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1

Flicker Analysis and Case Studies


Jim Rossman, P.E.
Senior Manager of Power Quality
Gerald Johns, P.E.
Senior Power Utilization Engineer
TVA
August 2008
2
Voltage Drop Creating Visible Light Flicker
Voltage Drop Creating Visible Light Flicker
Voltage Flicker Is:
Voltage Drop as Seen by
Others
Visible With Incandescent
lights and some CFLs
Complaints Normally From
Residential Customers
Much lower in magnitude
than a fault related
voltage sag usually
only a few volts on 120-
V system
Noticeable at low levels
and downright annoying
at higher levels
Voltage Flicker Does Not:
Normally does not cause
equipment downtime
Does not damage other
folks equipment
3
Flicker is Perceived Voltage Drop
Voltage Drop is Graphically Shown Below
Drawing Copied from IEEE 141
Flicker is Perceived Voltage Drop
Voltage Drop is Graphically Shown Below
Drawing Copied from IEEE 141
+ sin cos IX IR Vdrop
4
Per Unit Approach to Calculating Flicker
Per Unit Approach to Calculating Flicker
100
) 1 (% ) 1 (%
%
X MVARswing R MWswing
Vdrop
+

Hand calculations often work best in percent on an MVA base


TVA uses 100-MVA as our base so the following is the same
approach but written on a percent basis:
Example: Large motor draws 25-MW and 40-MVAR on
startup. With a system Thevenin equivalent
Of Z= 0.988% +j 7.170% (100-MVA base), What is the
expected voltage swing on startup?
% 1 . 3
100
%) 170 . 7 ( 40 %) 988 . 0 ( 25
=
+

MVAR MW
Vdrop
+ sin cos IX IR Vdrop
5
Perceived Voltage Drop in Lights
GE Flicker Curves
Copied From IEEE 141
Perceived Voltage Drop in Lights
GE Flicker Curves
Copied From IEEE 141
6
TVA Flicker Curve
TVA Flicker Curve
7
Flicker Curves
IEEE 141 and TVA
Flicker Curves
IEEE 141 and TVA
TVA
Curve
In
Red
8
Three Key Flicker Components
Three Key Flicker Components
Recipe for Complaints:
1. Start with - Varying load/generation equipment
2. Serve from a - High System Impedance
3. Repeat variations until annoying
9
Component 1:
Equipment with Load Swings Leading to
Possible Flicker Issues
Component 1:
Equipment with Load Swings Leading to
Possible Flicker Issues
Motors and Compressors
Rock Crushers
Saw Mills
Large Motors (Car Shredders, pumping systems)
HVAC systems
Welders
Process ARC Furnaces
Process Induction Furnaces
Wind Generators
Others
10
Mitigation Systems Reducing Load Swings
Mitigation Systems Reducing Load Swings
Dynamic Var Systems
Static Var Compensators
Dstatcom
Intellivar
Thyristor-Controlled Capacitor Systems
Motor Impact Reduction
Reduced Voltage Starters
Wound Rotor Motor Resistors
DC Motor Systems
Sequencing Multiple Welder Systems
Arc Furnace Reactors
11
Component 2:
Impedance Issues Important to Flicker Critical
Point of Common Coupling (PCC) for Flicker Studies
Component 2:
Impedance Issues Important to Flicker Critical
Point of Common Coupling (PCC) for Flicker Studies
+
161kVRMSLL /_0
AC1
RL
+


PI1
1 2
69/13.2

20_MVA
2
3
1
161/69/13

60_MVA
RL
+


PI2
.28
7Ohm
ZZ_1
+


RL1
Transmission Sub-transmission Distribution Distribution
Level Circuit Level Bus Level Circuit Level
My PCC Definition:
Closest Interconnection Location Where Another
Customer Can See The Voltage Drop From The
Disturbing Load
12
Component 2:
Series Impedance to PCC
Shown in Percent (100-MVA Base)
Component 2:
Series Impedance to PCC
Shown in Percent (100-MVA Base)
+
161kVRMSLL /_0
AC2
RL
+


PI3
+


RL3
RL
+


PI4
+


RL4
+


RL2
Distribution Circuit 13-kV
Distribution Bus 13-kV
Sub-transmission 69-kV
Transmission 161-kV
Possible PCC
Interconnection
(30.47+j138.9)% total to D D
(1.75+32.6)% total to C C
(1.08+j12.6)% total to B B
(0.70+j4.82)% total to A A
% Series Circuit Impedance
100-MVA base
A B C D
Hopkinsville, KY Facility - Services Went From 13-kV to 161-kV
13
Mitigation Approaches With Impedance
Reductions
Mitigation Approaches With Impedance
Reductions
Historical Solution to Flicker Problems Reduce Impedance
and percent voltage drop by Moving PCC upstream:
General Distribution to Dedicated Distribution Feed
Dedicated Distribution Feed to Sub-transmission Feed
Sub-transmission Feed to Transmission Feed
Add Series Capacitors In Line
14
Component 3:
Frequency of Voltage Variation Swings
Component 3:
Frequency of Voltage Variation Swings
Startup Related (once per season, month, week, day)
Pump Motors
Process Systems
Energizing Transformers
Low Frequency Process cyclic (multiple times per day or
hour)
Air compressors
Refrigeration Compressors
High Frequency Process cyclic (many times per hour of
second)
Rock crusher cycling
Shredders
Welders
Arc Furnaces
15
GE Flicker Curves
Copied From IEEE 519
GE Flicker Curves
Copied From IEEE 519
16
Drawbacks of IEEE 141/519 Curve
Drawbacks of IEEE 141/519 Curve
280 300 320 340 360 380
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
seconds
R
M
S

V
o
l
t
s
16:04:02
03/13/2008
Thursday
16:04:04 16:04:06 16:04:08 16:04:10
272.5
275.0
277.5
280.0
282.5
285.0
287.5
290.0
V
o
l
t
s
A Vrms (val)
230 230.5 231 231.5 232 232.5
119.99
119.995
120
120.005
120.01
seconds
R
M
S

v
o
l
t
s
2530.5 2531 2531.5 2532 2532.5 2533 2533.5 2534 2534.5
270
272
274
276
278
280
282
284
286
288
seconds
R
M
S

V
o
l
t
s
17
IEEE 1453
IEEE 1453
Based on IEC 61000-4-15 (adopts the IEC
standard).
Provides specifications for the measurement of
flicker based on IEC 61000-4-15.
Provides recommended flicker limits on
medium-voltage, high-voltage, and extra-high
voltage systems based on IEC 61000-3-7.
18
Advantages of using IEEE 1453 over
IEEE 141/519 curves
Advantages of using IEEE 1453 over
IEEE 141/519 curves
Measurement that directly represents flicker level in
terms of human perception.
Provides a way of measuring flicker when voltage
fluctuation is anything but a rectangular change.
Impact of modulations caused by modern solid-state
converters (interharmonics) on voltage fluctuations
taken into account.
Can be incorporated into simulation models to provide
future flicker estimates and the effectiveness of various
flicker mitigation options.
19
UIE/IEC Flickermeter
UIE/IEC Flickermeter
First 4 blocks produce a signal that collectively represent:
Response of a lamp to a supply voltage variation.
Perception ability of the human eye
Memory tendency of the human brain.
Block 5 is a statistical calculation that emulates human irritability
to the flicker level.
Figure Source: J.C. Gomez, M.M. Morcos, Flicker Measurement and Light Effect, Power Engineering
Review, Nov. 2002.
20
IEEE 1453 Definitions
IEEE 1453 Definitions
Pst A measure (statistical) of short-term perception of
flicker obtained for a ten-minute interval.
Plt A measure (statistical) of long-term perception of
flicker obtained for a two-hour period. This value is
made up of 12 consecutive Pst values per the following
formula. - Necessary when duty cycle varies or
multiple loads operating simultaneously.
N
3
3
1
1
Plt =
Pst
N
where N = The nunber of Pst readings.
j
j =

N should be based on the duty cycle of the fluctuating


load. If exact duty cycle is unknown, assume N=12 to
represent 2 hours.
21
IEC Flickermeter
IEC Flickermeter
Pst of 1.0 represents a magnitude and
frequency of voltage fluctuation that is
generally considered to be objectionable.
Measurement based on luminous fluctuation
associated with 60-watt, 60-Hz 120-VAC or 50-
Hz 240-VAC incandescent lamps.
22
Comparison of IEEE 141 and IEC
Flickermeter Curves
Comparison of IEEE 141 and IEC
Flickermeter Curves
*1 dip = 2 changes
23
IEEE 1453 Recommended Flicker
Levels
IEEE 1453 Recommended Flicker
Levels
However, levels that are not
objectionable may still be
perceivable.
Represents the
levels below
which
complaints are
not generally
received.
24
1453 Statistical Guidelines
1453 Statistical Guidelines
As a general guideline, when designing, Pst
and Plt should not exceed the planning levels
more than 1% of the time (99% probability
level), with a minimum assessment period of
one week.
IEEE 1453 recommends that Pst and Plt not
exceed 1.0 pu 5% of the time in existing low
voltage and medium voltage systems (95%
probability level.
25
Other Points To Note About Flicker
Other Points To Note About Flicker
People most sensitive to fluctuation frequency of 2 to 10
Hz with flicker visible up to 35 Hz.
Any change in voltage 6.0 % or greater results in
objectionable flicker, regardless of frequency. [1]
Lower-wattage incandescent bulbs produce more flicker
for a given change in voltage. At the same rated
wattage, a 230-volt bulb will flicker more than a 120-volt
bulb for a given change in voltage.
Dimmers can exacerbate the flicker problem because
flicker becomes more perceptible as baseline lumen
levels are reduced.
Fluorescent lamps typically flicker less for a given
voltage input [2].
[1] R.Dugan, et al., Electrical Power Systems Quality, 2
nd
Ed., 2002.
[2]T.A. Short, Electric Power Distribution, 2005.
26
EPRI Studies of Compact Fluorescent
Lamp Gain Factors
EPRI Studies of Compact Fluorescent
Lamp Gain Factors
The gain
factor is defined as the
ratio of relative light
changes to relative
voltage changes.
27
EPRI Studies of Linear T8 Fluorescent
Lamp Gain Factors
EPRI Studies of Linear T8 Fluorescent
Lamp Gain Factors
28
How About a Break!
Lets Keep It to 15 Minutes The Best is
Yet to Come!
29
Case #1 Sawmill on Rural Feeder
Case #1 Sawmill on Rural Feeder
7.2/12.47 kV distribution source @ mill
Primary Z = 12.94 + j10.45 ohms
9.47 miles of 14.4/24.9 kV
3.76 miles of 7.2/12.47 kV
Flicker caused by load fluctuations as
well as motor starts.
30
14:49:30.0
12/17/2007
Monday
14:49:30.5 14:49:31.0 14:49:31.5 14:49:32.0 14:49:32.5
100
200
300
400
500
k
W
TOT P( kW) (val)
300
400
500
600
700
800
k
V
A
R
TOT Q(kVAR)
255
260
265
270
275
280
V
o
l
t
s
A Vrms ( val) B Vrms (val) C Vrms (val)
-1500
-500
500
1500
A
m
p
s
A I B I C I
Real power draw starts to increase
due to increase load torque (large
log), but then declines because of
reduced speed.
Reactive power draw increases
substantially due to extreme speed
reduction.
Significant voltage reduction due to
reactive power draw.
Event #1 150-hp head saw abruptly loaded
up data collected at utility metering point
Case #1 - Head-Saw Load Up 9.6% Vdrop @ Mill
Secondary and 6.6 % Vdrop On Primary
Case #1 - Head-Saw Load Up 9.6% Vdrop @ Mill
Secondary and 6.6 % Vdrop On Primary
31
12:22:50
12/17/2007
Monday
12:22:52 12:22:54 12:22:56
300
500
700
900
1100
A
m
p
s
A Irms (val) B Irms (val) C Irms (val)
260
265
270
275
280
285
V
o
l
t
s
A Vrms (val) B Vrms (val) C Vrms (val)
100
150
200
250
300
k
W
TOT P(kW) (val)
300
400
500
600
700
800
k
V
A
R
TOT Q(kVAR)
Softstart programmed to start
motor @ 330 % FLA
Case #1 200 hp Chipper Startup w/softstart 7.5 % instantaneous
Vdrop at Sawmill and app. 5 % corresponding drop at residence
Case #1 200 hp Chipper Startup w/softstart 7.5 % instantaneous
Vdrop at Sawmill and app. 5 % corresponding drop at residence
32
Initial 1-Week Pst Profile
Initial 1-Week Pst Profile
33
Initial Goals
Initial Goals
Reduce flicker Pst on utility system to < 1.0.
Reduction in voltage sags caused by sawmill
operations on utility system to no more than 2.0
percent.
Mitigation mechanisms must not cause greater
than 2.0 percent voltage rise on utility system.
34
S & Cs AVC (Adaptive Var
Compensator)
ABBs DynaComp (Dynamic-Var
Compensator
Examples of Products Providing Fast Reactive
Power Compensation
Examples of Products Providing Fast Reactive
Power Compensation
35
More Examples of Products Providing Fast
Reactive Power Compensation
More Examples of Products Providing Fast
Reactive Power Compensation
Eaton-CH
Active Filter
Square-D
Active Filter
Square-D
Hybrid-Var
Compensator
36
Case Study #1 Examples of Motor
Starts with AutoXFMR starters
Case Study #1 Examples of Motor
Starts with AutoXFMR starters
12:17:55
12/17/2007
Monday
12:18:00 12:18:05 12:18:10
260
265
270
275
280
285
290
V
o
l
t
s
A Vrms (val) B Vrms (val) C Vrms (val)
250
500
750
1000
A
m
p
s
A Irms (val) B Irms (val) C Irms (val)
Headsaw
(150hp)
w/67%
tap
Edger
(150hp)
w/50 &
67% taps
37
Starter Modifications
Starter Modifications
Set all taps to 50% on all
autotransformer starters.
Programmed 200hp softstart to
start at 250 % of FLA.
After starter modifications, Max
starting Vdrop on primary ~3%
38
Findings of Additional Recording at
the Sawmill
Findings of Additional Recording at
the Sawmill
Fluctuations were more frequent
and of higher magnitude overall due
to type of wood being sawed.
12:00
05/12/2008
Monday
00:00
05/13/2008
Tuesday
12:00 00:00
05/14/2008
Wednesday
12:00 00:00
05/15/2008
Thursday
12:00 00:00
05/16/2008
Friday
0
1
2
3
4
5
B VPst
0
200
400
600
k
W
TOT P(kW) (val)
0
200
400
600
800
k
V
A
R
TOT Q(kVAR)
Dran-View 6.5.00 OEM Site License Tennessee Valley Authority
39
Case Study #1 Sawmill on Rural
Feeder
Case Study #1 Sawmill on Rural
Feeder
Worst-case
primary
fluctuation =
8%
40
Calculations - Converting 3.9 miles to
14.4/24.9 kV
Calculations - Converting 3.9 miles to
14.4/24.9 kV
New worst-
case
primary
fluctuation =
2.8%
41
Pst Calculations and Estimated Pst
with Voltage Conversion
Pst Calculations and Estimated Pst
with Voltage Conversion
06:00
05/13/2008
Tuesday
08:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
B VPst
Created with DranView 6.5.0
Residence
Sawmill
42
Estimating Future Pst After Voltage
Conversion
Estimating Future Pst After Voltage
Conversion
Max Pst at residence for
day shown = 1.34
Corresponding Pst at
sawmill secondary
metering point = 1.74
Typical ratio every other
interval ~ 0.7-0.75
Impedance Ratio =
By converting last 3.76
miles to 14.4/24.9 kV
@
@
1.34
0.77
1.74
Max residence
Corresponding sawmill
Pst
Pst
= =
_ _ _ Pr
_ _ _
0.1070
0.7
0.1535
To XFMR Sawmill imary
To XFMR Sawmill Secondary
Z
Z
= =
_ _ _ Pr
_ _ _
0.0448
0.48
0.0933
To XFMR Sawmill imary
To XFMR Sawmill Secondary
Z
Z
= =
With Impedance Ratio = 0.48 PstMax @
Residence Due to Sawmill Load = 0.84
43
Case Study #2a & #2b Residential
Air-Conditioning Starting
Case Study #2a & #2b Residential
Air-Conditioning Starting
Customer complaints at their worst have
resulted in service drop/lateral changeout or
possibly even transformer upsizing
HVAC technicians often install hard start kits
On average, electric consumers understand
that flicker is simply going to occur when their
A/C starts.
Members sharing secondary conductors and
sometimes transformer may result in one
member seeing another members A/C startup.
44
A/C Starting Case Study #2a
A/C Starting Case Study #2a
19:55:25.3
07/11/2007
Wednesday
19:55:25.4 19:55:25.5 19:55:25.6 19:55:25.7
-150
-50
50
150
V
o
l
t
s
A V
-150
-100
0
50
150
A
m
p
s
A I
110.0
112.5
115.0
117.5
120.0
V
o
l
t
s
A Vrms
20:09:57.3
07/11/2007
Wednesday
20:09:57.4 20:09:57.5 20:09:57.6 20:09:57.7
-150
-50
50
150
V
o
l
t
s
A V
-150
-100
-50
0
100
150
A
m
p
s
A I C I
110.0
112.5
115.0
117.5
120.0
V
o
l
t
s
A Vrms (val)
Before hard
start installed
After hard
start installed
45
Results of Using Hard Start Devices
Results of Using Hard Start Devices
Hard start results in increased starting torque
Compressor accelerates to full speed more
quickly, thereby reducing startup duration
Magnitude of initial inrush current and voltage
drop still the same as before capacitor
provides phase shift but no voltage rise
46
Minimum Voltage Magnitude Profile and Corresponding
Pst for A/C Startups Case Study
Minimum Voltage Magnitude Profile and Corresponding
Pst for A/C Startups Case Study
Min Max 95% 99%
AVrms 113.3 124.8 N/A N/A
AVPst 0.06869 0.8114 0.7575 0.8114
20:00
06/15/2008
Sunday
22:00 00:00
06/16/2008
Monday
02:00 04:00 06:00
115.0
117.5
120.0
122.5
125.0
V
o
l
t
s
A Vrms (min)
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
A VPst
Flicker could be considered
objectionable although Pst
<1.0
47
A/C Startup Case Study #2b
A/C Startup Case Study #2b
Customer complained about flickering lights, number of
interruptions occurring, and damaged electronics.
Distributor power-quality monitoring revealed nothing
problematic.
Distributor changed 50 kVA to 75 kVA transformer and
concerns were not resolved.
Relationship between customer and distributor was
tense and customer wondered why the transformer had
been changed out if no problem could be detected.
HVAC technician told customer that the A/C unit needed
a booster (hard-start kit).
48
A/C Startup Case #2b Power Quality
Monitoring
A/C Startup Case #2b Power Quality
Monitoring
-400
-300
-200
-100
0
100
200
300
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
Time ( sec)
Switchbounce associated with the mercury-
bulb thermostat resulted in multiple A/C
starts
A/C unit starting current
49
Case Study - Raw Water Pumping
Station Original Design
Case Study - Raw Water Pumping
Station Original Design
Original study began in 2004
Design incorporated 1 pump driven by 1250 hp
4,160 V AC induction motor
Provision for additional pump installation
4,160 VAC Electronic softstarter
2,125 kVAr 2-stage capacitor bank switched
simultaneously on with motor (electromechanical
contactor-switched)
1,800 kVAr switched off just as motor about to
reach full speed
50
Original Design Circuit
Characteristics
Original Design Circuit
Characteristics
Fed from 161/69/12.47 sub off of 12.47-kV
system
App. 3.5 miles with 8 line sections of
distribution line
12.47 kV to 4,160 V 2,500 kVA padmount
XFMR
0.1 miles from riser pole to XFMR, but
distributor wanted PCC to still be at primary
terminals of XFMR
51
Original Objectives and Constraints
Original Objectives and Constraints
Determine if original design with both electronic softstart
and simultaneously-switched cap bank:
Result in less than 2.0 % voltage drop at PCC during
motor start?
Use softstart manufacturers stated inrush current
values for calculations
Perform calculations by hand and/or using steady-state
type analysis program
52
Original Calculations from 2004-2005
Original Calculations from 2004-2005
2.0 % limit exceeded but distributor willing to go to 3.0 % with
understanding that pump not started more than once per week
53
2006 Design Changes
2006 Design Changes
Latest starter mfr/consultant analysis indicated voltage
drop will exceed 4.0 percent at PCC during startup.
New design called for 2 pumps operating
simultaneously
Increased runtime/# of startups
Customer contemplating generator because distributor
does not want to allow more than 3% fluctuation under
any circumstances
54
Tm
S T
DEV4
+
161k VRMSLL /_0
?v
AC 1
scope
s c p3
v
(
t
)
p
1
s
c
o
p
e
s
c
p
4
s
c
o
p
e
s
c
p
5
s
c
o
p
e
s
c
p
6
rms
out in
tr _1
rms
out in
tr _2
rms
out in
tr _3
scope
Sec ondar y VoltatTr ans for mer
scope
s c p8
scope
s c p9
scope
s c p10
rms
out in
tr _4
scope
Motor No2RMSCur r ent
+
7|1E15|0
?i
SW1

1 2
12.47/4.16

YgYg_np2
23
1
Y
g
Y
g
D
_
n
p
1
?
1
6
1
/1
2
.4
7
/6
9
+

?v
23
1
Y
g
Y
g
D
_
n
p
2
?
1
6
1
/1
2
.4
7
/6
9
+

?
v
scope
Pr imar y _Cur r ent_A
i(
t
)
p
3
v
(
t
)
p
2
rms
out in
tr _9
rms
out in
tr _10
rms
out in
tr _11
scope
Cadiz SubVoltage
scope
s c p17
scope
s c p18
scope
Speed2
rms
out in
tr _5
scope
Motor No1R MSC ur r ent
f(u) 1
Fm2

Fm3

f(u)
Fm1

+
c SW1


+
c SW3


+
C1
?i
276uF
+
C 2
?i
276uF
+
C 3
?i
276uF
+
c SW2


f(u
)
1
F
m


f(u
)
1
F
m
6


rms
out in
tr _12
scope
Pr imar y VoltageatTr ans for mer
scope
Sec VoltD r opatTr ans for mer
scope
Pr imar y VoltDr opatTr ans for mer
v( t )
p4

f(u) 1
Fm4

scope
Motor No2Speed
f(u)
Fm9

+
c SW4


+
c SW5


+
C4
?i
45.98uF
+
C5
?i
45.98uF
+
c SW6


+
C6
?i
45.98uF
f(u)
1
2
Fm7
P Q
scope
PF
c
10000

C8
Tm_1
+

?v
+
C 7
?i
45.98uF
rms
out in
tr _6
scope
Pr imar y _Cur r ent_B rms
out in
tr _7
scope
Pr imar y _Cur r ent_C
rms
out in
tr _8
f(u) 1
Fm5
scope
Per c entVdr opatC adiz Subs tation
ASM S
4.160k V
1250hp
?m
ASM1
Speed
ia
ASM S
4.160k V
1250hp
?m
ASM2
Speed
ia
BUS1
a
c b a
BUS2
BUS2
BUS2
EMTP used to simulate
motor start using
dedicated feed from
substation
Analysis of across-the-
line start with and
without simultaneous
cap switching
55
With Cap Bank Switched - Results
With Cap Bank Switched - Results
Max 1.4 % drop during start
at substation with caps
56
Without 1,800 kVAr Cap Bank
Switched - Results
Without 1,800 kVAr Cap Bank
Switched - Results
Max 1.7 % drop during start
at substation without caps
57
Case Study #4 Automotive Component
Manufacturer with Welders (Reactive Power)
Case Study #4 Automotive Component
Manufacturer with Welders (Reactive Power)
Estimated 400-kVAr
swings per phase
based on 1-minute
max/avg/min data
58
Case Study #4 Automotive Component
Manufacturer with Welders (Real Power)
Case Study #4 Automotive Component
Manufacturer with Welders (Real Power)
Estimated 200-kW
swings per phase
based on 1-minute
max/avg/min data
59
Case Study #4 Automotive Component
Manufacturer with Welders (Voltage)
Case Study #4 Automotive Component
Manufacturer with Welders (Voltage)
3 to 4.7-volt swings
based on 1-minute
max/avg/min data
60
Case Study #4 Corresponding Pst on
Bus Feeding Welders (Dirty Feed)
Case Study #4 Corresponding Pst on
Bus Feeding Welders (Dirty Feed)
Generally, Max Pst ~ 1.5
Due to voltage sag
61
Case Study #4 Corresponding Pst on Bus Fed By
Separate Transformer Bank (Clean Feed)
Case Study #4 Corresponding Pst on Bus Fed By
Separate Transformer Bank (Clean Feed)
Generally, Max Pst ~ 0.5
62
Vdrop Calculation and Comparison of Welder Bus
Pst to That of Separately Fed Bus
Vdrop Calculation and Comparison of Welder Bus
Pst to That of Separately Fed Bus
Max Pst on welding bus = 1.5
Max Pst on separately fed bus = 0.5
Utility-supplied SCC = 4,127 A @ 7.2/12.47 kV
Welding bus XFMR %Z = 6 %
Assume X/R of utility circuit = 7 and X/R of XFMR = 12
32 . 0
350
111
350 j 36
3 . 111 j 16
Bus Welding to Z Total
Z Source Common
3 . 0
5 . 1
5 . 0
Pst Bus ding Wel
Pst Bus Fed arately Sep
% 4 . 4
100
239) (111.3 1.2 20) (16 0.6
Drop %Voltage Expected
percent 239 j 20 base) MVA - 100 (on r Z Transforme
percent 3 . 111 j 16
10
12470
73 . 1 j 25 . 0
Z base, MVA 100 On
ohms 73 . 1 25 . 0 ))) 7 ( sin(tan j )) 7 ( (cos(tan
4127
7200
8
2
source
1 1

+
+
=
= =
=
+ + +
=
+ =
+ =
+
=
+ = +

63
Case 5 Wind Generation
64
Buffalo Mountain Wind Farm Generation -
Flicker Case
Buffalo Mountain Wind Farm Generation -
Flicker Case
TVA originally contacted for three small windmills to be fed from a
local distributors 13-kV system. Occasionally during windmill
startup, the distributor received flicker complaints. When the 15-
1.8-MW units went in service, it was decided to serve the new
load at 161-kV.
65
Aggregate Load Swings for 15-1.8-MW Wind
Generators
Aggregate Load Swings for 15-1.8-MW Wind
Generators
Voltage
MW
MVAR
66
Case 6 Large Motor System
Evaluate Possibility of
Serving a 3000-hp Wound Rotor Motor
Metal Shredder
At Two Possible Locations
XXX 69-kV: Z1 = 23.989 + j 52.618%
YYY 161-kV: Z1 = 1.559 + j 9.048%
67
Characteristics of Shredder
Provided by Vendor
Characteristics of Shredder
Provided by Vendor
3 times per minute
Shred Load
Cycling
3.1-MVA swings at
78%p.f.
2.4-MW swing
1.9-MVAR swing
68
Hand Calculation Used for Approximation and EMTP
Model Used for More Exact Solution
Hand Calculation Used for Approximation and EMTP
Model Used for More Exact Solution
Site XXX Hand Calculation:
Z1 = 23.99 + j 56.6 % (100-MVA base)
MVA swing = 2.4 + j1.9
%VDrop 2.4-MW (23.99)/100 + 1.9-MVAR (56.6)/100 = 1.65%
+
AC1

69kVRMSLL /_0
s3 s4
DEV1
MW_MVAR_MW_METER
Tm
Gain2

9.549297
scope
RPM
c
0
.
2
5

C
2
c
1
.
0

C
3
Timer
3/7

tmr1
c
2

C4
1
2
select
Sel1
?s
+
2.5

R1
+
0.0e+0m

R2
i(t) p1
scope
IArms_Corrected
Speed
Teg
scope
Torque
+
184uF

C1
ASM
S R
N
4.16kV
3000hp

ASM1
i(t) p2
out
TACS type-66
rms meter
in
DEV3
scope
IArms_Uncorrected
out
TACS type-66
rms meter
in
DEV5
+
RL1

1 2
DYg_1

69/4.16
v(t)
p3
out
TACS type-66
rms meter
in
DEV6
f(u) 1
Fm1
scope
Percent_V
+
+
-
sum1

+
SW1


500ms| 1E15| 0

Use EMTP
Modeling
For More
Exact
Solution
69
EMTP Simulation Results
Voltage Drops As Shredder Cycles
EMTP Simulation Results
Voltage Drops As Shredder Cycles
XXX -
69-kV
1.75%
YYY 161-kV
0.3%
70
Applying Results to TVA Flicker Curve Shows YYY is
OK and XXX is Not Recommended
Applying Results to TVA Flicker Curve Shows YYY is
OK and XXX is Not Recommended
TVA
XXX 69-kV Above Curve Ruled Out
YYY 161- Below Curve - OK
71
Case 7
My Town Needs a Steel Rolling Mill
What do we need to do to allow us to run
this mill?
Remote Community Fed at 46-Kv Impedance
to Substation - Z1 = 74.9 +j113.5%
At 26-kV Substation Transformer Secondary
(PCC) - Z1=76.3 +j169.0%
72
Company Choose IntelliVar as Mitigation
System
Company Choose IntelliVar as Mitigation
System
Not actual
Installation
But Shows
All Major
Components
Transformers
Valves
Filters
Controls
73
IntelliVAR System at 1500-KVAR
Controls Not Working Properly
IntelliVAR System at 1500-KVAR
Controls Not Working Properly
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
13 Wed
Jun 2007
14 Thu 15 Fri
46kV - Pst A
from 06/13/2007 to 06/15/2007
EPRI/Electrotek PQView
P
s
t

A
Time
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
13 Wed
Jun 2007
14 Thu 15 Fri
26kV - Pst A
from 06/13/2007 to 06/15/2007
EPRI/Electrotek PQView
P
s
t

A
Time
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
13 Wed
Jun 2007
14 Thu 15 Fri
26kV - P Total
from 06/13/2007 to 06/15/2007
EPRI/Electrotek PQView
Time
Min[P Total] (kW) Avg[P Total] (kW) Max[P Total] (kW)
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
13 Wed
Jun 2007
14 Thu 15 Fri
26kV - Q Fund All
from 06/13/2007 to 06/15/2007
EPRI/Electrotek PQView
Time
Min[Q Fund All] (kvar) Avg[Q Fund All] (kvar) Max[Q Fund All] (kvar)
PST(95) 1.47
PST(95) 1.17
74
IntelliVAR Sizing Doubled to 3000-KVAR
Control System Finally Tuned
IntelliVAR Sizing Doubled to 3000-KVAR
Control System Finally Tuned
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
24 Thu
Apr 2008
25 Fri 26 Sat
26kV - P Total
from 04/24/2008 to 04/26/2008
EPRI/Electrotek PQView
Time
Min[P Total] (kW) Avg[P Total] (kW) Max[P Total] (kW)
-4000
-3500
-3000
-2500
-2000
-1500
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
24 Thu
Apr 2008
25 Fri 26 Sat
26kV - Q Fund All
from 04/24/2008 to 04/26/2008
EPRI/Electrotek PQView
Time
Min[Q Fund All] (kvar) Avg[Q Fund All] (kvar) Max[Q Fund All] (kvar)
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
24 Thu
Apr 2008
25 Fri 26 Sat
26kV - Pst A
from 04/24/2008 to 04/26/2008
EPRI/Electrotek PQView
P
s
t

A
Time
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
24 Thu
Apr 2008
25 Fri 26 Sat
46kV - Pst A
from 04/24/2008 to 04/26/2008
EPRI/Electrotek PQView
P
s
t

A
Time
26-kV - PST(95) - 1.18
46-kV - PST(95) 0.82
75
Before and After Intellivar Changes
Before and After Intellivar Changes
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
24 Thu
Apr 2008
25 Fri 26 Sat
26kV - Pst A
from 04/24/2008 to 04/26/2008
EPRI/Electrotek PQView
P
s
t

A
Time
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
13 Wed
Jun 2007
14 Thu 15 Fri
26kV - Pst A
from 06/13/2007 to 06/15/2007
EPRI/Electrotek PQView
P
s
t

A
Time
13600
13800
14000
14200
14400
14600
14800
15000
15200
15400
13 Wed
Jun 2007
14 Thu 15 Fri
Kosciusko - Attala Steel 26kV Kosciusko - V RMS A
from 06/13/2007 to 06/15/2007
EPRI/Electrotek PQView
Time
Min[V RMS A] (V) Avg[V RMS A] (V) Max[V RMS A] (V)
13600
13800
14000
14200
14400
14600
14800
15000
15200
15400
24 Thu
Apr 2008
25 Fri 26 Sat
Kosciusko - Attala Steel 26kV Kosciusko - V RMS A
from 04/24/2008 to 04/26/2008
EPRI/Electrotek PQView
Time
Min[V RMS A] (V) Avg[V RMS A] (V) Max[V RMS A] (V)
PST(95) - 1.18 Not Under 1.0
But No Routine Complaints
76
Case 8
My Largest Industry Has Us in a Bad
Situation Due to Flicker, What Are Our
Options?
77
Distributor Not Routinely Serving Any Customer From
46-kV Winding Due to Flicker Complaints
Distributor Not Routinely Serving Any Customer From
46-kV Winding Due to Flicker Complaints
T Equi val ent
+
161kVRMSLL /_0
AC1
+


PI1
+


RL1
+


RL2
+


RL3
2
3
1
161/46/13

YgYgD_np1
+


RL4
Arc Furnace
DEV1
Arc Furnace
DEV2
Arc Furnace
DEV3
Other Customers
Normally Fed
From 46-kV System
Distributor Removed
Them Due to Flicker
Complaints
PCC
Is Located
Within
Transformer
At T Equivalent
Tie Point
Site Fed From
Dedicated
13-kV Winding
161/46/13
Transformer
78
PST Estimate Traditional Hand Calculation
PST Estimate Traditional Hand Calculation
161-kV MVAsc at Sub 1558 MVAsc or 3.85% at 60 MVA Base
161-kV:46-kV:13:kV Transformer Nameplate:
Z161-46 = 9.7% at 60-MVA,
Z161-13 = 5.8% at 21-MVA (16.57% at 60-MVA)
Z46-13 = 2.1% at 21-MVA (6.0% at 60-MVA)
Convert to T equivalent
Z161 = (9.7% +16.57%-6.0%) = 10.135% at 60 MVA
Z46 = (9.7% + 6.0% -16.57%) = -0.435% at 60 MVA
Z13 = (16.57%+6.0% -9.7%) = 6.435% at 60-MVA
PCC Includes TVA plus 161-kV portion of winding to 46/13-kV T point
PCC = 3.85% + 10.135% = 13.985% = 429-MVAsc
Estimated AF Swing = 2 x 4-MW = 8-MVA
3
3 Swing with 3 AF =
x 8-MVA = 11.54-MVAsc for 3 units operating
46-kV Short Circuit Voltage Depression (SCVD) = 11.54/429 = 0.0269
161-kV Short Circuit Voltage Depression (SCVD) = 11.54/1558 = 0.0074
46-kV PST Estimate = 0.0269 x KST = 0.0269 x 60 = 1.61
161-kV PST Estimate = 0.0074 x KST = 0.0074 x 60 = 0.44
79
Event #25 at 06/25/2007 08:10:30.067
AVrms RMS and Waveform
Timeplot
0.00
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.00
A FDPst
06/12/2007 06/14/2007 06/16/2007 06/18/2007 06/20/2007 06/22/2007 06/24/2007 06/26/2007 06/28/2007
Event #1 at 05/23/2007 14:04:48.349
AVrms RMS and Waveform
Timeplot
06/12/2007 06/14/2007 06/16/2007 06/18/2007 06/20/2007 06/22/2007 06/24/2007 06/26/2007 06/28/2007
0.00
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.00
A FDPst
161-kV PST
(a phase)
46-kV PST
(a phase)
161-kV Flicker
0.44 per hand calc.
46-kV Flicker
1.61 per hand calc.
PST Measurements of 46-kV and 161-kV Bus
Confirm Hand Calculations - Target PST Under 1.0
Moving to 161-kV Accomplishes This Objective
PST Measurements of 46-kV and 161-kV Bus
Confirm Hand Calculations - Target PST Under 1.0
Moving to 161-kV Accomplishes This Objective
PST Measurements at 161-kV
PST Measurements at 46-kV - PCC
80
Option 1 Add Transformer at Substation
Use Existing 13-kV Feed to Plant
Option 1 Add Transformer at Substation
Use Existing 13-kV Feed to Plant
T Equi val ent
+
161kVRMSLL /_0
AC1
+


PI1
+


RL1
+


RL2
+


RL3
2
3
1
161/46/13

YgYgD_np1
+


RL4
Arc Furnace
DEV1
Arc Furnace
DEV2
Arc Furnace
DEV3
1 2
161/13

DYg_1
Other Customers Fed
From 46-kV System
New
PCC
At
161-kV Existing 13-kV Line
Dedicated 161:13-kV
Transformer at Sub
Remove Plant
Load From
Existing 3-winding
Transformer
81
Move PCC Up to 161-kV
Option 1 - Install Dedicated Transformer
Move PCC Up to 161-kV
Option 1 - Install Dedicated Transformer
$1,742 Grand Total - New Transformer System
$124
Misc. cost not currently identified - 20% of cost (excluding
transformer)
$123 $23 $100 Two-Step - 4.5 (4.0 effective) -MVAR Harmonic Filter 1e
$20 $10 $10 Routing Existing 13-kV Wiring to New System 1d
$75 $25 $50 13-kV Distribution Breaker with relays 1c
$400 $150 $250 161-kV SF-6 breaker w/ bay and relays 1b
$1,000 $150 $850 New 16-MVA Transformer, oil containment, foundations, bus 1a
Total Install Equip.
All cost below in $1000s
Move PCC up to 161-kV System at Substation 1
Option
82
Option 2
Build 161-kV Line to Plant Site and Add
Transformer at That Site
Option 2
Build 161-kV Line to Plant Site and Add
Transformer at That Site
T Equi val ent
+
161kVRMSLL /_0
AC1
+


PI1
+


RL1
+


RL2
+


RL3
2
3
1
161/46/13

YgYgD_np1
Arc Furnace
DEV1
Arc Furnace
DEV2
Arc Furnace
DEV3
1 2
161/13

DYg_1
+


PI2
New
PCC
At
161-kV
Dedicated 161:13-
kV Transformer at
Plant
New 161-kV Line
To Plant Site
Other Customers Fed
From 46-kV System
Remove Plant
Load From
Existing 3-winding
Transformer
83
Move PCC to 161-kV
Option 2 - Install Dedicated 161-13-kv Substation at
Plant Site
Move PCC to 161-kV
Option 2 - Install Dedicated 161-13-kv Substation at
Plant Site
$1,683 Grand Total - Used Transformer System
$2,183 Grand Total - New Transformer System
$210
Misc. cost not currently identified - 20% of cost (excluding
transformer)
$123 $23 $100 Two-Step - 4.5 (4.0 effective) -MVAR Harmonic Filter 2f
$75 $25 $50 13-kV Distribution Breaker at Plant with relays 2e
$125 $25 $100 161-kV Circuit Switcher at Plant with relays 2d
$400 161-kV Feed to Plant (existing row - big unknown ??) 2c
$325 $75 $250 161-kV SF-6 breaker w/ bay and relays 2b
$425 $75 $350 Used 18-MVA Transformer, oil containment, foundations, bus 2a
$925 $75 $850 New 16-MVA Transformer, oil containment, foundations, bus 2a
Total Install Equip.
All cost below in $1000s
Move PCC Up to 161-kV System at Plant 2
Option
84
Option 3 - Install Quick, Dynamic VAR Correction and
Harmonic Filter System at Plant Site
Option 3 - Install Quick, Dynamic VAR Correction and
Harmonic Filter System at Plant Site
T Equi val ent
+
161kVRMSLL /_0
AC1
+


PI1
+


RL1
+


RL2
+


RL3
2
3
1
161/46/13

YgYgD_np1
+


RL4
Arc Furnace
DEV1
Arc Furnace
DEV2
Arc Furnace
DEV3
3
x
1
x
12S
V
C
_
1
Other
Customers
Fed
From 46-
kV System
Add Dynamic Var
Correction at Plant
Site
No Transmission or
Distribution System
Changes Needed!
85
Fix Flicker at Plant 13-kV Bus
Option 3 - Install Quick, Dynamic VAR Correction and
Harmonic Filter System at Plant Site
Fix Flicker at Plant 13-kV Bus
Option 3 - Install Quick, Dynamic VAR Correction and
Harmonic Filter System at Plant Site
$1,370 Grand Total
$125 Misc. cost not currently identified - 10% of cost
$125 $25 $100 13-kV Switchgear Integrated Into Existing System 3c
$145 $25 $120 Two Step - 6.6/6.3 (6.0 effective)-MVAR Harmonic Filter 3b
$1,100 $100 $1,000 Install +10 /- 2-MVAR Var Compensator 3a
Total Install Equip.
All cost below in $1000s
Install ABB Mincomp or S&C Purewave Dstatcom 3
Option
86
Economic Summary:
Installing Dynamic Var Compensation is Best Choice
Economic Summary:
Installing Dynamic Var Compensation is Best Choice
2.9 $1,370 $479.4 $415.0 $31.6 $32.8 Option
3
33.9 $2,183 $64.4 $0 $31.6 $32.8 Option
2
27.0 $1,742 $64.4 $0 $31.6 $32.8 Option
1
Simple
Payback
(years)
Total
Cost
(1000s)
Total
Savings
(1000s)
Production
Profit
Increase
(1000s)
Electronic
Equip.
Savings
(1000s)
Power
Factor
Correction
Savings
(1000s)
Option
#
Option 1 Transformer Isolation at Substation, filter at Plant
Option 2 Transformer Isolation at Plant, filter at Plant
Option 3 Install Filter/Dynamic VAR Compensation at Plant
87
Case 9
A Large Steel Mill Has an SVC, Why
is it Creating More Flicker When On
Compared to When its Off?
Arc Furnace
DEV1
1 2
161/33

DY_1
+
10

R1
+
0.804,2.3585Ohm
RL1
+
161kVRMSLL /_0
AC1
+
0.285,4.004Ohm
RL2
IEC
FLickermeter
FLICKERMETER_PCC
1 2
33/0.7

DD_1
s3
Super_Vol tmeter1
DEV2
PCC
88
Phase A Voltage
(Max, Min, Avg)
Flicker Summary
PCC Monitor Site
Without SVC/ Filters
PST(95) = 0.93
Base Case Without SVC System Operating
2 Days
Base Case Without SVC System Operating
2 Days
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
29 Fri
Oct 2004
30 Sat 31 Sun
161PCC - Pst A
from 10/29/2004 to 10/31/2004
EPRI/Electrotek PQView
P
s
t

A
Time
89
Phase A Voltage
(Max, Min, Avg)
Flicker Summary
PCC Monitor Site
Without SVC/ Filters
PST(95) = 1.22
Base Case With SVC System Operating
2 Days
Base Case With SVC System Operating
2 Days
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
26 Tue
Oct 2004
27 Wed 28 Thu
161PCC - Pst A
from 10/26/2004 to 10/28/2004
EPRI/Electrotek PQView
P
s
t

A
Time
90
Flicker Reduced by Approximately 24% by
Switching Off SVC/Filters
Flicker Reduced by Approximately 24% by
Switching Off SVC/Filters
What is the reason for lower flicker levels
with the SVC out of service?
Without SVC With SVC
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
29 Fri
Oct 2004
30 Sat 31 Sun
161PCC - Pst A
from 10/29/2004 to 10/31/2004
EPRI/Electrotek PQView
P
s
t

A
Time
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
26 Tue
Oct 2004
27 Wed 28 Thu
161PCC - Pst A
from 10/26/2004 to 10/28/2004
EPRI/Electrotek PQView
P
s
t

A
Time
PST (95) 0.93 PST (95) 1.22
91
Flicker Summary
PCC Monitor Site
Without SVC/ Filters
PST(95) = 1.86
Base Case With SVC System Operating -
Weakened TVA System - 2 Days
Base Case With SVC System Operating -
Weakened TVA System - 2 Days
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
9 Sat
Feb 2008
10 Sun 11 Mon
161PCC - Pst A
from 02/09/2008 to 02/11/2008
EPRI/Electrotek PQView
P
s
t

A
Time
Complaints Ramped Up During This Period
92
Comparison of Voltage Swings at PCC Both
With and Without SVC Operation
Comparison of Voltage Swings at PCC Both
With and Without SVC Operation
Controls
Overshoot
One
Possibility
For
Flicker Swing
No SVC
SVC
93
GE Flicker Curves
Copied From IEEE 519
GE Flicker Curves
Copied From IEEE 519
Voltage Swing Possible By TCR Overshoot = 1.1%
94
Case 10
A Large Steel Mill Has an SVC and DC
Electric Arc Furnace, Here is The Way
Things Should Operate!
95
EAF Operation with Great SVC Control Performance
EAF Operation with Great SVC Control Performance
92000
92500
93000
93500
94000
94500
95000
95500
96000
96500
97000
3 Tue
Jun 2008
3AM 6AM 9AM 12PM 3PM 6PM 9PM 4 Wed
161PCC- V RMS A
from 06/03/2008 to 06/04/2008
EPRI/Electrotek PQView
Time
Min[V RMS A] (V) Avg[V RMS A] (V) Max[V RMS A] (V)
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
3 Tue
Jun 2008
3AM 6AM 9AM 12PM 3PM 6PM 9PM 4 Wed
161PCC- Pst A
from 06/03/2008 to 06/04/2008
EPRI/Electrotek PQView
P
s
t

A
Time
-30000
-25000
-20000
-15000
-10000
-5000
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
3 Tue
Jun 2008
3AM 6AM 9AM 12PM 3PM 6PM 9PM 4 Wed
161PCC- Q Fund All
from 06/03/2008 to 06/04/2008
EPRI/Electrotek PQView
Time
Min[Q Fund All] (kvar) Avg[Q Fund All] (kvar) Max[Q Fund All] (kvar)
PST
VOLTAGE
REACTIVE
POWER
96
Questions/Comments
If not, then lets eat!!