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You are on page 1of 16

Lecture 9

Copyright c 2011 MIT - Department of Mechanical Engineering, All rights reserved.

2.20 - Marine Hydrodynamics

Lecture 9

Lecture 9 is structured as follows: In paragraph 3.5 we return to the full Navier-Stokes

equations (unsteady, viscous momentum equations) to deduce the vorticity equation and

study some additional properties of vorticity. In paragraph 3.6 we introduce the concept of

potential ow and velocity potential. We formulate the governing equations and boundary

conditions for potential ow and nally introduce the stream function.

3.5 Vorticity Equation

Return to viscous incompressible ow. The Navier-Stokes equations in vector form

v

t

+v v =

_

p

+ gy

_

+

2

v

By taking the curl of the Navier-Stokes equations we obtain the vorticity equation. In

detail and taking into account u we have

(Navier-Stokes)

v

t

+(v v) =

_

p

+ gy

_

+

_

2

v

_

The rst term on the left side, for xed reference frames, becomes

v

t

=

t

(v) =

t

In the same manner the last term on the right side becomes

2

v

_

=

2

Applying the identity scalar = 0 the pressure term vanishes, provided that the

density is uniform

_

(

p

+ gy)

_

= 0

1

The inertia term v v, as shown in Lecture 8, 3.4, can be rewritten as

v v =

1

2

(v v) v (v) =

_

v

2

2

_

v where v

2

|v|

2

= v v

and then the second term on the left side can be rewritten as

(v ) v =

_

v

2

2

_

(v ) = ( v)

= (v ) ( ) v + ( v)

. .

=0

incompressible

uid

+ v ( )

. .

=0 since

(v)=0

Putting everything together, we obtain the vorticity equation

D

Dt

= ( ) v +

2

Kelvins Theorem revisited - from vorticity equation:

If 0, then

D

Dt

= ( ) v, so if 0 everywhere at one time, 0 always.

can be thought of as diusivity of vorticity (and momentum), i.e., once generated

(on boundaries only) will spread/diuse in space if is present.

v

...

2

+ = v

Dt

v D v

v

...

2

+ =

v

v

Dt

D

v

...

2

+ = v

Dt

v D v

v

...

2

+ =

v

v

Dt

D

v

2

Diusion of vorticity is analogous to the heat equation:

T

t

= K

2

T, where K is the

heat diusivity.

Numerical example for 1 mm

2

/s. For diusion time t = 1 second, diusion

distance L O

_

t

_

O(mm). For diusion distance L = 1cm, the necessary

diusion time is t O(L

2

/) O(10)sec.

In 2D space (x, y),

v = (u, v, 0) and

z

0

So, = v is to v ( is parallel to the z-axis). Then,

( ) v =

_

_

_

x

..

0

x

+

y

..

0

y

+

z

z

..

0

_

_

_

v 0,

so in 2D we have

D

Dt

=

2

If = 0,

D

Dt

= 0, i.e., in 2D following a particle the angular velocity is conserved.

Reason: In 2D space the length of a vortex tube cannot change due to continuity.

3

In 3D space,

D

i

Dt

=

j

v

i

x

j

. .

vortex turning and stretching

+

2

i

x

j

x

j

. .

diusion

for example,

D

2

Dt

=

1

u

2

x

1

. .

vortex turning

+

2

u

2

x

2

. .

vortex stretching

+

3

u

2

x

3

. .

vortex turning

+ diusion

1

x x

2

x y

3

x z

1

x x

2

x y

3

x z

0

2

= u

0 dy

2

2

>

x

u

dy

43 42 1

rate stretching vortex

2

2

2

0 0 > >

Dt

D

x

u

43 42 1

rate turning vortex

2

3

2

0 0

0

3

> >

>

Dt

D

x

u

0

2

= u

0 dz

3

2

>

x

u

dz

4

3.5.1 Example: Pile on a River

Scouring

What really happens as length of the vortex tube L increases?

IFCF is no longer a valid assumption.

Why?

Ideal ow assumption implies that the inertia forces are much larger than the viscous

eects. The Reynolds number, with respect to the vortex tube diameter D is given by

R

e

UD

As the vortex tube length increases the diameter D becomes really small R

e

is not

that big after all.

Therefore IFCF is no longer valid.

5

3.6 Potential Flow

Potential Flow (P-Flow) is an ideal and irrotational uid ow

P-Flow

_

_

Inviscid Fluid = 0

+

Incompressible Flow v = 0

_

_

_

Ideal Flow

+

Irrotational Flow = 0 or = 0

3.6.1 Velocity potential

For ideal ow under conservative body forces by Kelvins theorem if 0 at some

time t, then 0 irrotational ow always. In this case the ow is P-Flow.

Given a vector eld v for which = v 0, there exists a potential function

(scalar) - the velocity potential - denoted as , for which

v =

Note that

= v = 0

for any , so irrotational ow guaranteed automatically. At a point x and time t,

the velocity vector v(x, t) in cartesian coordinates in terms of the potential function

(x, t) is given by

v (x, t) = (x, t) =

_

x

,

y

,

z

_

6

) (x

x

0

0

>

>

u

x

0

0

<

<

u

x

0 = u

u

u

high to low from

The velocity vector v is the gradient of the potential function , so it always points

towards higher values of the potential function.

3.6.2 Governing Equations and Boundary Conditions for Potential Flow

(a) Continuity

v = 0 =

2

= 0

Number of unknowns

Number of equations

2

= 0

Therefore we have closure. In addition, the velocity potential and the pressure p

are decoupled. The velocity potential can be solved independently rst, and after

is obtained we can evaluate the pressure p.

p = f (v) = f () Solve for , then nd pressure.

7

(b) Bernoulli equation for P-Flow

This is a scalar equation for the pressure under the assumption of P-Flow for

steady or unsteady ow.

Euler equation:

v

t

+

_

v

2

2

_

v =

_

p

+ gy

_

Substituting v = and = 0 into Eulers equation above, we obtain

t

_

+

_

1

2

||

2

_

=

_

p

+ gy

_

or

t

+

1

2

||

2

+

p

+ gy

_

= 0,

which implies that

t

+

1

2

||

2

+

p

+ gy = f(t)

everywhere in the uid for unsteady, potential ow. The equation above can be

written as

p =

_

t

+

1

2

||

2

+ gy

_

+ F(t)

which is the Bernoulli equation for unsteady or steady potential ow.

DO NOT CONFUSE WITH

BERNOULLI EQUATION FROM 3.4,

USED FOR STEADY, ROTATIONAL FLOW

8

Summary: Bernoulli equationS for ideal ow.

(a) For steady rotational or irrotational ow along streamline:

p =

_

1

2

v

2

+ gy

_

+ C()

(b) For unsteady or steady irrotational ow everywhere in the uid:

p =

_

t

+

1

2

||

2

+ gy

_

+ F(t)

(c) For hydrostatics, v 0,

t

= 0:

p = gy + c hydrostatic pressure (Archimedes principle)

(d) Steady and no gravity eect (

t

= 0, g 0):

p =

v

2

2

+ c =

2

||

2

+ c Venturi pressure (created by velocity)

(e) Inertial, acceleration eect:

p

Eulerian inertia

..

t

+

p

t

v +

p

x

x

p

p

+

u

x

9

(c) Boundary Conditions

KBC on an impervious boundary

v n

..

n

= u n

..

Un given

no ux across boundary

n

= U

n

given

DBC: specify pressure at the boundary, i.e.,

t

+

1

2

||

2

+ gy

_

= given

Note: On a free-surface p = p

atm

.

10

3.6.3 Stream function

Continuity: v = 0; Irrotationality: v = = 0

Velocity potential: v = , then v = () 0 for any , i.e.,

irrotationality is satised automatically. Required for continuity:

v =

2

= 0

Stream function

dened by

v =

Then v =

_

_

0 for any

, i.e., satises continuity automatically.

Required for irrotationality:

v = 0

_

_

=

_

. .

still 3 unknowns

=(x,y,z)

= 0 (1)

For 2D and axisymmetric ows,

is a scalar (stream functions are more use-

ful for 2D and axisymmetric ows).

For 2D ow: v = (u, v, 0) and

z

0.

v =

=

i

j

k

x

y

z

=

_

y

z

_

i +

_

z

_

j +

_

x

x

_

k

Set

x

=

y

0 and

z

= , then u =

y

; v =

x

So, for 2D:

=

x

x

+

y

y

+

z

z

0

Then, from the irrotationality (see (1))

2

= 0 and satises Laplaces

equation.

11

2D polar coordinates: v = (v

r

, v

) and

z

0.

r

r

x

y

v =

=

1

r

e

r

r e

e

z

=

vr

..

1

r

e

r

v

..

z

r

e

+

vz

..

1

r

_

r

r

r

_

e

z

Again let

r

=

0 and

z

= , then

v

r

=

1

r

and v

r

For 3D but axisymmetric ows,

also reduces to (read JNN 4.6 for details).

12

Physical Meaning of .

In 2D

u =

y

and v =

x

We dene

(x, t) = (x

0

, t) +

_

x

x

0

v nd

. .

total volume ux

from left to right

accross a curve C

between x and x

0

= (x

0

, t) +

_

x

x

0

(udy vdx)

x

v

t

v

o

x

v

C

C

n

For to be single-valued,

_

must be path independent.

_

C

=

_

C

or

_

C

_

C

= 0

_

CC

v n d =

__

S

v

. .

=0, continuity

ds = 0

Therefore, is unique because of continuity.

13

Let x

1

, x

2

be two points on a given streamline (v n = 0 on streamline)

streamline

(x

2

)

. .

2

= (x

1

)

. .

1

+

x

2

_

x

1

v n

..

=0

along a

streamline

d

Therefore,

1

=

2

, i.e., is a constant along any streamline. For example, on

an impervious stationary body v n = 0, so = constant on the body is the

appropriate boundary condition. If the body is moving v n = U

n

=

0

+

_

U

n

..

given

d on the boddy

y = constant

0

n

=

u = 0

y = given

o

y

14

Flux = vx = uy.

Therefore, u =

y

and v =

x

streamline

streamline

-v

u

(x,y)

(x +x, y)

(x, y + y)

15

Summary of velocity potential formulation vs. stream-function formulation for ideal ows

_

_

_

For irrotational ow use

For incompressible ow use

For P-Flow use or

_

_

_

velocity potential stream-function

denition v = v =

continuity v = 0

2

= 0 automatically satised

irrotationality v = 0 automatically satised

_

_

=

_

= 0

2D: w = 0,

z

= 0

continuity

2

= 0 automatically satised

irrotationality automatically satised

z

:

2

= 0

Cauchy-Riemann equations for (, ) = (real, imaginary) part of an analytic complex

function of z = x + iy

Cartesian (x, y)

u =

x

v =

y

u =

y

v =

x

Polar (r,)

v

r

=

r

v

=

1

r

v

r

=

1

r

r

Given or for 2D ow, use Cauchy-Riemann equations to nd the other:

e.g. If = xy, then = ?

u =

x

= y =

y

=

1

2

y

2

+ f

1

(x)

v =

y

= x =

x

=

1

2

x

2

+ f

2

(y)

_

_

=

1

2

(y

2

x

2

) + const

16

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