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So today, we will discuss the interaction
of the
emotional and cognitive systems, during
the, decision making process.
But lets first to summarize,
the Neuroeconomics [INAUDIBLE] evaluation
process.
So as you remember, decision making,
process
is divided by Neuroeconomics in few
stages.
First.
Brain creates a representation of the
problem, next brain
evaluates different options, next we
select an action, and
we evaluate the outcome of the action, and
finally
we learn based on the outcomes of the
actions.
So evaluation process, and the evaluation
stage perhaps is
the most critical stage of the decision
making process.
Because if we will use the principle of
the utility
maximization, we always select the option
with the highest expected utility.
So if we understand the relation process,
we would
understand the key stage of the decision
making process.
We actually would be able to predict
decisions.
So that's why the most of the
Neuroeconomic studies are focusing on the
valuation stage.
Let's now summarize the current view of
Neuroeconomics on the valuation process.
So we can measure the values very
differently.
For example will you can be measure
objectively by the price,
but let's say $10 cd can have very
different subjective value.
For a student or for a [UNKNOWN].
For a music fan or for a hocky fan.
So, real values are subjective.
That's why economics theory suggests to
use utility as
a measure of subjective desirability, of,
certain actions or decisions.
So furthermore, economic theory suggested
to use expected utility theory.
Because during the decision making
process, we're not only estimate,
anticipated
gains, but also, estimate, the anticipated
probabilities, of the certain gains.
So according to the expected utility
theory, we integrate.
The probabilities of the outcome and the
expected values of the outcome, into
expected utility.
So, furthermore prospect theory suggested
that, not just values
are subjective, but also our estimates of
probabilities are subjective.
That's why, prospect theory suggests that,
we integrate both.
A certain non-linear function of our
values estimates.
And we use a probability weighting
function.
So those values and probabilities are
subjective and non-linear.
Finally, neuroeconomics utility theory
suggests
that our values encoded by neurons.
And basically, utility is an average
firing rate of certain
neuronal population, located in certain
specific brain structures.
So according to the neuroeconomic's view,
our utility, or neuroeconomic
utility of a certain option, is simply an
average firing rate.
Of [UNKNOWN] population so we do know some
candidates for encoding utility in our own
brain.
So for example dopamine system it has, is
linked to this process.
So what would happen in your brain when
you will make a very simple decision?
For example you have a apple on your desk.
So, what would happen in your brain during
this decision making process when
you would decide to eat this apple, or not
to eat this apple?
So your economic series suggests that your
Nucleus accumbens of ventral striatum will
be activated.
The activity in this region will encode,
then anticipate it value.
Anticipated, gain magnitude, related to
the decision.
So we remember from various single cell
recording studies that when an animal
touches a reward, dopamine neurons,
including nuclosecloments are activated.
This neuroscent not activated when animal
touches.
A non-rewarding object.
As in your economics studies showed that
the [INAUDIBLE] is more complicated.
So here is you see the results of the
Pavlovian conditioning experiment.
So it's beginning of the study, document
neurons
react to the presentation of the reward
but at
the latest stages of the Pavlovian
conditioning procedure, dopamine
neurons start to react to the cue
predicting reward.
So the situation is more complicated,
dopamine neurons encode not just the
pleasure of the outcome related to outcome
but also the anticipated gain.
Related to the queue predicting the
outcome.
So overall, dopamine neurons, including
nucleus
equipments, they encode anticipated gain
magnitude.
We can measure it using fMRI technique,
also insides of the human brains.
So here, we once again sees the results of
the brain [INAUDIBLE] study.
And this study nicely shows that when
person.
During fMRI study.
Anticipates $0, 20 cents, $1, $5.
The nucleus accumbens is activated
proportionately to the anticipated gain
magnitude.
So, overall, the activity of the
nucleus accumbens encodes a anticipated
gain magnitude.
So.
Interestingly, other new economics study
show that some populations of the nucleus
accumbens some neuronal populations,
encodes also probabilities of the outcome.
So on this slide we see that blue color
indicates
the neuronal populations and the [UNKNOWN]
encoding the probabilities of the outcome.
So green color indicates a neural
populations encoding the reward magnitude.
And we see a heavily overlap of this.
So it looks like oral mental stratum isn't
involved until the encoding in the
expected utility.
So we can summarize this agent two
important points.
So to demonstrate the nucleus accumbens.
Is active during the anticipation of the
reward.
An activity of the nucleus
accumbens proportional to anticipated gain
magnitude.
It looks like different [INAUDIBLE]
populations inside those
nucleus accumbens processing the
probability of outcomes and other
populations are sensitive to the reward
magnitudes, so
it looks like nucleus accumbens codes the
expectant utility.
But what happens if we make a choice in
more real life situation in the store, if
you do
not just take an apple from your desk, but
if you decide to buy this apple in the
store?
Brant Hudson nicely showed.
Said during the online shopping, inside of
the [UNKNOWN]
scanner, activity of the nucleus accumbens
predicted, the purchasing decisions.
As you see here, the activity of
the nucleus accumbens was stronger, in the
trials,
when subjects purchased the product,
relative to
the trails when subjects didn't purchase
the product.
So even in more real life situations,.
Nucleus accumbens encode our anticipated
gain magnitude.
So interestingly nucleus accumbens is
nicely located into the brain and has very
critical connections to the key regions
since
the brain involved into the decision
making.
So nucleus accumbens of interest rate.
Gets inputs from the prefrontal cortex.
We will discuss the roles of prefrontal
cortex today, in more details.
So it gets more cognitive higher order
information that is important for decision
making.
It gets inputs from the hypercampos, from
the
memory system, from the medulla, from the
region processing.
There's a costs possible, cost of our
decisions.
It has inputs from dopamine system.
So it gets dopamine, that is most critical
urinmeteator for the valuation process.
And dopamine interacts with other.
Regions of the striatum involved in the
motor program itself.
So overall, nucleus accumbens in a very
nice strategical position in the brain
to be a central computer processing and
estimating values during the decision
making process.
But what will happen if you will make
a more complex choice between two
different fruits?
In this case, the role of the
orbitofrontal cortex will be critical.
As we know, orbitofrontal cortex is
important for the integration
of the multiple sources of information
related to decision making.
And it is involved into learning and some.
But in this situation whether it's like
between two different objects
or products the role of the orbital
frontal cortex is vital.
So here I present you once again the
results of the single cell recordings in
the orbital
frontal cortex during the decision of
monkeys to
select between two different drinks
presented in different quantities.
So here is activity of the [UNKNOWN]
frontal
cortex neuron is presented using this red
color,
and the actual decisions of the monkey are
indicated by the black color, by the black
dots.
So you see, actually here, that the
activity of the
pre-frontal cortex neuron encodes the
preferences of the monkey, so.
It is most active when the option
presented to the monkeys most attractive.
So actually in neurons in Orbitofrontal
cortex encode decision values.
So activity of the neurons in our
Orbitofrontal
cortex is critical for their selection
between different options.
So Orbitofrontal cortex plays a critical
role
in the integration of the multiple sources
of information and it looks like our
beta frontal cortex can supervise nucleus
accumbens.
But what happens if you make a more
complex decision
if your decision can be as to say
potential costs?
For example, you order in the restaurant.
A fugu fish.
As you know there is a very small, but
chance to die as a result of this dinner.
So approximately 30,60 people every year
are poisoned by the very strong
poison tetrodotoxin that is contained in
their internal organs of this fish.
So what would happen if your decision is
associated with potential costs?
A May study conducted in [FOREIGN]
laboratory as I already told you shows
that the potential costs processed in the
amygdala and potential benefits.
Are processed in the nucleus accumbens in
the ventral straight.
And it looks like that would be the
frontal cortex, the middle portion of the
frontal cortex.
Actually compares as evidence for
potential costs
and for benefits integrates them an
activity
in this region is proportional to the
difference in the activity of the
[UNKNOWN].
And of the ventral striatum, so it looks
like our bit of frontal cortex integrates
the information about the potential costs
of
our decisions and potential benefits of
our decisions.
But what will happen if you already ate an
apple and
you learn that this apple, for example, is
not so tasty?
So, it should affect your future
decisions.
And in this case.
But the frontal cortex once again plays a
critical, vital role.
As we'll remember from Antonio Damasio's
studies, patients with
damages and lesions in the orbitofrontal
cortex, in the
medial, medial portion of the
orbitofrontal cortex, they actually
show quite dramatic impaired behaviour in
the Iowa gambling task.
So the subjects actually do not learn
based on
the negative outcomes of the instances of
these decisions.
So, here you see the results of the study.
And you see that normal subjects, very
quickly
during the task, switch to the optimal
strategy.
They start to select the advantageous
decks.
They start to gain more money.
And in this task.
Patients with lesions in their beta
frontal
cortex, they stick to their
disadvantageous decks.
They do not learn from the negative
outcome.
They lose money.
So our beta frontal cortex is critical for
the
learning process based on the outcomes of
our decisions.
But how would we integrate also the price
into the decision making process?
So every day we go to the store and we not
just think how tasty is a product.
But we also take into account the price of
the product.
And as you remember [UNKNOWN].
Nicely showed in the first study that
prize modulates activity in the
orbitofrontal cortex.
So here, once again, you see the results
of the fMRI study.
And, you see that the consumption of the
wine tacked as a pricey wine dramatically
increases activity in orbitofrontal
cortex, relative to the same.
Wine that is presented as a cheap wine.
So here, with two different wines, we see
that effect.
So the price can boost the activity in the
frontal cortex and the medial portion of
the pre-frontal cortex.
And it looks like it is associated with a
larger, higher pleasure of the consumption
of the expensive wine.
So simply the price.
Can modulate the decision value signal in
the orbitofrontal cortex.
So overall new economics studies show that
our brain contains
different networks contained to different
aspect of the evaluation process.
Notice the comments are intra-stratum is
encoding the anticipated gain magnitude.
It is also involved in the risk seeking
behavior.
But our beta frontal cortex compares,
integrates
multiple information regarding the
expected outcome of the
decision and it is also involved on
the fast learning based on the negative
outcomes.
So, amygdala is a critical region to
process and learn costs associated with
our decision.
So, we have to mention insula cortex.
This is kind of emotional interface in our
brain, indicating an emotional arousal
associated with our decisions.
Finally we have to mention the
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, so
we'll focus today on the activity of this
region, and
we'll focus today on the interaction of
the Dorsolateral prefrontal
cortex with other brain regions involved
into the valuation process.
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