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How do you nd the area of a region bounded by two curves? Ill consider two cases.

Suppose the region is bounded above and below by the two curves(top and bottom), and on the

sides by x = a and x = b.

x=a

x=b

top

bottom

dx

(top) - (bottom)

Think of dividing the region up into vertical rectangles. The height of the typical rectangle is (top)

(bottom), while the thickness is dx. The area of a typical rectangle is

((top) (bottom)) dx.

To nd the total area, integrate to add up the areas of the little rectangles:

A =

b

a

((top) (bottom)) dx.

The dx in the integral is a reminder that I want top and bottom expressed in terms of x.

Suppose the region is bounded on the sides by two curves (left and right), and on the top and

bottom by y = c and y = d.

y=d

y=c

(right) - (left)

dy

right

left

Think of dividing the region up into horizontal rectangles. The height of the typical rectangle is (right)

(left), while the thickness is dy. The area of a typical rectangle is

((right) (left)) dy.

To nd the total area, integrate to add up the areas of the little rectangles:

A =

d

c

((right) (left)) dy.

1

The dy in the integral is a reminder that I want right and left expressed in terms of y.

Example. Find the area of the region bounded by y = 4 x

2

and the x-axis.

-2 -1 1 2

1

2

3

4

-2 -1 1 2

1

2

3

4

A =

2

2

(4 x

2

) dx =

32

3

.

Example. Find the area of the region bounded by y = x

2

and y = x + 12.

-3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4

2.5

5

7.5

10

12.5

15

-3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4

2.5

5

7.5

10

12.5

15

A =

4

3

(x + 12 x

2

) dx =

343

6

.

Example. Find the area of the region bounded by x = y

2

2y 30 and x = 2y y

2

.

-30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5

-2

2

4

A =

5

3

(2y y

2

) (y

2

2y 30)

dy =

512

3

.

2

Example. Find the area of the region bounded by y = x

3

x and y = 0.5 + x x

3

.

The curves intersect at the (approximate) values 1.10710, 0.83757, and 0.26959.

-1 -0.5 0.5

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0.2

0.4

-1 -0.5 0.5

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0.2

0.4

A =

0.26959

1.10710

(x

3

x) (0.5 + x x

3

)

dx +

0.83757

0.26959

(0.5 + x x

3

) (x

3

x)

dx 0.65077.

Example. Find the area of the region between the curves y = x

2

and y = 2 x from x = 0 to x = 2.

0.5 1 1.5 2

1

2

3

4

0.5 1 1.5 2

1

2

3

4

A =

1

0

(2 x x

2

) dx +

2

1

(x

2

(2 x)) dx = 3.

Example. Find the area of the region between the curves y = x

2

+3 and y =

1 x

2

from x = 1 to x = 1.

-1 -0.5 0.5 1

1

2

3

4

-1 -0.5 0.5 1

1

2

3

4

3

The area of the region under y = x

2

+ 3 is

1

1

(x

2

+ 3) dx =

1

3

x

3

+ 3x

1

1

=

20

3

.

The area of the semicircle is

2

.

Hence, the area of the region between the curves is

A =

20

3

2

5.09587.

Example. Find the area of the region bounded by y = x

3

6x

2

16x and y = 8x + 2x

2

x

3

.

The region consists of two pieces. For the left-hand piece, the top curve is y = x

3

6x

2

16x and the

bottom curve is y = 8x + 2x

2

x

3

. For the right-hand piece, the top curve is y = 8x + 2x

2

x

3

and the

bottom curve is y = x

3

6x

2

16x.

-2 2 4 6

-125

-100

-75

-50

-25

-2 2 4 6

-125

-100

-75

-50

-25

I need to nd where the curves intersect. Solve the equations simultaneously:

x

3

6x

2

16x = 8x + 2x

2

x

3

, 2x

3

8x

2

24x = 0, x

3

4x

2

12x = 0,

x(x

2

4x 12) = 0, x(x 6)(x + 2) = 0.

The intersections are at x = 2, x = 0, and x = 6.

The area is

0

2

(x

3

6x

2

16x) (8x + 2x

2

x

3

)

dx +

6

0

(8x + 2x

2

x

3

) (x

3

6x

2

16x)

dx =

0

2

(2x

3

8x

2

24x) dx +

6

0

(2x

3

+ 8x

2

+ 24x) dx =

1

2

x

4

8

3

x

3

12x

2

0

2

+

1

2

x

4

+

8

3

x

3

+ 12x

2

6

0

=

1136

3

378.66667.

Example. Find the area of the region bounded above by the curves y = x

2

and y = 6 x and below by the

x-axis:

(a) Using vertical rectangles.

4

(b) Using horizontal rectangles.

1 2 3 4 5 6

1

2

3

4

1 2 3 4 5 6

1

2

3

4

The curves intersect at x = 2, y = 4.

Using vertical rectangles, I need two integrals:

A =

2

0

x

2

dx +

6

2

(6 x) dx =

32

3

.

Using horizontal rectangles, I only need one integral:

A =

4

0

(6 y

y) dy =

32

3

.

c 2005 by Bruce Ikenaga 5

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