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2.

20 Marine Hydrodynamics, Fall 2011


Lecture 9
Copyright c 2011 MIT - Department of Mechanical Engineering, All rights reserved.
2.20 - Marine Hydrodynamics
Lecture 9
Lecture 9 is structured as follows: In paragraph 3.5 we return to the full Navier-Stokes
equations (unsteady, viscous momentum equations) to deduce the vorticity equation and
study some additional properties of vorticity. In paragraph 3.6 we introduce the concept of
potential ow and velocity potential. We formulate the governing equations and boundary
conditions for potential ow and nally introduce the stream function.
3.5 Vorticity Equation
Return to viscous incompressible ow. The Navier-Stokes equations in vector form
v
t
+v v =
_
p

+ gy
_
+
2
v
By taking the curl of the Navier-Stokes equations we obtain the vorticity equation. In
detail and taking into account u we have
(Navier-Stokes)
v
t
+(v v) =
_
p

+ gy
_
+
_

2
v
_
The rst term on the left side, for xed reference frames, becomes

v
t
=

t
(v) =

t
In the same manner the last term on the right side becomes

2
v
_
=
2

Applying the identity scalar = 0 the pressure term vanishes, provided that the
density is uniform

_
(
p

+ gy)
_
= 0
1
The inertia term v v, as shown in Lecture 8, 3.4, can be rewritten as
v v =
1
2
(v v) v (v) =
_
v
2
2
_
v where v
2
|v|
2
= v v
and then the second term on the left side can be rewritten as
(v ) v =
_
v
2
2
_
(v ) = ( v)
= (v ) ( ) v + ( v)
. .
=0
incompressible
uid
+ v ( )
. .
=0 since
(v)=0
Putting everything together, we obtain the vorticity equation
D
Dt
= ( ) v +
2

Comments-results obtained from the vorticity equation


Kelvins Theorem revisited - from vorticity equation:
If 0, then
D
Dt
= ( ) v, so if 0 everywhere at one time, 0 always.
can be thought of as diusivity of vorticity (and momentum), i.e., once generated
(on boundaries only) will spread/diuse in space if is present.

v
...
2
+ = v
Dt
v D v
v
...
2
+ =
v
v
Dt
D

v
...
2
+ = v
Dt
v D v
v
...
2
+ =
v
v
Dt
D

v
2
Diusion of vorticity is analogous to the heat equation:
T
t
= K
2
T, where K is the
heat diusivity.
Numerical example for 1 mm
2
/s. For diusion time t = 1 second, diusion
distance L O
_
t
_
O(mm). For diusion distance L = 1cm, the necessary
diusion time is t O(L
2
/) O(10)sec.
In 2D space (x, y),
v = (u, v, 0) and

z
0
So, = v is to v ( is parallel to the z-axis). Then,
( ) v =
_
_
_

x
..
0

x
+
y
..
0

y
+
z

z
..
0
_
_
_
v 0,
so in 2D we have
D
Dt
=
2

If = 0,
D
Dt
= 0, i.e., in 2D following a particle the angular velocity is conserved.
Reason: In 2D space the length of a vortex tube cannot change due to continuity.
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In 3D space,
D
i
Dt
=
j
v
i
x
j
. .
vortex turning and stretching
+

2

i
x
j
x
j
. .
diusion
for example,
D
2
Dt
=
1
u
2
x
1
. .
vortex turning
+
2
u
2
x
2
. .
vortex stretching
+
3
u
2
x
3
. .
vortex turning
+ diusion
1
x x
2
x y
3
x z
1
x x
2
x y
3
x z
0
2
= u
0 dy
2
2
>

x
u
dy
43 42 1
rate stretching vortex
2
2
2
0 0 > >

Dt
D
x
u
43 42 1
rate turning vortex
2
3
2
0 0
0
3
> >

>
Dt
D
x
u

0
2
= u
0 dz
3
2
>

x
u
dz
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3.5.1 Example: Pile on a River

Scouring
What really happens as length of the vortex tube L increases?
IFCF is no longer a valid assumption.
Why?
Ideal ow assumption implies that the inertia forces are much larger than the viscous
eects. The Reynolds number, with respect to the vortex tube diameter D is given by
R
e

UD

As the vortex tube length increases the diameter D becomes really small R
e
is not
that big after all.
Therefore IFCF is no longer valid.
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3.6 Potential Flow
Potential Flow (P-Flow) is an ideal and irrotational uid ow
P-Flow
_

_
Inviscid Fluid = 0
+
Incompressible Flow v = 0
_
_
_
Ideal Flow
+
Irrotational Flow = 0 or = 0
3.6.1 Velocity potential
For ideal ow under conservative body forces by Kelvins theorem if 0 at some
time t, then 0 irrotational ow always. In this case the ow is P-Flow.
Given a vector eld v for which = v 0, there exists a potential function
(scalar) - the velocity potential - denoted as , for which
v =
Note that
= v = 0
for any , so irrotational ow guaranteed automatically. At a point x and time t,
the velocity vector v(x, t) in cartesian coordinates in terms of the potential function
(x, t) is given by
v (x, t) = (x, t) =
_

x
,

y
,

z
_
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) (x
x
0
0
>
>

u
x

0
0
<
<

u
x
0 = u
u
u
high to low from
The velocity vector v is the gradient of the potential function , so it always points
towards higher values of the potential function.
3.6.2 Governing Equations and Boundary Conditions for Potential Flow
(a) Continuity
v = 0 =
2
= 0
Number of unknowns
Number of equations
2
= 0
Therefore we have closure. In addition, the velocity potential and the pressure p
are decoupled. The velocity potential can be solved independently rst, and after
is obtained we can evaluate the pressure p.
p = f (v) = f () Solve for , then nd pressure.
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(b) Bernoulli equation for P-Flow
This is a scalar equation for the pressure under the assumption of P-Flow for
steady or unsteady ow.
Euler equation:
v
t
+
_
v
2
2
_
v =
_
p

+ gy
_
Substituting v = and = 0 into Eulers equation above, we obtain

t
_
+
_
1
2
||
2
_
=
_
p

+ gy
_
or

t
+
1
2
||
2
+
p

+ gy
_
= 0,
which implies that

t
+
1
2
||
2
+
p

+ gy = f(t)
everywhere in the uid for unsteady, potential ow. The equation above can be
written as
p =
_

t
+
1
2
||
2
+ gy
_
+ F(t)
which is the Bernoulli equation for unsteady or steady potential ow.
DO NOT CONFUSE WITH
BERNOULLI EQUATION FROM 3.4,
USED FOR STEADY, ROTATIONAL FLOW
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Summary: Bernoulli equationS for ideal ow.
(a) For steady rotational or irrotational ow along streamline:
p =
_
1
2
v
2
+ gy
_
+ C()
(b) For unsteady or steady irrotational ow everywhere in the uid:
p =
_

t
+
1
2
||
2
+ gy
_
+ F(t)
(c) For hydrostatics, v 0,

t
= 0:
p = gy + c hydrostatic pressure (Archimedes principle)
(d) Steady and no gravity eect (

t
= 0, g 0):
p =
v
2
2
+ c =

2
||
2
+ c Venturi pressure (created by velocity)
(e) Inertial, acceleration eect:
p
Eulerian inertia
..

t
+
p

t
v +

p
x
x
p
p

+
u
x
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(c) Boundary Conditions
KBC on an impervious boundary
v n
..
n
= u n
..
Un given
no ux across boundary

n
= U
n
given
DBC: specify pressure at the boundary, i.e.,

t
+
1
2
||
2
+ gy
_
= given
Note: On a free-surface p = p
atm
.
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3.6.3 Stream function
Continuity: v = 0; Irrotationality: v = = 0
Velocity potential: v = , then v = () 0 for any , i.e.,
irrotationality is satised automatically. Required for continuity:
v =
2
= 0
Stream function

dened by
v =

Then v =
_

_
0 for any

, i.e., satises continuity automatically.
Required for irrotationality:
v = 0
_

_
=
_

. .
still 3 unknowns

=(x,y,z)
= 0 (1)
For 2D and axisymmetric ows,

is a scalar (stream functions are more use-
ful for 2D and axisymmetric ows).
For 2D ow: v = (u, v, 0) and

z
0.
v =

=

i

j

k

x

y

z

=
_

y

z
_

i +
_

z
_

j +
_

x

x
_

k
Set
x
=
y
0 and
z
= , then u =

y
; v =

x
So, for 2D:


=

x

x
+

y

y
+

z

z
0
Then, from the irrotationality (see (1))
2
= 0 and satises Laplaces
equation.
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2D polar coordinates: v = (v
r
, v

) and

z
0.

r

r
x
y
v =

=
1
r

e
r
r e

e
z

=
vr
..
1
r

e
r
v

..

z
r
e

+
vz
..
1
r
_

r
r

r
_
e
z
Again let

r
=

0 and
z
= , then
v
r
=
1
r

and v

r
For 3D but axisymmetric ows,

also reduces to (read JNN 4.6 for details).
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Physical Meaning of .
In 2D
u =

y
and v =

x
We dene
(x, t) = (x
0
, t) +
_
x
x
0
v nd
. .
total volume ux
from left to right
accross a curve C
between x and x
0
= (x
0
, t) +
_
x
x
0
(udy vdx)


x
v

t
v
o
x
v
C
C
n

For to be single-valued,
_
must be path independent.
_
C
=
_
C

or
_
C

_
C

= 0
_
CC

v n d =
__
S
v
. .
=0, continuity
ds = 0
Therefore, is unique because of continuity.
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Let x
1
, x
2
be two points on a given streamline (v n = 0 on streamline)
streamline
(x
2
)
. .

2
= (x
1
)
. .

1
+
x
2
_
x
1
v n
..
=0
along a
streamline
d
Therefore,
1
=
2
, i.e., is a constant along any streamline. For example, on
an impervious stationary body v n = 0, so = constant on the body is the
appropriate boundary condition. If the body is moving v n = U
n
=
0
+
_
U
n
..
given
d on the boddy
y = constant
0
n
=

u = 0
y = given
o
y
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Flux = vx = uy.
Therefore, u =

y
and v =

x
streamline
streamline
-v
u
(x,y)
(x +x, y)

(x, y + y)
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Summary of velocity potential formulation vs. stream-function formulation for ideal ows
_
_
_
For irrotational ow use
For incompressible ow use
For P-Flow use or
_
_
_
velocity potential stream-function
denition v = v =

continuity v = 0
2
= 0 automatically satised
irrotationality v = 0 automatically satised
_

_
=
_

= 0
2D: w = 0,

z
= 0
continuity
2
= 0 automatically satised
irrotationality automatically satised
z
:
2
= 0
Cauchy-Riemann equations for (, ) = (real, imaginary) part of an analytic complex
function of z = x + iy
Cartesian (x, y)
u =

x
v =

y
u =

y
v =

x
Polar (r,)
v
r
=

r
v

=
1
r

v
r
=
1
r

r
Given or for 2D ow, use Cauchy-Riemann equations to nd the other:
e.g. If = xy, then = ?
u =

x
= y =

y
=
1
2
y
2
+ f
1
(x)
v =

y
= x =

x
=
1
2
x
2
+ f
2
(y)
_

_
=
1
2
(y
2
x
2
) + const
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