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Okay, so
we can summarize
the decision
model on this
slide.
So, there are three critical stages of
decision making.
First, detectors in the MIT area,
accumulate detect information in about the
motion.
So next,.
Integrators or decision making neurons in
the area LIP integrate
this information over time, and at the
same time these
neurons inhibit alternative decisions, and
finally if the activity or
one of this integrator reaches a decision
making its [UNKNOWN] called.
It activates the motor neurons in the area
FIF field, the
frontal eye field and animals switches the
gaze in the same directions.
So, we see here very basic fundamental
model of the decision make.
So, why do we need this inhibitory
connections?
Between the integrators.
I think it makes sense to have the stage.
And I would illustrate you this idea by
two models.
So, if we remove the inhibitory
connections, we
actually would see a so called race model.
So, according to the race model.
Decisions can be programmed independently.
So, image that decisions for alternatives
for different choices can be actually
programmed by independent neuron
populations, so
they can collect sensory evidences
independently.
And the first most active neuron decision
making neuron will
wins the race and will, will activate
their motor neurons.
So, in this case there are
separate integrators that accumulate
evidences for alternatives.
In the diffusion model that I just
presented to you, actually
this network compares evidences for
alternatives, so inhibitory connections
between integrators.
Actually allows a comparison between the
evidences for decision A and decision B.
Now many models shows that actually the
diffusion process is
more effective, and quite often faster
than the race model.
Let's summarize the race model and
diffusion model.
The race model.
Choice, is made as soon as integrated
evidence
in support of the one alternative exceeds
this threshold.
And in this case, different choices are
programmed
independently, and the fastest process
wins the race.
But, in the diffusion model, the decision
is finalized whenever
the difference between the evidences for
two alternatives reaches a threshold.
So, this model actually is sensitive to
the differences between the evidences for
alternatives.
So, let's make a look to two hypothetical
situations.
In this situations, there is the same
amount of evidences for the right side
motion.
But, the different different amount of
evidences for the left motion.
For the race model it does make a big
difference, according to the race model,
any will, will make a choice to switch
gaze right, it
will make the choice with equal speed in
the situation one and situation
two, simply because the decision making
process
accumulation of information for
alternatives is independent.
According to their diffusion model, any
model
will make choice faster in the first
situation.
Decision making neurons will achieve, the
decision
threshold faster in the first situation,
because
the network in the diffusion model
calculates
the difference for the evidences for
alternatives.
So I would illustrate this adaptive
mechanism here.
So neurons, decision making neurons,
according to the race model,
will gradually increase activity
proportional
to the evidences for the alternatives.
For the, situation ones there is no
conflict of alternative.
And for the situation everyone's always
conflict of alternatives.
Basically the fastest neuron will win the
race.
And since this neuron is not effected by
the alternative
the reaction time will be the same in both
conditions.
Where there's a diffusion model.
This decision making neuron compares
evidences [INAUDIBLE].
So, when there was a clear difference in
the evidences
for alternatives, this neuron, this
neuronal network, will achieve the
decision threshold faster than in the
situation when there is
a conflict of alternatives, when
alternatives are close to each other.
So, diffusion model reacts adaptively to
the levels of evidences supporting the
alternatives.
And this adaptive mechanism is not present
in the race model.
So, it looks like is more effective to use
the diffusion model.
And actually, what do we see at the brain
level?
Perhaps neurons actually use the diffusion
approach.
And importantly, the diffusion model can
produce faster decisions.
So this is a relatively simple model, but
this
model helps us to understand various
aspects of decisions.
If we will see the decision making
process, as a diffusion process.
For example, we can explain our decision
biases.
So what is a bias?
It can be simply a difference of the
starting point of the diffusion process.
Imagine that neurons are pre-activated,
and, in this case, the accumulation of
information will be faster, because simply
neurons will reach the decision threshold
faster.
It can be that the information is
processed more deeply,
so we are more careful with the processing
of information.
And it would mean the slower accumulation
of their activity of the decision making
neurons.
So, in this model, it is called drift
rate.
So, in this case, if we are slowly and
more slowly processing the information.
The drift rate will be smaller.
Sometimes perhaps we can be ready to make
decision very quickly with some costs so.
We can even make some mistakes.
In this case we can even lower the thresh
hold for the decision making.
So, this simple model can help us to
explain various aspects of the decision
making process.
So, actually the diffusion process can be
implemented
very differently at the level of the
brain.
So, here I show you three.
Different designs of the neural low
networks that can
actually implement the diffusion process
during the decision making.
So, you see here, is that actually already
detectors, for example motion detectors,
they can suppress authorizing decisions,
alternative
integrators, accumulate the confirmation,
falter into decisions.
Or we can imagine that actually
integrators, or decision
making neurons can inhibit each other can
inhibit alternative decisions.
We can also imagine that there is a third
order drawing
or a network of neurons that actually wait
activity of the integrators.
So, many different designs can lead do the
same outcome.
So perhaps, at the brain level,
the diffusion process can be implemented
differently.
But right now, we have some evidences that
actually nervous system
performs the diffusion like calculation
during the decision making process.
So, we can summarize this model on this
slide.
So, the sensory evidences are accumulated,
processed,
by our detectors in the sensory system.
And next, decision making neurons,
integrators,
integrate information from the sensory
neurons
all the time, inhibit alternative
decisions,
and whenever activity of these
integrators.
Reaches a certain threshold the decision
is finalized and information is
transmitted to the motor neurons, that
actually trigger the behavioral response.
So, this is a very important model in neu,
neuroeconomics.
It suggests that decision can be splitted
in few stages.
So first, for perceptual decisions, for
this particular task, there are motion
detectors.
They are allocated in the area MIT, so
next, the information goes to the LIP
area.
And neurons here, integrate information
from the motion
detectors, and whenever activity of the
LIP neurons.
Reaches a certain threshold, they activate
frontal
eye field that actually triggers the motor
response.
It switches the gaze in a certain
direction.
So, if we will make a look to this
decision making
neurons in the area LIP, they accumulate
information from the motion detectors.
They gradually increase activities.
The firing rate.
And if this firing grade crosses this
threshold the decision is finalized.
If the firing period of this neuron
doesn't cross this threshold the
alternative wins.
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