NICENCIO TAN QUIOMBING, petitioner, vs.

COURT
OF APPEALS, and Sps. FRANCISCO and MANUELITA
A. SALIGO, respondents.!!" A#$ %"st
&ivisionG.R. No. !%""& E C I S I O N
CRU', (.)
Ma* one o+ t,e t-o so.idar* /reditors s#e 0* ,i1se.+
a.one +or t,e re/over* o+ a1o#nts d#e to 0ot, o+
t,e1 -it,o#t 2oinin$ t,e ot,er /reditor as a /o3
p.ainti++4 In s#/, a /ase, is t,e de+endant entit.ed to
t,e dis1issa. o+ t,e /o1p.aint on t,e $ro#nd o+ non3
2oinder o+ t,e se/ond /reditor as an indispensa0.e
part*4 More to t,e point, is t,e se/ond so.idar*
/reditor an indispensa0.e part*4
T,ese 5#estions -ere raised in t,e /ase at 0ar, -it,
0ot, t,e tria. and respondent /o#rts r#.in$ in +avor
o+ t,e de+endants. T,e petitioner is no- 0e+ore #s,
/.ai1in$ t,at t,e said /o#rts /o11itted reversi0.e
error and 1isread t,e app.i/a0.e .a-s in dis1issin$
,is /o1p.aint.
T,is /ase ste11ed +ro1 a 6Constr#/tion and
Servi/e A$ree1ent6
/on/.#ded on A#$#st %", !7%, -,ere0* Ni/en/io
Tan Q#io10in$ and &ante Bis/o/,o, as t,e First
Part*, 2oint.* and severa..* 0o#nd t,e1se.ves to
/onstr#/t a ,o#se +or private respondents Fran/is/o
and Man#e.ita Sa.i$o, as t,e Se/ond Part*, +or t,e
/ontra/t pri/e o+ P%8,!9"."", -,i/, t,e .atter
a$reed to pa*.
On O/to0er ", !79, Q#io10in$ and Man#e.ita
Sa.i$o entered into a se/ond -ritten a$ree1ent :
#nder -,i/, t,e .atter a/;no-.ed$ed t,e /o1p.etion
o+ t,e ,o#se and #ndertoo; to pa* t,e 0a.an/e o+
t,e /ontra/t pri/e in t,e 1anner pres/ri0ed in t,e
said se/ond a$ree1ent.
On Nove10er !, !79, Man#e.ita Sa.i$o si$ned a
pro1issor* note +or P:<,%=%.<" representin$ t,e
a1o#nt sti.. d#e +ro1 ,er and ,er ,#s0and, pa*a0.e
on or 0e+ore &e/e10er %, !79, to Ni/en/io Tan
Q#io10in$. %
On O/to0er !, !7=, Q#io10in$ +i.ed a /o1p.aint +or
re/over* o+ t,e said a1o#nt, p.#s /,ar$es and
interests, -,i/, t,e private respondents ,ad
a/;no-.ed$ed and pro1ised to pa* 0#t ,ad not,
despite repeated de1ands as t,e 0a.an/e o+ t,e
/ontra/t pri/e +or t,e /onstr#/tion o+ t,eir ,o#se. 9
Instead o+ +i.in$ an ans-er, t,e de+endants 1oved
to dis1iss t,e /o1p.aint on Fe0r#ar* 9, !78,
/ontendin$ t,at Bis/o/,o -as an indispensa0.e
part* and t,ere+ore s,o#.d ,ave 0een in/.#ded as a
/o3p.ainti++.
T,e 1otion -as initia..* denied 0#t -as
s#0se5#ent.* re/onsidered and $ranted 0* t,e tria.
/o#rt. T,e /o1p.aint -as dis1issed, 0#t -it,o#t
pre2#di/e to t,e +i.in$ o+ an a1ended /o1p.aint to
in/.#de t,e ot,er so.idar* /reditor as a /o3p.ainti++.
<
Rat,er t,an +i.e t,e a1ended /o1p.aint, Q#io10in$
/,ose to appea. t,e order o+ dis1issa. to t,e
respondent /o#rt, -,ere ,e ar$#ed t,at as a
so.idar* /reditor ,e /o#.d a/t 0* ,i1se.+ a.one in t,e
en+or/e1ent o+ ,is /.ai1 a$ainst t,e private
respondents. Moreover, t,e a1o#nts d#e -ere
pa*a0.e on.* to ,i1 #nder t,e se/ond a$ree1ent,
-,ere Bis/o/,o -as not 1entioned at a...
T,e respondent /o#rt s#stained t,e tria. /o#rt and
,e.d t,at it -as not /orre/t at t,at point to ass#1e
t,at Q#io10in$ and Bis/o/,o -ere so.idar* o0.i$ees
on.*. It noted t,at as t,e* ,ad a.so ass#1ed t,e
re/ipro/a. o0.i$ation o+ /onstr#/tin$ t,e ,o#se, t,e*
s,o#.d a.so 0e /onsidered o0.i$ors o+ t,e private
respondents #nder t,e /ontra/t. I+, as -as possi0.e,
t,e ans-er s,o#.d a..e$e a 0rea/, o+ t,e
a$ree1ent, 6t,e tria. /o#rt /annot de/ide t,e
disp#te -it,o#t t,e invo.ve1ent o+ Bis/o/,o -,ose
ri$,ts -i.. ne/essari.* 0e a++e/ted sin/e ,e is a part
o+ t,e First Part*.6
Re+#tin$ t,e petitioner>s se/ond /ontention, t,e
respondent /o#rt de/.ared t,at t,e 6se/ond
a$ree1ent re+erred to t,e Constr#/tion and Servi/e
A$ree1ent as its 0asis and spe/i+i/a..* stated t,at it
?-as@ 1ere.* a Apart o+ t,e ori$ina. a$ree1ent.>6 =
T,e /on/ept o+ t,e so.idar* o0.i$ation re5#ires a
0rie+ restate1ent.
&istin$#is,in$ it +ro1 t,e 2oint o0.i$ation, To.entino
1a;es t,e +o..o-in$ o0servations in ,is
distin$#is,ed -or; on t,e Civi. Code)
A 2oint o0.i$ation is one in -,i/, ea/, o+ t,e de0tors
is .ia0.e on.* +or a proportionate part o+ t,e de0t,
and ea/, /reditor is entit.ed on.* to a proportionate
part o+ t,e /redit. A so.idar* o0.i$ation is one in
-,i/, ea/, de0tor is .ia0.e +or t,e entire o0.i$ation,
and ea/, /reditor is entit.ed to de1and t,e -,o.e
o0.i$ation. Ben/e, in t,e +or1er, ea/, /reditor /an
re/over on.* ,is s,are o+ t,e o0.i$ation, and ea/,
de0tor /an 0e 1ade to pa* on.* ,is partC -,ereas,
in t,e .atter, ea/, /reditor 1a* en+or/e t,e entire
o0.i$ation, and ea/, de0tor 1a* 0e o0.i$ed to pa* it
in +#... 8
T,e sa1e -or; des/ri0es t,e /on/ept o+ a/tive
so.idarit* t,#s)
T,e essen/e o+ a/tive so.idarit* /onsists in t,e
a#t,orit* o+ ea/, /reditor to /.ai1 and en+or/e t,e
ri$,ts o+ a.., -it, t,e res#.tin$ o0.i$ation o+ pa*in$
ever* one -,at 0e.on$s to ,i1C t,ere is no 1er$er,
1#/, .ess a ren#n/iation o+ ri$,ts, 0#t on.* 1#t#a.
representation. 7
It -o#.d +o..o- +ro1 t,ese o0servations t,at t,e
5#estion o+ -,o s,o#.d s#e t,e private respondents
-as a persona. iss#e 0et-een Q#io10in$ and
Bis/o/,o in -,i/, t,e spo#ses Sa.i$o ,ad no ri$,t to
inter+ere. It did not 1atter -,o as 0et-een t,e1
+i.ed t,e /o1p.aint 0e/a#se t,e private respondents
-ere .ia0.e to eit,er o+ t,e t-o as a so.idar* /reditor
+or t,e +#.. a1o#nt o+ t,e de0t. F#.. satis+a/tion o+ a
2#d$1ent o0tained a$ainst t,e1 0* Q#io10in$
-o#.d dis/,ar$e t,eir o0.i$ation to Bis/o/,o, and
vi/e versaC ,en/e, it -as not ne/essar* +or 0ot,
Q#io10in$ and Bis/o/,o to +i.e t,e /o1p.aint.
In/.#sion o+ Bis/o/,o as a /o3p.ainti++, -,en
Q#io10in$ -as /o1petent to s#e 0* ,i1se.+ a.one,
-o#.d 0e a #se.ess +or1a.it*.
Arti/.e :: o+ t,e Civi. Code provides)
Ea/, one o+ t,e so.idar* /reditors 1a* do -,atever
1a* 0e #se+#. to t,e ot,ers, 0#t not an*t,in$ -,i/,
1a* 0e pre2#di/e to t,e .atter.
S#in$ +or t,e re/over* o+ t,e /ontra/t pri/e is
/ertain.* a #se+#. a/t t,at Q#io10in$ /o#.d do 0*
,i1se.+ a.one.
Parent,eti/a..*, it 1#st 0e o0served t,at t,e
/o1p.aint ,avin$ 0een +i.ed 0* t,e petitioner,
-,atever a1o#nt is a-arded a$ainst t,e de0tor
1#st 0e paid eD/.#sive.* to ,i1, p#rs#ant to Arti/.e
:9. T,is provision states t,at 6t,e de0tor 1a* pa*
an* o+ t,e so.idar* /reditorsC 0#t i+ an* de1and,
2#di/ia. or eDtra2#di/ia., ,as 0een 1ade 0* an* one
o+ t,e1, pa*1ent s,o#.d 0e 1ade to ,i1.6
I+ Q#io10in$ event#a..* /o..e/ts t,e a1o#nt d#e
+ro1 t,e so.idar* de0tors, Bis/o/,o 1a* .ater /.ai1
,is s,are t,ereo+, 0#t t,at de/ision is +or ,i1 a.one
to 1a;e. It -i.. a++e/t on.* t,e petitioner as t,e ot,er
so.idar* /reditor and not t,e private respondents,
-,o ,ave a0so.#te.* not,in$ to do -it, t,is 1atter.
As +ar as t,e* are /on/erned, pa*1ent o+ t,e
2#d$1ent de0t to t,e /o1p.ainant -i.. 0e
/onsidered pa*1ent to t,e ot,er so.idar* /reditor
even i+ t,e .atter -as not a part* to t,e s#it.
Re$ardin$ t,e possi0i.it* t,at t,e private
respondents 1i$,t p.ead 0rea/, o+ /ontra/t in t,eir
ans-er, -e a$ree -it, t,e petitioner t,at it is
pre1at#re to /onsider t,is /on2e/t#re +or s#/, it is
at t,is sta$e. T,e possi0i.it* 1a* see1 re1ote,
indeed, sin/e t,e* ,ave a/t#a..* a/;no-.ed$ed t,e
/o1p.etion o+ t,e ,o#se in t,e se/ond a$ree1ent,
-,ere t,e* a.so a$reed to pa* t,e 0a.an/e o+ t,e
/ontra/t pri/e. At an* rate, t,e a..e$ation, i+ 1ade
and proved, /o#.d sti.. 0e en+or/ea0.e a$ainst t,e
petitioner a.one as one o+ t,e so.idar* de0tors,
s#02e/t to ,is ri$,t o+ re/o#rse a$ainst Bis/o/,o.
T,e respondent /o#rt -as /orre/t in r#.in$ t,at t,e
se/ond a$ree1ent, -,i/, -as /on/.#ded a.one 0*
t,e petitioner -it, t,e private respondents, -as
0ased on t,e ori$ina. Constr#/tion and Servi/e
A$ree1ent. So too in +a/t -as t,e pro1issor* note
.ater si$ned 0* Man#e.ita Sa.i$o sin/e it -as +or t,e
a1o#nt o-in$ on t,e /onstr#/tion /ost. Bo-ever,
t,is 1atter is not rea..* t,at i1portant no- in vie-
o+ o#r /on/.#sion t,at t,e /o1p.aint /o#.d ,ave
0een +i.ed a.one 0* t,e petitioner.
T,e rest o+ t,e pie/es s,o#.d easi.* +a.. into p.a/e.
Se/tion 8, R#.e % o+ t,e R#.es o+ Co#rt 1andates t,e
in/.#sion o+ indispensa0.e parties as +o..o-s)
Se/. 8. Co1p#.sor* 2oinder o+ indispensa0.e
parties. Parties in interest -it,o#t -,o1 no +ina.
deter1ination /an 0e ,ad o+ an a/tion s,a.. 0e
2oined eit,er as p.ainti++s or de+endants.
Indispensa0.e parties are t,ose -it, s#/, an
interest in t,e /ontrovers* t,at a +ina. de/ree -o#.d
ne/essari.* a++e/t t,eir ri$,ts, so t,at t,e /o#rt
/annot pro/eed -it,o#t t,eir presen/e. Ne/essar*
parties are t,ose -,ose presen/e is ne/essar* to
ad2#di/ate t,e -,o.e /ontrovers*, 0#t -,ose
interests are so +ar separa0.e t,at a +ina. de/ree /an
0e 1ade in t,eir a0sen/e -it,o#t a++e/tin$ t,e1. !
?Ne/essar* parties are no- /a..ed proper parties
#nder t,e !=9 a1end1ents o+ t,e R#.es o+ Co#rt.@
"
A//ordin$ to (#sti/e (ose E. Feria, 6-,ere t,e
o0.i$ation o+ t,e parties is so.idar*, eit,er one o+ t,e
parties is indispensa0.e, and t,e ot,er is not even
ne/essar* ?no- proper@ 0e/a#se /o1p.ete re.ie+
1a* 0e o0tained +ro1 eit,er.6
Fe ,o.d t,at, a.t,o#$, ,e si$ned t,e ori$ina.
Constr#/tion and Servi/e A$ree1ent, Bis/o/,o need
not 0e in/.#ded as a /o3p.ainti++ in t,e /o1p.aint
+i.ed 0* t,e petitioner a$ainst t,e private
respondents. Q#io10in$ as so.idar* /reditor /an 0*
,i1se.+ a.one en+or/e pa*1ent o+ t,e /onstr#/tion
/osts 0* t,e private respondents and as a so.idar*
de0tor 1a* 0* ,i1se.+ a.one 0e ,e.d .ia0.e +or an*
possi0.e 0rea/, o+ /ontra/t t,at 1a* 0e proved 0*
t,e private respondents. In eit,er /ase, t,e
parti/ipation o+ Bis/o/,o is not at a.. ne/essar*,
1#/, .ess indispensa0.e.
FBEREFORE, t,e petition is GRANTE&. T,e de/ision
o+ t,e respondent /o#rt dated Mar/, :8, !!", is
SET ASI&E, and t,e Re$iona. Tria. Co#rt o+ Antipo.o,
RiGa., is dire/ted to REINSTATE Civi. Case No. !%3A.
Costs a$ainst
t,e private respondents.
SO OR&ERE&.
Narvasa ?C,air1an@, Gan/a*/o, GriHo3A5#ino and
Media.dea ((., /on/#r.
Footnotes
. Ro..o, pp. %3%%.
:. I0id., pp. %93%<.
%. Id., p. %=.
9. Id., pp. :73%".
<. Id., p. 9:.
=. Id., p. :<. Penned 0* (#sti/e Re*nato S. P#no
and /on/#rred in 0* (#sti/es (or$e S. I1peria. and
Arte1on &. L#na.
8. To.entino, Civi. Code o+ t,e P,i.ippines, Io.. II,
7< Ed., p. :7.
7. I0id., p.::7.
!. F*o$a Gas and Oi. Corp. v. S/,ra/;, I Fed.
R#.es Servi/e, :!:, /ited in I Moran !, !8! Ed.
". R#.e %, Se/tion 7.
. Feria, Civi. Pro/ed#re, !=! Ed., p. <%.

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