Differential Equations Help

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Differential Equations Help

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Lia Vas

Autonomous Dierential Equations and Population

Dynamic

If a dierential equation is of the form

y

= f(y),

it is called autonomous. Note that an autonomous equation is a separable dierential equation.

If f is zero at a, then the horizontal line y = a is a solution. This solution is called the equi-

librium solution and a is called a critical point. After nding the equilibrium solutions, check the

sign of f. On intervals of y with y

y with y

= f(y) negative, the solutions y are decreasing. Thus, the analysis of the sign of f(y) can

tell us a lot about the graph of the solutions.

If the solutions asymptotically approach the equilibrium solution for t , regardless of the

values of initial conditions, then the equilibrium solution is called asymptotically stable solution.

If the solutions are not converging towards the equilibrium solution for all values of initial conditions,

then the equilibrium solution is called unstable solution. In case that on one side the solutions are

converging towards the equilibrium solution and on the other they do not, we say that the equilibrium

solution is semistable.

In some cases, it may be dicult to obtain an explicit formula of the solution. In those cases,

getting a graph of an autonomous equation may provide valuable information about the solution.

Applications - Models of population growth

The simplest model of population growth is one describing the population that the population

changes at a rate proportional to its size. The dierential equation model for that situation is

dP

dt

= kP

We encounter this situation in examples when the percent birth rate is b and the percent death

rate is c so that

dP

dt

= bP cP. Let k = b c. If b > c (so k > 0) the population will be increasing, if

b < c (so k < 0) the population will be decreasing and if b = c (so k = 0) the population will remain

constant.

If the initial size is P

0

, separating the variables you obtain

dP

P

= kdt ln P = kt + c P =

e

kt+c

= Ce

kt

. Using the initial condition, you obtain that C = P

0

. So, the solution is P = P

0

e

kt

.

Limited Growth. If a given environment has limited resources to support the population growth,

the population might not increase indenitely. Suppose that the rate of increase is proportional to

the population size and the dierence between a constant K (called carrying capacity) limiting

the growth. The dierential equation model for that situation is

dP

dt

= kP(K P)

1

Graphing the solution of this autonomous equation, we can see that the population size increases

to P if the initial size P

0

is smaller than K but the growth does not increase the capacity K. If

P

0

> K, the population size decreases to K as the population is too large to grow due to the limiting

resources of the environment. If P

0

= K, the solution is constant P = K.

Note that in this case, the equilibrium solution P = K is stable since lim

t

P = K regardless

of the initial size.

A model with a threshold level. Suppose that a given population can keep increasing just

if the initial size is large enough and it dies out otherwise. The level that allows the increase of

population is called a threshold level. In this case the rate of increase is proportional to the

population size and the dierence of the present population size and the threshold level T. The

dierential equation model for that situation is

dP

dt

= kP(P T)

Graphing the solution of this autonomous equation, we can see that the population size decreases

to 0 if the initial size P

0

is smaller than T. If P

0

> T, the population size increases without a bound.

If P

0

= T, the solution is constant P = T. Note that in this case, the equilibrium solution P = T is

unstable.

Practice Problems.

1. Sketch the graph of solutions of the following equations.

a) y

= y

2

2y b) y

= y

2

+ 2y c) y

= (y + 1)(y 2)

2

d) y

= y(y + 1)(y 2) e) y

= y(2 y)

2

(5 y)

3

2. The size of a population of rabbits is modeled by dierential equation P

= kP(100 P)

where k is a positive parameter.

a) Estimate the number of rabbits after a long period of time if the initial size of the popu-

lation is 103 rabbits.

b) Estimate the number of rabbits after long period of time if the initial size of the population

is 99 rabbits.

c) If k = 0.02 per year, use the Euler program to estimate the size of the population after 4

years if the population was 99 initially. Use 0.5 for the step size.

3. The Pacic halibut shery is modeled by dierential equation B

biomass (total mass of the members of the population) in kilograms at time t, K = 8 10

7

kg

and k = 8.7 10

9

per year.

2

a) Estimate the biomass after many years if the initial biomass is 3 10

6

.

b) Estimate the biomass after many years if the initial biomass is 9 10

7

.

c) If the biomass is 2 10

7

kg initially, use the Euler program to estimate the biomass 5 years

later. Use 0.5 for the step size.

4. In a seasonal-growth model for population growth, a periodic function of time is introduced to

account for seasonal variations in the rate of growth. Such variations could, for example, be

caused by seasonal changes in the availability of food. The rate of change of the population is

proportional to the size of population multiplied with a periodic function. Thus, this situation

can be modeled by the dierential equation

dP

dt

= kP cos(rt ) P(

r

) = P

0

,

where k, r and P

0

are positive constants and a non-negative constant. Find the solution of

this dierential equation.

Solutions.

1. a) To nd equilibrium solution solve y

2

2y = y(y 2) = 0 y = 0 and y = 2. Then analyze

the sign of y

.

+ +

0 2

. Use this information to sketch the graph of general solutions:

above y = 2, and below y = 0, the solutions are increasing, and between y = 0 and y = 2 the

solutions are decreasing. From the graph, you can see that y = 0 is asymptotically stable and

y = 2 is unstable.

b) y

2

+ 2y = y(y 2) = 0 y = 0 and y = 2.

+

0 2

. Thus, above y = 2,

and below y = 0, the solutions are decreasing, and between y = 0 and y = 2 the solutions are

increasing. Conclude that y = 2 is asymptotically stable and y = 0 is unstable.

c) Equilibrium solutions: y = 1 and y = 2. Sign of y

:

+ +

-1 2

. Thus, below

y = 1, the solutions are decreasing. Between y = 1 and y = 2 and above y = 2 the solutions

are increasing. Conclude that y = 2 is semistable and y = 1 is unstable.

d) Equilibrium solutions: y = 1, y = 0 and y = 2. Sign of y

:

+ +

-1 0 2

.

Conclude that y = 0 is stable and y = 1 and y = 2 are unstable.

e) y

= y(2y)

2

(5y)

3

= 0 y = 0, (2y)

2

= 0 or (5y)

3

= 0 y = 0, 2y = 0 or 5y = 0.

So, the equilibrium solutions are y = 0, y = 2 and y = 5. Sign of y

:

+ +

0 2 5

.

Conclude that y = 0 is unstable, y = 2 is semistable and y = 5 is stable.

2. Parts a) and b) can be obtained by analyzing the graph and stability of the equilibrium solu-

tions. kP(100 P) = 0 P = 0 and P = 100. Sign of P

:

+ +

0 100

. Thus,

with initial condition above P = 100 (and below P = 0 but that is not relevant in this case)

3

the solutions are increasing. In particular, if the initial population size is 103, the population

will be increasing. Thus lim

t

P = . So, the population size increases without bounds.

The solutions with initial conditions between P = 0 and P = 100 are decreasing. In particular,

if the initial population size is 99, the population will be decreasing to 0. Thus lim

t

P = 0.

So, the population size decreases to 0 in this case.

c) Enter the equation y

= 0.02y(100 y), 0 for x-initial, 99 for y-initial, 4 for x-nal and 0.5

for the step size and obtain that the population size decreased to about 7.63 (can round to 8)

four years after.

3. Parts a) and b) can be obtained by analyzing the graph and stability of the equilibrium solu-

tions. B

= kB(8 10

7

B) = 0 B = 0 and B = 8 10

7

. Sign of B

:

+

0 8 10

7

.

Thus, with initial condition above B = 8 10

7

(and below B = 0 but that is not relevant in this

case) the solutions are decreasing. In particular, if the initial biomass is 9 10

7

, the biomass

will be decreasing to 8 10

7

so lim

t

B = 8 10

7

. The solutions with initial conditions between

B = 0 and B = 8 10

7

are increasing. In particular, if the initial biomass is 3 10

7

, the biomass

will be increasing to 8 10

7

. Thus lim

t

B = 8 10

7

as well.

c) Enter the equation y

= 8.7 10

9

y(8 10

7

y), 0 for x-initial, 2 10

7

for y-initial, 5 for x-nal

and 0.5 for the step size and obtain that the biomass increased to 74242300 7.4 10

7

kg in 5

years.

4. Separate the variables

dP

dt

= kP cos(rt)

dP

P

= k cos(rt)dt ln P =

k cos(rt)dt

ln P =

k

r

sin(rt ) + c P = e

k

r

sin(rt)+c

= Ce

k

r

sin(rt)

. Using the initial condition, obtain

that C = P

0

. Thus P = P

0

e

k

r

sin(rt)

.

4

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