heterogeneous fixed and
mobile networks with varying
transmission characteristics
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jochen Schiller, http://www.jochenschiller.de/