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Ununpentium (Uup) is an artificial element, and thus a standard atomic mass cannot be given. Like all artificial
elements, it has no stable isotopes. The first isotope to be synthesized was
288
Uup in 2004. There are four
known radioisotopes from
287
Uup to
290
Uup.
1 Table
1.1 Notes
2 Nucleosynthesis
2.1 Target-projectile combinations
2.2 Hot fusion
2.2.1
238
U(
51
V,xn)
289−x
Uup
2.2.2
243
Am(
48
Ca,xn)
291−x
Uup (x=2,3,4)
2.2.3 Reaction yields
2.3 Theoretical calculations
2.3.1 Decay characteristics
2.3.2 Evaporation residue cross sections
3 References
nuclide
symbol
Z(p) N(n)

isotopic mass (u)

half-life decay mode(s)
daughter
isotope(s)
nuclear
spin
287
Uup
115 172 287.19070(52)# 32(+155-14) ms α
283
Uut
288
Uup
115 173 288.19274(62)# 87(+105-30) ms α
284
Uut
289
Uup
[n 1]
115 174 289.19363(89)#
220 ms
[1]
α
285
Uut
290
Uup
[n 2]
115 175 290.19598(73)#
16 ms
[1]
α
286
Uut
^ Not directly synthesized, created as decay product of
293
Uus 1.
^ Not directly synthesized, created as decay product of
294
Uus 2.
Notes
Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from systematic trends.
Spins with weak assignment arguments are enclosed in parentheses.
Uncertainties are given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits. Uncertainty
values denote one standard deviation, except isotopic composition and standard atomic mass from IUPAC
which use expanded uncertainties.
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Chronology of isotope discovery
Isotope Year discovered Discovery reaction
287
Uup
2003
243
Am(
48
Ca,4n)
288
Uup
2003
243
Am(
48
Ca,3n)
289
Uup
2009
249
Bk(
48
Ca,4n)
[1]
290
Uup
2009
249
Bk(
48
Ca,3n)
[1]
Target-projectile combinations
The table below contains various combinations of targets and projectiles which could be used to form compound
nuclei with Z=115. Each entry is acombination for which calculations have provided estimates for cross section
yields from various neutron evaporation channels. The channel with the highest expected yield is given.
Target Projectile CN Attempt result
208
Pb
75
As
283
Uup
Reaction yet to be attempted
232
Th
55
Mn
287
Uup
Reaction yet to be attempted
238
U
51
V
289
Uup
Failure to date
237
Np
50
Ti
287
Uup
Reaction yet to be attempted
244
Pu
45
Sc
289
Uup
Reaction yet to be attempted
243
Am
48
Ca
291
Uup
[2][3]
Successful reaction
241
Am
48
Ca
289
Uup
Planned Reaction
248
Cm
41
K
289
Uup
Reaction yet to be attempted
249
Bk
40
Ar
289
Uup
Reaction yet to be attempted
249
Cf
37
Cl
286
Uup
Reaction yet to be attempted
Hot fusion
Hot fusion reactions are processes that create compound nuclei at high excitation energy (~40–50 MeV, hence
"hot"), leading to a reduced probability of survival from fission. The excited nucleus then decays to the ground
state via the emission of 3–5 neutrons. Fusion reactions utilizing
48
Ca nuclei usually produce compound nuclei
with intermediate excitation energies (~30–35 MeV) and are sometimes referred to as "warm" fusion reactions.
This leads, in part, to relatively high yields from these reactions.
238
U(
51
V,xn)
289−x
Uup
There are strong indications that this reaction was performed in late 2004 as part of a uranium(IV) fluoride
target test at the GSI. No reports have been published suggesting that no products atoms were detected, as
anticipated by the team.
[4]
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243
Am(
48
Ca,xn)
291−x
Uup (x=2,3,4)
This reaction was first performed by the team in Dubna in July–August 2003. In two separate runs they were
able to detect 3 atoms of
288
Uup and a single atom of
287
Uup. The reaction was studied further in June 2004 in
an attempt to isolate the descendant
268
Db from the
288
Uup decay chain. After chemical separation of a +4/+5
fraction, 15 SF decays were measured with a lifetime consistent with
268
Db. In order to prove that the decays
were from dubnium-268, the team repeated the reaction in August 2005 and separated the +4 and +5 fractions
and further separated the +5 fractions into tantalum-like and niobium-like ones. Five SF activities were
observed, all occurring in the +5 fractions and none in the tantalum-like fractions, proving that the product was
indeed isotopes of dubnium.
In a series of experiments between October 2010 – February 2011, scientists at the FLNR studied this reaction
at a range of excitation energies. They were able to detect 21 atoms of
288
115 and one atom of
289
115, from the
2n exit channel. This latter result was used to support the synthesis of ununseptium. The 3n excitation function
was completed with a maximum at ~8 pb. The data was consistent with that found in the first experiments in
2003.
Reaction yields
The table below provides cross-sections and excitation energies for hot fusion reactions producing ununpentium
isotopes directly. Data in bold represent maxima derived from excitation function measurements. + represents
an observed exit channel.
Projectile Target CN 2n 3n 4n 5n
48
Ca
243
Am
291
Uup
3.7 pb, 39.0 MeV 0.9 pb, 44.4 MeV
Theoretical calculations
Decay characteristics
Theoretical calculations using a quantum-tunneling model support the experimental alpha-decay half-lives.
[5]
Evaporation residue cross sections
The table below contains various target-projectile combinations for which calculations have provided estimates
for cross section yields from various neutron evaporation channels. The channel with the highest expected yield
is given.
MD = multi-dimensional; DNS = Di-nuclear system; σ = cross section
Target Projectile CN Channel (product) σ
max
Model Ref
243
Am
48
Ca
291
Uup 3n (
288
Uup)
3 pb MD
[2]
243
Am
48
Ca
291
Uup 4n (
287
Uup)
2 pb MD
[2]
243
Am
48
Ca
291
Uup 3n (
288
Uup)
1 pb DNS
[3]
242
Am
48
Ca
290
Uup 3n (
287
Uup)
2.5 pb DNS
[3]
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^
a

b

c

d
Oganessian, Y. T.; Abdullin, F. S.; Bailey, P. D. et al. (2010). "Synthesis of a New Element with Atomic
Number Z=117" (http://www.researchgate.net/publication
/44610795_Synthesis_of_a_new_element_with_atomic_number_Z__117). Physical Review Letters 104 (14):
142502. Bibcode:2010PhRvL.104n2502O (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvL.104n2502O).
doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.142502 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1103%2FPhysRevLett.104.142502). PMID 20481935
(//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20481935).
1.
^
a

b

c
Zagrebaev, V (2004). "Fusion-fission dynamics of super-heavy element formation and decay"
(http://nrv.jinr.ru/pdf_file/npa_04.pdf). Nuclear Physics A 734: 164. Bibcode:2004NuPhA.734..164Z
(http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004NuPhA.734..164Z). doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2004.01.025 (http://dx.doi.org
/10.1016%2Fj.nuclphysa.2004.01.025).
2.
^
a

b

c
Feng, Z; Jin, G; Li, J; Scheid, W (2009). "Production of heavy and superheavy nuclei in massive fusion
reactions". Nuclear Physics A 816: 33. arXiv:0803.1117 (//arxiv.org/abs/0803.1117).
Bibcode:2009NuPhA.816...33F (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009NuPhA.816...33F).
doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2008.11.003 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.nuclphysa.2008.11.003).
3.
^ "List of experiments 2000–2006" (http://web.archive.org/web/20070723094218/http://opal.dnp.fmph.uniba.sk
/~beer/experiments.php). Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave.
4.
^ C. Samanta, P. Roy Chowdhury and D.N. Basu (2007). "Predictions of alpha decay half lives of heavy and
superheavy elements". Nucl. Phys. A 789: 142–154. arXiv:nucl-th/0703086 (//arxiv.org/abs/nucl-th/0703086).
Bibcode:2007NuPhA.789..142S (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007NuPhA.789..142S).
doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2007.04.001 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.nuclphysa.2007.04.001).
5.
Isotope masses from:
M. Wang, G. Audi, A.H. Wapstra, F.G. Kondev, M. MacCormick, X. Xu, et al. (2012). "The
AME2012 atomic mass evaluation (II). Tables, graphs and references." (http://amdc.in2p3.fr
/masstables/Ame2012/Ame2012b-v2.pdf). Chinese Physics C, 36 (12): 1603–2014.
Bibcode:2012ChPhC..36....3M (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ChPhC..36....3M).
doi:10.1088/1674-1137/36/12/003 (http://dx.doi.org
/10.1088%2F1674-1137%2F36%2F12%2F003).
G. Audi, A. H. Wapstra, C. Thibault, J. Blachot and O. Bersillon (2003). "The NUBASE evaluation
of nuclear and decay properties" (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/amdc/nubase/Nubase2003.pdf).
Nuclear Physics A 729: 3–128. Bibcode:2003NuPhA.729....3A (http://adsabs.harvard.edu
/abs/2003NuPhA.729....3A). doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001 (http://dx.doi.org
/10.1016%2Fj.nuclphysa.2003.11.001).
Isotopic compositions and standard atomic masses from:
J. R. de Laeter, J. K. Böhlke, P. De Bièvre, H. Hidaka, H. S. Peiser, K. J. R. Rosman and P. D. P.
Taylor (2003). "Atomic weights of the elements. Review 2000 (IUPAC Technical Report)"
(http://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/75/6/0683/pdf/). Pure and Applied Chemistry 75 (6):
683–800. doi:10.1351/pac200375060683 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1351%2Fpac200375060683).
M. E. Wieser (2006). "Atomic weights of the elements 2005 (IUPAC Technical Report)"
(http://iupac.org/publications/pac/78/11/2051/pdf/). Pure and Applied Chemistry 78 (11):
2051–2066. doi:10.1351/pac200678112051 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1351%2Fpac200678112051). Lay
summary (http://old.iupac.org/news/archives/2005/atomic-weights_revised05.html).
Half-life, spin, and isomer data selected from the following sources. See editing notes on this article's talk
page.
G. Audi, A. H. Wapstra, C. Thibault, J. Blachot and O. Bersillon (2003). "The NUBASE evaluation
of nuclear and decay properties" (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/amdc/nubase/Nubase2003.pdf).
Nuclear Physics A 729: 3–128. Bibcode:2003NuPhA.729....3A (http://adsabs.harvard.edu
/abs/2003NuPhA.729....3A). doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001 (http://dx.doi.org
/10.1016%2Fj.nuclphysa.2003.11.001).
National Nuclear Data Center. "NuDat 2.1 database" (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nudat2/).
Isotopes of ununpentium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_ununpentium
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Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved September 2005.
N. E. Holden (2004). "Table of the Isotopes". In D. R. Lide. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and
Physics (85th ed.). CRC Press. Section 11. ISBN 978-0-8493-0485-9.
Isotopes of flerovium Isotopes of ununpentium
Isotopes of
livermorium
Table of nuclides
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Categories: Ununpentium Isotopes of ununpentium Lists of isotopes by element
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