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topiary (tpr)

adj
1
.
of, relating to, or characterized by the trimming or training of trees or bu
shes into artificial decorativeanimal, geometric, or other shapes

Of Roman Origin?
The Romans are usually credited for the origin of topiaries, a theory that is strengthened
by the fact that the first written descriptions of topiaries came from the Romans. Roman
writers Pliny the Elder (A.D. 23 to 79) and his nephew, Pliny the Younger (A.D. c. 63 to
113) made references to topiary in their writings. By the end of the first century, topiary
flourished, particularly among the Roman Empire's wealthy.
May Be of Other Origin
However, some historians believe that people like the Egyptians and the Jews actually
introduced the art to the Romans. There are surviving paintings that show Egyptian
gardens that exhibit the characteristics of topiary, and Jews were among the slaves in
charge of garden maintenance in Rome.


Read more : http://www.ehow.com/about_5444967_history-topiaries.html

Definition of Topiary:
A garden or household having shrubs or plants clipped and trained into
decorative shapes.

History of Topiary Plants

It is not known when the first topiary was created, but we do know that
the ancient Romans mastered the art form and as Rome fell into the dark
ages so went the art style. But in the 12th century there came a new way of life and
the love of topiary swept across Europe.

Monks decorated there monasteries, Britain's royal gardeners thrilled and
captivated the royal families and eventually the world. Today you can find
topiaries in just about every fine home and garden. And don't forget at
Disneyland.

Design of Topiary Garden
Topiaries shapes or designs could be cones, gumdrops, balls, and animals. Small and large hedges
are also considered topiaries though they are seldom called that. Huge European gardens had
complex low clipped hedges created in geometric designs called parterres. Knot gardens were
identical in design but quite smaller and consisted mostly of herbs. Potted topiaries were popular
and were placed in the doorways or used to line or surround courtyards. Trees trimmed into cloud
shapes and replica of bonzai trees were Japanese style of topiary.
Architecture of Topiary Garden
The architecture of topiary garden is quite aesthetic and mesmerizing. The topiaries showcase
three types of architecture.
In the first architecture, the plants are planted in a landscape or in the containers. A special kind
of wire is placed over the plants. After this the plants are adjusted by trimming and then trained to
obtain and fill the required design.
In the second form of topiary garden architecture the plants are grown in ground or
the containers. Only the woody plants are trimmed and trained to reach the designed shapes on
their own.
In the third type of the topiary garden architecture, Sphagnum wet moss is used which is filled
into the forms and plants and then grown in the moss and are smaller in size. These are delicate
and require more maintenance and are not for sunny, hot and stormy places.



CAVE PAINTINGS
Who and why?
Cro-magnon man. Different artists added paintings to same cave wall. They had to crawl
throughnarrow tunnels to get there, so it was not easy. Not decorating their home.Different
theories:1.

Hunting magic (catch more animals)2.

Shamans painting their visions3.

Teenage boys drawing things they are interested in (but also women)
When?
Oldest cave paintings between 35000 and 30,000 years ago.
Where?
France and Spain (oldest), but cave paintings have been found all over the world.
What materials?
Hematite, red and yellow ochre, charcoal (use this for own paintings?) and manganese oxide
What subjects?
Mainly animals, quite realistic. Tracings of hands. Abstract patterns. Sometimes people, but
they aremuch more sketchy and less realistic than the animals.