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Manage the nances of
the country (budget)
Draw up a pan or budget to show how revenue
w be rased and how t w be spent.
make poces to contro how the ctzens spend
ther money.
Rase revenue through
drect and ndrect
Levy taxes on:
ncomes (drect taxaton);
property, goods and servces (ndrect taxaton)
to nance expenses ncurred on behaf of the
Mantan nternatona
Exchange ambassadors wth other countres.
Make agreements wth other countres for
cooperaton n many areas.
Mantan aw and order Make aws for order and peace n the socety.
Mantan courts to sette dsputes and punsh wrong
Empoy poce to protect ctzens and ther property
and to enforce the aw.
Create empoyment
Create |obs drecty by empoyng peope n the cv
servce and statutory corporatons.
create |obs ndrecty by provdng the nvestment
condtons for prvate enterprses to create |obs.
Provde soca servces Provde wefare payments such as grants to the poor.
Provde soca securty such as natona nsurance,
unempoyment benets, pensons,
Provde santaton, heath care and educaton.
Provde nfrastructure
(ncudng pubc
Bud roads, harbours, arports, ndustra estates,
schoos, hosptas.
Insta water mans.
Defend the naton
Mantan an army to defend the country aganst
externa aggresson.
The Legsature makes aws whch outne the behavour expected of peope
and groups as they go about achevng ther varous goas. Laws are usuay
assocated wth sanctons.
The court system n the Carbbean countres, except Guyana , may be
ustrated by the gure above. t s made up of the Prvy Counc whch s
based n Engand, at the top, foowed by a Court of Appea, a Hgh Court wth
a cv and a crmna dvson, and magstrates courts. The Prvy Counc
does not feature n Guyanas court system. The Prvy Counc w eventuay
be repaced by the Carbbean Court of |ustce.
The Chef |ustce s the head of the oca court system.
The functons of the |udcary are:
To nterpret and admnster the aws of the country
To revew any aw passed by the Legsature or any acton taken by the
|udges and magstrates admnster the aw when they try cases whch are
brought by the poce or sette dsputes whch may arse between ndvduas
and busnesses, between ndvduas and government or between busnesses
and government.
Cases whch are heard n the courts are ether of a crmna or cv
nature. Civil cases are those whch are brought by one ndvdua or group
aganst another. For exampe, where there are dsputes between ndvduas
or an ndvdua fees that he or she has been wronged by someone, he or
she may seek redress n the court.
Ci!i"al cases are those whch are brought by the poce aganst an
ndvdua or group and prosecuted by the state. Murder, rape and robbery,
are exampes of crmna ohences.
The foowng facts shoud be noted about court tras:
A ndvduas or partes are regarded as beng equa before the aw
and are entted to a far tra. In other words, no one s regarded as
beng above the aw.
The accused person may hre the servces of a awyer or attorney to
defend hm or her and to ensure that he or she gets a far tra.
The accused s regarded as beng nnocent unt proven guty.
The Diec#$ $% P&'lic P$sec&#i$"s decdes whether an accused
person shoud be prosecuted based on the nformaton provded from
poce nvestgatons. He or she aso has the power to dscontnue
ega proceedngs n crmna cases at any stage of the tra. The
Drector of Pubc Prosecutons or the prosecutor from hs or her omce
presents the evdence whch the poce coect aganst the accused to
a magstrate or a |ury. The ($sec&#$ has to prove that the accused
s guty.
Both the prosecutor and the accused may ca wtnesses to support
ther evdence durng the tra.
The S$lici#$ Ge"eal defends the government n cases brought
aganst t n the Hgh Court.
The magstrate aone determnes whether or not the accused person
s guty based on the evdence presented n court.
The J&)*e+
conducts the tra;
gves the |ury gudance on ega matters reated to the case;
determnes the sentence of the accused, f found guty by the
T,e -&./ whch s a group of tweve randomy seected ay persons,
determnes whether the accused s guty based on the facts
presented durng the tra. When a |ury cannot agree on a verdct, the
accused person has to be retred before a dherent |ury.
T,e R$le $% a Pis$" S.s#e!
A prson system s necessary to:
provde a form of punshment to deter the prsoner from repeatng the
deter woud-be crmnas;
reform the prsoner by provdng hm or her wth counseng,
opportunty to acqure desred vaues and atttudes and basc
educatona sks or further educaton;
protect the vctm and the socety from the crmna;
nst condence n the |udca system;
dspense |ustce by satsfyng the vctm that the wrongdoer has been
T,e F&"c#i$"s $% #,e P$lice
Protect fe and property
Prevent crme
Detect and nvestgate crme
Apprehend and nterrogate suspects (crmnas)
Preserve peace and mantan order
Enforce tramc and parkng aws
Investgatng accdents
Montor the ow of tramc
T,e R$le $% #,e P$lice i" #,e C$&# S.s#e!
The poce aso pay a very mportant roe n the court system. The poce
and the |udcary compement the work of each other. The poce assst the
courts n ther work by:
nvestgatng crmna ohences and brngng suspected persons to tra;
recordng statements from accused persons and provdng them as
evdence to be used by the court prosecutor;
provdng wtnesses for the prosecuton;
executng warrants to ensure that accused persons keep court
compng crmna records of ohenders whch may be used to nuence
the sentences of magstrates and |udges;
actng as court prosecutors;
provdng protecton for wtnesses who may be threatened to deter
them from gvng evdence;
mantanng order and securty durng court sttngs;
keepng and securng court exhbts whch are to be used as evdence
n tras.
Ke. P$i"#s #$ Re!e!'e
The |udcary nterprets and admnsters aw.
The court system s made up of the Magstrates Courts, the Hgh
Court, the Appea Court and the Prvy Counc.
Mnor crmna ohences are deat wth n the magstrates courts.
The crmna dvson of the Hgh Court deas wth serous crmna
The cv dvson of the Hgh Court deas wth cv matters.
The Court of Appea may conrm, reverse, ncrease or reduce the
sentence of a ower court.
The Prvy Counc s the na court of appea for a Commonweath
Carbbean countres except Guyana.
The poce and the courts compement the work of each other.
A prson system s necessary to hep mantan aw and order.
Prson reforms deas wth mprovng the condtons under whch
prsoners are housed and hepng the prsoner to return to socety.
The ndependence of the |udcary s essenta for good governance.