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Ununtrium (Uut, element 113) is an artificial element with atomic number 113. Being artificial, a standard
atomic mass cannot be given and like all artificial elements, it has no stable isotopes. The first isotope to be
synthesized was
284
Uut as a decay product of
288
Uup in 2003. The first isotope to be directly synthesized was
278
Uut in 2004. There are 6 known radioisotopes from
278
Uut to
286
Uut. The longest-lived isotope is
286
Uut
with a half-life of 19.6 seconds. Ununtrium has not been named, but Japanese scientists claim they have
discovered it. They are attempting to name it Japonium.
1 Table
1.1 Notes
2 Isotopes and nuclear properties
2.1 Nucleosynthesis
2.1.1 Cold fusion
2.1.2 Hot fusion
2.1.3 As decay product
2.2 Theoretical calculations
2.2.1 Evaporation residue cross sections
3 References
nuclide
symbol
Z(p) N(n)

isotopic mass (u)

half-life
decay
mode(s)
daughter
isotope(s)
nuclear
spin
278
Uut
113 165 278.17058(20)# 340 µs α
274
Rg
282
Uut
113 169 282.17567(39)# 73 ms α
278
Rg
283
Uut
[n 1]
113 170 283.17657(52)# 100(+490-45) ms α
279
Rg
284
Uut
[n 2]
113 171 284.17873(62)# 0.48(+58-17) s α
280
Rg
285
Uut
[n 3]
113 172 285.17973(89)#
5.5 s
[1]
α
281
Rg
286
Uut
[n 4]
113 173 286.18221(72)#
19.6 s
[1]
α
282
Rg
^ Not directly synthesized, occurs as decay product of
287
Uup 1.
^ Not directly synthesized, occurs as decay product of
288
Uup 2.
^ Not directly synthesized, occurs in decay chain of
293
Uus 3.
^ Not directly synthesized, occurs in decay chain of
294
Uus 4.
Notes
Isotopes of ununtrium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_ununtrium
1 of 5 1.3.2014 21:34
Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends.
Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses.
Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty
values denote one standard deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC
which use expanded uncertainties.
Nucleosynthesis
Super-heavy elements such as ununtrium are produced by bombarding lighter elements in particle accelerators
that induce fusion reactions. Whereas most of the isotopes of ununtrium can be synthesized directly this way,
some heavier ones have only been observed as decay products of elements with higher atomic numbers.
[2]
Depending on the energies involved, the former are separated into "hot" and "cold". In hot fusion reactions,
very light, high-energy projectiles are accelerated toward very heavy targets (actinides), giving rise to compound
nuclei at high excitation energy (~40–50 MeV) that may either fission or evaporate several (3 to 5) neutrons.
[3]
In cold fusion reactions, the produced fused nuclei have a relatively low excitation energy (~10–20 MeV),
which decreases the probability that these products will undergo fission reactions. As the fused nuclei cool to
the ground state, they require emission of only one or two neutrons, and thus, allows for the generation of more
neutron-rich products.
[2]
The latter is a distinct concept from that of where nuclear fusion claimed to be
achieved at room temperature conditions (see cold fusion).
[4]
Cold fusion
Before the successful synthesis of ununtrium by the RIKEN team, scientists at the Institute for Heavy Ion
Research (Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung) in Darmstadt, Germany also tried to synthesize ununtrium by
bombarding bismuth-209 with zinc-70 in 1998. No ununtrium atoms were identified in two separate runs of the
reaction.
[5]
They repeated the experiment in 2003 again without success.
[5]
In late 2003, the emerging team at
RIKEN using their efficient apparatus GARIS attempted the reaction and reached a limit of 140 fb. In
December 2003 – August 2004, they resorted to "brute force" and carried out the reaction for a period of eight
months. They were able to detect a single atom of
278
Uut.
[6]
They repeated the reaction in several runs in 2005
and were able to synthesize a second atom.
[7]
Hot fusion
In June 2006, the Dubna-Livermore team synthesised ununtrium directly by bombarding a neptunium-237 target
with accelerated calcium-48 nuclei:
237
93
Np +
48
20
Ca →
282
113
Uut +
1
0
n
Two atoms of
282
Uut were detected.
[8]
As decay product
Ununtrium has been observed as decay products of ununpentium.
Ununpentium currently has four known isotopes; all of them
Isotopes of ununtrium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_ununtrium
2 of 5 1.3.2014 21:34
List of ununtrium isotopes observed by decay
Evaporation residue Observed ununtrium isotope
294
Uus,
290
Uup
286
Uut
[1]
293
Uus,
289
Uup
285
Uut
[1]
288
Uup
284
Uut
[9]
287
Uup
283
Uut
[9]
undergo alpha decays to become ununtrium nuclei, with mass
numbers between 283 and 286. Parent ununpentium nuclei can be
themselves decay products of ununseptium. To date, no other
elements have been known to decay to ununtrium.
[10]
For example,
in January 2010, the Dubna team (JINR) identified ununtrium-286
as a product in the decay of ununseptium via an alpha decay
sequence:
[1]
294
117
Uus →
290
115
Uup +
4
2
He
290
115
Uup →
286
113
Uut +
4
2
He
Theoretical calculations
Evaporation residue cross sections
The below table contains various targets-projectile combinations for which calculations have provided estimates
for cross section yields from various neutron evaporation channels. The channel with the highest expected yield
is given.
DNS = Di-nuclear system; σ = cross section
Target Projectile CN Channel (product) σ
max
Model Ref
209
Bi
70
Zn
279
Uut 1n (
278
Uut)
30 fb DNS
[11]
237
Np
48
Ca
285
Uut 3n (
282
Uut)
0.4 pb DNS
[12]
^
a

b

c

d

e
Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Abdullin, F. Sh.; Bailey, P. D.; Benker, D. E.; Bennett, M. E.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Ezold,
J. G.; Hamilton, J. H. et al. (2010). "Synthesis of a New Element with Atomic Number Z=117". Physical Review
Letters 104. Bibcode:2010PhRvL.104n2502O (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvL.104n2502O).
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.142502 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1103%2FPhysRevLett.104.142502). PMID 20481935
(//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20481935).
1.
^
a

b
Armbruster, Peter & Münzenberg, Gottfried (1989). "Creating superheavy elements". Scientific American 34:
36–42.
2.
^ Barber, Robert C.; Gäggeler, Heinz W.; Karol, Paul J.; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Vardaci, Emanuele; Vogt, Erich
(2009). "Discovery of the element with atomic number 112 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied
Chemistry 81 (7): 1331. doi:10.1351/PAC-REP-08-03-05 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1351%2FPAC-REP-08-03-05).
3.
^ Fleischmann, Martin; Pons, Stanley (1989). "Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium"
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022072889800063). Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and
Interfacial Electrochemistry (Elsevier) 261 (2): 301–308. doi:10.1016/0022-0728(89)80006-3 (http://dx.doi.org
/10.1016%2F0022-0728%2889%2980006-3). Retrieved 15 October 2012.
4.
^
a

b
"Search for element 113" (http://www.gsi.de/informationen/wti/library/scientificreport2003/files/1.pdf),
Hofmann et al., GSI report 2003. Retrieved on 3 March 2008
5.
^ Morita, Kosuke; Morimoto, Kouji; Kaji, Daiya; Akiyama, Takahiro; Goto, Sin-Ichi; Haba, Hiromitsu; Ideguchi,
Eiji; Kanungo, Rituparna et al. (2004). "Experiment on the Synthesis of Element 113 in the Reaction
209
Bi(
70
Zn,
n)
278
113". Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 73 (10): 2593. Bibcode:2004JPSJ...73.2593M
(http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JPSJ...73.2593M). doi:10.1143/JPSJ.73.2593 (http://dx.doi.org
/10.1143%2FJPSJ.73.2593).
6.
Isotopes of ununtrium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_ununtrium
3 of 5 1.3.2014 21:34
^ Barber, Robert C.; Karol, Paul J; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Vardaci, Emanuele; Vogt, Erich W. (2011). "Discovery of
the elements with atomic numbers greater than or equal to 113 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. 83
(7): 1485. doi:10.1351/PAC-REP-10-05-01 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1351%2FPAC-REP-10-05-01).
7.
^ Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Utyonkov, V.; Lobanov, Yu.; Abdullin, F.; Polyakov, A.; Sagaidak, R.; Shirokovsky, I.;
Tsyganov, Yu.; Voinov, A. (2007). "Synthesis of the isotope
282
113 in the
237
Np+
48
Ca fusion reaction"
(http://nrv.jinr.ru/pdf_file/PhysRevC_76_011601.pdf). Phys. Rev. C 76: 011601(R).
Bibcode:2007PhRvC..76a1601O (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvC..76a1601O).
doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.76.011601 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1103%2FPhysRevC.76.011601).
8.
^
a

b
Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Cherepanov, E. A. (2007). "Heaviest Nuclei Produced in
48Ca-induced Reactions (Synthesis and Decay Properties)". AIP Conference Proceedings 912. p. 235.
doi:10.1063/1.2746600 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1063%2F1.2746600).
9.
^ Sonzogni, Alejandro. "Interactive Chart of Nuclides" (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/chart/reCenter.jsp?z=113&n=173).
National Nuclear Data Center: Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved 2008-06-06.
10.
^ Feng, Zhao-Qing; Jin, Gen-Ming; Li, Jun-Qing; Scheid, Werner (2007). "Formation of superheavy nuclei in cold
fusion reactions". Physical Review C 76 (4): 044606. arXiv:0707.2588 (//arxiv.org/abs/0707.2588).
Bibcode:2007PhRvC..76d4606F (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvC..76d4606F).
doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.76.044606 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1103%2FPhysRevC.76.044606).
11.
^ Feng, Z; Jin, G; Li, J; Scheid, W (2009). "Production of heavy and superheavy nuclei in massive fusion reactions".
Nuclear Physics A 816: 33. arXiv:0803.1117 (//arxiv.org/abs/0803.1117). Bibcode:2009NuPhA.816...33F
(http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009NuPhA.816...33F). doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2008.11.003 (http://dx.doi.org
/10.1016%2Fj.nuclphysa.2008.11.003).
12.
Isotope masses from:
M. Wang, G. Audi, A.H. Wapstra, F.G. Kondev, M. MacCormick, X. Xu, et al. (2012). "The
AME2012 atomic mass evaluation (II). Tables, graphs and references." (http://amdc.in2p3.fr
/masstables/Ame2012/Ame2012b-v2.pdf). Chinese Physics C, 36 (12): 1603–2014.
Bibcode:2012ChPhC..36....3M (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ChPhC..36....3M).
doi:10.1088/1674-1137/36/12/003 (http://dx.doi.org
/10.1088%2F1674-1137%2F36%2F12%2F003).
G. Audi, A. H. Wapstra, C. Thibault, J. Blachot and O. Bersillon (2003). "The NUBASE evaluation
of nuclear and decay properties" (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/amdc/nubase/Nubase2003.pdf).
Nuclear Physics A 729: 3–128. Bibcode:2003NuPhA.729....3A (http://adsabs.harvard.edu
/abs/2003NuPhA.729....3A). doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001 (http://dx.doi.org
/10.1016%2Fj.nuclphysa.2003.11.001).
Isotopic compositions and standard atomic masses from:
J. R. de Laeter, J. K. Böhlke, P. De Bièvre, H. Hidaka, H. S. Peiser, K. J. R. Rosman and P. D. P.
Taylor (2003). "Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report)"
(http://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/75/6/0683/pdf/). Pure and Applied Chemistry 75 (6):
683–800. doi:10.1351/pac200375060683 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1351%2Fpac200375060683).
M. E. Wieser (2006). "Atomic weights of the elements 2005 (IUPAC Technical Report)"
(http://iupac.org/publications/pac/78/11/2051/pdf/). Pure and Applied Chemistry 78 (11):
2051–2066. doi:10.1351/pac200678112051 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1351%2Fpac200678112051). Lay
summary (http://old.iupac.org/news/archives/2005/atomic-weights_revised05.html).
Half-life, spin, and isomer data selected from the following sources. See editing notes on this article's talk
page.
G. Audi, A. H. Wapstra, C. Thibault, J. Blachot and O. Bersillon (2003). "The NUBASE evaluation
of nuclear and decay properties" (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/amdc/nubase/Nubase2003.pdf).
Nuclear Physics A 729: 3–128. Bibcode:2003NuPhA.729....3A (http://adsabs.harvard.edu
/abs/2003NuPhA.729....3A). doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001 (http://dx.doi.org
/10.1016%2Fj.nuclphysa.2003.11.001).
National Nuclear Data Center. "NuDat 2.1 database" (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nudat2/).
Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved September 2005.
Isotopes of ununtrium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_ununtrium
4 of 5 1.3.2014 21:34
N. E. Holden (2004). "Table of the Isotopes". In D. R. Lide. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and
Physics (85th ed.). CRC Press. Section 11. ISBN 978-0-8493-0485-9.
Isotopes of copernicium Isotopes of ununtrium Isotopes of flerovium
Table of nuclides
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Categories: Ununtrium Isotopes of ununtrium Lists of isotopes by element
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