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Extensions of Mendelian Inheritance

The previous situations describe examples of Complete Dominance. There is a lot more to inheritance
of most traits than what is described above, but typically, Mendels Laws apply.


Here are some extensions of Mendelian Genetics:


Incomplete Dominance
Incomplete dominance occurs when a trait is regulated by two alleles, but neither allele is truly dominant
over the other. In incomplete dominance, heterozygotes have a different phenotype than the two different
homozygous phenotypes. Generally, it is an intermediate phenotype between the two homozygous
phenotypes.

Homozygous for Allele 1 = Phenotype 1
Homozygous for Allele 2 = Phenotype 2
Heterozygous = Intermediate phenotype

Petunia flower color is a good example of incomplete
dominance. The homozygous phenotypes are red (R
1
R
1
) and
white (R
2
R
2
). The heterozygous phenotype is pink (R
1
R
2
), a
blending of the two homozygous phenotypes.


Lets perform a monohybrid cross. In this cross, a pink
individual (R
1
R
2
) was mated with a pink (R
1
R
2
) individual,
what possible offspring could be produced?





Predict the outcome of a monohybrid cross of a trait expressing incomplete dominance: R
1
R
2
with R
1
R
2



What is the genotypic ratio of the F
1
generation?




What is the phenotypic ratio of the F
1
generation?


Codominance
Codominance is another type of inheritance that involves the full expression of both phenotypes in the
heterozygous individual.

Homozygous for Allele 1 = Phenotype 1
Homozygous for Allele 2 = Phenotype 2
Heterozygous = Both phenotypes are expressed


Coat color in shorthorn cattle exhibits codominance. The
homozygous phenotypes are red (C
R
C
R
) and white (C
W
C
W
). The
heterozygous phenotype is roan (C
R
C
W
).

Roan cattle do not express a third hair color (this would be
incomplete dominance), instead they have both red hairs and white
hairs that are mixed together in the coat, giving them an overall
appearance (phenotype) of roan coloration.


Lets perform a monohybrid cross. In this cross, a roan cow (C
R
C
W
) was mated with a roan bull (C
R
C
W
),
what possible offspring could be produced?

Predict the outcome of a monohybrid cross of a codominant trait: C
R
C
W
with C
R
C
W







What is the genotypic ratio of the F
1
generation?




What is the phenotypic ratio of the F
1
generation?

Sex-Linkage
In primates, such as humans, and many other species, sex (male or female) is determined by the two sex
chromosomes. The sex chromosomes have alleles for traits just like other chromosomes (called
autosomes). Genes on the sex chromosomes are referred to as sex-linked genes. The X chromosome is
large and contains genes for many different traits. The Y chromosome lacks many genes that are found
on the X chromosome. This is due to two main factors: the Y chromosome is much smaller than the X
chromosome, and the Y chromosome contains unique male genes. Most importantly it contains the SRY
gene region, which when present, sets in place a series of developmental events that make an individual
male. Therefore at these two spots:
Females are XX
Males are XY

Because males only have one X and females have two, the likelihood of inheriting a gene on the sex
chromosomes, a sex-linked gene, is different in males and females

In order to get a better understanding of sex-linked traits, we will perform several monohybrid crosses. In
these crosses, pay special attention to the mothers and to the fathers phenotype and to which offspring
(sons and daughters) that phenotype is passed.

Colorblindness is an example of a recessive allele that is found only on the X-
chromosome. Therefore it is sex-linked, but more specifically it is X-linked. What
would happen if we cross a male with normal vision (X
N
Y) with a female carrier
(meaning that she is heterozygous and has the
allele for colorblindness, but it is masked by the
dominant allele, so she has normal vision)
(X
N
X
N
)?

Lets plug this into a Punnett Square and find
out. The female has two Xs, one with the
recessive trait (n) and one with the dominant trait (N). The male only
has one X, which has the normal allele (N), and a Y, which has no
alleles for this gene. We get the following set up:

When can predict the outcomes by moving both the sex
chromosomes and the alleles for colorblindness:


We now have two phenotypes to observe, in the following ratios:
1:1 male to female
3:1 normal vision to colorblind.

But notice that the colorblind offspring will only be male. This is
why we see this trait in more males than females. Half the females
will be carriers and half will be homozygous for normal vision.








Female
X
N
X
n

Male
X
N

Y


Female
X
N
X
n

Male
X
N
X
N
X
N
X
N
X
n

Y X
N
Y X
n
Y

1
2
Try some of these on your own.

1. Preform a sex-linked cross to determine what possible offspring could be produced.by a Normal
Vision Male (X
N
Y) crossed with Colorblind Female (X
n
X
n
).





What is the genotypic ratio of the F
1
generation?




What is the phenotypic ratio of the F
1
generation?




2. Preform a sex-linked cross to determine what possible offspring could be produced.by a Colorblind
Male (X
n
Y) crossed with Normal Vision Female (X
N
X
N
).


What is the genotypic ratio of the F
1
generation?




What is the phenotypic ratio of the F
1
generation?





3. Preform a sex-linked cross to determine what possible offspring could be produced.by a Colorblind
Male (X
n
Y) crossed with Normal Vision Female (X
N
X
n
).




What is the genotypic ratio of the F
1
generation?




What is the phenotypic ratio of the F
1
generation?















Pedigree Analysis

A pedigree is a chart that visually displays the phenotypes of a given trait for an organism and its
ancestors. Each row represents a generation: I = grandparents, II = parents, III = children. Squares
represent males and circles represent females. We may or may not have measured their genotypes, but
we know their phenotypes. Solid shapes are individuals that display that trait (they have the phenotype of
interest). Open shapes do not have the phenotype, but they may be carriers. Based on the pattern of
inheritance, we might be able to detect if the trait of interest is dominant or recessive and the genotypes of
the individuals.


a. b.


1. Is this trait dominant or recessive? How can you tell?



2. What are the genotypes of the two marked individuals?
a.


b.



Pedigree Exercise
You are a genetic counselor; translate the following passage into a pedigree.

My name is Jack, and I have normal body coloration. My older sister has albino coloration. My dad and
his older brother are normal; however, my dads younger sister is albino. My paternal grandfather is
albino, and my paternal grandmother is normal. My mom and her 2 sisters are normal. My maternal
grandfather and grandmother are normal.

3. Draw Jacks pedigree on a separate sheet of paper.







4. What is the chance that Jack is a non-symptomatic carrier for the albino trait?
Extra practice:
5. What is the phenotype and genotype ratio of a cross between a brown male rat XbY with black female
rat XBXb ?






6. What is the phenotype and genotype ratio of a cross between a green bodied- short wing dragonfly
(bbll) and a blue bodied- long-winged dragonfly (BbLl) ?






7. Using a chi-square formula, determine if the data supports the 9:3:3:1 ratio hypothesis. Be sure to
show your work and report the !2 value and p-value.

Given: You perform a cross of 2 heterozygous frogs. At least you think the frogs are heterozygous.
Your parent frogs are Red Eyed and Long-Toed (RrLl). If it really is a cross of heterozygotes, you
predict the standard 9:3:3:1 ratio, as seen in dihybrid crosses. Your frogs reproduce and produce the
following offspring:
102 Blue-eye short-toed, 312 Blue-eye long-toed, 305 Red-eyed short-toed,
905 Red-eye long-toed.

What are your results and conclusions?








8. 8. Using a chi-square formula, determine if the data supports the 9:3:3:1 ratio hypothesis. Be sure to
show your work and report the !2 value and p-value.

Given: You perform a cross of 2 heterozygous fruit flies. At least you think the flies are
heterozygous. Your parent flies are Red Eyed and Hairy (RrHh). If it really is a cross of
heterozygotes, you predict the standard 9:3:3:1 ratio, as seen in dihybrid crosses. Your flies reproduce
and produce the following offspring:
147 Red Hairless Flies, 442 Red Hairy Flies, 55 White Hairless flies, and 151 White Hairy flies.

What are your results and conclusions?