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You are on page 1of 7

**working pair composed of ionic liquid and water
**

Xiaodong Zhang

*

, Dapeng Hu

Department of Chemical Machinery, Dalian University of Technology, 2 Linggong Road, Dalian 116024, PR China

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 13 September 2011

Accepted 3 November 2011

Available online 12 November 2011

Keywords:

Single-stage absorption heat transformer

Working pair

Ionic liquid

Coefﬁcient of performance

Exergy efﬁciency

a b s t r a c t

The performance simulation of a single-stage absorption heat transformer using a new working pair

composed of ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate, and water (H

2

O þ [EMIM]

[DMP]), was performed based on the thermodynamic properties of the new working pair and on the

mass and energy balance for each component of the system. In order to evaluate the new working pair,

the simulation results were compared with those of aqueous solution of lithium bromide (H

2

O þ LiBr),

Triﬂuoroethanol (TFE) þ tetraethylenglycol dimethylether (E181).

The results indicate that when generation, evaporation, condensing and absorption temperatures are

90

C, 90

C, 35

C and 130

C, the coefﬁcients of performance of the single-stage absorption heat

transformer using H

2

O þ LiBr, H

2

O þ [EMIM][DMP] and TFE þ E181 as working pairs will reach 0.494,

0.481 and 0.458 respectively. And the corresponding exergy efﬁciency will reach 0.64, 0.62 and 0.59,

respectively. Meanwhile the available heat outputs for per unit mass of refrigerant are 2466 kJ/kg,

2344 kJ/kg and 311 kJ/kg, respectively.

The above excellent cycle performance together with the advantages of negligible vapor pressure, no

crystallization and more weak corrosion tendency to iron-steel materials may make the new working

pair better suited for the industrial absorption heat transformer.

Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

In order to reduce the CO

2

discharge and reuse large amounts of

industrial waste heat, absorption heat transformers (AHT) which

can upgrade waste heat fromlowtemperature level to a higher one

have been used in some industrial processes [1]. The available

temperature lift for single-stage absorption heat transformers

(STAHT) is usually in the range of 30

Ce40

C, while a higher

available temperature lift must be obtained by adopting two-stage

absorption heat transformer (TSAHT) or double absorption heat

transformer (DAHT).

The cycle performance of an AHT not only depends on its

conﬁguration (for example, STAHT or DAHT) but also on thermo-

dynamic properties of workingpairs usuallycomposedof refrigerant

andabsorbent. The commonly-usedworkingpairs inAHTis aqueous

solution of lithium bromide (H

2

O þ LiBr). However, corrosion and

crystallization are its major disadvantages in industrial applications.

Therefore, seeking more advantageous working pairs with good

thermal stability，minimum corrosion and without crystallization

has become the research focus in the past two decades.

The organic working pairs such as Triﬂuoroethanol

(TFE) þ tetraethylenglycol dimethylether (E181), TFE þ N-methyl1-

2-pyrrolidone (NMP), etc are usually non-corrosive, completely

miscible and thermally stable. These excellent physical properties

have attracted many researchers to study the cycle performance of

absorption refrigerator, absorption heat pump (AHP) and AHT

adopting these organic working pairs [2e12].

Ionic liquids (ILs) are new types of environmental-friendly

solvent and remain liquid state at near or below room tempera-

ture. ILs are composed of the organic cation and inorganic anion.

They constitute a huge family of chemicals because there are many

types of organic cation and inorganic anion which can be converted

into ionic liquids. In the past decades, ILs have attracted consider-

able attention because of their unique properties, e.g. negligible

vapor pressure, non-ﬂammability, good thermal stability, low

melting points, wide range of liquid state from room temperature

up to 200 or 300

C, and good solubility to many organic or inor-

ganic chemicals.

Because of their excellent properties, it is very possible that ILs

can be used as a new type of absorbent of refrigerants. With this

goal in mind, some researchers began to look for the suitable ILs

which can match common refrigerants and have excellent physical

and chemical properties. Kima and Shin et al. researched the

* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ86 411 84986171; fax: þ86 411 84986001.

E-mail address: zhangxd56@163.com (X. Zhang).

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Applied Thermal Engineering

j ournal homepage: www. el sevi er. com/ l ocat e/ apt hermeng

1359-4311/$ e see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.11.006

Applied Thermal Engineering 37 (2012) 129e135

pressure and heat capacity of binary solution of TFE þ 1-butyl-3-

methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim][Br]) and TFE þ 1-butyl-3-

methylimidazolium tetraﬂuoroborate ([bmim][BF

4

]). They found

that these solutions were the negative deviation from Raoult’s Law

[13]. Shiﬂett and Yokozeki conducted extensive researches on the

solubility and diffusivity of carbon dioxide in ionic liquids [14]. They

also stuided the solubility of NH

3

in some ionic liquids [15]. Wang

and Zheng et al. measured and correlated vapor pressure of binary

solutions, water þ 1,3-Dimethylimidazolium Chloride and TFE þ 1-

Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Tetraﬂuoroborate, which were taken

as working ﬂuids of absorption refrigeration [16].

The authors measured and correlated the thermodynamic

properties of some binary solutions composed of water, ethanol,

methanol, and ILs such as 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl-

sulfate, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethylphosphate ([MMIM]

[DMP]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazoliumdimethylphosphate ([EMIM]

[DMP]), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate

([EMIM][DEP]).They found that these binary solutions showed

strong negative deviation from Raoult’s Law and had signiﬁcant

mixing heat. It is also shown that these ILs are thermo-stable until

220

C with the exception of 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl-

sulfate and are entirely miscible with water, methanol and ethanol

[17e19].

Upto now the reports about the thermodynamic cycle perfor-

mance using these new working pairs containing ionic liquids are,

however, very limited. Yokozeki and Shiﬂett researched water

solubility in some ionic liquids and calculated the coefﬁcients of

performance of absorption refrigeration under a given operation

condition [20]. Martín and Bermejo simulated the performance of

absorption refrigeration cycle using working pair of ionic

liquid þ supercritical CO

2

[21]. Liang and Zhao et al. simulated the

performance of absorption refrigeration cycle using

methanol þ [MMIM][DMP] as working pair [22]. The authors also

simulated the performance of absorption refrigeration cycle using

H

2

O þ [EMIM][DMP] [23].

However, the cycle performance analysis on the AHT using

working pairs containing ILs has not been found in these

references.

The aim of this research is to further prove if the new working

pair, H

2

O þ [EMIM][DMP], has other excellent cycle performances

in AHT cycle besides its excellent physical and chemical properties.

So it is necessary to simulate and analyze the thermodynamic cycle

performance of a STAHT based on the thermodynamic properties of

binary solutions, H

2

O þ [EMIM][DMP], obtained in our laboratory

[19]. In order to evaluate the present working pair containing ILs,

the simulation results have also been compared with those using

H

2

O þ LiBr and TFE þ E181.

2. The thermodynamic properties of H

2

O D [EMIM][DMP]

The thermodynamic properties of binary solution H

2

Oþ[EMIM]

[DMP] have been reported in our previous studies [19,23], here

some thermodynamic properties related to the performance

simulation are brieﬂy given as follows:

2.1. The pressure of solution

Because of non-volatilization of ionic liquid, [EMIM][DMP], the

vapor phase is only consisted of water, the pressure of this systemis

p ¼ g

1

x

1

p

s

1

(1)

Where, g

1

is the activity coefﬁcient of water, x

1

is the mole fraction

of water in solution, p

s

1

is the saturation vapor pressure of pure

water.

The activity coefﬁcients of water in the solution H

2

O þ [EMIM]

[DMP] is given in the form of non-random two liquid model (NRTL)

as follows.

lng

1

¼ x

2

2

"

s

21

G

21

x

1

þ x

2

G

21

2

þ

s

12

G

12

ðx

2

þ x

1

G

12

Þ

2

#

(2)

G

12

¼ expðÀas

12

Þ; G

21

¼ expðÀas

21

Þ (3)

s

12

¼

Dg

1

RT

; s

21

¼

Dg

2

RT

(4)

Where, a ¼ 0.6004 is the non-random parameter of the NRTL

model. Dg

1

and Dg

2

are both binary interaction parameters and

expressed as follows:

Dg

i

¼ a

i

þ b

i

T þ c

i

T

2

ði ¼ 1; 2Þ (5)

Nomenclature

AHT absorption heat transformers

[bmim][Br] 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide

[bmim][BF

4

] 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetraﬂuoroborate

COP coefﬁcient of performance

ECOP exergy efﬁciency

E181 tetraethylenglycol dimethylether

[EMIM][DMP] 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium

dimethylphosphate

[EMIM][DEP] 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate

F ﬂow rate ratio

h speciﬁc enthalpy (kJ/kg)

m mass ﬂow rate (kg /s)

[MMIM][DMP] 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethylphosphate

NMP N-methyl1-2-pyrrolidone

p pressure ( MPa)

P1 solution pump

P2 refrigerant pump

q¼Q

A

/m

1

available heat output per unit mass of refrigerant (kJ/

kg)

Q heat load (kW)

SHE solution heat exchanger

STAHT single-stage absorption heat transformers

t temperature,

C

T temperature, K

TFE Triﬂuoroethanol

v value

x mass fraction of absorbent in solution

Dx ¼ x

s

À x

w

concentration difference between strong and weak

solutions

Subscripts

A absorber

C condenser

E evaporator

G generator

s strong solution

w weak solution

1,2,3.10 the series number of streams

X. Zhang, D. Hu / Applied Thermal Engineering 37 (2012) 129e135 130

Where a

i

, b

i

, and c

i

are all regression parameters and given in

Table 1.

The saturated vapor pressure of pure waterp

s

1

, can be calculated

by Antoine Equation (6).

lnðp

s

=kPaÞ ¼ 16:28837 þ3816:4=½À46:13 þ ðT=KÞ (6)

2.2. Enthalpy of solution

Enthalpy of the solution H

2

O þ [EMIM][DMP] at T and at IL mole

fraction x

2

can be calculated by the Equation (7).

H ¼ H

298

þ

Z

T

298

C

P

dT (7)

Where, H

298

(kJ/kmol) is the speciﬁc enthalpy of solution with IL

mole fraction x

2

at 298 K, and is shown in Equation (8).

H

298

¼ H

E

298

þ x

2

Z

298

273

C

P;½EMIM½DMP

dT þ x

1

Z

298

273

C

P;½H2O

dT (8)

Where, H

E

298

is the excess enthalpy of solution, in kJ/kmol and

calculated by Equation (9), C

P,[EMIM][DMP]

and C

P,H2O

are the speciﬁc

heat capacities of [EMIM][DMP] and H

2

O, in kJ/kmol K, respectively.

H

E

298

=x

1

x

2

¼

X

4

1

A

i

ð1 À2x

2

Þ

iÀ1

(9)

Where, A

i

(i ¼ 1, 2, 3, 4) are the regression parameters and given in

Table 2, x

1

and x

2

are the molar fraction of water and IL respectively.

2.3. Speciﬁc heat capacity of solution

Speciﬁc heat capacity of solution, C

P

, is given as follows,

C

p

¼ C

p0

þ a Â T (10)

Where,

C

p0

¼

X

5

i ¼1

A

i

x

iÀ1

2

(11)

a ¼

X

5

i ¼1

B

i

x

iÀ1

2

(12)

Where, C

p

is the heat capacity in kJ/kg K, A

i

and B

i

are both the

regressive parameters and given in Table 3, T is the absolute

temperature in K, and x

2

is the molar fraction of [EMIM][DMP] in

solution.

The thermodynamic properties of working pairs TFE þE181 and

H

2

O þ LiBr were given in references [4,5,24e26].

3. The performance simulation

The conﬁguration of a STAHT and its corresponding absorption

cycle are schematically shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2. It is mainly

composed of a generator, a condenser, an evaporator, an absorber

and a solution heat exchange or the so called economizer.

In order to simulate the thermodynamic cycle performance of

STAHT using H

2

O þ [EMIM][DMP] as working pairs, the following

assumptions are made.

(1) The analysis is carried out under steady state conditions;

(2) The solutions are saturated while leaving the generator and the

absorber;

(3) The condensate is saturated and not subcooled while leaving

the condenser;

(4) The thermal and pressure losses during the whole process can

be neglected;

(5) The expanding process in the throttling valves is isenthalpic;

(6) The minimum temperature difference between the cold and

hot streams in solution heat exchange is 5

C;

(7) The mechanical energy consumed by the pumps can be

neglected;

It is necessary to get the mass and energy balance equations for

each component and get parameters for main state points in the

cycle in order to simulate the thermodynamic cycle performance of

STAHT with this new working pair containing ILs. Generator

m

7

À m

1

À m

8

¼ 0 (13)

m

7

x

7

¼ m

8

x

8

(14)

Q

G

þ m

7

h

7

À m

8

h

8

À m

1

h

1

¼ 0 (15)

For state point 8.

Table 1

Parameters in the Equation (5).

a

1

b

1

c

1

a

2

b

2

c

2

À4.0495 Â 10

5

2.1839 Â 10

3

À2.810 À7.5891 Â 10

3

10.215 À0.0356

Table 2

Parameters in Equation (9).

A

1

A

2

A

3

A

4

À2.3379 Â 10

4

À1.1000 Â 10

4

À7.9100 Â 10

3

À9.0166 Â 10

3

Table 3

Parameters in Equations (11) and (12).

A

1

À8.4310 Â 10

2

A

2

À2.0572 Â 10

4

A

3

1.3885 Â 10

4

A

4

3.1382 Â 10

4

A

5

À2.6643 Â 10

4

B

1

14.7825

B

2

26.3706

B

3

53.2389

B

4

À207.8705

B

5

127.5218

E

C

Q

E

Q

A

Q

G

Q

C

1

7 8

2

3

4

5

A

10

SHE

6 9

G

P1

P2

v

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of absorption heat transformer A-absorber, C-condenser, E-

evaporator, G-generator, SHE-heat exchanger, P1,P2-pump, v-valve.

X. Zhang, D. Hu / Applied Thermal Engineering 37 (2012) 129e135 131

p

8

¼ pðt

8

; x

8

Þ (16)

where t

8

¼ t

G

and p

8

¼ p

c

.

Condenser

m

1

¼ m

2

¼ m

3

¼ 1 kg=s (17)

(Mass reference for calculation)

m

1

h

1

À m

2

h

2

À Q

C

¼ 0 (18)

For state point 2

p

2

¼ p

c

¼ p

s

ðt

C

Þ (19)

Evaporator

m

3

¼ m

4

(20)

m

4

h

4

À m

3

h

3

À Q

E

¼ 0 (21)

For state point 4.

p

4

¼ p

E

¼ p

s

ðt

E

Þ (22)

Absorber

m

4

þ m

10

Àm

5

¼ 0 (23)

m

5

x

5

¼ m

10

x

10

(24)

m

4

h

4

þ m

10

h

10

À m

5

h

5

À Q

A

¼ 0 (25)

For state point 5

p

5

¼ pðt

5

; x

5

Þ (26)

where t

5

¼ t

A

and p

5

¼ p

E

.

Heat exchanger

m

5

h

5

þ m

9

h

9

À m

6

h

6

À m

10

h

10

¼ 0 (27)

t

5

À t

10

¼ 5 (28)

Here the minimum temperature difference between the cold

and hot streams in solution heat exchange is located in the hot end

of the solution heat exchange.Where m

i

, h

i

, x

i

(i ¼1,2,3,.10) are the

mass ﬂow rate, speciﬁc enthalpy and mass fraction of absorbent,

[EMIM][DMP], of each stream respectively. p

s

(t) is saturated pres-

sure of refrigerant H

2

O, the p(t,x) are saturated pressure of working

solution H

2

Oþ[EMIM][DMP], which are given by Formulas (1)e(6).

Usually the temperatures of waste heat for driving an absorption

heat transformer, the cooling water temperature and the output

temperature of an absorption heat transformer are known in

applications, so the generation, evaporation condensation and

absorption temperatures t

G

, t

E,

t

C

and t

A

are known and taken as

independent variables in present research. Based on the above

assumptions and the mass, energy balance equations and phase

equilibrium Equations (13)e(28) for each component or for main

state points in the cycle, the parameters for each stream such as t

i

,

p

i

, x

i

and m

i

can be obtained. The heat loads of generator, absorber,

evaporator and condenser, the concentration of solution, concen-

tration deference between strong and weak solutions and ﬂow rate

ratio are also obtained.

P

r

e

s

s

u

r

e

t

C

t

G

=t

E

t

A

Temperature

p

C

p

E

x

S

x

w H

2

O

4

10 5

8 7 2

Fig. 2. The thermodynamic cycle in absorption heat transformer.

Input t

E

, t

G

, t

C,

t

A

t

2

= t

C

, t

4

= t

E

, t

8

= t

G

t

5

= t

A

p

2

= p

s

(t

2

); p

4

=p

s

(t

4

), Eqs.(6), (19) ,(22)

p

2

=p

7

=p

8 ,

p

4

= p

5

=p

10

assumptions (4)

p

8

=p (t

8

,x

8

) Eqs. (16) and (1-6),

x

8

=x

s

can be obtained from above eqs by

Newtonian iteration approach, similarly x

5

=x

w

can also be obtained from Eqs. (26) and (1-6).

h

i

=h(t

i

) (i=1-10) Eqs. (7-12)

Q

i

(i=G, C, E, A) Eqs. (15, 18, 21, 25)

Calculating COP , ECOP, ∆x, F and q

start

Outputting COP, ECOP, ∆x ,F and q

end

based on Eqs. (29-34)

Fig. 3. Flow-chart for simulation.

X. Zhang, D. Hu / Applied Thermal Engineering 37 (2012) 129e135 132

The coefﬁcient of performance, COP, is deﬁned as the ratio of

available heat output of the absorber to the total heat inputs of the

system. Similarly the exergetic efﬁciency, ECOP, based onthe second

law of thermodynamics is deﬁned as the ratio of the available

energy output of the absorber to the total available energy input of

the system. The above two coefﬁcients are deﬁned as follows as well

as the ﬂowrate ratio F, concentration difference between strong and

weak solutions, Dx, and gross temperature lift, Dt.

COP ¼

Q

A

Q

G

þ Q

E

(29)

ECOP ¼

Q

A

ð1ÀT

0

=T

A

Þ

Q

E

ð1ÀT

0

=T

E

Þ þQ

G

ð1ÀT

0

=T

G

Þ

¼ COP

ð1ÀT

0

=T

A

Þ

ð1ÀT

0

=T

G

Þ

(30)

Where the T

E

and T

G

are assumed to be equal in present study.

Dx ¼ x

8

À x

5

¼ x

s

À x

w

(31)

D

t

¼ t

A

À t

E

(32)

F ¼

m

7

m

1

¼

x

s

Dx

(33)

q ¼

Q

A

m

1

(34)

Where T

0

, T

E

, and T

G

are environmental, evaporation and genera-

tion temperature, respectively.

Fig. 3 showed the ﬂow-chart for simulation, in which the main

steps for simulation process and corresponding equations were

given.

4. Results and discussion

The simulating results for STAHT using the new working pair,

H

2

O þ [EMIM][DMP],are shown in Figs. 4e9.

From Fig. 4 it can be seen that the coefﬁcients of performance of

aSTAHTfor threeworkingpairs will decreaseat different ratewiththe

increaseof t

A

. Amongthreeworkingpairs whengross temperaturelift

is not beyond 50

C, the COP is basically unchanged for H

2

O þ LiBr.

However, it decreases very rapidly for TFE þ E181, compared to

a moderate drop for H

2

O þ [EMIM][DMP]. As for the magnitude of

COP, they followed the order of H

2

O þ LiBr > H

2

O þ [EMIM]

[DMP] >TFEþE181. For example, whencondensingtemperature and

gross temperature lift are 35

C and 40

C, the coefﬁcients of perfor-

manceare 0.494, 0.481and0.458for H

2

OþLiBr, H

2

Oþ[EMIM][DMP]

and TFE þ E181, respectively. It is also found that the lower the

condensing temperature is, the higher the COP or available temper-

ature lift will be. This is why the AHT is more efﬁcient in winter.

Fig. 5 shows the variation of COP with the absorption temper-

ature t

A

under different generation or evaporation temperature

conditions. As shown in Fig. 5 the higher the generation or evap-

oration temperature is, the higher the absorption temperature and

corresponding gross temperature lift got. It is still consistent here

that the COP follows the order of H

2

O þ LiBr > H

2

O þ [EMIM]

[DMP] > TFE þ E181 under different generation or evaporation

temperature conditions.

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170

t

A

/

C

O

P

H2O+[EMIM][DMP]

H2O+LiBr

TFE/E181

t G=t E=90

tc=30

35 40

Fig. 4. Effects of t

A

on COP for three working pairs.

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180

t

A

C

O

P

H2O+[EMIM][DEP]

H2O+LiBr

TFE+E181

t C=35

t G=t E=70 80

90

Fig. 5. Effect of t

G

¼ t

E

on COP for three working pairs.

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

100 120 140 160 180

t A/

E

C

O

P

H2O+[EMIM][DMP]

H2O+LiBr

TFE+E181

t G=t E=90

40

t c=30

35

Fig. 6. Effects of t

A

on ECOP for three working pairs.

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180

t A/

x

/

(

w

t

,

a

b

s

o

r

b

e

n

t

)

H2O+[EMIM][DEP]

H2O+LiBr

TFE+E181

xs

xw

t G=t E=90

t C=35

Fig. 7. Effects of t

A

on x

s

and x

w

for three working pairs.

X. Zhang, D. Hu / Applied Thermal Engineering 37 (2012) 129e135 133

Fig. 6 shows the variation of ECOP with the absorption tempera-

ture t

A

. It is revealed that the effects of t

E

on COP and ECOP differ

signiﬁcantly. The COP decreases with the increase of t

A,

while ECOP

ﬁrstly increases to a maximum and then decreases rapidly. This can

beexplainedby thedeﬁnitionFormula (30) listedabove, inwhichthe

ECOP equals tothe COPmultipliedby the factor of (1 ÀT

0

/T

A

)/(1 ÀT

0

/

T

G

). When COP decreases, the factor will however increase with the

increase of t

A

. In fact ECOP based on the second law of thermody-

namics not only takes account of the amount of available heat output

but also its temperature level, namely quality of the output heat. The

COP only represents heat output, while the ECOP represents not only

thequantitybut alsothequalityof heat output. Becauseof (1ÀT

0

/T

A

)/

(1 À T

0

/T

G

) > 1 for AHT cycle, the ECOP is larger than COP.

Fig. 7 shows the concentration variation of strong and weak

solutions with absorbing temperature t

A

. The strong solution

leaving the generator has a concentration x

s,

which enriches

absorbent more than the weak solution, so it can absorbs refrig-

erant vapor easier. When generating and condensing temperature

maintain unchanged, the x

s

does not vary with the t

A

, but the x

w

does increase with the t

A

. The higher the absorbing temperature t

A

or gross temperature lift Dt is, the denser the weak solution is. This

leads to the decrease of concentration difference Dx ¼ x

s

À x

w

or to

the increase of ﬂow rate ratio F and mechanical power losses. As

shown in Fig. 6 the concentrations of strong solution x

s

are over 0.9

(mass fraction,[EMIM][DEP] or E181) for H

2

O þ [EMIM][DEP] and

TFE þ E181, while it is 0.645 (mass fraction, LiBr) for the common

working pair, H

2

O þ LiBr, under the given operation conditions.

Fig. 8 shows the variation of solution concentration difference

Dx ¼x

s

Àx

w

, and ﬂowrate ratio F with absorbing temperature t

A

. As

shown in Fig. 8, the solution concentration differences of three

working pairs decrease with the increase of t

A

, but the ﬂow rate

ratios vary in an opposite way. When generation, evaporation and

condensing temperature are maintained to be constant, the solu-

tion concentration difference and the available output temperature

of absorber will only vary with the ﬂow rate ratio, so the ﬂow rate

ratio is an important and easily controllable operation parameter.

Larger ﬂow rate ratio also results in higher output temperature of

the absorber and more mechanical power loss. Under the same

operation conditions the ﬂow rate ratio is in the order of

H

2

O þ [EMIM][DEP] > H

2

O þ LiBr > TFE þ E181.

Usually the ﬂowrate ratio is about 12 for working pair H

2

OþLiBr.

According to the Formula (20) above, the concentration difference,

Dx ¼ x

s

/F, is about 0.05 (wt, LiBr).However, for working pair

H

2

O þ [EMIM][DEP] the concentration of strong solution is over 0.9

(wt., [EMIM][DEP]), so the corresponding concentration difference is

up to 0.08 (wt., [EMIM][DEP]) under the same ﬂow rate ratio condi-

tion. For working pair TFE þ E181 a similar concentration difference

of 0.08 is found. The larger the concentration difference is, the larger

the driving force for mass transfer in generator or absorber is. This

will be especially beneﬁcial for the absorbing process inthe absorber.

Fig. 9 shows the variation of available heat output from the

absorber for per unit mass of refrigerant (as deﬁned as Formula (21)

above) with absorbing temperature t

A

. It should be noted that the

available heat output of per unit mass of refrigerant are similar for

working pair H

2

Oþ[EMIM][DEP] andH

2

OþLiBr, whichare 2466 kJ/

kg and 2344 kJ/kg respectively. However, for the working pair

TFE þ E181 the number is 311 kJ/kg under the same conditions of

t

G

¼t

E

¼90

C，tc ¼35

Candt

A

¼130

**C. Themainreasonis that the
**

evaporation heat of TFE is very lowcompared with water. Under the

same operation conditions, the amount of refrigerant, TFE, cycled in

theSTAHTwill be 7times of that of water, whichleads tothe increase

of mechanical power losses and larger size of pipes and pumps.

5. Conclusion

The conclusions of this research are summarized as follows:

1. This new working pair containing ILs has a similar cycle

performance as that of H

2

O þ LiBr. The coefﬁcient of perfor-

mance and exergy efﬁciency of H

2

O þ [EMIM][DMP] is slightly

less than those of H

2

O þ LiBr but they are still larger than those

of TFE þ E181. When condensing temperature and gross

temperature lift Dt are 35

C and 40

C, the coefﬁcients of

performance reaches 0.494, 0.481 and 0.458 for H

2

O þ LiBr,

H

2

O þ [EMIM][DMP] and TFE þ E181, respectively, while the

corresponding exergy efﬁciency is 0.64, 0.62 and 0.59 under

the same operating conditions.

2. The concentration of strong solution is over 0.9 for

H

2

O þ [EMIM][DMP] and TFE þ E181, while it is only 0.64 for

H

2

O þ LiBr. Under the same ﬂow rate ratio condition the

concentration difference for H

2

O þ [EMIM][DMP] and

TFE þE181 is larger than that of H

2

OþLiBr, which will improve

absorbing process in the absorber

3. The available heat output of per unit mass of refrigerant for

H

2

O þ [EMIM][DMP] is 2344 kJ/kg and slightly less than

2466 kJ/kg for H

2

O þ LiBr, but it is much larger than 311 kJ/kg

for TFE þ E181. So under the same available heat output

conditions, the amount of water cycled in the STAHT will be

much less than that of TFE. This will reduce the mechanical

power losses and the size of pipes and pumps.

Finallybecauseof the excellent cycle performances together with

the advantages of negligible vapor pressure, no crystallization and

more weak corrosion tendency to iron-steel materials than aqueous

solutionof lithiumbromide, the newworking pair researchedinthis

paper has a great potential tobesuccessfullyappliedtotheindustrial

AHT with a signiﬁcantly better performance.

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170

t

A

/

∆

x

/

(

w

t

,

a

b

s

o

r

b

e

n

t

)

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

F

H2O+[EMIM][DEP]

H2O+LiBr

TFE+E181

t G=t E=90

tc=35

Fig. 8. Effects of t

A

on Dx and F for three working pairs.

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

100 110 120 130 140 150 160

t

A

/

q

/

(

k

J

/

k

g

)

H2O+[EMIM][DEP]

H2O+LiBr

TFE+E181

t G=t E=90

t c=35

Fig. 9. Effects of t

A

on q for three working pairs.

X. Zhang, D. Hu / Applied Thermal Engineering 37 (2012) 129e135 134

Acknowledgement

The authors are grateful for the ﬁnancial support from National

Nature Science Foundation Committee of China (No: 51076021, No:

50876014) to this research project.

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