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%# Adult Learning Theories and Techniques . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2# Instructional Design Theory and Process . . . . . .
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1# Instructional Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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5# Training Delivery !tions and Media . . . . . . .
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%0# Co''unicating Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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According to the ASTD Competency Study -2005.( training
professionals spend nearl!
as much time delivering training as the! do designing
instructional events# Successfull! delivering and facilitating
learning in a )a! that both engages the learner and
produces the intended results re*uires its o)n set of
specific 6no)ledge# The authors of the stud! defined a set
of 6e! 6no)ledge areas related to this area of expertise
-A8>. that( )hen expanded( )ere used to form the
chapters of the ASTD Learning System. +or more in7
formation on the ASTD ,ompetenc! Stud! and Model( see
the Users Guide.
Several of these 6e! 6no)ledge areas cross over( or are
related to( other A8>s# +or
example( the first three chapters of this moduleHIAdult
;earning Theories and Techni*ues(J
I9nstructional Design Theor! and Process(J and
I9nstructional MethodsJHall relate to sections of Module %2
Designing Learning# These sections refer to information
is primaril! relevant to designing learning but can also
pertain to delivering training# ,onversel!( chapter 5 of
this module ITraining Deliver! 8ptions and MediaJ is a
cross7 over section in Module %( as some of the information
is applicable to designing learning#
The 6e! actions re*uired for delivering training include
the behaviors and activities
re*uired to administer effective training as defined b! the
,ompetenc! Model# These 6e! actions are readil!
observable and portra! the dail! )or6 of learning and
performance professionalsH)hat the professional does#
Along )ith these actions come tangible examples of
)or6( or outputsH)hat the professional creates# The
follo)ing paragraphs describe the actions and outputs
that a learning professional )or6ing in delivering
training )ill demonstrate and produce#
+or example( after the instructional event is designed
-refer to Module %( Design-
ing Learning.( the practitioner must ensure that the
learning solution aligns )ith the course objectives and
the needs of the learners# This phase includes preparing
for training deliver! b! gaining a thorough
understanding of the learning obBectives and material(
and b! practicing the deliver!# 8utputs created during
the planning phase )ould include action plans for
6no)ledge transfer( schedules( lists of materials( and
facilitator chec6lists# The table lists the 6e! actions for
delivering training along )ith some examples of the
outputs for those actions#
.ey Actions /Do0 &+a'!les o) ut!uts /Deliver0
K Prepare for training deliver!
K Align learning solutions )ith
course obBectives and learner
K Deliver! schedule
K Action plan for 6no)ledge
K ,onve! obBectives
K Deliver various learning
K Presentation of materials
Module 22 Delivering Training
.ey Actions /Do0 &+a'!les o) ut!uts /Deliver0
K +acilitate learning K +acilitation of learning events
K >ncourage participation
K <uild learner motivation
K +acilitation of group
K >stablish credibilit! as instructor
K Manage the learning
K Deliver constructive feedbac6
K +eedbac6 to learners
K ,reate a positive learning
K >nsure learning outcomes
K >valuate solutions
K ;earner feedbac6
K /eport of learning usage
K >valuation report of effect of
learning solution
K /eturn7on7investment report
+or further detailed information about the 6e! actions
and outputs( refer to the
ASTD Competency Study: Mapping the Future -2005.#L
L<ernthal( P#/#( et al# -2005.# ASTD Competency Study:
Mapping the Future# Alexandria( CA2 ASTD Press#
Adult Learning Theories
and Techniques
Most of )ho )e are as human beings is learnedM
most of )hat )e can do as human beings is also
learned# 9t is not surprising( then( that most of )hat
)e do in the )orld of )or6 has something to do
)ith learning# Although some people continue
to see a sharp divide bet)een formal schooling
and the )orld of )or6( lifelong education and lifelong
learning have become a realit!#
As workplace learning and performance (WLP)
professionals( )e are tas6ed )ith designing and
delivering learning solutions that meet learnersF needs( but
over time there have been man! schools of thought and
theories of ho) the mind )or6s#
These concepts of adult learning theories and techni*ues
la! the foundation for all
training and performance improvement programs#
$nderstanding these concepts helps professionals to
develop programs that reach the core needs of adult
learners# Ahen delivering training( these concepts help
put the environment( motivation( and abilit! of
participants in proper perspective#
Learning 12ective,
Discuss the importance of adult learning theories
and techni*ues )hen de7 livering training#
,hapter %
.ey .no3ledge, I'!ortance o) Adult Learning Techniques
in Delivering Training
8ver the !ears( man! theorists have proposed
theories on ho) the mind )or6s and ho) adults
learn best# Daving a general understanding of these
various theories enables A;P professionals to appl!
these theories to the man! t!pes of learners the!
encounter as )ell as particular situations )hen
designing and delivering training#
There are several important assumptions about adult
learners that are )orth
emphasi@ing# These assumptions help to guide
man! aspects of adult learning situations and often
are categori@ed b! motivating adult learners( planning
instruc7 tion for adults( )or6ing )ith groups of adults(
)or6ing )ith individual learners( helping learners
transfer )hat the! have learned( and considering
the barriers faced b! adults in learning#
The )ord theory ma6es most learning professionals tune
out because the! thin6
theor! is not practical# Do)ever( Eurt ;e)in( a
founder of modern organi@ational development( is
often credited for sa!ing that Inothing is so practical
as a good theor!#J Theor! can guide practice#
That point is especiall! true )hen thin6ing about
learning theor!# Do) trainers
conduct training and ho) learning professionals
carr! out other learning and performance change
efforts stem from their o)n theories and philosophies
of the learning process( the learners( the learning
environment( and the results desired#
9n short( )hat )e do is guided b! theor!#
+or A;P professionals( understanding adult learning
theories and techni*ues helps
to provide a )ell7rounded bac6ground and a basis
for creating and delivering sound instruction#
$ltimatel! these professionals should have an
of )hat theories exist( )hat the! mean( and ho) the!
affect practice )hen de7 livering training#
Adult learning theories attempt to explain various
schools of thought regarding
ho) adults learn# Some theorists focus on )hat is
observableHthat is( stimulus and response# 8ther
theorists focus on learning and memor!( and propose
envi7 ronmental factors and optimal teaching
se*uences to optimi@e learning( retention( and long7
term memor!#
Ahile no theor! has IrightJ or I)rongJ approaches( each
theor! has its advantages
and disadvantages( )hich impl! different roles for
learners and ma! be more ap7 propriate than others
depending on the mode of deliver!( the t!pes of
or s6ills to be trained( ho) often the s6ills )ill be used(
if rote memori@ation:re7 action is re*uired( and so on#
To learn more about these principles( see Module %(
Designing Learning( chapter
%( I,ognition and Adult ;earning Theor!#J
Instructional Design Theory and
Ahen designing instruction( the )or6place
learning and performance
-A;P. professional considers fundamentals( such
as learner characteristics( learning obBectives(
instructional strategies( and methods of
determin7 ing that learning has ta6en place# To
account for these fundamentals( the
designer must use a frame)or6 in the planning of
instruction# The trainer uses the same information to deliver
According to ,huc6 Dodell( author of SD From the
Ground Up -2000.! I+rom the
perspective of an instructional designer( an! underta6ing
that includes a learner( and the subBect matter necessar! to
learn( re*uires an instructional s!stem# 9nstructional
design7 ers need inputs li6e subBect matter and resources( a
process li6e instructional systems design (ISD)( and
outputs li6e curriculum and materials to build a training
course# This combination of elements is called an
instructional s!stem#J
Aith 9SD( Eno)lesFs )or6 tipped the scale to)ard a
learner7centered approach as
opposed to a content7centered approach# Man!
theories and models are used to design instruction# The
relevant theme in all of )hatFs available is that A;P
practitioners use a s!stematic processHmost of )hich are
based on the classic 9SD model 6no)n as the DDI!
model# 'o matter )hich 9SD model is used( the! all
emphasi@e the need for goals and obBectives for instruction
and related assessments#
9SD is based on the belief that training is most effective
)hen it provides learners )ith
a clear statement of )hat the! must be able to do as a
result of training and ho) their performance )ill be
evaluated# The program is then designed to teach s6ills
through hands7on practice or performance7based
9SD is a s!stems approach to anal!@ing( designing(
developing( implementing( and
evaluating an! instructional experience# 9t ma! also be
called instructional development( curriculum
development( instructional s!stem for training( or a variet!
of other abbrevia7 tions# The differences bet)een the man!
s!stems are usuall! modest in scope and tend
to be lin6ed to terminolog! and procedural issues#
The reason that training and education )or6 so )ell in a
s!stems environment goes to the ver! essence of s!stems
themselvesHhaving observable( measurable( and
replicable elements# 9n the case of 9SD( these elements
include anal!tical methods( obBectives( evalu7 ation
schemes( design plans( and a number of other s!stem
Learning 12ective,
Describe )hat is meant b! an 9SD approach( and state
the goals of this process#
,hapter 2
.ey .no3ledge, I(D Theory and Methods
After a performance gap is identified( a training
solution ma! be the appropriate solution if the cause
of the performance gap is lac6 of 6no)ledge or s6ill#
9SD is based on the belief that training is most
effective )hen it provides learners )ith
a clear statement of )hat the! must be able to do as a
result of training and ho) their performance )ill be
A number of 9SD models( for example Seels and
?lasgo) or Smith and /agan(
are named after individuals or institutions( but almost
all models are based on the ADD9> model( )hich has
five elements2
%# Ana"ysis: Anal!sis involves the )ho( )hat( )here(
)hen( )h!( and b! )hom of
the design process# =ust as A is the first letter in the
alphabet( anal!sis should be the first item
addressed in instructional design# Anal!sis is done
for one reason2 to find out )hat learners need to
6no) to be successful#
2# Design: 9n this phase( the designer provides the
basic foundation and struc7
ture for the training proBect( including goals(
obBectives( and evaluation tas6s that must be
developed and ho) the! are se*uenced# The
structure comes from the man! decisions that must
be made on training platforms and other
implementation *uestions#
1# De#e"opment: Development is the phase of converting
design plans into course
materials# +or example( for classroom courses( a
designer develops slides( lecture notes( and
handouts for the course# The designer also
develops the instructorFs materials for
administering learning activities and other support
5# mp"ementation: After the materials are printed( the
trainer is read! for learners
to ta6e the course# This process involves more than
distributing )or6boo6s and teaching classes#
9mplementation also involves ongoing supportHfor
example( scheduling class or web"based training
sessions( instructors( classrooms( and audiovisual
and lab e*uipmentM reproducing materialsM and
updating content on intranets and for self7paced
learning courses#
4# $#a"uation: Although the evaluation element of the
ADD9> model appears to
be the last function( in realit!( evaluation ta6es place
at ever! point throughout the 9SD process#
>valuation is the ultimate phase in the process of
designing a training course# >valuation is intended
to assess )hether the course achieved its
Training evaluation occurs on a number of different
levels( follo)ing a model
first proposed in %040 b! Donald Eir6patric6 -%003.#
The four levels of training evaluation include reaction(
learning( behavior( and business results#
+or more information( see Module %( Designing Learning!
chapter 2( I9nstructional
Design Theor! and Process#J
Instructional Methods
So often )or6place learning and performance
-A;P. professionals struggle )ith finding the right
approach to communicate information to learners
in the right )a!# The struggle is often over
)hich instruction method to use out of the )ide
arra! that are available# Trainers on the front line
delivering training ma! also see )here a particular
section of a course tends to bore the learners and
proactivel! see6 another )a! to present the information
that is a more interactive )a! to engage the learners in the
9n both of these scenarios these professionals are loo6ing for
the appropriate instructional
methods# 9nstructional methods( also called instructional
strategies( are the various means b! )hich content or
material is communicated# Some examples include
lectures( group discussions( role plays( simulations( and
case studies( )hich serve as lin6s bet)een the learner and
subBect matter( much the same )a! that a boo6 or
)ebpage lin6s the end user )ith information#
Some categories of distribution methods include )eb7based
-e"learning( learning portals(
online communities( )eb conferencing.( net)or67based
-e7learning( email( collabora7 tive tools.( dis67based
-DCD:,D7/8M.( simulations and virtual realt! -including
tactile gear.( mobile learning -PDA7 and phone7based.(
TC7based -satellite( teleconferencing( cable.( electronic
performance support systems (!PSSs)( job aids(
instructor7led( and text7based#
After a formal needs assessment has been performed( the next
step in the process involves
matching the appropriate instructional strateg! )ith the
audience needs and learning obBectives# The technolog!
should be suitable for the audience( the content( the
organi7 @ational environment( and( most of all( the
proposed learning obBective#
Ahen delivering training( 6eep in mind that various
instructional strategies can serve the
purposes to motivate learners( help them prepare for
learning( enable them to appl! and practice learning( assist
them in retaining and transferring )hat the! have
learned( and allo) them to integrate their o)n preferences
)ith other s6ills and 6no)ledge#
Learning 12ective,
>xplain )hat is meant b! instructional methods(
and list five factors that A;P professionals should
consider )hen selecting an appropriate
instructional strateg!#
,hapter 1
.ey .no3ledge, &+!loring Instructional Methods
,hoosing an instructional strateg! is part science( part
art( and part hunch#
9n some instances( a single strateg! is selected for
an entire course( perhaps because the course is brief
and re*uires onl! one strateg!# At other times( practi7
tioners choose a single strateg! because all the
material is similar in nature and b! using the same
strateg! for teaching it( the! reinforce the relationships
among the different units# 9n still other instances(
)hen the material in each unit is different enough
that it benefits from a different approach to
presentation( practitioners choose different
approaches for different units#
Trainers often use 6no)ledge -cognitive.( s6ills
-ps!chomotor.( and attitudes
-affective.Halso 6no)n as #SsHto describe the
three t!pes of learning# These categories( defined b!
$enjamin $loom( describe the ultimate goal of the
train7 ing processH)hat learners should ac*uire as
the result of trainingHand assist in selecting an
appropriate instructional method#
The appropriate strateg! to use for a presentation
depends on a variet! of factors( including
K t!pe of learning -intellectual and cognitive s6ills(
motor s6ills( attitudes.
K audience
K demographics or profile -age( gender( level of
% learning styles -6inesthetic7tactile( visual( auditor!.
K number of learners -individual( small groups( large
K media -select b! appropriateness( number of learners(
financial considerations.
K budget -funds available for development as )ell as
K ph!sical site -centrali@ed( decentrali@ed( speciali@ed.
K instructorFs s6ills and training st!le#
>ach factor( in combination )ith the others( influences
the choice of strateg! for presenting( reinforcing( and
assessing retention of the material#
+or more information( see Module %( Designing Learning!
chapter 1( I9nstructional

Training Delivery !tions
and Media
/egardless of the setting( adult educators must recogni@e
the man! avenues of deliver!# >ach avenue has inherent
characteristics as )ell as different learner demographics
and motivations that all )or6place learning and
performance -A;P. professionals should be comfortable
)ith# 9tFs valuable for A;P professionals to understand all of
the deliver! op7 tions so that the! have some control over
the presentation# The facilitator also should be able to
provide insight and ma6e recommendations regarding the
deliver! of the content#
Toda!( a multitude of technolog!7based learning options
are available( and this advent
of ne) technologies is changing the )a! that learning
occurs not onl! )ithin but also outside of organi@ations
on a dail! basis# +or A;P professionals to craft the most
appro7 priate learning solution for learners to access
information and instruction an!time and an!)here( the!
need to be )ell versed in the various deliver! options
and media that toda!Fs technologies no) provide# This
chapter provides a primer of the characteristics( value( and
applicabilit! of each technolog!7based learning option#
Learning 12ectives,
Define blended learning#
Discuss t)o examples of )hen classroom learning
or e7learning are most appropriatel! used( and
explain )h!#
Define environmental considerations that ensure
optimal classroom learning#
Discuss the benefits of message boards and chat
rooms to learning groups and online communities#
State t)o benefits of e7learning( and list t)o
re*uirements )ith regard to audio and video plug"
State the purpose of an electronic performance
support s!stem ->PSS.( and discuss )hen to use or
not use an >PSS#
>xplain )hat is meant b! self"directed learning
(SDL)( and provide t)o situations in )hich SD; is
most appropriatel! used#
,hapter 5
5lended Learning
<lended learning is an instructional strateg! for delivering
on promises of learning and performance# <lending involves
a planned combination of training deliver! options( such
as coaching b! a supervisor( participation in an online class(
brea6fast )ith colleagues( competenc! descriptions(
reading( reference to a manual( and participation in
or online communities#
As noted b! /ossett et al# -2001.( a stud! b! Peter Dean
and his colleagues found that providing several deliver!
options and media for learners( in addition to classroom
train7 ing( increased )hat the! learned# 9n 2002( Darvard
<usiness School facult! De;ace! and ;eonard reported
that not onl! students learned more )hen online sessions
)ere added
to traditional courses( but also student interaction and
satisfaction improved#
Do) can e7learning complement a classroom course or vice
versa in a blended approachN
9n traditional classroom training( instructors must focus
their attention on the t!pical learnerHand the! can
rarel! meet the needs of all individual learners# To
address this limitation( instructors can develop course
)ebsites )ith remedial material to give slo) learners
additional opportunities to master the content# Similarl!(
for learners )ho need
to adapt the material to specific needs or )ant to continue
)or6ing )ith the material( instructors can use a )ebsite for
enrichment material#
Some online learners have difficult! )ith course material(
even though it might have been
tested extensivel! )ith prospective learners# 8ther
learners might need gentle remind7 ers to motivate them
to complete courses# 9n these cases( personal coaching
provides assistance to help these various learners )ith
their needs# The coach is a person )ith )hom the learner
interacts# 9n some cases( the coach is available in person(
and in other cases( the coach is available online or b!
Ahen designing a blended7learning solution( >laine
<iech( author of Training %or
Dummies& -2004.( offers some 6e! considerations to meet the
needs of the organi@ation and the participants2
K <lended learning optimi@es resources( providing the
most effect for the least
investment# /emember to consider the organi@ational
culture and ho) receptive
it )ill be to changes in deliver! formats#
K The blended7learning solution should be solution
focusedH)hat is the business problem to be solved
and )hat is the best )a! to solve the problemN
K Technolog! capabilities drive at least some portion of
the blended7learning solu7
tion( but remember to include the learnersF
characteristics -time available( ho) motivated(
learning st!le. and the characteristics of the content
-the subject matter e&perts 'S(!s)( t!pe of content(
)hether s6ill based or 6no)ledge based( ho) soon it
)ill be out of date.#
K Almost all blended7learning solutions re*uire a
communication and mar6eting plan before
Training Deliver! 8ptions and Media
$-"earning is an umbrella term used to describe a variet! of
methods to deliver technolog!7 enabled training via
methods including computer"based training (*$+)(
,D7/8Ms( DCDs( videos( learning portals or online
communities( virtual classrooms( message boards( chat
rooms( and mobile learning -i#e#( podcasts( vodcasts.# >7
learning allo)s trainers to hold classes in much the same
)a! the! )ould in the classroom( )ith a fe) additional
considerations related to the technolog!# Trainers can
use these methods to deliver the content2
K )eb7based -9nternet( intranets( learning portals( and
online communities.
K dis67based -,D7/8M( DCD.
K TC7based -satellite( teleconferencing( cable.
K net)or67based -mail( collaborative tools.
K simulator7based -virtual realit!( tactile gear.
K mobile learning -PDAs( podcasts( vodcasts( cell
phones( teleconferences.
K >PSS -help s!stems( Bob aids.#
$hen to 7se &6Learning or Classroo' Training
Although some people express concern that e7learning
might spell the end of classroom training or that itFs inferior
to classroom training( e7learning )ill ultimatel! complement
it# Training and human performance improvement -DP9.
professionals use classroom training for )hat it does best
and do li6e)ise for e7learning#
$hen to 7se &6Learning
>7learning is outstanding for teaching rote s6illsM it has the
infinite IpatienceJ needed
to do so# Aith the privac! of the computer( slo)er
learners can have the extensive remediation the! need(
and fast learners can speed through a course(
unencumbered b! their classmates#
>7learning also is an excellent tool for teaching
prere*uisite material# 9nstructors can
re*uire learners to ta6e a prere*uisite course and pass a
pretest before coming to the classroom# 9n that )a!( the
instructor can begin the classroom course at a higher
level( sure that each learner has completed the
prere*uisite learning# As a result( the class7 room course
can offer an in7depth learning experience( a shorter
learning experience(
or both#
$hen 8ot to 7se &6Learning
>7learning should not be used )hen a technolog!
anal!sis indicates that the current e*uipment and
infrastructure arenFt ade*uate to support the band)idth
and other tech7 nolog! needs of e7learning#
,hapter 5
9n addition( e7learning should not be used )ith people
)ho arenFt prepared for it# +or
example( participants )ho are technologicall! challenged
might have difficult! access7 ing and logging in to a )eb
session successfull!# The facilitator should use participant
anal!sis to understand the population to be trained
before assuming that e7learning is the best solution#
>7learning should not be used if participantsF self7
directedness is lo)# A lac6 of self7
direction is one reason that self7instructional media( such
as ,D7/8Ms and )eb7based training -A<T.( have failed#
+inall!( e7learning also can be a difficult medium )hen
facilitating classes )here face7
to7face practice is a critical element for learning#
$hen to 7se Classroo' Training
,ompared )ith e7learning( the classroom provides an
opportunit! to develop higher7 order thin6ing s6ills and
stimulate interpersonal exchanges# Although these goals
can be accomplished online through simulations and
async,ronous learning( the! often have more effect
)ith learners in the classroom#
9n some cases( classroom training might not be the most
efficient solution to address 6no)ledge and s6ill
deficiencies# These are the dra)bac6s of classroom training2
K Training is expensive#
K Training is hard to schedule#
K Training is temporar!# ;earners donFt retain 6no)ledge
or s6ills unless the! have an opportunit! to practice#
9f possible( a trainer should consider a blended approach
and multiple solutions to help
provide learners )ith all the s6ills and 6no)ledge needed
to perform effectivel! on the Bob# Some additional
solutions include Bob aids( performance support s!stems(
and self7 directed learning -SD;. programs#
Classroo' Training
Aith toda!Fs technologies becoming more robust and less
expensive( technolog!7based learning is trul! a solution
that can augment and support classroom7based learning#
Technolog!7based learning )ill never replace classroom
training# The! both have their strengths( and each can be
appropriate depending on the situation# Do)ever(
sometimes the constraints of a proBect -time to develop
and deplo!( cost( geographical location of the target
audience. dictate )hen classroom or technolog!7based
learning is most ap7 propriate to meet the learnersF needs
and expected outcomes#
Ahen classroom training is part of the learning solution(
A;P professionals should con7
sider a multitude of factors )hen planning a classroom
training program( including the ph!sical environment#
Training Deliver! 8ptions and Media
9tFs a common scenario2 The meeting room is too hot( the
lights are too dim( and the
coffee is tepid# The trainer seems miles a)a!( the slide
proBector doesnFt focus( and emplo!ees attending the
training program grumble to one another in small groups
it being Ia )aste of time#J
The ph!sical environment can have a maBor effect on the
success of an! training program# 'o matter ho) )ell the
session is designed or ho) talented and entertaining
presenters are( a good session in a poor environment
could add up to a )aste of time and mone! for ever!one
(electing the 9acility and Pre!aring the &nviron'ent
<efore beginning the facilit! selection process( a trainer(
facilitator( or program coordinator should identif!
participantsF learning goals and plan the ph!sical setting that
matches those obBectives# Presentation techni*ues need to
be adapted to the )a!s that adults learn#
Most rooms in )hich training ta6es place accommodate an
ama@ing range of uses# The!
also serve as movie theaters( storage rooms( classrooms(
and even restaurants# ?iven the inevitable limitations(
trainers should strive to ma6e the facilit! the best thatFs
possible# ,hairs must ma6e people comfortable -but not
too comfortable.( and tables must be capable of being
moved !et be stable# /estroom facilities must be available
for use b! a large number of people in a short period# The!
must also be )heelchair accessible#
The (!ace
Selecting the best space for the programFs particular needs
is no simple tas6# +acilitators should remember to
consider the re*uirements listed in table 57%( depending
on )hat the! are planning#
Another )a! to chec6 the ade*uac! of room dimensions
is to Budge all distances from the )idth of the screen to be
used for visual presentations# These are some guidelines2
Ta1le 461. (!ace -uidelines
T!pe of Activit! Space 'eeded
/eception 0G%0 s*uare feet per person
Meal %2G%1 s*uare feet per person
Theater seating 0G%0 s*uare feet per person
,lassroom seating %4G%& s*uare feet per person
,onference seating 21G24 s*uare feet per person
$7shaped seating 15G1 s*uare feet per person
,hapter 5
K The distance from the screen to the last ro) of seats
should not exceed six screen )idths#
K The distance from the screen to the front ro) of seats
should be at least t)ice
the )idth of the screen# Participants )ho are closer
than that )ill experience discomfort and fatigue#
K The proper )idth of the vie)ing area is three screen
)idths# 'o one should be more than one screen )idth
to the left or right of the screen#
K ,eiling height is important# The roomFs ceiling
should be high enoughHa
minimum of nine feetHto permit people seated in the
last ro) to see the bottom
of the screen over( not around( the heads of those in
front of them#
K Tr ! to use screens that recede into the ceiling
and r aise and lo)er automaticall!#
Peri!heral 9acilities
Ahen ma6ing facilit! arrangements( a program coordinator
should understand the com7 munication re*uirements of
those involved in the session# Arrange to ta6e messages
and tell participants that outgoing calls can be made onl!
during brea6s# To facilitate this( the instructor should ta6e
these steps2
K Ma6e sure an operator is available to ta6e incoming
K ,reate a message board in a central location( and place
messages on the board# As6 participants to chec6 the
board during each brea6#
K 'ever install a telephone in a meeting room# 9f a
telephone is alread! in the room( have it disconnected#
:estroo' 9acilities
9f training is conducted in a location that lac6s sufficient
nearb! restrooms( the instructor should direct people to
facilities on other floors and ma6e sure to schedule enough
time for this travel# 9f the meeting is in a hotel( the instructor
should ensure that restrooms are large enough to
accommodate the group and are located nearb!#
(eating Arrange'ents
An important factor in determining the success of an!
training session is the seating# Placement of chairs and
tables can contribute to accomplishing learning obBectives#
Determining )here people )ill sit can influence the level
of participation# Some seat7
ing arrangements ma6e it difficultHif not impossibleHto
interrupt a facilitator# 8ther arrangements encourage
participation of the entire group# So depending on ho)
much control instructors )ant( or to get a groupFs direct
involvement( the! should use one
of the seating arrangements sho)n in table 572# Some of
these seating arrangements
Training Deliver! 8ptions and Media
give participants the most involvement in training
sessionsM others are more traditional arrangements that give
the facilitator more control#
Materials and &qui!'ent
The instructor should have handouts and visual aids
prepared earl! enough so that the! can be proofread
thoroughl! and chec6ed to see )hether the! are in the
correct order#
Ta1le 462. &+a'!les o) (eating Arrange'ents
'ame Description >xample
,ircle A plain circle of chairs is often used to
foster an intimate relationship bet)een
participants in )hich the! can interact
in a more friendl! setting# This
arrangement has no ph!sical setting for
a trainer and creates an e*ualit! of
,ircle and
Man! trainers use this configuration
because it offers the advantages of the
full circle !et affords a measure of
control# This arrangement allo)s for a
flipchart and a standing trainer#
This combination ta6es advantage of
the circleFs informal aspects but gives
participants a place to put papers and
boo6s# The table also removes the
sense of vulnerabilit! some people
feel in a plain circle
of chairs# Studies sho) that )hen
the same people sit at a round table
rather than in a circle )ith chairs onl!
the! participate more in the session#
S*uare tables are a first full step
to)ard a formal meeting
arrangement# The! are often

)hen there are IsidesJ to be
presented# /esearch indicates
that a solid s*uare table seems to
encourage conversation across the
,hapter 5
Ta1le 462. &+a'!les o) (eating Arrange'ents; continued
'ame Description >xample
At a rectangular table( no one can see
the faces of all the people at the ends of
the table( )hom participants expect to
control the interaction# /ectangular
tables can be effective for some 6inds of
training sessions(
but the! highlight the tensions felt b!
t)o sides facing each other#
This configuration is popular for
seminars# A $7shaped table gives
ever!one ta6ing part the sense that the!
are e*ual# This la!out( ho)ever( gives the
opening in the $ a position of po)er and
can provide space for someone at a
flipchart to ta6e notes
or serve as a recorder#
+or !ears( conferences have relied on
the conventional classroom
st!le for training programs# This
arrangement gives facilitatorsH
especiall! if the! stand on raised
platformsHa lot of control( and itFs
hard for people to tal6 to an!one
except those seated beside them# This
arrangement accommodates man!
people in a fairl! small
room and is effective for one7)a!
Theater or auditorium seating is
used )hen the planner )ants to
maximi@e the number of participants in
one room# 9tFs not a good arrangement
for stimulating group discussion or
>ven if someone else is responsible for setting up the room(
the instructor should arrive at
least one hour earl! on the da! of training# This gives time to
set up materials and tend to an! last7minute crises# The
instructor ma! be the one )ho actuall! tidies the room(
-or rearranges. furniture( sets up and tests e*uipment( and
ma6es last7minute arrangements#
Training Deliver! 8ptions and Media
Care o) &nviron'ental 9actors
Ahen selecting a room( a facilitator should assess
)hether an! possible distractions or obstacles )ill affect
setup# A room that is free of distractions and noise
establishes an environment thatFs conducive to learning#
The trainer should also be sure to select a room )ithout
structures( such as posts or pillars( that could obstruct
participantsF vie)#
Distance Learning
Distance learning is a s!stem and a process that
connects learners )ith distributed learning resources#
Although distance learning ta6es a )ide variet! of forms( all
distance learning is characteri@ed b!
K separation of place( time( or both bet)een instructor and
learner( among learners(
or bet)een learners and learning resources
K interaction bet)een the learner and the instructor(
among learners( or bet)een learners and learning
resources conducted through one or more mediaM
use of electronic media isnFt necessaril! re*uired#
&lectronic Presentation and Distri1ution Methods
As technolog!7enabled learning solutions continue to
ma6e more deliver! options avail7 able( A;P professionals
need to have a solid understanding of the differences
bet)een presentation methods and distributions methods
)hen crafting learning solutions#
Table 571 divides the technologies into t)o maBor categories2
presentation methods and distribution methods#
To better understand the distinction bet)een presentation
methods and distribution
methods( thin6 of the various )a!s to get a message to a
friend in a distant countr!# The presentation method ma!
ta6e a number of different formats( including
K text
K pictures
K s!mbols
K sounds#
+or each presentation method( one or more distribution
methods exist for actuall! trans7 mitting the formatted
message to the friend# These distribution methods include
K email
K telegram
K fax
K phone call
K videotape sent b! overnight courier#
,hapter 5
Ta1le 463. &lectronic Presentation and Distri1ution Methods
Method Distribution Methods
Audio 'et)or67based -;A':AA'.( )eb7based -9nternet( intranet(
extranet.( disc7based -,D7/8M:DCD.( voicemail( audio(
and mobile technologies -podcast( vodcast( phone( and cell phone.
'et)or67 and )eb7based( and mobile technologies
>lectronic text 'et)or67( )eb7( and disc7based
>PSS 'et)or67( )eb7( and disc7based
Multimedia 'et)or67( )eb7( disc7( and simulator7based
8nline help 'et)or67 and disc7based
Teleconferencing TC7 -satellite( cable. and net)or67based( and mobile
Cideo TC7 -satellite( cable.( net)or67( )eb7( and disc7based( and
mobile technologies
,ertain presentation methods can be transmitted b! using
onl! one distribution method
-for example( a telegram distributed via telegraph.( but
others can have an arra! of distribution options -such as a
letter distributed via fax( air mail( or express mail.# Some
restrictions could prevent using a certain t!pe of
distribution methods# +or instance( overnight courier
services might not service the friendFs countr!#
/egardless of )hich process is chosen( the decision ultimatel!
pairs a presentation method
)ith a distribution method# A 6e! *uestion( therefore(
underlies this distinction2 9s this technolog! the format of
the material -presentation method. or a means of
transmitting the material -distribution method.N
Technology65ased Learning 5ene)its
Man! factors drive the trend to)ard increased reliance
on technolog! for training purposes( including these2
' Cost-e%%ecti#eness: Although the costs of developing
technolog!7based training
programs are higher than those for instructor7led
classes( distribution costs often offset development
costsHif the programs are implemented correctl!#
More people can be trained more often )ith
different online learning tools# Travel costs can be
reduced and productivit! increased because no time
is lost in travel to and from on7site training# 9n
addition( SM>s can be brought in )ithout leaving
their hometo)ns#
Training Deliver! 8ptions and Media
' Accessi(i"ity and app"ication: Speed and mobilit! are
the essential ingredients
of competitive success# /e*uiring emplo!ees(
especiall! part7time emplo!ees( to spend hours or
even da!s in training causes an unnecessar! hardship
and often leads to turnover in the first fe) )ee6s of
emplo!ment# <! using learning tech7 nologies(
organi@ations target their training efforts to)ard the
precise 6no)ledge that emplo!ees need to solve Bob7
specific problems#
' Access %or "earners: The developing )orld econom!
has blurred traditional in7
ternational boundaries# >mplo!ees of multinational
corporations are dispersed
in both time and geograph!# >xpecting emplo!ees to
coordinate their schedules for group training is often
not practical# Technolog! can help bridge this gap b!
offering learners access to more resources( )hich
adds to their bod! of 6no)l7 edge in a given topic#
' Se"%-direction %or "earners: >7learning puts adult
learners in the driverFs seat to
find ne) )a!s( tools( and courses that provide the
foundation for self7directed learning# This learning can
ta6e place an!)here and often at an! time#
Technology65ased Ter's and De)initions
The follo)ing list of terms provides a useful
introduction to technolog!7based learning vocabular!#
Asynchronous "earning: >7learning that does not re*uire
the trainer and the learner
to participate at the same time# >xamples are self7paced
courses ta6en over the
9nternet or )ith a DCD( online discussion groups( and
Audio: 8ne7)a! deliver! of live or recorded sound#
)"og *+e("og,: An extension of a personal )ebsite
consisting of Bournal7li6e entries posted on a
)ebpage for public vie)ing# <logs usuall! contain
lin6s to other )ebsites along )ith the thoughts(
comments( and personalit! of the blogFs creator#
)ro+ser: A soft)are program for finding and vie)ing
information on the
9nternet# 9nternet >xplorer and ?oogle ,hrome are
t)o common examples of bro)sers#
Chat room: A s!nchronous process in )hich the learners
and trainer are online at
the same time# ,hat rooms are similar to electronic
bulletin boards( but bulletin boards are as!nchronous#
Co""a(oration techno"ogy: Soft)are( platforms( or
services that enable people at
different locations to communicate and )or6 )ith
each other in a secure( self7 contained environment#
Ma! include capabilities for document
management( application sharing( presentation
development and deliver!( )hiteboarding( chat( and
Community o% practice *Co-,: Serves as organi@ing
structure and platform for entire )or6place7based
learning effort# ,oPs are trusting groups of
,hapter 5
united b! a common concern or purpose( dedicated to
supporting each other in
increasing their 6no)ledge( creating ne) insights( and
enhancing performance
in a particular domain# Much more than chat rooms or
discussion threads( ,oPs are more full! integrated into
actual )or6#
$-"earning ../: 'e) )a!s of thin6ing about e7learning
inspired b! the emergence
of Aeb 2#0#
$"ectronic (u""etin (oard: Also called a threaded
discussion( the computer e*uiva7 lent of a public note
board# Messages can be posted to a bulletin board for
vie)7 ing b! other users#
$"ectronic per%ormance support system *$-SS,: A
computer application thatFs lin6ed
directl! to another application to train or guide
)or6ers through completing a tas6 in the target
application# More generall!( itFs a computer or other
device that gives )or6ers information or resources to
help them accomplish a tas6 or achieve performance
re*uirements# These s!stems deliver information on
the Bob( Bust in time( and )ith minimum staff support#
$"ectronic te0t: The dissemination of text via electronic
Mo(i"e "earning: ;earning that ta6es place via such
)ireless devices as cell phones( personal digital
assistants -PDAs.( or laptop computers#
Mu"timedia: A computer application that uses an!
combination of text( graphics(
audio( animation( and full7motion video# 9nteractive
multimedia enables users to control various aspects of
training( such as content se*uence#
1n"ine he"p: A computer application that provides
online assistance#
-odcast: A series of digital7media files distributed over
the 9nternet using s!ndica7 tion feeds for pla!bac6 on
portal media pla!ers and computers# The term
podcast( li6e (roadcast( can refer either to the
series of content itself or to the method b! )hich it
is s!ndicatedM the latter is also called podcasting#
The term derives from the )ords i-od and
(roadcastHthe Apple iPod being the brand name
of the portal media pla!er for )hich the first
podcasting scripts )ere developed#
Simu"ation: A highl! interactive application that allo)s
the learner to model or
role pla! in a scenario# Simulations enable the learner to
practice s6ills or behav7 iors in a ris67free environment#
Synchronous "earning: ;earning that involves the
trainer and the learner partici7 pating at the same time#
Te"econ%erencing: The instantaneous exchange of
audio( video( and text bet)een t)o or more people or
groups at t)o or more locations#
2ideo: 8ne7)a! deliver! of live or recorded full7motion
2irtua" c"assroom: An online learning space )here
learners and instructors interact#
Training Deliver! 8ptions and Media
2irtua" +or"d: A computer7based simulated
environment intended for its users
to inhabit and interact via avatars# These avatars are
usuall! depicted as textual( t)o7dimensional( or
three7dimensional graphic representations( although
other forms are possible -auditor! and touch
sensations for example.# Some( but not all( virtual
)orlds allo) for multiple users#
3e( ../: The use of 9nternet technolog! and )eb design
to enhance information
sharing and( most notabl!( collaboration among users#
These concepts have led
to the development and evolution of online
communities and hosted services such as social
net)or6ing sites( )i6is( and blogs#
3i4i: A collection of )ebpages designed to enable
an!one )ho accesses it to
contribute or modif! content( using a simplified mar6up
language# Ai6is are often used to create collaborative
)ebsites and to po)er communit! )ebsites#
Asynchronous <ersus (ynchronous Training
>7learning is often described in one of t)o categoriesH
that )hich occurs )ith a live instructor and that )hich
does not#
The first categor! is often classified as as!nchronous( self7
instructional( self7paced( self7
directed( or a number of other termsM its 6e!
characteristic is that an instructor does not interact )ith
the learner simultaneousl!# $sing email is one form of
as!nchronous training# The greatest benefit in
as!nchronous training is its flexibilit!# ;earners can fit a
course into their schedule rather than the instructorFs#
The second categor! is often referred to as sync,ronous
training and refers to )hen the learner and instructor
participate at the same time via a computer#
Learning -rou!s and nline Co''unities
>arl! collaboration tools included chat rooms and
electronic bulletin boards( )hich al7 lo)ed for threaded
discussions and t)o7)a! communication# ,ollaboration
tools that enable learning groups and online communities
have come a long )a! since those earl! da!s#
A learning group or an online communit! is a meeting place
on the 9nternet for people
)ho share common interests and needs# 8nline
communities can be open to all or be b! membership
onl!( and the! ma! or ma! not be moderated# ;earning
groups and com7 munities are supported b! various
collaboration tool capabilities enabling these groups
to capture and share expert 6no)ledge through fre*uentl!
as6ed *uestions( discussion groups( 6no)ledge bases( or
direct contact )ith experts via chat or instant messaging
capabilities# Social net)or6ing sites -e#g#( +aceboo6 and
;in6ed9n. are examples of these online communities#
,ommunities of practice -,oPs. often serve as organi@ing
structures and platforms for )or6place7based learning#
,oPs are trusting groups of professionals united b! a
,hapter 5
concern or purpose( dedicated to supporting each other in
increasing their 6no)ledge(
creating ne) insights( and enhancing performance in a
particular domain# These are people )ho need to )or6
)ith( learn from( and help each other achieve business goals
-<iech 2004.# Much more than chat rooms or discussion
threads( ,oPs are more full! integrated into actual )or6#
Most recentl!( ,oPs have become associated )ith
6no)ledge management as people have begun to see
them as )a!s of developing social capital( nurturing ne)
6no)ledge( stimulating innovation( or sharing existing
tacit 6no)ledge )ithin an organi@ation# 9t is no) an
accepted part of organi@ational development -8D.#
Ai6is are generating a great deal of excitement in learning
circles# A )i6i -Da)aiian for
5uic4. is a soft)are tool that supports collaborative
6no)ledge creation# Ai6is allo) groups of people to
contribute and edit content in a 6no)ledge base that has
been defined and structured b! a group( practicall! in
real time( )ithout the need for an! program7 ming
6no)ledge# The most popular )i6i b! far is Ai6ipedia(
the online enc!clopedia( )here almost an!one can
contribute( edit( and manage information#
Ai6is present a group opportunit! for communities of
people to create 6no)ledge bases
in ver! short order# ProBect teams( SM>s( mar6et
managers( and their groups of )or67 ersHoften spread
out geographicall!Hcan *uic6l! use )i6i technolog! to
create and maintain repositories of information#
<logs( short for I)eblogs(J are( for the most part( online
diaries or )eb Bournals that allo)
authors -bloggers. to easil! and *uic6l! Ispea6J )ith large
numbers of readers )ho then collaborate )ith the author
b! adding comments( lin6s( and other insights and material
that might be useful to the conversation# <logs can be
po)erful learning tools in maxi7 mi@ing ho) ne) ideas are
disseminated and discussed b! a larger audience# Although
is important to ensure that those doing the blogging 6no)
)hat the! are tal6ing about( there is no need to restrict
blogs to Bust a fe) IanointedJ SM>s# ProBect managers
can use a blog to 6eep teams( or even entire organi@ations(
informed about a proBectFs status# Much better than email
updates( blogs form a permanent( organi@ed record of
activities and progress that can be archived and
referenced# A;P professionals can use blogs to chronicle
course activities that the! are facilitating( perhaps over
multiple offerings in )hich insights from one course
)ould not be lost to the next#
Audio and <ideo in &6Learning
According to Metcalf -2000.( there are t)o basic t!pes of
audio and video for deliver! of just"in"time training
materials over the )eb2 IThe t)o basic techni*uesH
do)nload7 able files and streamingHare used to deliver
audio and video content# Do)nloadable audio and video
files must be sent to the userFs computer in their entiret!
before the! can be presentedM streaming formats allo) the
audio or video content to be pla!ed as it
is do)nloaded to the client )ith onl! a short dela! at the
$sing audio and video in e7learning can add depth and
pi@@a@@ to an e7learning proBect( as Thomas Toth( author of
Techno"ogy %or Trainers -2001.( points outM ho)ever(
Training Deliver! 8ptions and Media
the designer must remember a fe) guidelines )hen
designing or deplo!ing e7learning and )or6ing )ith a
K The learner must have a sound card and spea6ers to
hear audio# Aithout the
necessar! hard)are( donFt bother incorporating audio
files because users )onFt be able to hear them#
K 9f bac6ground music is used throughout an e7
learning program( give learn7
ers a )a! to turn do)n or turn off the music from
)ithin the program# DonFt expect learners to be able
to turn do)n the audio feed from their )or6stations#
9nexpensive spea6ers donFt al)a!s have an attached
volume control#
K DonFt use audio to highlight correct or incorrect
responses during interactions#
This feature falls under the categor! of IBust because
!ou can doesnFt mean !ou should#J 9f ever! correct
ans)er is greeted )ith the sound of applause or
ever! incorrect response is greeted )ith a loud hon6(
learners *uic6l! become anno!ed b! the program#
Although these sounds might be humorous once or
t)ice( %0 or
20 such responses )onFt generate laughs#
K Audio is eas! to design and compress# =ust remember
that higher sound *ualit! means higher band)idth#
/educe the *ualit! of sound files to reduce file si@e#
K Ahen incorporating video into e7learning( consider
ho) and )h! itFs going to be
used# <ecause of band)idth restrictions and large
file si@e( consider restricting video segments to
instructive elements# ;ong video se*uences can be
bro6en into smaller segments and each piece
presented on its o)n#
K The design and development of video is an art form
unto itself# Some excellent
soft)are pac6ages are available for editing video
segments( but the video seg7 ments must be
converted into a different file format# Most
videographers use digital media to capture and edit
their productions# The designer must re*uest that the
professional videographer deliver the final product in
an appropriate file format( most li6el! as an #AC9 or
#M8C file( to use the video file in an e7learning
Plug7ins are soft)are programs that add functionalit! to a
)eb bro)ser -e#g#( run mov7 ies or vie) animations. or to
vie) special content -e#g#( vie) Po)erPoint or Aord files.#
Some e7learning content ma! re*uire plug7ins to run
correctl!# The term p"ug-and-p"ay refers to the the abilit!
of a personal computerFs operating s!stem to recogni@e
and in7 stallH)ith little or no interaction b! the userH
ne) peripheral devices that are added
to the computer#
>arl! e7learning content often had special audio or video
elements( )hich meant that
a learnerFs P, could not immediatel! pla! the content#
;earners )ould need to find the right plug7ins( then install
themHand often the content still )ouldnFt pla! smoothl!#
The P,s re*uired additional soft)are or devices to be
installed( )hich often left learners frustrated and unable to
start or complete the e7learning content due to these
,hapter 5
Toda!( almost all P,s have plug7and7pla! capabilities
supported b! their operating s!s7
tems( in )hich the computer )ill automaticall! locate an!
soft)are or drivers needed
to pla! content( prompt learners on )hat needs to be
done( and complete the tas6 b! having learners clic6 an
IinstallJ button#
Do) does this affect the design and deliver! of trainingN
A;P professionals should use
audio and video to enhance contentHnot for the sa6e of
including these elementsHand ensure that the!
understand the configuration of learnersF P,s to 6eep
an! technolog! challenges or barriers to a minimum#
Per)or'ance (u!!ort (yste's
Ahat if the tools and s!stems in a )or6 environment
)ere available for a learner to access exactl! the
information re*uired to perform the steps needed to
complete a tas6 better or fasterN
Marc /osenberg( author of $-Learning: Strategies %or
De"i#ering Training in the Digita"
Age -200%.( points out that one maBor goal of
performance support s!stems is to bring individuals up to
speed on their )or6 as *uic6l! as possible )ith minimal
support from other people# >ssentiall!( performance
provides the means for more efficientl! accom7 plishing
Bobs or tas6s( or for accomplishing a specific tas6 directl!
)ithout necessaril! having to learn the intricacies of the
As /osenberg notes( performance support has been
around for a long time( especiall!
in the form of chec6lists( forms( reference cards( and other
t!pes of IBob or performance aids#J Ahat is relativel! ne) is
using technolog! in this )a!#
T)o examples of performance support s!stems include Bob
aids and >PSSs#
=o1 Aids
A Bob aid -also called a cheat sheet. is a storage place
for information that perform7 ers use )hile performing a
tas6# A Bob aid provides a signalHaudio or visualHto the
performer about )hen to carr! out a tas6 and steps(
reducing the amount of recall needed and minimi@ing
error# 9n ever!da! life( people use Bob aids )hen the! are at
the ATM or self7serve gas pump( for example#
=ob aids reduce training time and support learning# +or
example( in a commercial air7
plane( pilots use a Bob aid -a chec6list. to ma6e sure the
proper speed is maintained( )ing flaps are pitched
properl!( and other vital tas6s are performed to ensure a
safe flight# The 6e! to creating good Bob aids is to organi@e
the information according to ho) users )ill actuall! use it(
$hen to 7se =o1 Aids
=ob aids are not limited to a particular t!pe of tas6# =ob
aids have been developed for linear tas6s( such as
e*uipment assembl! and filling out forms( and for
complex tas6s(
Training Deliver! 8ptions and Media
such as medical diagnosis# The amount of information
available in a Bob aid is not limitedM
a Bob aid ma! be one page or man! volumes#
These Bob performance tas6s are ideal candidates for Bob
' A tas4 per%ormed +ith re"ati#e"y "o+ %re5uency: A tas6
performed on a monthl! basis or less often is
considered infre*uent#
' A high"y comp"e0 tas4: A tas6 )ith numerous steps is
more complex than a tas6
)ith fe) steps# A tas6 might be *ualitativel! complex if
it involves discrimination
of stimuliM if it re*uires recogni@ing different stimuli
belonging to the same classM
or if itFs a series of binar! discriminations( as )hen
inspecting or troubleshooting e*uipment#
' A tas4 +ith a high conse5uence o% error: Some tas6s
have criteria that )ould result
in a high conse*uence of error if the! )erenFt met#
These criteria ma! be high financial loss or loss of life(
for example# Preflight chec6lists fall into this categor!#
' A tas4 +ith a high pro(a(i"ity o% change in the %uture:
The )a! in )hich certain
tas6s are performed is li6el! to change because of
changes in technolog!( polic!(
or e*uipment# 9n these cases( other variables being
e*ual( devoting time and other resources to the costl!(
time7consuming process of storing information in
memor! ma! not be )orth)hile# +or example( )h!
bother tr!ing to teach a person ho)
to operate a machine in a factor! if a )hole ne) line of
machines is coming out next month that operate
entirel! differentl! than the current onesN 9t )ould ma6e
a lot more sense to Bust give the person a Bob aid so that
he or she could get b! until the ne) machines arrived#
$hen 8ot to 7se =o1 Aids
,ertain tas6s are inappropriate for Bob aids( such as those
)ith strict time re*uirements# The response time of a pilot
during flight must be immediate( for example( and could
not be guided b! a Bob aid# Another inhibiting factor might
be the performance environ7 ment# A scuba diver could
find it difficult to manage a boo6let in dar6( )et
conditions( and a surgeon )ould face the problem of ho)
to render a Bob aid sterile# Social barriers might be another
inhibiting factor in the use of Bob aids# 9f bosses( peers( and
customers give more credit to recalling information from
memor!( the Bob performer might not use
a Bob aid( no matter ho) appropriate it is for the tas6 at
&lectronic Per)or'ance (u!!ort (yste's
An >PSS is a computer application thatFs lin6ed directl! to
another application to train
or guide )or6ers through completing a tas6 in the target
application# More generall!( itFs a computer or other
device that gives )or6ers information or resources to help
them accomplish a tas6 or achieve performance
re*uirements# These s!stems deliver informa7 tion on the
Bob( Bust7in7time information( on7demand information(
guidance( examples( and step7b!7step dialog boxes to
improve Bob performance )ith minimum staff support#
,hapter 5
An >PSS is( in other )ords( a comprehensive computer7
based Bob aid# >PSS applications often include
K a database of Bob7related information organi@ed to
facilitate rapid access and optimi@e clarit!
K calculators and )i@ards that simplif! and automate
K decision support modules that provide intelligent
assistance )ith problem solving
K embedded tutorials and simulations that provide
instruction in )or67related concepts and procedures#
=ust as a hand tool leverages ph!sical capabilities( an >PSS
leverages cognitive capabili7
ties# An >PSS can provide adaptive support for a full range
of cognitive tests# 9n effect(
it ma6es performers smarter#
A )ell7designed >PSS is more than an electronic page
turner or multimedia document#
9t incorporates the decision support of expert s!stems(
the information accessibilit! of electronic text retrieval
s!stems( the individuali@ed instructional capabilities of
,<T or A<T( and perhaps advanced communication
An >PSSHor an! other Bob aid( for that matterHaddresses
the same performance needs
as training( the primar! related solution# 9n fact( )hen
performers lac6 the 6no)ledge
or s6ill to perform the Bob at hand( onl! t)o solutions
are possible2 doing training and using Bob aids# 8f course(
performance opportunities arenFt generall! either:or
situationsM training and Bob aids are often used together as
complementar! solutions#
$hen to 7se &P((s
All of the follo)ing should be true before using an >PSS
K A per for mance problem exists thatFs caused b! a
6no)ledge or s6ills deficienc!#
K Tas6s related to the performance problem are
relativel! difficult to perform#
K The tas6s are performed infre*uentl!#
K The tas6s donFt have to be performed in emergenc!
K There are serious implications if the tas6s are
performed inade*uatel!#
K The performance environment accommodates the
>PSS hard)are#
>PSS applications are especiall! useful )hen the
performance is cognitive rather than ps!chomotor# Also(
)hen supported tas6s involve soft)are( >PSS applications
fit )ell#
Ahen possible( an >PSS -or another Bob aid. should be used
instead of training to address
6no)ledge and s6ills deficiencies# As mentioned
previousl!( there are three problems )ith classroom
%# Training is expensive#
Training Deliver! 8ptions and Media
2# Training is hard to schedule#
1# Training is temporar!# ;earners donFt retain
6no)ledge or s6ills unless the! have an opportunit! to
A Bob aid is a permanent compan! asset that doesnFt re*uire
scheduling# Almost al)a!s(
it costs less to address 6no)ledge and s6ills problems )ith a
Bob aid than )ith training# Ahen all costs are considered(
this is also true of most >PSS applications#
$hen 8ot to 7se &P((s
An >PSS should not be used Bust to have a technolog!7based
solution# 9n some situations(
a conventional Bob aid -paper based. can do the Bob more
simpl! and cost effectivel!#
(el)6Directed Learning
SD; is a general term that usuall! refers to self7paced
training programs that use a )ide variet! of deliver!
media( ranging from print products to )eb7based
s!stems# SD; also can refer to less formali@ed t!pes of
learning( such as team learning( 6no)ledge manage7 ment
s!stems( and self7development programs#
$hen to 7se (DL
$se SD; )hen
K the group of learners is large( dispersed( or both
K the subBect matter is mostl! cognitive in nature
K learners have man! individual needs
K the resources for classroom7based training arenFt
K Bust7in7time training is re*uired
K the time to do proper design is available#
9n its behavioral and ps!chological aspect( SD; is one of
the foundation concepts for an! solution thatFs
individuali@ed to the point that each participant is
responsible for some or all of the decision ma6ing#
;earnersF self7directedness must be anal!@ed and( if
necessar!( augmented if the solution is to succeed#
The level of self7directedness in learners and( therefore( the
abilit! to appl! self7directed
behaviors( is a 6e! factor in solutions( such as creating a
personal development plan( determining )hat ne)l!
learned 6no)ledge should be placed in an organi@ationFs
6no)l7 edge management s!stem( or ta6ing full
advantage of a compan!Fs e7learning facilit!# These self7
directed behaviors include self7confidenceM inner
directednessM achievement motivationM reflectionM and
effective s6ills in goal setting( decision ma6ing(
observing( listening( and reading#
,hapter 5
$hen 8ot to 7se (DL
SD; should not be used )ith people )ho arenFt
prepared for it# 9f their level of self7 directedness is lo)(
simpl! putting them into a self7directed situation is not
going to change that# As mentioned previousl!( this is one
reason that self7instructional media( such
as ,D7/8Ms and e7learning( have failed# 9tFs also )h!
personal development programs and 6no)ledge
management s!stems do not fulfill their potential#
9n addition( SD; should not be used unless a program
)ith a self7directed design is in
place# Self7directed designs re*uire more emphasis on
obBectives and criterion7referenced evaluation than
classroom designs do# This re*uirement in turn means a
stronger upfront anal!sis and a higher degree of specificit!
in content# 'ormall!( the usual facilitator guide and
participant guide arenFt enough detail for the average
SD; program# <ecause the instructor is removed from
the learning process( the instructional designer must do a
better Bob of anticipating *uestions about the content
and the deliver! mechanism -for example( the technolog!
and the Bob aid.#
Training Deliver! 8ptions and Media
,hapter 5
<iech( >#( editor# -2003.# The ASTD 6and(oo4 %or 3or4p"ace
Learning -ro%essiona"s# Al7 exandria( CA2 ASTD Press#
<iech( ># -2004.# Training %or Dummies&# Dobo6en( '=2
Aile! Publishing#
+in6el( ,#( and A#D# +in6el# -2000.# I+acilities Planning#J
n%o"ine 'o# 243405.
Mant!la( E# -200%.# )"ended $-Learning. Alexandria( CA2
ASTD Press#
Mant!la( E#( and =#/# ?ividen# -%00&.# Distance Learning:
A Step (y Step Guide %or
Trainers. Alexandria( CA2 ASTD Press#
Metcalf( D#S#( 99# -2000.# I$sing Audio and Cideo 8ver the
Aeb#J The ASTD 6and(oo4 o% Training Design and
De"i#ery! ?#M# Pis6urich( P# <ec6schi( and <# Dall(
editors# 'e) Oor62 Mc?ra)7Dill#
Pis6urich( ?#M# -2001.# Trainer )asics. Alexandria( CA2
ASTD Press#
Pis6urich( ?#M#( P# <ec6schi( and <# Dall( editors# -2000.# The
ASTD 6and(oo4 o% Train- ing Design and De"i#ery#
'e) Oor62 Mc?ra)7Dill#
/osenberg( M#=# -200%.# $-Learning: Strategies %or De"i#ering
Training in the Digita" Age# 'e) Oor62 Mc?ra)7Dill#
HHH# -2003.# I;earning Meets Aeb 2#0 Aeb ,ollaborative
;earning#J The ASTD 6and(oo4 %or 3or4p"ace Learning
-ro%essiona"s( ># <iech( editor# Alexandria( CA2 ASTD
/ossett( A#( et al# -2001.# IStrategies for <uilding <lended
;earning#J Learning Circuits#
/usso( ,#( and =# Mitchell( editors# -2004.# IThe n%o"ine
Dictionar! of <asic Trainer Terms#J
n%o"ine 'o# 2404%1.
Sanders( >#S# -%000.# I;earning Technologies#J n%o"ine 'o#
Sanders( >#S#( and S# ThiagaraBan# -200%.# -er%ormance
nter#ention Maps: 78 Strategies %or So"#ing 9our
1rgani:ations -ro("ems. Alexandria( CA2 ASTD Press#
Toth( T# -2001.# Techno"ogy %or Trainers. Alexandria( CA2
ASTD Press
Learning Technologies
Technolog! is continuall! altering the )a!
learning occurs )ithin organi7 @ations#
Technolog!7based training is the use of
electronic technologies to deliver information
and facilitate the development of s6ills and
6no)l7 edge# $nderstanding the different
technologies available and their use in an
organi@ation is critical to providing value7driven
training and learning
solutions# <ecause technolog! can be a hindrance or an
enhancement to learning( a )or6place learning and
performance -A;P. professional needs to understand )hat
the technolog! can do and should 6no) its advantages
and disadvantages#
/ecent developments in the technolog!7delivered solution
have created revolutionar!
changes in the )a!s that training and development groups
offer instruction and informa7 tion to their organi@ationsF
Ahen delivering training( A;P professionals need a solid
understanding of the learning
technologies currentl! available and ho) to adeptl! use
those technologies to deliver information and instruction#
Learning 12ective,
>xplain the distinctions among instructional
methods( presentation methods( and distribution or
deliver! methods( and provide one example of each#
,hapter 4
.ey .no3ledge, Learning Technologies
As technolog! continues to evolve( so do instructional
design techni*ues and train7 ing deliver! options# The
advances in technolog! mean that more than ever
A;P professionals must carefull! contemplate ho) to
effectivel! pair the appropriate instructional and
presentation methods )ith the deliver! method# The
6e!N A;P professionals need to design learning )here
the technolog! is selected based on the content and
learning obBectivesHand not the other )a! around#
Toda!( m!riad technolog!7based learning options are
available and this advent of
ne) technologies is changing the )a! that learning
occurs not onl! )ithin but also outside of
organi@ations on a dail! basis# +or A;P professionals
to craft the most appropriate learning solution to
enable learners to access information and instruction
an!time and an!)here( the! need to be )ell versed in
all the various deliver! options and media that
toda!Fs technologies no) provide( as sho)n in table
Do) do A;P professionals choose the most
appropriate technolog! to deliver
contentN 9t is based on a variet! of factors( but the
solution need not be focused on onl! one
technolog!# +or example( perhaps a A;P
professional needs to design a solution for a proBect
)ith a Q10(000 budget )here training must be
delivered to 240 people dispersed around the
countr!Hand after learning( the target audiencesF
supervisors )ill serve as the first line of support for
*uestions and coaching on the ne) business
processes and s!stems#
<lended learning involves a planned combination of
approaches( )here various
deliver! options are used to accomplish learning
program goals# +or example( in this situation( perhaps
the ne) s!stem( tas6s( and business processes are
trained via an e7learning means to get ever!one
across the countr! ramped up on the ne) content#
<ecause supervisors )ill serve in a coaching role(
perhaps the A;P professional )ill include a train7
the7coach session for supervisors to help them
understand the content( fre*uentl! as6ed *uestions
the! ma! encounter( and )here to escalate more
detailed *uestions not covered during the training#
This part of the blended learning program )ill prepare
supervisors to provide immedi7 ate feedbac6 and
appropriate guidance on the Bob )hen learners
complete ne) tas6s that the! learned during training#
As a posttraining support option( perhaps the A;P
professional is also establishing an online
communit! )here learners )ith similar Bob roles
across the countr! can post *uestions and ans)ers to
help continue the learning process on the Bob#
Although some people express concern that e7learning
might spell the end of
classroom training or that it is inferior to classroom
training( e7learning comple7 ments classroom
instruction and vice versa# >ach deliver! option and
t!pe of media all have their advantages and
disadvantagesHand the challenge for A;P
professionals is to ensure that the! are )ell versed
in each to understand )hat
;earning Technologies
deliver! options are most appropriate given proBect
constraints of scope( time to
design and deliver the instruction( cost( geographic
location of learners( baseline 6no)ledge of learners(
technical s6ills to be trained( and so on#
+or more information( see Module ( Managing the
Learning Function( chapter
5( I;earning Technologies(J and chapter 4( I;earning
9nformation S!stems#J
Ta1le 561. Methods 7sed )or Technology6Delivered Learning
Method >xamples
K ,ase stud! K Practical exercise
K Demonstration K Programmed
K >xpert panel
K ?ames
K /eading
K ?roup discussion
K /ole pla!
K ;ecture
K Simulation
K Audio K ?roup)are
K ,<T K 9nteractive TC
K >lectronic text K 8nline help
K >PSS K Teleconferencing
K 17D modeling:virtual
Distribution or
deliver! method
K Audiotape K ;A':AA'
K ,able TC K Satellite TC
K ,D7/8M K Tactile gear:simulator
K ,omputer dis6 K Telephone
K DCD K Cideotape
K >mail K Coicemail
K >xtranet( 9nternet( K Aorld Aide Aeb
Presentation Tools and
The master! of presentation techni*ues and tools for the
deliver! process is an essential re*uirement for a )or6place
learning and performance -A;P. professional# The basics
of adult learning theor! combined )ith these techni*ues
and tools prompts learning to occur in a manner thatFs
most appealing to adults# These techni*ues and tools are
ap7 plicable for in7person classroom situations as )ell as
virtual deliver!#
Deliver! of training carries out the programFs goals and
obBectives and provides the data
for assessing program effectiveness# 9t ma! involve holding
a conversation )ith partici7 pants# A successful conversation
re*uires participantsF interest( )ell7organi@ed topics( and
a method to chec6 for understanding#
Learning 12ectives,
State three examples of ho) a trainer can create a
learning climate that helps adults to learn#
Ahen preparing for a presentation( discuss the
benefits of understanding the course obBectives(
learning the material( practicing the deliver!( and
preparing good *uestions#
Discuss ho) basic classroom management
techni*ues of starting and ending
a session and setting expectations can enhance the
learning experience for participants#
>xplain the differences among icebreakers(
opening e&ercises( and closing
activities( and provide one example of each#
>xplain ho) the use of voice and scanning the
class for learning reactions can enhance the learning
experience for participants#
Define facilitation#
;ist three activities that facilitate learning#
State one reason )h! effective trainers need to
perform on7the7spot assess7 ment of participantsF
progress during a training session#
Summari@e the differences in presenting online
versus presenting in the class7 room#
Discuss one advantage of using flipcharts( overhead
proBectors( presentation soft)are( and other training
;ist one example of )hen not to use flipcharts(
presentation soft)are( and overhead proBectors#
Creating a Learning Cli'ate
(alcolm #nowles -<iech 2004. defines the
andragogical approach to the learning climate as being
relaxed( trusting( mutuall! respectful( informal( )arm(
collaborative( and supportive( )ith openness( authenticit!(
and humanness as 6e! contributing factors# ;earning
theorists consider all these process elements( as defined
in Eno)lesFs process model of andragogy( to be crucial
to adult learning#
,ombined strategies( relevant course materials( suitable
facilities( and reliable instructional
instruments all contribute to the success of the learning
experience# 9ndependentl!( these features ma! not ensure
success( but )ithout their relevance to the )or6
environment( guaranteeing success under an!
circumstances )ould be difficult#
>laine <iech( author of Training %or Dummies& -2004.(
sa!s that in her 24 !ears of
experience in classrooms( she has discovered practical tips
for appl!ing Malcolm Eno)lesFs principles to ensure that
participants learn# The follo)ing are her four categories
and descriptions to help adults learn2
%# Create a sa%e ha#en %or "earning: Some learners ma!
have different experiences
from past training sessions and different motivations
for attending a training ses7 sion# An instructor can
create a safe haven for ever!one b! using some of
these ideas2
K <e prepared earl! enough to greet participants at
the door#
K Share the obBectives of the training earl!( before the
session( if possible#
K ;et participants 6no) ho) the! stand to benefit
from the informationHthe
A99+M -I)hatFs in it for meJ.#
K >nsure confidentialit!HI)hatFs said in the room
sta!s in the room#J
K Add something )himsicalHsuch as cra!ons( cla!(
Eoosh balls( or manipulative to!sHto pi*ue curiosit!
and add a smile#
2# Create a com%orta("e en#ironment: The A;P
professional should consider arriving
in a training room earl! enough to help set the mood
for the room2
K Turn on the lights# 'othing is more depressing than
)al6ing into a room )ith dim lights# As6 for a room
)ith natural lighting# >ven on a sunless da!( natural
light is more pleasant than artificial lighting#
K ;earn ho) to adBust the thermostat for the most
comfortable level for participants#
K >nsure that the environment loo6s comfortable# Dide
empt! boxes and ma6e
sure chairs are straight# Place materials neatl! and
routinel! at each seat# This order tells learners that
someone )ent to the trouble of getting read! for
K >nsure that visuals can be seen and heard b! all
K Arrange to have the most comfortable chairs
K >nsure the seating arrangement is conducive to
Presentation Tools and Techni*ues
K >nsure that ever!one has ade*uate personal space#
K Dave extra supplies( pens( and paper available#
K Dave coffee( tea( and )ater )aiting in the morning#
K Plan for ample brea6s#
1# $ncourage participation: ,reating active and ample
participation is the most important thing a trainer can
do to enhance training# These are some examples2
K Provide name tents or tags#
K $se small brea67out groups to overcome an!
reluctance to share ideas or concerns#
K $se participantsF names as often as possible#
K $se bod! language to encourage participationM
positive nods( smiles( and e!e contact sho) interest
in othersF ideas#
K Share some personal information to begin a trusting
exchange of ideas#
K ;earn and appl! techni*ues to get learners to open
5# Faci"itate more than "ecture: At times( straight
lecture is re*uired( such as )hen rules or la)s must
be communicated verbatim or )hen safet! is an
issue# +or the most part( ho)ever( experiential
learning activities are ho) adults learn best# ,onsider
the follo)ing2
K ,reate discussion b! facilitating conversation not
onl! bet)een facilitator and learners( but also among
K ?et opinions and ideas out in the open before
delivering the message#
K Share personal experiences to build rapport and
K Provide opportunities for participants to evaluate
their o)n learning through7 out the session#
K ,reate experiential learning activities in )hich
learners discover the learning on their o)n#
Training Delivery Pre!aration
People often become frightened )hen the! prepare to
deliver training# /ather than thin6
in terms of fear( trainers should thin6 in terms of opportunit!#
Deliver! is an opportunit!
to sho) off their stuff#
Preparation is the best defense against seemingl!
unmanageable fear# Aith careful prep7 aration( a trainer
can reduce and control nervousness# The most essential
step in training deliver! is the first one2 preparing for the
presentation of learning materials# <iech -2004. provides
guidance )hen preparing for the presentation in four 6e!
%# Gain an understanding o% the "earning o(;ecti#es:
;earning obBectives specif!
the performance -6no)ledge or s6ill. thatFs desired
after training has been completed#
2# Learn the materia": Master the training sessionFs
content better than imagined#
Trainers ma! have a head start on learning the
material if the!Fre involved dur7 ing the design and
development of the session# Trainers involved in the
research and discussions understand the design and
the decisions for )hat need to be included# /ead
the bac6ground information( and 6no) more about
the subBect matter than )hatFs included in the training
1# -ractice the de"i#ery:
K Trainers ma! )ant to practice some portions of
the session( including tr!7 ing activities )ith a
small group to determine timing or find out
)hether the directions are as clear as the! need to
be# Ruestions sometimes come up that a trainer
canFt ans)er# Although this might still happen
during training deliver!( a practice run uncovers
critical fla)s or omissions#
K Practice the mechanics of the presentation# 9f
revealing something to the par7
ticipants( determine the best time to provide a
handout or sho) a picture to maintain the element
of surprise#
K Practice the theatrics# Ahen telling a Bo6e or a stor!
)ith a punchline( practice
it out loud# Practice sho)ing emphasis through
pronunciation( )ith pauses( or through inflection(
out loud# Ahen demonstrating something or using
gestures( get feedbac6 from someone#
K Practice in the room )here the training )ill be
conducted# This techni*ue helps ma6e the room
feel li6e home#
K Cideotape some activities or deliver! of the content#
/evie) the videotape to decide )hat still needs
5# -repare 5uestions to stimu"ate "earning: 9dentif!
*uestions to as6 at specific points
of the presentation to elicit another perspective( to
chec6 for understanding( or
to generate learner participation# Also anticipate
*uestions that participants might as6# Plan the ans)ers
to these *uestions#
5asic Classroo' Manage'ent
Eno)ing ho) to manage all the classroom activities and
6eep participation and energ! levels up during a session is
another art that trainers need to master# The follo)ing sec7
tions revie) a fe) 6e! items that a trainer is responsible
for )hen delivering training#
(tarting and &nding a (ession
Ahen participants are entering the classroom( trainers can
help create a safe learning environment from the moment
the! enter the room b! sha6ing their hands( introducing
Presentation Tools and Techni*ues
themselves( finding out something about each participant(
and perhaps identif!ing a goal
thatFs specific to the training session# This interaction
demonstrates that the trainer is open( accessible( and )illing
to help address learnersF specific needs during the session#
'o matter ho) man! participator! exercises are built into a
training program( often the
trainer needs to ta6e the role of lecturer or presenter#
Trainers sometimes fail in their obBective of changing
behavior or attitudes simpl! because their presentation st!le
to grab the learnersF attention#
Some people simpl! have itHthe abilit! to capture and
hold attention# This abilit! can be learned( ho)ever# Dere
are some tips on achieving the 6ind of presence that
grabs and holds participants#
7sing &))ective !enings
The opening sets the tone for the presentation and can
ma6e or brea6 it# A good opening
K captures participantsF attention
K reveals the trainerFs training st!le
K raises participantsF comfort level
K introduces the topic of the presentation#
A number of techni*ues can be used to )arm up
participants( such as sharing a personal anecdote
related to the subBect( as6ing *uestions relevant to the
subBect( and usingcreative introductions# 9nstead of Bust
going around the room and hav7 ing participants
introduce themselves( have them introduce one another
or respond
to specific topics( such as Ithe most important boo6 9
have readJ or I)hat 9 hope to learn from this course#J
(etting &+!ectations
A trainer should let participants 6no) )hat to expect
from the beginning# Aor6 basic information into the
opening( or present it immediatel! after)ard# Participants
need to 6no)
' one another: either directl! or through techni*ues
described earlier in this chapter
' o(;ecti#es o% the session: )hat the! )ill learn and )h!
itFs important
' instructiona" techni5ues: ho) the! )ill learnH
through discussions( films( guest spea6ers
' e#a"uation e0pectations: ho) their learning )ill be
evaluated and ho) the! )ill criti*ue the presentation
' agenda: times for sessions( plus an! assignment
(tructuring and Closing Presentations &))ectively
A trainerFs Bob often calls for giving a structured presentation#
9n his Secrets o% a Success%u"
Trainer -%03.( ;ambert lists four elements of an effective
oral presentation2
%# 1pener: This element should get participantsF attention(
introduce the presentationFs 6e! points( establish
rapport( state a benefit to be gained b! participants( and
create anticipation for the rest of the presentation#
2# )ridge: This element is the transition to 6e! points( b!
)a! of example or anecdote#
1# Main (ody: This element provides the heart of the
presentation( supported b! facts( figures( examples( or
demonstrations as )ell as a rationale for the presentation#
5# C"ose: This element is one of the most important of the
entire presentation# 9t should
paraphrase 6e! points( restate the most important point(
and contain a benefit state7 ment that tells participants
)hatFs in it for them#
Ta%ing Attendance and .ee!ing :ecords
Administering a training program refers to the activities
involved in running classroom courses and distributing
)or6boo67based courses# More specificall!(
administering a training program involves scheduling
classes( enrolling learners and confirming their
registration( preparing for learning sessions( closing a
class( and providing follo)7up reports# A trainer ma! be
responsible for several or all of these activities#
>nrollment is an activit! in )hich participants reserve
seats in a classroom or start a
)or6boo6# After a learner enrolls in a course( the course
administrator often sends confirmation to the learner( and
up to a )ee6 before class starts( the administrator sends
a reminder that the learner is scheduled to attend the
course# <oth the confirmation and the reminder state the
name of the class session( a course number -if
applicable.( the date and time of the class( and the name
of the instructor#
At the start of the class( the instructor is usuall! responsible
for mar6ing the attendance
of participants on a class roster# 9f a learner needs to leave
the class because of illness or an emergenc! and canFt
complete the course( the instructor also needs to indicate
this on the roster( and the learner needs to reschedule for a
future session#
,losing a class involves ma6ing sure learners receive
credit for participation and the
classroom is returned to its original state# Specificall!(
closing a course involves these activities2
K ?iving credit to learners )ho complete the course
re*uirements# 9n some instances(
an!one )ho attends the course receives credit for
participation# 9n other cases( learners must meet
additional re*uirements( such as passing a posttest#
K Providing certificates to learners )ho complete the
course# -This is optional( but itFs a popular means of
recogni@ing learners for completing training courses#.
K ,ollecting evaluations#
K ,leaning the classroom#
Presentation Tools and Techni*ues
The instructorFs primar! concern is ma6ing sure learners
)ho complete course re*uire7 ments receive the credit for
completing the course#
Managing Di))icult Partici!ants
Most training sessions have at least one person )ho is not
)ith the program# <! anticipat7 ing possible disruptions( a
trainer can plan for effective action to handle an!
problems# Dere are some suggested solutions a trainer can
use for situations in )hich a participant doesnFt follo)
along appropriatel! during the learning session2
' Ta"4s too o%ten: The trainer can as6 the rest of the
group IAhat does an!one
else thin6 about this pointNJ or IAho else has some
ideasNJ or I;etFs ma6e sure ever!one has a chance to
contribute before an! one person spea6s t)ice#J 8r
the trainer can tal6 to the person outside the meeting(
describe his or her be7 havior and its effects in factual
terms( and as6 the person )hat the solution might be#
+or example( the trainer might sa! I=ac6( !ou made
some helpful points toda!# Do)ever( !ou tended to
add something after each person made a
contribution# Did !ou notice that fe) others spo6eN
Mar! and Ted hardl! said an!thing# Ahat could !ou
do to encourage others to contributeNJ
' Ta"4s too "ong: Aait for a pause( ho)ever brief( and
interrupt( sa!ing I,ould !ou summari@e !our idea in a
fe) )ords so that 9 can )rite it do)nNJ
' Ta"4s to someone e"se at "ength: Sa! IPardon me( =ohn#
Ae canFt hear )hat !ou
and Sue are sa!ing# Aould !ou mind sharing it )ith all
of usNJ or I=ohn( )hat are !our thoughts on the point
Marian Bust raisedNJ
' )rings up persona" or irre"e#ant issues: Sa! ISue( 9Fm
not clear on ho) that fits the issue )eFre tal6ing
about# ,ould !ou help meNJ
' Ta"4s too "itt"e: Simpl! as6 I+red( )hat are !our
thoughts on this *uestionNJ or
IDelen( !ouFre ne) to the group( so 9 thin6 !our
vie)s could be especiall! valuable# Ahat do !ou
' <ecyc"es +hats a"ready (een decided: /ather than focus
on the *uestion at hand(
sa! I8ur purpose is not to go over )hatFs alread!
been decided# 9tFs to identif! potential problems
coming from those decisions and to )or6 out
solutions# 'o)( )hat do !ou see as a )a! to resolve
the problem of # # # ( +redNJ
' Cha""enges ideas or opinions: Tr! one of the
K ,ite the authorities used as a source( and
ac6no)ledge that other authorities
-name them( if possible. thin6 other)ise#
K Ac6no)ledge that the challengerFs idea or opinion
has merit and re*uires some thought about the
effect it has on the trainerFs o)n thin6ing#
K As6 the other participants )hat the! thin6 about
the challengerFs idea or opinion#
9n general( trainers should never put do)n a problem
participant# 9nstead( the! should
tr! to ma6e a positive comment )hile as6ing for a change
in behavior and deal )ith a problem earl! before it
becomes serious#
.ee!ing the &nergy Level 9lo3ing and 7sing <arious (trategies
Ahen sitting in a classroom passivel! listening to a lesson(
adults often forget the information delivered to them# 8ne
stud! indicated that approximatel! half of one da!Fs
learning ma! be lost during the ensuing 25 hours# 9n t)o
)ee6s( an additional 24 percent could be lost#
Ahen a trainer uses active training techni*ues( learners
ta6e part in the lesson and are
able to construct personal meaning from the
presentation# Ahen used correctl!( active classroom
training techni*ues increase the longevit! and relevance of
the training deliv7 er!# Some examples of active training
techni*ues include these2
' )rainstorming: This group process is used for
generating ideas in an uninhibited manner#
' Case study: An example of an event or a situation that
can be used to model ne)
processes( practices( or behaviors# ,ase studies are
fre*uentl! used in training to illustrate preferred
learning performance to emulate best practices#
' <o"e p"ay: An activit! in )hich participants act out
roles( attitudes( or behaviors
that arenFt their o)n to practice s6ills or appl! )hat
the! have learned# 8ften an observer gives feedbac6 to
those in character#
A presentation can be an effective method for delivering
information( but the 6e! is to
deliver an energetic( interactive presentationHand thatFs
not as eas! as it might seem# Trainers can use these
suggestions for delivering interactive presentations and
6eeping the energ! level flo)ing2
' -ro;ect #oca""y: Periodicall! changing the pitch( volume(
and rate of deliver! helps
maintain learner attention# 'othing puts participants to
sleep faster than a trainer spea6ing in a monotone
' Maintain an appropriate pace: Moving through the
presentation content too rap7
idl! ma6es it difficult for participants to follo)#
Moving too slo)l! could cause participants to
disconnect and drift a)a! from the presentation#
' A#oid using %i""ers: +illers are expressions such as Iuh(J
Ium(J I!ou 6no)(J I8E(J
and Ier#J >ver!one has sat in a presentation )hen it
)as tempting to count the number of times the
presenter repeated the same filler# Daving notes on
paper or 6e! points on a flipchart or proBection screen
can help prevent using these fillers#
' $nunciate c"ear"y and distinct"y: 9tFs distracting and
frustrating to listen to a pre7 senter and not be able to
understand )hatFs being said#
' Use participants names: People li6e to hear their
names# $sing participant names
also 6eeps learners focused on the presentation# -9n
other )ords( the! donFt do@e off#.
Presentation Tools and Techni*ues
' Use %ami"iar terms and e0pressions: Man! presenters
thin6 the! need to impress
participants )ith their vocabular!# A trainerFs Bob is to
informHnot impress# 9f an unfamiliar term or
expression is introduced( define it#
' Use a "ot o% e0amp"es: >xamples include personal
experiences( facts( figures(
illustrations( anecdotes( *uotes( photographs(
slides( real obBects( and video examples# Participants
)ant and need examples# An appropriate visual or
stor! ma6es a point more clearl!# >xamples should
also be pulled from participants#
' -raise participants: Positive reinforcement increases
participantsF interest level( 6eeps them focused on the
topic( and improves the climate of the presentation#
' Use appropriate humor: Periodic and suitable humor
helps maintain participant interest and attention#
' Maintain eye contact: Trainers need to loo6 at
participants and )atch for *ues7
tioning loo6s( confusion( boredom( agreement( and
disagreement# <ased on these observations( the!
ma6e adBustments to the content( *uestions( or
schedule -ma!be itFs time for a brea6.# 9tFs acceptable
to glance at notes to see the next point( but then
return e!e contact immediatel! to participants#
' =eep positi#e %acia" e0pressions: Trainers )ho loo6
stressed conve! the feeling
that their hearts arenFt in their presentations# Smiling(
loo6ing relaxed -even if the opposite is true.( and
proBecting expressions that are enthusiastic and
indicate enBo!ment in the presentation conve! the
trainerFs interest in the learning#
' Gesture +ith hands and arms: Appropriate gestures
help emphasi@e points and maintain participantsF
' Mo#e a(out the room +ith energy: Moving around
naturall! and )ith confidence
helps maintain the attention of participants# The use
of a lectern( des6( or table should be avoided
because it creates a barrier that prevents movement#
Tables arranged in a $7shape offer space to move
)ithin the group#
Ice1rea%ers; !ening &+ercises; and Closing Activities
Man! sessions begin )ith a standard IAh! donFt !ou
give us !our name and tell us a little bit about !ourselfNJ
After these introductions( ho)ever( participants ma! still
feel isolated and might not remember the other
participantsF names# These sessions start off slo)l! and
then challenge the trainer to pic6 up the tempo#
8ne )a! to get people involved immediatel! is )ith an
icebrea6er# 9cebrea6ers are activi7 ties conducted at the
beginning of training programs that introduce participants
to one another( ma! introduce content( and help
participants ease into the program#
9cebrea6ers -see table 7%. get participants involved and give
them a strong message that the! must participate in their
o)n learning# Although itFs certainl! possible that some
trainees have not been involved and donFt )ant to be( the
trainer must establish the norm
of active participation up front#
9cebrea6ers can accomplish man! goals( including
K defining the group personalit!
K identif!ing interaction patterns among group
members that ma! enhance or in7 hibit learning
K building group identit!
K building or maintaining participant self7esteem
K developing trust among participants
Ta1le >61. &+a'!les and Descri!tions o) Ice1rea%ers
Techni*ue Description
and )arm7
These techni*ues )arm up the group b! stimulating( challenging(
and motivating participants and are tied directl!
to the topic# The! can be used to begin a session( start a discussion(
prime the group after a brea6( prepare trainees for ne) material( or
shift the topic focus#
These icebrea6ers serve t)o functions2
%# establishing nonthreatening introductor! contacts
2# increasing participantsF familiarit! )ith one another#
Although these activities arenFt usuall! tied to the course
content directl!( the! can be adapted to meet the specific needs of
participants and the training program#
and tension
These icebrea6ers are used )hen participants seem overl! stressed or
)hen the group is flat# Ahen participants feel more relaxed( the! are
receptive to a more open dialogue about the information( issues( and
s6ills introduced#
?ames and
?ames and brainteasers are effective )arm7ups# ?ames can function as
introductions to problem7solving( competition( team7 building( and
consensus7see6ing activitiesM brainteasers reduce learning overload
)hen the material being presented becomes cumbersome or draining#
These icebrea6ers differ from others in that the!Fre used to
demonstrate communication variables rather than as a means for
developing ongoing interpersonal relationships bet)een participants#
+orbess7?reene -%031. defines feedbac6 as Ithe reception of
correctiveness or evaluation information b! the original sourceJ and
disclosure as the Isharing of personal thoughts and:or feelings#J
Presentation Tools and Techni*ues
K establishing a baseline on the groupHho)
comfortable the! feel )ith the level
of participation
K increasing a)areness of traineesF levels of 6no)ledge
or s6ill
K letting participants 6no) their trainer and helping to
develop the trainerFs credibilit!
K setting the tone of the program
K opening communications
K moving into a ne) content area
K evaluating training st!le#
9cebrea6ers can also serve as a source of additional data
about learners# +or example(
a trainer can find out
K ho) )ell the group is getting along
K supplementar! personal information
K learnersF reactions to material
K the extent to )hich the group is bonding
K )hether an! cli*ues are forming
K the energ! level of the group
K )hether people li6e to have fun in training#
(electing Ice1rea%ers
To help choose an icebrea6er thatFs appropriate to
participants and the course content( trainers can as6
themselves the follo)ing *uestions2
K Do 9 have enough timeN
K Do) )ell does it fit m! content flo)N
K Does it allo) for a high rate of learner successN
K Aill it help build openness and trustN
K Aill it be fun and energi@ingN
K Aill an! learner feel uncomfortableN
K Are the logistics eas! to manageN
K Do) )ill learners feel )hen it endsN
K Do) )ill 9 feel )hen it endsN
8peners differ from icebrea6ers in that the! introduce or
tie in to the subBect matter being taught# >itington -2002.
notes that openers are intended to Iset the stage( to avoid
abrupt starts( and generall! to ma6e participants
comfortable )ith the formal program the! are about to
experience#J 8peners can also energi@e the group after
coffee brea6s
and luncheons and ma! be used to open sessions that occur
on the second or third da!
of the program#
Closing Activities
The end of a presentation is usuall! )hat people remember
most( so ma6ing the ending
a memorable one is important# These are some activities for
the trainer to consider2
K Do a *uic6 revie) of the learning obBectives and all
6e! points#
K ,onsider doing a *uic6 revie) of the benefits
participants got from the presentation#
K 9f appropriate( as6 for a call to action of some 6ind#
K ,onsider as6ing participants )hether the! have an!
The closing should be designed as )ell as the opening and
sho) enthusiasm( passion( and conviction# 9f it doesnFt(
an instructor ma! find that the closingFs flatness is all
par7 ticipants remember of )hat )as other)ise an
excellent training session#
Trainers can help participants remember the experience and
6e! points b! incorporating revie) as part of the closing#
Dere are some examples2
K Dave participants )rite on flipchart pages#
K ,omplete self7assessment chec6lists to ensure that
participants are comfort7 able )ith 6e! information
and have the opportunit! to as6 final clarification
K Toss a ball around the room and have each participant
)ho catches it state one item learned#
K $se a game7sho) format( such as >eopardy? or
6o""y+ood S5uares -perhaps using presentation
7nderstanding Presentation 5ehavior
9n an! presentation( ho) something is said is Bust as
important as )hat is said# >xperts have observed that the
techni*ues used to communicate information often
determine )hether the information is received# To
improve training deliver!( a trainer should con7 sider the
follo)ing suggestions for sharpening presentation behavior
and attributes# Man! are similar to the previous tips on
delivering interactive presentations and 6eeping the
energ! level flo)ing( but a thorough understanding of
these guidelines is essential to a trainerFs success#
<er1al Co''unication and 7se o) <oice
9nstructors should pa! attention to the sound of their voice#
ProBectionHthe pitch( volume( and rate of a voiceHis
crucial for effective deliver!# A trainer should var! these
Presentation Tools and Techni*ues
*ualities to dra) emphasis to 6e! points# +or example( voice
inflection can capture and
hold participantsF interest# Trainers should be a)are of
sounding monotonous and losing participantsF attention(
and the! should avoid the use of repetitive fillers# Trainers
should also pa! attention to bad habits( such as long
pauses bet)een sentences# An instructor should al)a!s
tal6 )ith( not at( participants and deliver 6e! )ords and
concepts slo)l!# ;ess important material should be
covered more *uic6l!# The recommended speech rate
is about %%0 to %%1 )ords per minute#
The instructor should begin b! capturing participantsF
attention and interest )ith an effective opener or
icebrea6er( as described previousl!# The first moments of
the intro7 duction set the tone of the session# The
instructor should ma6e the audience )ant to 6no) more
about the topic# >xamples of effective introductions
K a provocative statement
K a uni*ue demonstration
K an illustration of ho) the topic relates directl! to )or6
K a topic7related visual
K a thought7provo6ing *uestion#
9nstructors should communicate on a personal level )ith
participants# The! should be sure to pronounce and spell
difficult or technical )ords and reinforce b! )riting ne)
)ords on a board or flipchart# The instructor should
accept and praise ideas offered b! participants so that
the! feel positive about being involved in the
presentation# The acceptance of ideas and observations
encourages others to get involved and contribute
to the presentation#
Ee! points should be emphasi@ed through relevant
examples( *uestioning techni*ues( appropriate
application activities( and the use of visuals# Sufficient and
relevant examples assist participants in understanding the
subBect of the presentation# >xamples should relate to
)or6 activities( personal experiences( or current events#
Topics should be in logical se*uence( )ith smooth
transitions bet)een them# 9f transitions are too abrupt(
participants ma! get confused and lose interest#
A (can )or Learning :eactions
A presenter should use e!e contact to read participantsF
faces to detect comprehension( boredom( or lac6 of
understanding# +rom the participantsF standpoint( e!e
contact )ith the presenter is essential to ma6e them feel as
though the!Fre part of the presentation#
During classroom training( itFs easier to scan the class to
assess learnersF understanding(
attention( and active participationM ho)ever( other
techni*ues ma! need to be used )hen delivering live
training via the 9nternet# +or example( )ith online training(
an instructor can still use *uestioning techni*ues( as
described previousl!( b! )aiting for a volunteer
to ans)er or calling on a specific participant# 9nstructors
can also leverage some tools available in )eb7based
training( such as polling *uestions( to immediatel!
the groupFs understanding and abilit! to ans)er
6no)ledge chec6 *uestions correctl!#
Some tools enable trainers to have participants raise their
hands electronicall!( )hich can be used to gauge comfort
level and ho) man! virtual learners are activel! listening
and follo)ing alongM it also enables participants to
indicate )hen the! have *uestions
or )ant to volunteer to ans)er *uestions#
A trainer should dress appropriatel! for presentations#
+irst impressions are important# >xperts sa! that
participants often form an opinion about a presenter
based solel! on appearance# The )a! an instructor loo6s
not onl! affects ho) participants perceive him
or her( but can also influence the presentation st!le#
A good rule of thumb is to )ear the most formal outfit that
might be seen on participants and ma6e sure itFs
comfortable( practical( and predictable -for example( it
)onFt suddenl! develop static cling or sho) perspiration.#
9f participants are to believe and respect )hat trainers sa!(
trainers must convince participants that the! 6no) )hat
the!Fre tal6ing about#
9f the trainer loo6s the part( the first step is done#
The effective use of bod! language and gestures
contributes to communicationHto emphasi@e( sho)
agreement( and maintain participantsF interest# 9mportant
points about bod! language include these2
' Use 5uic4! positi#e! and ener getic mo#ements o% the
hands! arms! and head:
An instructor can 6eep participantsF attention b!
ma6ing unpredictable move7 ments( such as )al6ing
rapidl! but altering the pace of his or her stride )hile
ma6ing and reinforcing points( and b!
coordinating movement and gestures )ith deliver!#
' A#oid distracting mannerisms: Some gestures and
movements that can distract participants include
fidgeting( pacing( and Bingling 6e!s or coins in poc6ets#
' 1(ser#e participants (ody "anguage: +acial
expressions( do)n7turned e!es(
fidgeting( and slouching are signals of boredom(
disinterest( and lac6 of un7 derstanding#
' Use positi#e %acia" e0pressions: These expressions
include smilesM expressive e!esM
and loo6s of concern( empath!( and encouragement#
' A#oid sitting (ehind a des4 or standing (ehind a
"ectern during training de"i#ery: Doing so establishes
a barrier bet)een the trainer and participants# Put
more life into deliver! b! moving freel! about the
room and do)n the aisles# Trainers )ho se*uester
themselves behind a lectern and venture out onl!
occasionall! to the )riting board or flipchart loo6
less than enthusiastic#
Presentation Tools and Techni*ues
' 3a"4 to+ard participants as they respond to 5uestions:
This techni*ue encourages them to continue spea6ing#
5ody Language Don?ts
<od! languageHho) people loo6 and moveHcan
enhance or undermine the message of training#
?ood bod! language helps a trainer appear
confident and 6no)ledgeable# Poor bod! language
interferes )ith the message# +or more ef7 fective
bod! language communication( a trainer should fight
the urge to do an!
of these2
K ;ean on or grip the lectern#
K /oc6 or s)a! in place#
K Stand po6er straight or immobile#
K $se a single gesture repeatedl!#
K ,ross arms in front of chest#
K $se obviousl! practiced or stilted gestures#
K ,he) gum or eat cand!#
K ,lic6 or tap a pen( pencil( or pointer#
K ;ean into the microphone#
K Shuffle notes unnecessaril!#
K Tighten a tie or other)ise pla! )ith clothing#
K ,rac6 6nuc6les#
K >xamine or bite fingernails#
K =ingle change or 6e!s#
To be effective( a trainer should demonstrate enthusiasm
about the subBect and presen7 tation# Sincere enthusiasm is
contagious and generates interest and positive feelings# A
trainer can illustrate points )ith visuals( such as real models(
moc6ups( videotapes( slides( computers( posters( charts(
flipcharts( )or6 samples( or )riting boards# <esides
being )orth a thousand )ords( pictures lend variet! and
creativit! to a presentation( ma6ing
it more interesting and stimulating#
Trainers should give clear directions for all activities so
that participants have an opportunit! to appl! ne)
information and practice ne) s6ills# Participants should not
at an! point )onder )hatFs next( )hat the! are supposed
to be doing( or ho) the! should be conducting activities#
<ecause training sessions are designed to give
participants an opportunit! to ac*uire ne) ESAs( trainers
must plan for appropriate action or follo)7up activities that
ta6e place during the session or bac6 on the Bob#
The instructor should provide closure to main segments of
the presentation b! dra)ing together the main points in a
good summar!# Summaries should be complete and brief
and provide an opportunit! for participant feedbac6# The!
can be used for clarification
at points during the presentation as )ell as at the
9acilitating Learning Activities
At times( trainers ma! be the tellers of information( but
that occurred more in the da!s before Malcolm Eno)les
started to promote the concept of andragog!# Do) does
the role of a trainer differ at times from that of a facilitatorN
+acilitation in the training field refers to the role of the
person or trainer )ho guides
or ma6es learning easier( both in content and in
application of the content to the Bob# +acilitation is used
to involve participants and help members of a group
learn from one another through the open sharing of
thoughts( opinions( and ideas# 9n the role of facilitator( the
instructor uses such techni*ues as *uestioning( silence(
paraphrasing( and various nonverbal cues to encourage
learners to participate in the experience and learning#
As >laine <iech -2004.( points out( Iexcellent trainers are
al)a!s facilitators firstHpresenters last# 9t is one of the
)a!s that trainers implement Eno)lesF adult learning
<ecoming an effective facilitator re*uires practice(
although good facilitators possess a
certain intuition# The! 6no)( for example( )hen to as6 a
*uestion and )hen to be silentM
)hen to challenge a statement and )hen to remain neutral#
Although being intuitive isnFt
a s6ill that can be taught( trainers can learn the basics of
facilitation and practice them
as the! ma6e presentations as )ell as in ever!da!
interactions )ith others#
Thin6 of a training session )hen the facilitator )as able
to create an atmosphere in )hich people in the audience
learned as much from one another as the! did from the
trainer# 9n all probabilit!( the facilitator as6ed good(
challenging *uestions( listened more than spo6e( and
served as more of a guide than an instructor# The
facilitator probabl! as6ed *uestions in a )a! that )as
clear( respectful( and consistent )ith the subBect being
Dere are some *uic6 tips to help develop the role of a
facilitator# >ffective facilitators are able to
' create an open en#ironment b! encouraging people to
participate in the learning and b! maintaining
participantsF self7esteem
' set guide"ines %or "earners participation b! respecting
othersF thoughts and ideas( ensuring that there are no
unnecessar! interruptions( and sta!ing on point
' ac4no+"edge peop"e +ho participate b! praising and
than6ing them for their con7 tributions and encouraging
them to continue to participate
' create transitions (et+een 5uestions as4ed and
ans+ered b! participants as )ell
as bet)een topic areas -IThat ans)er )as right on
target# Does an!one else have
a thoughtNJ IThan6 !ou( ,ath!( for !our *uestion# This
leads us to a second issue
9Fd li6e to raise# # # #J.
Presentation Tools and Techni*ues
' (e honest a(out +hat they 4no+ and dont 4no+ and
ac6no)ledge )hat is opin7 ion and )hat is fact
' e0press an opinion +hen appropriate but ma6e sure
participantsF feelings and opinions arenFt being Budged
as invalid or )rong
' gi#e e#eryone an opportunity to participate! but never
force an!one
' 4eep the discussion %"o+ing and on target )hile
recogni@ing )hen to end a dis7 cussion and move on#
The techni*ues of being an effective facilitator must be
practiced man! times to be
proficient at them# Ahen facilitating( itFs Bust as important
to 6no) )hen to use certain techni*ues as ho) to use
them# >ven seasoned facilitators learn something ne)
each time the! do a presentation because each one offers
different challenges#
9acilitation Techniques
Table 72 describes several useful techni*ues for facilitating(
especiall! for ne) or inex7 perienced trainers#
9acilitation o) Discussions
,lassroom facilitation is both a science and an art# The
science part is the a)areness of )hat else is going on in
and around the discussion# The art part( for trainers( is
6no)ing themselves and ho) to manage the
unpredictable# +acilitation demands good training
materials and re*uires the facilitator to have a )or6ing
6no)ledge of the learners and the basics of learning#
<ill Aithers -2000. points out that I)hat else is going on in
and around the discussion
is called the conte0t#J 9t ma! be helpful to thin6 of the
context as the box the discussion comes in# 9t can be
helpful for the trainer to 6no) )ho the boss is( for
example( or to 6no) )hether a particular group has had
this discussion before# The trainer ma! )ant
to 6no) )hether this is a group that usuall! )or6s together
and )hether people gener7 all! Boin in# The trainer
certainl! should 6no) )hat the group expects to get out of
the discussion and )hether that is an achievable goal#
<eing a)are of the context helps the trainer direct the flo) of
the discussion and referee
a bit# The specific context )ill shift as the discussion moves
for)ard# People )ill support positions( ta6e sides( Boin in(
or clam up( depending on )hatFs going on in the room at
an! particular moment# 9f the trainer thin6s someone is
being excluded( he or she should chec6 in )ith the person
or group2 IAhat )ould !ou li6e to sa! about the issueNJ
9f some people donFt seem to be participating( the trainer
should resist the temptation
to call on them# Some people )ill not spea6 up because of
the context( especiall! if the topic is sensitive or the! thin6
there ma! be repercussions# 8thers ma! not be comfort7
able expressing their vie)s in public for cultural or
personal reasons# These people need
to feel safe participating at )hatever level is comfortable
for them#
Ta1le >62. Matri+ o) 9acilitation Techniques
Techni*ue Description
'ot ever! presentation involves as6ing participants *uestions#
Do)ever( the more often a trainer delivers instruction( the greater the
li6elihood that as6ing *uestions )ill become an integral part of
presentation# There are three primar! t!pes of *uestions2
%# 8pen7ended2 These *uestions re*uire more than a one7 )ord
ans)er( enabling participants to express their thoughts(
feelings( ideas( and opinions# As6ing these *uestions is an
excellent )a! to get learners involved#
2# ,losed7ended2 These *uestions are sometimes preferable to open7
ended *uestions# The! are excellent for getting at
specific facts or informationM for example( to find out )hether
a participant has read the material that )as sent out before the
presentation( the trainer )ould as6 a closed7ended *uestion to
allo) the person to ans)er )ith a !es or no#
1# D!pothetical2 These *uestions are used for getting people to thin6
freel! in situations )here man! ans)ers ma! be valid# The! often
start )ith IAhat if # # # NJ +or example( IAhat
if a customer !ou )ere spea6ing to on the phone got so angr! that
he or she threatened to ta6e his or her business to a competitorN
Do) )ould !ou handle itNJ D!pothetical *uestions are excellent
discussion starters because the! allo) participants to ta6e an issue
or problem and argue different )a!s of handling the situation#
+or man! presentations( the trainer or sponsor ma! decide to have
a *uestion7and7ans)er session as part of the
presentation# Ruestions and ans)ers are generated b! the trainer and
participants and sometimes b! participants as6ing each other
*uestions about a particular subBect#
Determining )hether to have a *uestion7and7ans)er session and the
placement of it in the agenda are decisions the trainer can ma6e based
on the nature of the subBect and the 6ind of presentation#
A fe) *uestions help the trainer ma6e these decisions2
' 3hat is the purpose o% the training session@ 9f the topic is a
Ineed to 6no)(J not Bust a Inice to 6no)(J the trainer should
)or6 in at least some time for *uestions#
Presentation Tools and Techni*ues
Techni*ue Description
' 6o+ much time is a#ai"a("e to de"i#er the content@ The trainer
might )ant to pla! it safe and save *uestions for a
period at the end of the presentation because he or she )ill 6no)
exactl! ho) much time is available for the *uestion7 and7ans)er
' 6o+ "arge is the group@ A large( eager group plus limited time
often leads to man! *uestions# 9f the trainer starts )ith
a *uestion7and7ans)er session( he or she should set a time to stop
and stic6 to it#
Transitions >ffective facilitators use transitions to segue bet)een *uestions and
ans)ers on the same topic as )ell as bet)een topics# Transitions are
important because the! help the discussion flo) smoothl! and ma6e it
easier for learners to participate#
Silence 9n some societies( even short periods of silence have a )a! of
ma6ing people uncomfortable# 'evertheless( silence can be an
excellent facilitation tool because it creates Bust enough tension
to get people thin6ing# Ahen as6ing a *uestion( give people
some time to thin6 their ideas through and formulate responses#
9f participants donFt respond( donFt automaticall! let them off the
hoo6# Tr! rephrasing the *uestion or as6ing a follo)7up *uestion
along the same lines as the first#
>ffective facilitators are also good listeners# Active listening
is especiall! useful during *uestion7and7ans)er sessions#
9t re*uires concentration and not onl! listening to the verbal
message( but also pa!ing attention to the underl!ing emotion
expressed b! the person )hoFs spea6ing# This part of the message is
often reflected in the tone of the personFs voice
or inflection as )ell as in nonverbal messages( such as facial
expression and gestures# The underl!ing message usuall! reflects the
true meaning of )hatFs being expressed#
A good trainer should 6no) a lot about himself or herself to
facilitate productive discus7
sions# <iases( hot buttons( and interaction st!le all pla! a
6e! part in ho) )ell the trainer delivers instruction# 9t is
impossible to be entirel! neutral( but a trainer should
al)a!s 6no) )hich issues are problems for him or her#
Aithers -2000. continues( IA trainer should be able to
ans)er a reasonable !es to each
of the four facilitatorFs self7chec6 *uestions# 9tFs good to
chec6 )ith a trusted and sup7 portive group member or a
colleague during a brea6( and as6 individuals ho) the! thin6
the training is going# After a brea6 is a good time to as6
-the!Fll have had time to tal6 about the meeting )ith each
other. )hether ever!one feels that he or she is being heard#
Sometimes a trainer has to adBust )hat she is doing in
midstream# The best preparation
for this is experience# To get experience( trainers should
)atch facilitators )hose st!le the! li6e and tal6 )ith
them after their meetings about the things the! did that
)ere particularl! effective#J
9acilitator?s (el)6Chec%
K Am 9 giving people e*ual timeN
K Am 9 helping people feel safe in participatingN
K Am 9 helping people )ho tend to dominate give other
people a chanceN
K Am 9 avoiding ta6ing sidesN
According to Aithers -2000.( the follo)ing list includes a
fe) things most good group facilitators do2
' )e a good "istener: A big part of facilitating is
listening# Sta! focused and ta6e notes if necessar!#
' Contro" the pace: DonFt let the session run out of
control# 9f itFs going too fast
for participants to 6eep up( call a brea6( interBect a
comment at a different pace(
or call on someone )ho )ill slo) it do)n# As the
facilitator becomes more experienced( this techni*ue
is needed less often#
' Chec4 in: ,hec6ing in )ith the group often is vital# IAre
)e on trac6NJ is a great
*uestion# I<efore )e move on( is there an!thing else
on this topicNJ is another#
9f the facilitator is ta6ing notes on a flipchart and
condensing someoneFs long statement into a )ord or
t)o( he or she should be sure to as6 the spea6er if itFs
right and change it if not#
' A#oid ma4ing ;udgmenta" comments! e#en i% they are
comp"imentary: 9f the fa7
cilitator goes around the circle and sa!s Igood
commentJ or Iexcellent observa7 tionJ to the first three
people( )hat is the facilitator going to sa! )hen the
fourth person sa!s something he or she doesnFt
agree )ithN 8r )hat if the facilitator Bust forgets to
sa! Igood pointJ to one group member after sa!ing it
to the restN
A simple Ithan6 !ouJ is great after a comment#
' Support the process: Eeep the group focused on the
tas6# ThereFs no need to apolo7 gi@e for 6eeping the
group focused( but the facilitator can duc6 a fe)
bric6bats b! reminding the participants )h! the! are
there2 IThis is a great discussion( but )eFre getting
a)a! from )hat )e have scheduled# ;etFs move on
to the next is7 sue on the course outline#J
' Smi"e: Some people loo6 *uite solemn )hile listening
intentl!# Some might even furro) their bro)s or sco)l#
This expression can unintentionall! send a message
Presentation Tools and Techni*ues
of disagreement or disapproval# <e a)are of facial
expressions )hile listening# Practice a )elcoming
expression or at least a gentle po6er face#
Assessing Progra' 12ectives
Sometimes trainers donFt 6no) the specific training
needs of the target group# <efore training( the instructor
can assess participantsF needs b! conducting an on7the7
spot or preassessment using icebrea6ers( tests( polling(
and *uestioning techni*ues#
>valuation happens during or after training( so trainers ma!
need to conduct an on7the7
spot evaluation to see )hether learners are grasping the
content# The same techni*ues listed previousl!( such as
tests( polling( and *uestioning( should be used
throughout training to gauge ho) learners are follo)ing
along and chec6 )hether the! understand ne) concepts
that are presented#
Asynchronous <ersus Classroo' Training
An instructor ma! be as6ed to facilitate both online and
classroom training sessions# Aith
a fe) exceptions related to the technolog!( the tas6s an
instructor performs are nearl! the same for both online
and classroom facilitation# The basic differencesHand
the! can be large onesHare that s!nchronous e7learning
courses can cover hundreds or even thousands
of miles of geographic space( and often the facilitator never
meets learners face7to7face#
The geographic distance and lac6 of face7to7face contact
create significant differences that can become uni*ue
challenges for an e7learning facilitator# +or example(
gauging the reaction of learners becomes more difficult
)hen the trainer canFt see them# >ven )ith cameras at
each )or6station( determining overall learner reactions is
still cumber7 some# <oth facilitators and learners report
that the! can experience a certain amount of disconnection
in distance7learning classrooms# 9n addition( the old
instructional standb!
of IAre there an! *uestionsNJ is much less effective )hen the
facilitator isnFt ac6no)ledg7 ing learners )ith direct e!e
To overcome these challenges( online facilitators need to
be in constant communica7
tion )ith learners# Direct *uestions about the lesson(
planned so that each learner must respond in some
manner( are effective for gauging class comprehension#
These t!pes
of *uestions need to be as6ed more often in s!nchronous
e7learning sessions than in
a traditional classroom( as facilitators and learners have
little or no e!e contact( facial expression( or bod! language
to interpret#
An online facilitator must 6eep in mind that the time re*uired
for interaction expands in
a s!nchronous e7learning environment# 9t ta6es longer for
learners to form their replies
to *uestions and for those replies to be digested b! their
colleagues# 9nstead of simpl! raising their hands and
tal6ing out the solution to a problem the facilitator poses(
online learners must )or6 through the problem internall!
and then compose it into a coherent sentence or
paragraph# To accommodate this limitation( facilitators
need to pause more often and for longer times to achieve
the hoped7for level of interaction#
Partici!ant &ngage'ent (trategies
>laine <iech -2004.( recommends %0 techni*ues and
activities trainers should use to increase participation
during classroom training sessions2
%# $ncourage participation %rom the start: ,reating and
maintaining a safe learning environment begins from
the moment participants enter the room#
2# Use cards %or the shy and %aint o% heart: 9ndex cards
can provide an opportunit!
for ever!one to respond# Participants have different
communication st!les and preferencesM some form
thoughts *uic6l!( and others need time to thin6
about their responses# To give ever!one an
opportunit! to thin6 about their responses
to *uestions )ithout being influenced b! others in the
session( have ever!one Bot do)n their ans)ers on
index cards# This techni*ue is safe for *uieter
participants because the! have time to thin6 about
their responses#
1# Gi#e a+ay the trainers ro"e: +ind )a!s in )hich
participant involvement can ta6e
on the role of trainer# This techni*ue is a great )a!
to gain participation and distribute the )ealth of
6no)ledge# Some )a!s to accomplish this goal are to
K as6 someone to facilitate a discussion
K encourage participants to discuss something )ith
each other or a partner instead of directing
comments to the trainer
K have participants form teams of three or four and
)rite revie) *uestions in an attempt to stump
another team
K assign different sections of the content to small groups
)ho create a presenta7 tion on the information#
5# -articipate! repeat! participate: Do) can trainers get
learners )ho havenFt been
involved to start participatingN Do) trainers respond to
participants )ho contribute
to the session can encourage them to repeat their
involvement and serve as models for those )ho havenFt
participated !et# ,onsider tr!ing these three
K Than6 participants for their contributions# $se the
personFs name and ma6e e!e contact#
K /estate the comment and expand on it# Also( tr! to
use it later in the session2
IAs Su6i mentioned earlier# # # #J
K Ac6no)ledge the contribution( and then encourage
others to add to a response
to share their perspective# 9f itFs a different
perspective( al)a!s return to the original
participants to affirm their initial contributions#
4# Get e#eryone on their %eet: Move participants around
to encourage discussions
)ith other participants# Ph!sical movement 6eeps
the blood flo)ing and helps fight sleep! times after
lunch and late in the afternoon# ,onsider forming
small groups( include activities that have people
standing( or post flipchart issues and have
participants move to each flipchart to add their
Presentation Tools and Techni*ues
# Say a "ot +ithout a +ord: Ahat trainers sa! verball!
can encourage participation#
Do)ever( )hat the! sa! )ith bod! language ma!
encourage more participation# +or example( ma6e
e!e contact )ith all participants( especiall! those
)ho need encouragement to participate more#
'odding in understanding helps encourage
participants to continue# Avoid defensive or
distracting bod! language( such as folded arms or
standing behind the lecturn#
&# <emo#e the ta("es: <iech uses this techni*ue to
get people involved b!
moving tables out of the room or against the )all# Do
this )hile participants are
at lunch( and arrange the chairs in a circle in the middle
of the room# ;eave chairs one chair )idth apart for
participants to move in and out of the circle#
3# See4 more attention-getting ans+ers: Ahen getting
ans)ers( donFt stop at the
first ans)er( even if itFs correct# Start an interesting
dialogue( and get participantsF
minds engaged#
0# Se"ect the 5uietest: After the environment in a training
session seems to be safe for even the sh!est person(
<iech re*uests that the group decide at the beginning
of the assigned activit! )ho has spo6en the least up
to that point# The chosen person then leads the
activit! or reports for the group# $se this techni*ue in
the session to increase participation from a previousl!
*uiet person#
%0# -articipate right to the end: Eeep the participation
of the session going to the ver! end( perhaps b!
as6ing participants to share something such as
K one action that each )ill carr! out immediatel!
K the most interesting fact he or she learned
K ne) *uestions the! have come up )ith as a result of
the training session#
nline Te+t and Print Media &ngage'ent (trategies
Despite much7publici@ed efforts to move boo6s online and
create e7boo6s( the computer screen is an inherentl!
different medium from the pageM therefore( communicating
is inherentl! different from communicating in print#
:etention o) nline and Print6riented Learners
The dropout rate for online learners is generall! much
higher than for classroom courses# $nder some conditions(
more than half of the learners )onFt complete the course#
;earn7 ers )ill sta! focused on the course)or6 and
persevere if an online course is structured
to motivate them to do that# 9f it isnFt( the course )ill
almost certainl! face a reten7 tion problem# Ahat special
actions can trainers ta6e to retain learnersN Dere are
some suggestions for not onl! online page7turning content
users( but also for self7paced print7 oriented learners2
K >nsure that the course is relevant( interesting( and as
effective as possible( )ith )a!s for participants to
customi@e the course for their o)n needs#
K ?ive fre*uent( personal( and helpful feedbac6 to each
K /e*uire a practical final product that learners can sho)
their supervisors# Displa! some of these products on
the courseFs )ebpage#
K 8ffer a prestigious7sounding certificate for successful
completion of the course# Ma6e sure this certificate or
diploma is something learners )ill value#
K ,ontact participantsF supervisors( and notif! them that
their subordinates are in
the course# 9f possible( negotiate for release time during
)or6 hours for learners
to )or6 on the course#
K Send personal messages to individual participantsH
especiall! lur6ersHas6ing specific *uestions about
their situations and progress and offering help#
K <rea6 the course up into reasonable7si@e chun6s so
that an! one part can be completed fairl! *uic6l!#
K Delp foster learnersF self7discipline b! establishing firm
deadlines and milestones for progress#
The 7nique Characteristics o) Co''unicating nline
,ommunicating online differs significantl! from
communicating on the page# 8ne dif7 ference is the
reading experience# Studies suggest that reading online is
slo)er and of poorer *ualit! than reading on the page# +or
example( after reading the first sentence or t)o onscreen(
readers t!picall! scan the rest of the topic or move on to
the next screen# Studies also suggest that reading speeds
online are slo)er than those on the page# The t!pical
reader reads &4 percent as *uic6l! online as on the page#
Do)ever( online communication offers man! possibilities
that arenFt available on the page# These are characteristics
of online communication2
' mage oriented: The computer displa! is essentiall! a
television screen# >7learning
offers po)erful visual cues( although man! e7learning
designs still communicate through )ords#
' nteracti#e: The communication bet)een a computer
and a learner is a dialogue#
The computer poses a *uestion( and the learner
ans)ers# Ahen the computer responds( the
response indicates that the computer too6 the
learnerFs ans)er into account#
' mmediate: 9mmediate has t)o meanings2 +irst( )hen a
learner ma6es a re*uest(
he or she expects a response )ithin secondsM and(
second( a learner expects a response based on the
most current content#
' ntimate: <ecause it can score information about
learners and trac6 their progress(
a computer can 6no) learners( continue to learn
about them( and( as a result( adapt content to learnersF
6no)n interests#
<ecause of the differences bet)een traditional learning
and e7learning( developers
of online learning programs do more than )rite# The! use
images to communicate
Presentation Tools and Techni*ues
)here the! might have used )ords on the page or in the
classroom# Developers foster
interaction )ith learners( )riting text to resemble a
dialogue that re*uires responses from learners#
Ti!s )or Co''unicating nline In)or'ation <isually
8ne of the primar! reasons for using visual images in
online learning programs is that images hold the primar!
responsibilit! for communicating information online#
9mages are easier to understand than text and are
remembered longer than text#
Man! people assume the! must be able to dra) to
communicate visuall!# 'ot true# /ather(
the! need to be able to choose the right t!pe of image or
visual communication tool# These are some tips for
communicating visuall!2
' <epresent numeric data #isua""y: Although text can
conve! specific numbers( it
canFt sho) ho) numbers relate to one another as
efficientl!( *uic6l!( or easil!
as visuals can# Primaril! used to sho) financial results
and other business data( visuals in sophisticated
forecasting soft)are can help learners visuali@e the
of choosing different alternatives# +or example( using
a pie chart sho)s the rela7 tionship of parts to a
)hole# $sing a histogram( a bar chart( or another
graphic sho)s relationships among data over a
period of time#
' <epresent concepts #isua""y: The term concepts refers
to nonnumeric data# Some
concepts are concrete( such as machines( furniture( and
geograph!# Some concepts are abstract( such as
processes and s!mbols# Dere are some )a!s to
represent concepts visuall!2
K appearance or location of things( for example( the
po)er s)itch on a computer
K procedures( for example( a flo)chart sho)ing ho)
to program a computer( ho) to operate a fax
machine( or ho) a bill in the $#S# ,ongress becomes a
K relationships( for example( an organi@ational chart
K s!mbols( for example( an international Ino smo6ingJ
' Ca"" attention to te0t: 9n addition to communicating
ideas( visual devices can call attention to specific
passages of text# These visual devices can help build
learner interest in the content( differentiate must7
6no) from nice7to76no) material( and help learners
find specific content easil!# To dra) attention to a
specific passage(
a trainer can use one of these2
K a shaded or bordered box
K a pull *uote( in )hich the trainer pulls one of the
most provocative *uotes in the passage and places it
in a nearb! box in much larger t!pe
K a sidebar( in )hich the trainer places amplif!ing text in
a box near the main text
K circles and arro)s directing readers to specific
' Use #isua"s e%%ecti#e"y: Although visuals can
communicate ideas effectivel!( trainers
should 6eep certain issues in mind as the! develop
visuals to ensure that the!Fre
as effective as possible2
K $se visuals for practical purposes( not for
adornment# >ach visual should support the
learning process b! sho)ing something relevant
to the content# 8ther)ise( visuals distract learners
and complicate the learning process#
K Place a visual immediatel! after its reference in text#
K ;abel all illustrations and related details# A picture is
)orth a thousand )ords( but a fe) )ords of
explanation ensure clear comprehension of the
Ti!s )or Co''unicating nline Interactively
The second challenge of communicating online is
communicating interactivel!# 8nline communication is
ultimatel! an exchange bet)een a learner and the
computerHthe interaction# <ecause most course
developers are s6illed at broadcast communication -that
is( one7)a! communication to learners.( the experience of
)riting a t)o7part conversa7 tion is a uni*ue one# 9n
some cases( trainers are able to prepare all the
interaction on their o)n( and( in other instances( the! ma!
design the exercise but have a programmer create the
actual learning program#
9nteraction refers to the opportunit! for learners to
provide information to the s!s7
tem and have it respond )ith appropriate feedbac6# The
most common example
of this interaction in an online learning program is a
*uestion# The s!stem presents learners )ith a *uestionM
learners respond and receive feedbac6# The *uestions
can be used as a chec6point )ithin a section or as a *ui@ or
test at the end of the learning material# Most online learning
programs use forms of obBective *uestions( such as
multiple7choice( matching( true:false -or !es:no.( and fill7
in7the7blan6 -usuall! )ith one or t)o )ords.#
8ther t!pes of common interactions include
K drag7and7drop exercises( in )hich learners drag and
drop something into an7 other place( such as moving
the steps of a procedure into order or the parts of
a product into place
K extended fill7in7the7blan6 *uestions( in )hich
learners )rite a sentence or paragraph rather than a
single )ord#
Another common t!pe of interaction lets learners choose
their o)n paths through the
course# Menus( lin6s( and search tools are the primar! means
of ma6ing this interaction happen in online learning#
Some t!pes of interaction donFt involve an exchange
bet)een the learner and the course( !et provide for
interaction all the same# The! include
K self7assessments( )hich learners ta6e before a unit or
course( to identif! )hat the!
alread! 6no) about a subBect and determine )hich
s6ills the! need to develop
to fill in the gaps
Presentation Tools and Techni*ues
K case learning( in )hich learners read a case( interact
)ith materials outside the course( and then )rite their
K treasure hunts( in )hich the online learning program
directs learners to search other parts of the 9nternet for
material and then return to the program
K cooperative learning( in )hich t)o or more learners
)or6 together to complete the online learning program
K bulletin boards and listservs( )hich allo) learners
to post *uestions and comments and receive
feedbac6 from other participants in the program#
A!!ro!riate Interaction $ith Learners
As in the classroom( active engagement increases
attention to( and comprehension of( content in online
learning programs( but the interaction should be
appropriate# Appro7 priate interaction is an exchange
bet)een the learner and the online learning program
thatFs relevant to the content# Although some interaction
engages the learner( if itFs not relevant to the content( it
merel! distracts learners and( therefore( is not appropriate#
A!!ro!riate 9eed1ac%
Ahen users enter material( the feedbac6 should be
appropriate to the response# +or example( if learners
must enter a pass)ord to get into the lin6ed content or
if the! have to )ait a )hile for the s!stem to process the
re*uest( the! should be informed
in advance#
Ahen a learner is responding to a *uestion( the trainer
should provide immediate feed7 bac6 to the response and(
if appropriate( a lin6 to related content# The feedbac6
should do three things2
%# 9ndicate )hether the response )as correct#
2# >xplain )h! the response )as not correct( or give
some clarification on the correct content#
1# ?ive instructions on ho) to proceed#
9n some cases( )hen learners ans)er a *uestion
incorrectl!( the trainer might have them loo6 through
revie) material# 9deall!( the revie) se*uence provides
alternative explana7 tions#
.ee!ing Print Media Interesting and Involving
9f a simple paper7and7pencil format is used for training
materials( the same principles described in the preceding
section appl!( including using visuals and calling out
text# As Pis6urich -2000. points out( plent! of )hite space
is a must for eas! reading# $sing the right graphics is also
important# Special techni*ues( such as bloc6ing( shading(
bor7 ders( and different si@es of text( add to the
pac6ageFs readabilit! and effectiveness# To
accomplish these effects( a good des6top publishing
program and a high7*ualit! laser printer are needed#
Participants ma! have assignments using print7based
materials( but a trainer can add
interaction to their learning program b! blending the
different media to be used# -+or example( perhaps
participants complete a reading assignment and then have
case stud7 ies( )eb7based research( bulletin boards( and
listservs )here the! need to participate
in a discussion( stud! groups( 6no)ledge chec6lists that
serve as self7assessments( and formal assessments to
demonstrate 6no)ledge or s6ill#.
Presentation and Training Tools
Training programs often provide sample flipcharts( slides(
and other training aids# Most training programs are designed
to tell the trainer )hich aids are appropriate and )hen
to use them# Daving a basic 6no)ledge of training aids
increases the trainerFs confidence and s6ill level( ho)ever#
The Myths A1out 7sing <isual Aids
Dere are five m!ths about the use of visual aids that a
trainer is li6el! to encounter2
' Myth A: The more #isua" aids used! the (etter: 'ot
so# The use of visual aids should support the
presentation( not (e the presentation# <eginners
-and even some experienced presenters. get into
trouble b! overdoing visual aids to the point that the
message gets lost in the visuals# 9n addition( presenters
can end up spending valuable time reading the
visuals and not facilitating learning# DereFs
a rule of thumb2 The best presentations tend to have a
mix of deliver! methods that use both verbal and
nonverbal techni*ues as )ell as appropriate visual
aids to support the presenterFs message#
' Myth .: Any #isua" aid is (etter than none: 'ot true# A
visual aid thatFs too com7
plex to understand or poorl! produced is often such a
turnoff to participants that using no visual aids at all
)ould probabl! be better# Cisual aids should
reinforce learning )hile being eas! to understand
and of high *ualit!#
' Myth 7: The more high-tech the #isua" aids used in a
presentation! the (etter:
$ntrue# $sing the latest technolog! can da@@le
participants and be a good sup7 port to a presentation(
but )hen all is said and done( an effective presentation
is still about the message# 9f the message gets lost in
the ra@@le7da@@le( the high7tech visual aid isnFt )orth
ver! much# $se the most effective visual aids
to support learning#
' Myth B: More things can go +rong +hen using a #isua"
aid in a session! so its (etter
to ;ust re"y on onese"%: +alse# This advice might seem li6e
the complete opposite of
M!ths % and 2( but the point is that most problems are
usuall! caused b! a lac6
of preparation# 8f course problems can happen that
all the preparation in the )orld canFt prevent# AhatFs
important is to chec6 and double7chec6 e*uipment
Presentation Tools and Techni*ues
and visuals# 9n addition( a presenterFs tool 6it can save
the da! if technolog! fails#
9f trainers are prepared and have done all the! can to
expect the unexpected( the session )ill go Bust fine#
' Myth C: 2isua" aids cost too much: 'ot necessaril!
so# 9tFs true that some
technolog!7based aids( especiall! those that are
computer generated( can be costl!# <! using
templates( basic programs( and a good( cost7effective
printing compan!( ho)ever( trainers can produce
high7*ualit! visuals that are also cost effective#
/emember that the *ualit! of visual aids reflects the
*ualit! of the program#
(lides@Photogra!hic and Digital
Millions of proBectors and photographic slides are in use
in the training and presenta7 tion )orld( despite the
burgeoning popularit! of digital slides( )hich can be
proBected directl! from a laptop )ith presentation
soft)are# The basic advice for the use of slides( )hether
the! are photographic or digital( is much the same#
Trainers should use slides
K )hen a presentation is formal and should present a
professional image
K )hen the learner group is large
K )hen the presentation )ill be
repeated fre*uentl!# Trainers should
not use slides
K )hen the presentation is informal or not consistent
)ith the atmosphere the! )ant to establish
K )hen the! )ant to be able to ma6e changes before the
program or on the fl!#
9li!charts and &asels
A flipchart is the most basic aid in a presenterFs visual
toolbox# +lipcharts usuall! mea7 sure 2& b! 15 inches and
consist of large pads of paper attached to a stand or set up
on an easel# +lipcharts can be colored( lined( or
imprinted )ith graph gridlines( although the standard
issue is )hite# Some pads are made li6e giant stic6!
notes that can be torn off and temporaril! pasted on a
)all# 9f the room is extremel! small( the trainer ma! be
able to use a specificall! designed flipchart thatFs small
enough to fit right on a conference table#
9li!chart 5asics
>ntire boo6s are )ritten on the topic of ho) to create
better flipcharts# These are some basic guidelines for
K $se a maximum of six lines per page# $se onl! eight to
%0 )ords per point(
and use 6e! )ords or phrases instead of full
sentences# /emember2 A bus! flipchart clouds the
K Ma6e letters at least t)o inches high#
K $se headings on each page to differentiate among
maBor points# Set the text apart from an! graphics#
K $se three or four colors to ma6e the flipchart e!e7
catching and eas! to read#
K Arite )ith colors that are eas! for participants to
seeM blac6 and blue tend
to be most visible# ?reen and red are great colors
to impl! do and donFt in the text( but some
participants might be color blind and unable to
ma6e the distinction#
K ,hoose an appropriate pad# Tr! lined flipcharts if
straight hand)riting is an issue#
K <ecause flipchart paper is thin( leave a blan6 page
bet)een each )ritten page
so that participants )onFt be able to see the
subse*uent page#
K At the top corner of each page( )rite a brief
heading of )hatFs on the next page lightl! in
pencil )ith an arro) under it# This note helps the
trainer segue seamlessl! to the material on the
follo)ing page#
K Mar6 each page of the flipchart( and then mar6 the
corresponding number
in the notes to help 6eep on trac6#
K $se bullets for each point#
K Al)a!s chec6 spelling on the flipchart#
K $se stic6! notes or clear tabs at the side of each sheet
to ma6e it eas! to find the one thatFs needed and flip
open the chart to that point#
Trainers should use flipcharts
K )hen the presentation is informal
K )hen the number of participants and the room si@e
are appropriate for flip7 chart use -up to 20
participants in a small training room.
K )hen thereFs little time or no budget
K to create visuals on the fl! during a presentation
K to generate part of the presentation information on
the visual aid itself during the presentation
K to 6eep multiple visuals visible to the group
throughout the session#
Trainers should not use flipcharts
K )hen the si@e of the room or number of participants is
too large
K )hen the! )ant to appear more formal and
K if people have illegible hand)riting
K )hen the! present the same program regularl!#
Presentation Tools and Techni*ues
$hite1oards and ther Ty!es o) 5oards
Ahiteboards( magnetic boards( and other t!pes of
boards( )hen available( can be useful to
K use for the same situations as a flipchart
K use for building a description step b! step
K tac6 up ideas( *uestions( or concerns
K hold( displa!( and move stic6! notes for discussions
K prioriti@e a list
K group ideas into categories#
Presentation (o)t3are
Presentation soft)are( such as Po)erPoint( is a popular
choice for training deliver!# Po)erPoint is a Microsoft
soft)are program that has become a visual support
choice for presenters )ho )ant to leave an impression
as )ell as inform# So popular is this presentation
soft)are that itFs a rare organi@ation )here an emplo!ee
doesnFt use it
to ma6e a sales presentation to customers( introduce a
ne) product( or Bust provide information for emplo!ees#
Presentation soft)are creates digital slides that can be
sho)n to a group in a number
of )a!s( including
K through a des6top computer or ;,D displa! on a
laptop computer for small groups
K through a digital proBector that interfaces directl! )ith a
laptop or personal digital assistant
K through a computer proBector that proBects images
directl! from a monitor onto
a screen or other flat surface for larger groups
K over the 9nternet or the organi@ationFs intranet
K via hard copies of slides
distributed as handouts# Trainers
should use presentation soft)are
K the presentation is formal
K the! present the same program regularl!
K the! need the flexibilit! to modif! the presentation
K the! )ant to be creative
K the! )ant to use the revelation techni*ueHmeaning
the abilit! to build a slide( starting )ith one line and(
)ith a clic6 of a remote( adding lines one b! one#
Trainers should not use presentation soft)are )hen
K the presentation needs flexibilit!# $suall! presentation
soft)are is designed to deliver a particular message in
a structured )a!#
K the!Fre some)hat uncomfortable )ith ne)
technolog!# Although practice )ith
the tool can increase comfort and confidence levels(
some people can easil! find themselves more
concerned about pressing the right button than )ith
focusing on the content to be delivered#
K participants have seen a fe) too man! Po)erPoint
presentations# Man! present7
ers Bumped on the presentation soft)are band)agon(
and learners might get too much of a good thing#
People can gro) )ear! of sitting in a dar6ened
room )atching !et another set of digital slides fading
in and out#
Table 71 lists some commonl! used audiovisual aids(
some tips on )hen to use them( and their advantages and

Presentation Tools and Techni*ues

Ta1le >63. Matri+ o) Audiovisual Aids
T!pe Ahen to $se Advantages Disadvantages
K +or formal pre7
sentations( in
small or large
rooms( for re7
peating presen7
tations( for pre7
sentations that are
designed to
K ;oo6 profes7
K ;ong lasting
K ,apture atten7
K /elativel! expen7
K 'ot that eas! to
K 'eed specific
K +or informal
presentations( for
a small num7 ber
of partici7 pants(
in small rooms(
for last7 minute
presen7 tations(
for lo) budgets
K 9nexpensive
K Ruic6 to set up
K >as! to pro7
K >as! to use
K $sable on the
K /eadil! modi7
K 9nteractive
K 'ot good for large
K 'ot good for large
K 'ot good for those
)ith bad hand)rit7
K 'ot long lasting
K Same uses( advantages( and disadvantages as flipcharts
K +or formal pre7
sentations( in
small or large
K /eadil! avail7
K >as! to use
K ?ood )ith large
K ;imited sight lines
K Danger of 6e!7
stone images
-)here top or bot7
tom of image is
larger than the
soft)are and
K +or formal pre7
sentations( in
small or large
rooms( )hen
loo6ing to en7
tertain and
impress( for re7
peating presen7
K ;oo6s profes7
K ;ong lasting
K ,aptures atten7
K >asil! modified
before or after
K Aide range of
K >xpenses for soft7
)are( computer( and
proBection e*uipment
K 'eed specific
K 'eed specific
training to use
K ;imited flexibilit! to
modif! )hile in use
K Perceived as too
Presentation Tools and Techni*ues
<iech( ># -2004.# Training %or Dummies&# Dobo6en( '=2
Aile! Publishing#
,arr( D#A# -%005.# IDo) to +acilitate#J n%o"ine 'o# 24050.
>itington( =#># -2002.# The 3inning Trainer: 3inning 3ays to
n#o"#e -eop"e in Learning# Aoburn( MA2 <utter)orth7
+orbess7?reene( S# -%031.# The $ncyc"opedia o% ce(rea4ers.
'e) Oor62 =ohn Aile! " Sons#
Eno)les( M#S#( >#+# Dolton( 999( and /#A# S)anson# -2004.# The
Adu"t Learner -
edition.# <urlington( MA2
>lsevier:<utter)orth Deinemann#
;ambert( ,# -%03.# Secrets o% a Success%u" Trainer. 'e)
Oor62 =ohn Aile! " Sons# -8ut
of print#.
Mc<rien( E# -Ma! 2004.# IDeveloping ;ocali@ation +riendl! >7
;earning#J Learning Circuits#
Pis6urich( ?#M# -2000.# IMa6e 9t >asier for Them to ;earn
on Their 8)n2 9nstructional
Design for Technolog!7<ased( Self79nstructional
Applications#J The ASTD 6and- (oo4 o% Training
Design and De"i#ery! ?#M# Pis6urich( P# <ec6schi(
and <# Dall( editors# 'e) Oor62 Mc?ra)7Dill#
HHH# -200%.# I+acilitating S!nchronous A<T#J n%o"ine
'o# 240%%2.
Pis6urich( ?#M#( P# <ec6schi( and <# Dall( editors# -2000.# The
ASTD 6and(oo4 o% Train- ing Design and De"i#ery.
'e) Oor62 Mc?ra)7Dill#
Plattner( +#<# -%005.# I9mprove Oour ,ommunication and
Spea6ing S6ills#J n%o"ine 'o#
Pre@ioso( /#,# -%003.# I9cebrea6ers#J n%o"ine 'o# 2430%%.
/osania( /#=# -2001.# -resentation )asics.
Alexandria( CA2 ASTD Press# /usso( ,#S# -2001.#
I<asic Training for Trainers#J n%o"ine 'o#
/usso( ,#( and =# Mitchell( editors# -2004.# IThe n%o"ine
Dictionar! of <asic Trainer Terms#J
n%o"ine 'o# 2404%1.
Sharpe( ,# -%00&.# IDo) to ,reate a ?ood ;earning
>nvironment#J n%o"ine 'o# 24340# Sullivan( /#( and =#;#
Aircens6i# -200%.# I>ffective ,lassroom Training
n%o"ine 'o# 240%03#
Aircens6i( =#;#( and /#;# Sullivan# -%003.# IMa6e >ver!
Presentation a Ainner#J n%o"ine
'o# 2430#
Aithers( <# -2000.# I<asic Training2 ?etting /ead! to
Present#J The ASTD 6and(oo4 o% Training Design
and De"i#ery! ?#M# Pis6urich( P# <ec6schi( and <#
Dall( editors# 'e) Oor62 Mc?ra)7Dill#
rgani#ational $or% &nviron'ent and
A training program canFt be successful unless
the )or6place learning and performance -A;P.
professional ta6es into account the current
organi@a7 tional climate and the available
resources# The A;P professional must be
comfortable )ith the organi@ationFs priorities(
managementFs reasons for the
training( and learnersF motivation for attending#
Successful performance in an! organi@ation re*uires both
a)areness and expertise in the area of organi@ational
culture# 8rgani@ational culture( in its broadest sense( is
manifested through the da!7to7da! interactions of
emplo!ees )ho are often dispersed globall!# +e)
members of an organi@ation )or6 as an individual
contributorM most must engage others
to )or6 in a team environment to ma6e things happen#
Definitions of corporate cu"ture range from the simple
statement IthatFs the )a! )e do things around hereJ to
the more elaborate explanation( Ishared meanings that
govern the nature of labor7management relations( the
t!pes of people hired( performance and promotion
criteria( re)ards and censure( )or6 climate( and
management st!le#J The $#S# ?overnment Accounting
8ffice -%002. offers a more complete !et straightfor)ard
definition2 I,ulture is the underl!ing assumptions(
beliefs( attitudes( and expectations shared b! an
<! understanding organi@ational culture( its s!mbols and
hidden meanings( its values( and
its underl!ing assumptions( managers can changeHor at
least manipulateHculture( and in doing so( change the
behavior of )or6ers# /osabeth Moss Eanter( author of
The Change Masters: nno#ation and $ntrepreneurship in
the American Corporation -%034.( )rites2
,ulture manifests itself through numerous
organi@ational structuresM it is
made concrete b! organi@ational events# And(
thus( it can be managedM it can be shifted b!
changing concrete aspects of an organi@ationFs
function7 ing# +or example( values do not exist
independentl! of re)ardsM prefer7 ences do not
exist independentl! of political signals from
po)er holdersM expectations about activities do
not exist independentl! of action vehicles or
programs permitting the activities#
Training has a specific and uni*ue role in maintaining or
manipulating culture2 Man!
corporate values and beliefs are disseminated through
training programs( orientation programs( and s!stems
)here ne) emplo!ees are sociali@ed or first introduced
to the organi@ationFs culture#
Learning 12ective,
;ist t)o maBor characteristics that established
cultures share( and define each#
,hapter &
.ey .no3ledge, rgani#ational $or% &nviron'ents and
People usuall! disli6e uncertaint! and randomness#
The! tr! to find meaning in chaos and establish order
in ever!da! activities and events# The establishment
of cultures provides people )ith common ideas that
help them copeHboth individuall! and as a groupH
)ith lifeFs ambiguities#
According to Darrison Trice and Danice <e!er( authors
of The Cu"tures o% 3or4
1rgani:ations -%001.! established cultures share the
follo)ing six maBor charac7 teristics2
%# Co""ecti#eness: ,ultures reflect the commonl! held
beliefs of their members#
Those )ho fail to endorse and practice the
prevailing beliefs( values( and norms of a culture are
marginali@ed and ma! be punished or expelled#
2# $motiona""y charged: <ecause cultures evolve to
help deal )ith anxiet!( the!
are infused )ith both emotion and meaning#
IPeople cherish and cling to established
ideologies because the! seem to ma6e the future
predictable b! ma6ing it conform to the past(J Trice
and <e!er note#
1# 6istorica""y (ased: A specific culture results from
the uni*ue histor! of
a group thatFs coping )ith a special set of
ph!sical( social( political( and economic
circumstances# I,ultures cannot be divorced from
their histories and the! do not arise overnight(J
Trice and <e!er stress#
5# nherent"y sym(o"ic: S!mbolismHthings representing
other thingsHpla!s an
important role in cultures# IS!mbols are the most
general and pervasive of cultural forms(J Trice and
<e!er sa!#
4# Dynamic: ,ultures( although the!Fre passed from
generation to generation and create continuit!( are
changing constantl!#
# 2agueness: ,ultures Iincorporate contradictions(
ambiguities( paradoxes( and
Bust plain confusion(J Trice and <e!er assert#
,ultures ma! have both central and peripheral
elements# +u@@iness mar6s the peripheries and
might represent miscommunications( influence
from sub7 and countercultures( or changing
IAn organi@ationFs decision to change its culture is
generall! triggered b! a
specific event or situation(J according to a $#S#
?overnment Accounting 8ffice stud!# These events
or situations range from international competition to
severe budget restrictions#
+or more information( see Module 4( Faci"itating
1rgani:ationa" Change! chapter
4( IS!stems( ,ulture( and ;eadership in an 8rgani@ational
Individual Learning (tyles
The concept of learning st!les is both theoretical and
practical# A facilitator must under7 stand and appl!
techni*ues that recogni@e each learning st!le# A learning
st!le represents ho) a learner approaches ac*uiring
6no)ledge or developing a change in behavior# >ach
learner is motivated through different methods( )hich
influence learning performance( such as environment(
ps!chological comfort( social st!les( and profiles#
Learning 12ectives,
>xplain David EolbFs four basic learning st!les#
;ist the four elements of 'ed DerrmannFs brain7
based approach( and briefl! explain each#
Summari@e the visual( auditor!( and 6inesthetic
-CAE. model#
>xplain )h! it is important for instructors to
understand the various inta6e methods described in
the -# model )hen delivering training#
Describe Do)ard ?ardnerFs %0 multiple
;ist the seven preferred learning modes outlined in
the perceptual modality
Define c,aracteristics of adults as learners
(*L) and c,ain of response
(*./) as part of Patricia ,rossFs adult learning
>xplain the purpose of accelerated learning (L)
State three 6e! principles of A;#
Summari@e Silver and 0anson1s learning style
inventory and ho) it applies to training deliver!#
;ist t)o factors that ma! affect the speed at )hich
adults learn#
;ist t)o considerations for identif!ing training and
presenting st!les#
Discuss one t!pe of tool used to determine
learning st!le preferences and ho) it is applied#
Discuss the importance of training needs
assessment to determine learning preferences )hen
delivering training#
,hapter 3
Bo3 Bu'ans Learn 5est
Man! people have theories about ho) humans learn
best# David Eolb -%035.( for example( presents four
learning st!les2 the converger( the diverger( the
assimilator( and the accommodator# Another theor! )as
developed b! A#># -'ed. Derrmann -%000.# Dis research
sho)s brain speciali@ation in four *uadrants and that
each *uadrant has its o)n preferred )a! of learning# A
third theor!( neurolinguistic programming (2LP)(
proposes that ever!one ta6es information in through
three modalities2 visual( auditor!( and 6inesthetic#
As a trainer( itFs important to understand these theories and
t!pes of learning to increase
the li6elihood of appealing to each learnerFs st!le and to
help participants achieve their learning goals#
.ol1?s Learning (tyle Inventory
David #olb1s learning style inventory is part of his
)or6 in experiential learning( )hich he describes as an
Iintegrative perspective # # # that combines experience(
percep7 tion( cognition( and behavior#J Dis impressive
bod! of research relates learning st!les to
K =ungFs personalit! t!pes
K educational speciali@ation
K careers and Bobs
K adaptive conse*uences#
Eolb -%035. has )ritten about learnersF orientation to four
learning modes2 concrete ex7 perience( reflective
observation( abstract conceptuali@ation( and active
as depicted in figure 37%#
9igure A61. .ol1?s Learning (tyles
9ndividual ;earning St!les
Active experimentation and reflective observation operate
along a processing continuum(
)hile concrete experience and abstract conceptuali@ation
operate along a perception continuum# These are EolbFs
four orientations( along )ith the training st!le thatFs most
appropriate for )or6ing )ith each t!pe of learner2
%# Concrete e0perience: This orientation emphasi@es
feeling as opposed to thin67
ing# People )ith this orientation ta6e an artistic
approach# The! are intuitive and open minded and
do )ell in the absence of structure# Trainers of
people )ith this orientation should function as
2# <e%"ecti#e o(ser#ation: This orientation involves
understanding the meaning of
ideas and situations b! carefull! observing and
impartiall! describing them# People )ith this
orientation see the implications of different
approaches and are good at understanding different
points of vie)# 9nstructors of people )ith this
orientation should function as experts#
1# A(stract conceptua"i:ation: This orientation
concentrates on thin6ing as
opposed to feeling# People )ith this orientation li6e to
ta6e a scientific( s!stematic approach and li6e )or6ing
)ith s!mbols and anal!@ing information to formulate
general theories# Their trainers should serve as
coaches( providing guided practice and feedbac6#
5# Acti#e e0perimentation: This orientation focuses on
activel! influencing people
and changing situations( and it emphasi@es practical
applications# People )ith this orientation li6e to get
things done# 9nstructors of these people should sta!
out of the )a!( providing maximum opportunit! for
learners to discover for themselves#
Eolb asserts that the 6e! to effective learning is being
competent in each mode )hen
appropriate# EolbFs learning st!le inventor! identifies a
personFs learning st!le according
to the *uadrants bet)een pairs of modes( and itFs scored
and plotted to indicate )here
in a *uadrant a personFs responses fall# Eolb categori@es
learners and their respective
Iadaptive competenciesJ as follo)s2
' Con#ergers: These people do best )ith one7right7
ans)er tests and situations# The! are strong in solving
technical problems but donFt fare as )ell in
interpersonal dealings# The! are decisive( experiment
)ith ne) possibilities( and set goals#
' Di#ergers: These people are imaginative and sensitive
to meanings( values( and
feelings# The! 6eep an open mind( gather information(
and can envision the im7 plications of situations and
' Assimi"ators: These people are good at creating
abstract models# The! organi@e
information( test theories( design tests and
experiments( anal!@e *uantitative information( and
construct conceptual models#
' Accommodators: These people ta6e ris6s( adapt to
circumstances( and ta6e
action# The! often )or6 b! trial and error( depend on
other people for anal!sis
of information( and ma! be vie)ed as impatient b!
more contemplative t!pes#
,hapter 3
The! loo6 for and use opportunities( are involved and
committed( and can )or6 )ell )ith or lead people#
Berr'ann?s 5rain65ased A!!roach
The 0errmann $rain Dominance Instrument is a
method of personalit! testing developed b! A#># -'ed.
Derrmann -%000. that classifies learners in terms of
preferences for thin6ing in four modes based on brain
%# "e%t (rain! cere(ra": logic( anal!tical( *uantitative(
factual( critical
2# "e%t (rain! "im(ic: se*uential( organi@ed( planned(
detailed( structured
1# right (rain! "im(ic: emotional( interpersonal(
sensor!( 6inesthetic( s!mbolic
5# right (rain! cere(ra": visual( holistic( creative#
+or more information on Derrmann( see Module %(
Designing Learning! chapter %(
I,ognition and Adult ;earning Theor!#J
8eurolinguistic Progra''ing and Modes o) Learning
+or !ears( studies on ho) people prefer to get ne)
information have been conducted in the field of ';P#
;earners distinguish bet)een external experience
-information received from the environment through the
five senses. and internal experience -)hat happens
These studies have found that learner preferences fall into
three categories( often referred
to as the CAE model2
%# 2isua": 9nta6e b! seeing# Cisual learners prefer
pictures( diagrams( and other visu7 als# The! probabl!
need to see something to 6no) it# The! ma! have an
artistic abilit! and a strong sense of color# The! ma!
have difficult! follo)ing directions
or learning from lectures or might overreact to noise or
misinterpret )ords#
2# Auditory: 9nta6e b! hearing# Auditor! learners prefer
to get information b! listen7 ing# The! need to hear
something to 6no) it# The! ma! have difficult!
follo)ing )ritten directions or completing an!
activit! that includes reading#
1# =inesthetic: 9nta6e b! doing and touching#
Einesthetic learners prefer hands7on
learning# The! need to do something to 6no) it#
The! assemble things )ithout reading directions
and usuall! have good spatial perception# The!
learn best )hen the! are activel! involved#
People var! in their orientation to)ard these three st!les#
Some learn primaril! through
one st!le( and others use a combination of all three st!les#
9nta6e st!les are not the same
as intelligence# Ahether people prefer to learn b! seeing(
hearing( or doing has no bear7 ing on ho) intelligent the!
are# 9tFs Bust their preference for receiving ne)
information# Preferred learning st!les determine ho)
learners assimilate( sort( retain( retrieve( and reproduce
ne) information#
9ndividual ;earning St!les
A trainer usuall! encounters all of these learning st!les in
a training session at some point and should use the
follo)ing tips to address all learning preferences in a group2
K Accept that people learn in different )a!s#
K $se different methods to facilitate learning for different
K Ahen designing and delivering training( strive to create
a variet! of approaches that ma6e use of techni*ues
and activities from all learning preferences#
Creating Conducive Learning &nviron'ents
Do) can a trainer create a learning environment thatFs
conducive to each t!pe
of learnerN
(uggestions )or visual learners,
K Provide )ritten directions )hen possible#
K >nhance presentations )ith visuals( graphics(
illustrations( diagrams( or flo)charts#
K ,reate a colorful classroom )ith neon stic6! notesM
postersM and colorful and coordinated mar6ers(
cra!ons( and participant materials#
K Delp participants visuali@e a process b! using films(
demonstrations( or role pla!s#
(uggestions )or auditory learners,
K Provide spo6en directions )hen possible#
K $se discussions( tapes( debates( panels( intervie)s(
and other verbal methods for transferring
K Plan for small7group discussion( teach7bac6s( and
presentations that allo) participants to tal6 through
the information#
K Avoid using subtle bod! language or facial expressions
to ma6e a point#
K ,reate activities in )hich learners repeat the
(uggestions )or %inesthetic learners,
K Provide ph!sical activities and engage learners in
experiential( hands7on learning#
K Provide items for learners to touch and manipulate(
such as tactile to!s( balls( and cra!ons#
K Ta6e fre*uent brea6s or allo) for informal
movement during the session that doesnFt disturb
other participants#
K <uild in activities( such as model7ma6ing( role7
pla!ing( scavenger hunts( and other active revie) or
practice methods#
K +ind )a!s other than testing to express
6no)ledge and s6ills( such as demonstrations#
,hapter 3
Multi!le Intelligences
Ahereas inta6e and learning st!les reflect ho) people
prefer to receive information( intelligence reflects ho)
the! process information# 0oward 3ardner( from
Darvard $niversit!( has been challenging the basic beliefs
about intelligence since the earl! %030s# ?ardner -%031.
suggests that intelligence is more multifaceted than has
been thought( and that traditional measures( such as
intelligence *uotient -9R. tests( do not accuratel! measure
all its facets# De also sa!s intelligence is not fixed# De
defines intelligence as
K a measurable aptitude
K an aptitude that people use to create and solve
K an aptitude valued b! the culture#
9n Frames o% Mind -%031.! ?ardner describes the
multiple intelligence t,eory and gives his initial list of
intelligences# De later added three additional
intelligences to his list and said he expects the list to
continue to gro)# The intelligences are
K interpersonal2 aptitude for )or6ing )ith others
K logical:mathematical2 aptitude for math( logic( and
K spatial:visual2 aptitude for picturing and seeing
K musical2 aptitude for musical expression
K linguistic:verbal2 aptitude for the )ritten or spo6en
K intrapersonal2 aptitude for )or6ing alone
K bodil!:6inesthetic2 aptitude for being ph!sical
K emotional2 aptitude for identif!ing emotion
K naturalistic2 aptitude for being )ith nature
K existential2 aptitude for understanding oneFs purpose#
Do) do these intelligences affect learning and designing
learning solutionsN ?ardner believes that most people are
comfortable in three to four of these intelligences and
avoid the others# +or example( for learners )ho arenFt
comfortable )or6ing )ith others( doing group case studies
ma! interfere )ith their abilit! to process ne) material#
Cideo7 based instruction is not good for people )ith lo)er
spatial and visual aptitudes# People )ith strong bodil! and
6inesthetic aptitudes need to move around )hile the!Fre
Perce!tual Modalities
As6 a group of people ho) to spell a difficult )ord( and
)atch )hat the! do# Some close their e!es and )hisper to
themselves( some appear to be )riting )ith an invisible
pen( and some hunt around for paper so the! can )rite
)ith a real pen or pencil# 9n tr!ing to retrieve the )ordFs
spelling from their memories( the! reveal something about
their sensor! inta6e or the perceptual st!le )ith )hich the!
originall! learned the )ordFs spelling# Some people hear
the spelling( some feel it( and some see it#
9ndividual ;earning St!les
According to =ames and ?albraith -%034.( a learnerFs
primar! perceptual modalit!( and the attendant preferred
mode of learning( ma! be one of these2
' print: the reader or )riter )ho learns )ell from
traditional texts and pencil7and7 paper exercises
' #isua": the observer )ho li6es to loo6 at slides(
films( videos( exhibits( demonstrations( charts( and
' aura": the listener )ho learns best from discussions
and *uestion7and7ans)er sessions
' interacti#e: the tal6er )ho learns best from discussions
and *uestion7and7ans)er sessions
' tacti"e *manipu"ati#eDhaptic,: the toucher:handler
)ho li6es hands7on activities( model building( and
' 4inesthetic *enacti#eDpsychomotor,: the mover )ho
li6es role pla!s( ph!sical games( and activities
' o"%actory: the smeller:taster )ho associates learning
)ith smells and tastes#
Man! learners are una)are of their perceptual st!les# Ahat
the! do 6no) is )hich learn7 ing activities the! usuall!
li6e or disli6e# Some people are d!adic learners )ho
learn better as a partner in a pair than the! do alone or in a
group# Some people learn better
if the! pla! music )hile the! read( vie) slides( or )rite( but
others find that distracting#
=ames and ?albraithFs -%034. research indicates that more
adults are visual learners than an! other perception st!le#
Ahatever their preference( ho)ever( adults also learnHeven
if not as efficientl!Hthrough all their senses# So a trainer
)ho varies activities used in
a session to create multisensor! training increases the
li6elihood of appealing to each learnerFs st!le and helps
each learner reinforce s6ills or 6no)ledge ac*uired
through the preferred modalit!#
Cross?s Adult Learning
Patricia ,rossFs most important publication )as her boo6
Adu"ts as Learners: ncreasing -articipation and
Faci"itating Learning -%03%.# This boo6 )as designed to
s!nthesi@e much of the available information on adult
learning# She populari@ed some information about barriers
to adult learning( studies of participation( and
developmental stages# She also introduced t)o conceptual
frame)or6s to describe various aspects of adult learning
and to stimulate related research2
' C1<: ,8/ pertains to adult participation in learning2
ISThis isT the rough begin7
ning of a conceptual frame)or6 designed to
identif! the relevant variables and h!pothesi@e their
interrelationships(J ,ross notes# ,ross delineated some
common elements of earlier participation models for
the ,8/ model( including motivation
to participate is the result of a personFs perception of
both positive and negative forces( certain personalit!
t!pes are difficult to attract to education because of
,hapter 3
lo) self7esteem( congruence exists bet)een
participation and anticipated learn7
ing outcomes( higher7order needs for achievement and
self7actuali@ation canFt be fulfilled until lo)er7order
needs for securit! and safet! are met( and expectations
of re)ard are important to motivation#
' CAL conceptua" %rame+or4: I9 offer the follo)ing model
as a tentative frame)or6
to accommodate current 6no)ledge about )hat )e
6no) about adults as learners(
in the hope that it ma! suggest ideas for further
research and for implementation(J ,ross )rote#
,rossFs purpose )as to describe some differences
bet)een adults and children so that alternative
teaching strategies could be developed#
8ne goal ,ross attempted to accomplish )as s!nthesi@ing
the )or6 of several adult
education scholars# +or example( she believed that some Iof
the assumptions of andragog! can be incorporated into StheT
,A; construct#J These assumptions included such notions
as readiness and self7concept# The ,A; frame)or6 also
provided a means for thin6ing about the ever7changing
adult in terms of developmental stages#
Accelerated Learning Techniques
A; provides the opportunit! to train people more
effectivel! and efficientl! and have more fun in the
process# A; results in learnersF long7term retention b!
honoring the dif7 ferent learning preferences of each
learner and using experiential learning exercises -such
as role pla!s( mnemonics( props( music.# The goal of A;(
as described b! educational researcher ;!elle Palmer( Iis
to produce a consistentl! positive learning experience that
allo)s learners to ac*uire information and s6ills more
efficientl! and to retrieve( recall(
or respond )ith confidence( *uic6ness( and accurac!J
-+airban6s %002.#
Accelerated( integrative( or enhanced learning( as itFs
variousl! called( applies leading7 edge research to
enhance human learning and performance# A; can be
defined as a multisensor! brain7compatible approach to
learning that describes the conditions for learning and
the presentation of material# <ased on the )or6 of
?eorgi ;o@anov and >valina ?ateva( itFs a holistic and
)hole7brain approach to learning#
A; stresses that the learning environmentHever!thing
from room arrangements to the trainerFs attitudeHmust
K be positive and accepting
K provide a comfortable and colorful setting
K ma6e learning fun
K exalt rather than triviali@e learners
K help eliminate or reduce learning barriers
K support both learners and trainers
K provide a multidimensional approach
K accommodate different learning st!les
9ndividual ;earning St!les
K provide for group7based learning
K present material visuall! as )ell as verball!#
Lo#anov?s Princi!les
;o@anovFs )or6 -%03%. sho)ed that humans possess
capabilities vastl! greater than )hat the! often use# Man!
researchers contend that humans use onl! about %0 percent
of their brain capacit!# 9n his studies( ;o@anov found that
combining the techni*ues of medication( relation( cadence(
imager!( music( and breathing exercises greatl! increased
his patientsF healing# As a beneficial side effect( he found
that his patientsF memor! increased )hen the! reduced
stress# ;o@anov called this associative recall supermemor!
or h!permnesia# Suggestopedia is the instructional
application of stimulating the bod! and mind at pea6
efficienc! to develop super7learning capabilities# This
techni*ue is used to decrease bar7 riers to learning( to
create a positive atmosphere that enhances learning( and
to tap the vast potential of the mind#
;o@anov applied suggestopedia to the stud! of foreign
languages in his native <ulgaria# $nder his guidance(
language instructors used techni*ues such as
K spea6ing in rh!thm
K intonation
K pla!ing bac6ground music
K breathing and relaxation exercises
K imager!
K motivational exercises
K affirmations#
<! using this method( )hich includes slo)ing speech
rate )hen presenting unfamiliar content( s!nchroni@ing
speech patterns to rh!thms( and spea6ing in short phrases(
;o@anov found that learning foreign language vocabular!
increases as much as five times( )ith
a retention rate of as much as 40 percent after a !ear
)ithout intensive reinforcement#
Princi!les o) AL
The purpose of A; is to involve the brainFs right and left
hemispheres as )ell as the cortex and limbic s!stems in
learning# 9nvolving the different functions ma6es learning
more natural# Several principles are involved in A;2
' A%%ecti#e state: The brain chemistr! of a positive state of
the nervous s!stem dif7
fers from that of a fearful or angr! state# Stressful
environments cause the brain
to do)nshift naturall!# >liminating excess stress( fear
of failure( and negativit! enhances the learnerFs
receptivit! to training#
' )e"ie%s to+ard "earning: Man! people believe that
learning is difficultHa belief that can be altered#
;earning is one of the most Bo!ful and natural aspects of
,hapter 3
being human# $nfortunatel!( man! people have a
diminished vie) of their intel7
ligence( learning abilities( and performance potential#
Man! people underachieve not because of a lac6 of
intelligence but because of an insufficient belief in
their abilit! or po)er to learn or to accomplish some
tas6# Denr! +ord put it succinctl!2
IAhether !ou believe !ou can or !ou believe !ou
canFt( !ouFre right#J Trainers no) have techni*ues for
helping learners govern their beliefs and attitudes#
' n%ormation net+or4s: 9nformation is recorded in vast
interconnecting neural
net)or6s# Provisions for connecting ne) material to
previousl! learned content and appl!ing ne) material
bac6 on the Bob increase the integration and retention
of learning# Daving a global context for learning
material ma6es learning easier#
' Eonconscious "earning: As much as 30 percent of
learning ma! be noncon7 scious# A; techni*ues
)or6 )ith more of the mind( maximi@ing the
natural potential for learning#
' Learning cyc"es: A learnerFs attention c!cles re*uire
restimulating an optimal
learning state through changes of pace# Shorter
segments are processed and retained better than
longer( continuous learning segments#
' Mu"tisensory input: ;earners have different learning
st!les and different )a!s of
processing information and experiences( including
visual( auditor!( and 6ines7 thetic# Multisensor!
instruction enhances information processing through
increased stimulation and provides reinforcement
through other channels#
' Learning readiness state: A calm( relaxed stateH
ph!sicall! and mentall!His the
optimum state for pea6 learning# 9n a relaxed state(
the brain produces stead! alpha rh!thms( one of
four t!pes of brain )aves# The t!pes of brain )aves
cor7 respond to different mental states# Alpha )aves
characteri@e a calm but alert state conducive to
assimilating information rapidl!# 9n the alpha state(
learning happens effortlessl!#
;i6e all other learning solutions( A; should be applied onl! in
situations )here perform7
ers have a documented s6ill and 6no)ledge gap# A;
programs onl! )orsen problems that result from a lac6 of
proper motives( tools( or processes#
AL Training
The A; training methodolog! involves four stages2
%# preparation for learning b! engaging the learnerFs
2# presentation of material as input to the brain
1# practice )ith ideas and s6ills
5# revie) of input to strengthen ne) connections and
appl! them outside the classroom#
9ndividual ;earning St!les
These four phases address the learnerFs affective state(
beliefs to)ard learning( learning
readiness( and nonconscious abilities# 9n addition( the! help
create net)or6s or connec7 tions through multisensor! input
and )hole7brain activation#
AL Course (a'!le
The follo)ing is a course outline for teaching the
principles of A; and an example
of ho) A; techni*ues can be used# Aithin the four
phases( the trainerFs creativit! can be expressed in a
uni*ue combination of these techni*ues( )hich can
be used for classroom or online training#
' -ositi#e suggestion: IOouFll find it eas! to learn
these principles and tech7 ni*ues for enhancing
!our training programsJ is an example of a
positive suggestion#
' Mu"tisensory en#ironment: Trainers can add a
number of items to create a
multisensor! environment2 upbeat music( posters
posing *uestions about the importance of
learning( colored paper and pens( sample training
designs enlarged and posted on )alls of the
training facilit!( and hats to represent different
brain functions#
' Learner-(ene%it statements: Developing a learner7
benefit statement helps cre7
ate more effective training programs and enables
learners to have more fun during training#
' 3arm-up and introductions: $se icebrea6ers to put
participants at ease and involve them in their o)n
' 1#er#ie+: $se a mind map to outline the session#
' Assessment: Pretest A; principles and techni*ues#
' Lecture: Describe A; principles( models( and
techni*ues# $se visuals to present and illustrate
' Metaphor s or pr ops: $se metaphors and props
to illustr ate abstr act concepts#
' magery: Present a stor! of excellent training#
Dave learners visuali@e appl!ing A; ideas to Bob
' Music: Do an energi@er stretch#
' Acti#ity: Dave groups design an A; session( selecting
from props( music( post7 ers( and techni*ues#
' Demonstrate: Dave groups share their design )ith the
rest of the class#
,hapter 3
' Concert re#ie+: Sho) content visuals )ith music#
' App"ication: Do an action7planning sheet# Share# Set
up a net)or6 for mutual support and collaboration#
Learning (tyle Inventories
Man! learning st!le inventories assess personalit!
differences( information7processing st!les( social
interaction differences( and instructional preferences# The
results can produce useful learner profiles# Do)ever( itFs
unethicalHand sometimes dangerous or illegalHto use
these instruments unless thereFs ade*uate training in
proper administration( scoring( interpretation( and
Myers65riggs Ty!e Indicator
The (yers"$riggs +ype Indicator (($+I) is one of the
most )idel! used personalit! assessment instruments#
Eatherine <riggs and her daughter 9sabelle <riggs M!ers
-%0&&. based their )or6 on that of S)iss ps!chologist ,arl
=ung# The instrument the! developed has a person self7
report on indications of individual preferences for the
' $0tro#ersion *$, or intro#ersion *,: An extrovert is
a)are of and relies on the
environment for stimulation( is action oriented( and is
fran6# An introvert is stimu7 lated b! the inner )orld
of concepts and ideas and is thoughtful# 9n the
M<T9( intro#erted doesnFt necessaril! mean shy! but it
does impl! enBo!ment of solitude#
' -erception (y sensing *S, or intuition *E,: Sensing
means being a)are of )hatFs
observed through the senses# This preference is
associated )ith a Ino)J orienta7 tion( realism( memor!
for detail( and practicalit!# 9ntuition means having
insight that ma! ta6e a person into the realm of
future possibilities# This preference is associated
)ith interest in meanings and relationships and )ith
abstraction and creativit!#
' >udgment (y thin4ing *T, or %ee"ing *F,: People )ith a
thin6ing orientation tend
to be anal!tical( obBective( and interested in cause7
and7effect and fairness( and the! tend to see
connections through the passage of time# People
)ith a feel7 ing orientation can thin6 in the
la!personFs idea of the term( but the! are more
concerned )ith personal and group values# +eelers
are more involved )ith the people side of problems
than the technical aspects# The! are affiliative and
might )ant to preserve values of the past#
' Attitude o% ;udgment * >, or per ception *-,: A
Budging person plans(
organi@es( decides( and t!picall! see6s closure# A
perceiving person tends to be more spontaneous and
adaptableHsee6ing more information#
The M<T9 )as not designed to assess level of maturit!( degree
of motivation( state of mental
health( or level of intelligence( but ill7informed people
might spea6 as though it )ere a measure of those factors#
The publishers of M<T9 and other ps!chological tests and
measures normall! re*uire that )ould7be purchasers be
properl! accredited for using their products
9ndividual ;earning St!les
so that their material is not misused# Ps!chological
instruments are not parlor games( and inexpert trifling )ith
ps!ches could lead to serious or even tragic conse*uences#
(ilver and Banson?s Learning (tyle Inventory
The M<T9 )as adapted b! Darve! +# Silver and =# /obert
Danson -%030. to create a spectrum
of four distinct learning st!les2 sensing7thin6ing -ST.(
intuitive7thin6ing -'T.( sensing7feeling
-S+.( and intuitive7feeling -'+.# Mc,lanaghan -2000.( in IA
Strateg! for Delping Students ;earn Do) to ;earn(J
provides a condensed version of the instructional attributes
for each learning st!le and points out ho) learners differ in
their classroom needs2
' ST *sensing-thin4ing,: These learners )ant specific
information and to 6no)
)hatFs right and )rong# The! need immediate
feedbac6 and lose interest if the pace slac6ens or the
content doesnFt seem useful# The! learn )ell from
repetition and drill as )ell as authentic experience#
' ET *intuiti#e-thin4ing,: These learners are logical(
anal!tical( and s6eptical# The!
are independent )or6ers )ho trust reason and hard
evidence# The! li6e chal7 lenge and the chance to
be creative# /elevance is important( and the! can be
*uite persistent if the! are absorbed in the )or6#
' SF *sensing-%ee"ing,: These participants need to relate
learning to personal experi7
ence# The! li6e to learn cooperativel! and are trusting
and collegial# Darmonious relationships )ith their
classroom peers ma! be more important than
content master!# The! are sensitive to approval and
disapproval and li6e to discuss topics#
' EF *intuiti#e-%ee"ing,: These learners are al)a!s loo6ing
for patterns to guide them
and for connections )ith previous learning# The!
tend to value aesthetics and( therefore( originalit! and
uni*ueness# The! respond )ell to a flexible learning
atmo7 sphere that allo)s them to be innovative# The!
often have trouble organi@ing their time( and the!
need to be sho)n the big picture# The! are easil!
bored b! routine#
:ates o) Adults Learning
As a group( adult learners var! )idel! in their areas of
education( bac6ground( experience( intelligence(
emotional stabilit!( and motivation for achievement#
Along )ith individual learning st!les( trainers should
6eep in mind that other factors can influence the speed
at )hich adults learn# +or example( the learning
environment ma! have an effect on facilitating learning#
Setting goals and expectations helps orient users( pi*ue
their moti7 vation( and leverage life experiences to ma6e
the connection bet)een ne) 6no)ledge and bac6ground
information the! ma! have ac*uired alread!#
The factors that ma! influence the speed at )hich adults
learn include
K ps!chological
K environmental
K emotional
,hapter 3
K sociological
K ph!sical
K intellectual and experiential
K age#
Identi)ying Training and Presenting (tyles
9n delivering training( a A;PFs preference for a particular
learning st!le affects various parts
of the deliver! process# <ecause adult learning theories
support differences in learners( var!ing training deliver!
st!les is essential# /ecognition of oneFs o)n learning
preference and its influence on training st!les re*uires
flexibilit! in a training program#
9tFs important for instructors and trainers to 6no) their
preferred teaching or presentation
st!le( but remembering that all learners learn differentl! is
also crucial# Trainers should be able to present content in a
manner that appeals to all these learning st!les( not Bust
in their preferred st!le#
<! being a)are of the strengths and )ea6nesses of different
training and learning st!les and methods( a trainer can
K ta6e an important step to)ard improved
communication )ith learners )ho donFt share his or
her st!le tendencies and preferences
K build on the strengths of his or her training st!le
K do a better Bob of designing( developing( and delivering
training that accommo7 dates learnersF needs#
Ahen considering a tool for determining learning
preferences( itFs important to distin7
guish bet)een an organi@ational learning need and the
learning st!le behavior of the organi@ationFs learners#
The maBor difference is )hatFs being anal!@ed#
8rgani@ational learning needs are determined b!
demonstrating gaps in performance# ThereFs a clear
connection to the re*uirements of ESA gaps#
A A;P professional should loo6 at inventories containing
behaviors( situational relevance(
and validated evidence that demonstrates the
effectiveness of a particular tool# A A;P professional
should also understand the genesis of the training
program( )hich ma! contribute bac6ground information
for spea6ing to the group#
Matching Learner and Trainer (tyles
A)areness of st!le differencesHboth the trainerFs o)n
and those of participantsHis useful in several )a!s# +irst(
it captures the cognitive and affective differences
bet)een trainer and learner# Second( it should encourage
the use of a )ider variet! of teach7 ing techni*ues#
Third( it helps learners understand their o)n st!les and
preferences better# +inall!( it enables the trainer and
learners ali6e to be more accepting of differences among
people# 9n this manner( ne) means of communication
are established )ith the
9ndividual ;earning St!les
diverse participants that most trainers face in the )or6place#
Ahatever their o)n st!les(
trainers and developers have much to thin6 about and do in
the continuing discussion( application( and research of
training and learning st!les#
Deter'ining Learning Pre)erences
The importance of distinguishing the difference bet)een an
organi@ational learning need and the learning st!le
behavior of an organi@ationFs learners should be
emphasi@ed )hen choosing a tool for determining
learning preferences# Man! )idel! used learning st!le
inventories assess personalit! differences( information7
processing st!les( social interaction differences( and
instructional preferences and can !ield useful learner
profiles# Trainers should have ade*uate instruction in
proper administration( scoring( interpretation( and
application of these tools#
9nstructional preference inventories address a personFs
preferred environment for learn7 ing# Among these tools are
the follo)ing2
' -$-S: The Productivit! >nvironmental Preference
Surve!( commonl! 6no)n as
P>PS( )as developed b! /ita Dunn in collaboration
)ith Eenneth Dunn and ?ar! Price -%032.# 9t identifies
these adult preferences for conditions in a )or6ing
and learning environment2
K preferred ph!sical environment -sound( light(
K emotionalit! -ta6ing responsibilit! for a tas6(
K sociological needs -self or group orientation.
K ph!sical needs for learning -perceptual preference(
biorh!thms( need to move around.#
' Can%ie"d Learning Sty"e n#entory: Developed b!
Albert ,anfield -%033.( this in7 ventor! assesses
learning influences( such as
K conditions -preference for an affiliation or
K content -preference for inanimate help( such as
computer7based training ver7 sus help from people.
K mode of learning -preference for listening( reading(
direct experience( and
so forth.
K expectation of success#
' Learning Sty"es Fuestionnaire: Developed in >ngland
b! Peter Done! and Alan
Mumford -%030.( this instrument categori@es a learner
as primaril!
K an activist )ho li6es doing things( if onl! for the
sa6e of doing
K a reflector )ho stands bac6 to thin6
K a theorist )ho )ants things tid! and rational
K a pragmatist )ho prefers to get on )ith )hatever
,hapter 3
Done! and Mumford have correlated their )or6 to EolbFs
experiential learning c!cle#
The! suggest that after learners become a)are of their
learning st!les( the! can accept them b! building on their
strengths and recogni@ing limitations or )or6 to develop
in their st!lesF )ea6 spots#
Training 8eeds Assess'ent
9nstructional preference inventories address a personFs
preferred environment for learn7 ingM ho)ever( trainers
should not forget about another 6e! component for
training deliver!Hneeds assessment#
Although training itself certainl! provides s6ills( learning(
and development( training
needs assessment is the preliminar! process that ensures
training is grounded in the organi@ationFs needs# Aithout
needs assessment( trainers ris6 developing and delivering
training that doesnFt support organi@ational needs and(
therefore( does not deliver value
to the organi@ation and ma! not be accepted b!
A formal needs assessment establishes that there is in fact
a business need that drives
a performance needM drives a true training needM
identifies the specifics for the desired trainingM and(
finall!( identifies an! nontraining issues that affect the
performance situation# Trainers also conduct informal
needs assessments to confirm and gauge learner needs#
Trainers often gather in7class information at the start of a
session b! as6ing learners )hat goals the! )ant to
accomplish )hen the training is completed#
Eote: The content in this chapter on training and presenting
st!les and tools for determining learning preferences appears as
items E%% and E%2 in the $ar"y )ird Guide to ASTD Certi%ication
-/usso 2004.#
9ndividual ;earning St!les
,hapter 3
9ndividual ;earning St!les
<iech( ># -2004.# Training %or Dummies&# Dobo6en( '=2
Aile! Publishing#
<riggs( E#,#( and 9#<# M!ers# -%0&&.# Myers-)riggs Type
ndicator. Palo Alto( ,A2 ,onsult7 ing Ps!chologists
,anfield( A#A# -%033.# Can%ie"d Learning Sty"es n#entory
*LS,. ;os Angeles2 Aestern
Ps!chological Services#
,ross( P# -%03%.# Adu"ts as Learners: ncreasing
-articipation and Faci"itating Learning.
San +rancisco2 =osse!7<ass#
Dunn( /#( et al# -%032.# -roducti#ity $n#ironmenta"
-re%erence Sur#ey. ;a)rence( ES2 Price S!stems#
+airban6s( D#M# -%002.# IAccelerated ;earning#J n%o"ine 'o#
?ardner( D# -%031.# Frames o% Mind: The Theory o%
Mu"tip"e nte""igences. 'e) Oor62 <asic <oo6s#
HHH# -%001.# Mu"tip"e nte""igences: The Theory in
-ractice. 'e) Oor62 <asic <oo6s#
Derrmann( A#># -%033.# The Creati#e )rain. ;a6e ;uree(
',2 <rain <oo6s#
Done!( P#( and A# Mumford# -%030.# Learning Sty"es
Fuestionnaire. Eing of Prussia( PA2 8rgani@ation
Development and Design#
=acobson( S# -%005.# I'eurolinguistic Programming#J n%o"ine
'o# 240505# -8ut of print#.
=ames( A#<#( and M#A# ?albraith# -%034.# IPerceptual
;earning St!les2 9mplications and
Techni*ues for the Practitioner#J Li%e"ong Learning
3-5.! pp# 20G21#
Eolb( D#A# -%035.# $0perientia" Learning: $0perience as
the Source o% Learning and
De#e"opment. >ngle)ood ,liffs( '=2 Prentice7Dall#
;o@anov( ?# -%03%.# Suggesto"ogy and 1ut"ines o%
Suggestopedia. 'e) Oor62 ?ordon " <reach#
Mc,lanaghan( M# -2000.# IA Strateg! for Delping
Students ;earn Do) to ;earn#J
$ducation %20-1.! pp# 5&0G53#
M!ers( 9#<#( and M#D# Mcaulle!# -%034.# Manua": A Guide
to the De#e"opment o% the
Myers-)riggs Type ndicator. Palo Alto( ,A2 ,onsulting
Ps!chologists Press#
/ussell( S# -%003.# ITraining and ;earning St!les#J
n%o"ine 'o# 243305# /usso( ,#S# -2001.# I<asic
Training for Trainers#J n%o"ine 'o# 243303#
HHH# -2004.# $ar"y )ird Guide to ASTD Certi%ication.
Alexandria( CA2 ASTD Press# -8ut
of print#.
Silver( D#+#( and =#/# Danson# -%003.# Learning Sty"es and
Strategies -1
edition.# Aood7 bridge( '=2 The
Thoughtful >ducation Press#
Cultural Di))erences
,ultural differences in the classroom affect both the learner
and the trainer# A classroom
is not one si@e fits all( and a training professional needs to
be cogni@ant of cultural dif7 ferences )hen communicating
to learners and managing the class#
A6io Morita( chairman of the Son! ,orporation(
commented that Iculture ma! impact
products( services( and operations b! onl! %0 percent# This %0
percent determines success
or failure#J People and organi@ations around the globe
thin6( act( )or6( learn( and lead
in different )a!s( and some of these differences are based
on the cultural environments
in )hich people )ere raised and no) )or6# ,ulture
consciousl! and subconsciousl! shapes values(
assumptions( perceptions( and behavior# 9t provides
s!stematic guidelines for ho) people should conduct their
thin6ing( their actions( their rituals( and their busi7 ness#
There are ethnic cultures( national cultures( corporate
cultures( and global cultures#
,ultural diversit! provides a mirror as )ell as a )indo)
that sho)s )h! people from
other parts of the globe act in different )a!s# This is
especiall! true in areas affecting leadership( learning(
communication( and )or6# To be successful( a global
or trainer is responsible for understanding( anticipating(
interacting( and carr!ing out assignments in significantl!
distinct )a!s#
The abilit! to compete globall! has become dependent on
innovation and s6ills and on
the 6no)ledge and learning of people and organi@ations
operating in this global arena# $#S# companies spend
billions of dollars ever! !ear in )or6place training( but
little of
it is allocated to global and cross7cultural programs# 9n this
respect( the $nited States is far behind Asia and >urope#
Man! $#S# businesses operate under the assumption that
American )a!s and business practices are the standard
around the )orld# Similarl!( man! human resource
development professionals believe that training and
consulting principles that )or6 for a $#S# audience can be
e*uall! effective abroad# 'othing could be further from
the truthU
Learning 12ectives,
Discuss ho) language( speech( environmental(
and ps!chological factors can be barriers to
communication during training deliver!( and
provide one example related to each factor#
>xplain ho) culture ma! affect and re*uire a
modification in training deliver!#
;ist one example of an emerging issue in adult
,hapter 0
5arriers to Co''unication
The follo)ing scenarios help outline some basics of
intercultural communication2
K A training specialist gives instructions to a )or6er
about an exercise that needs to be completed# The
)or6er smiles agreeabl! and nods# Ahen the trainer
chec6s bac6 )ith the )or6er later( she discovers that
the )or6er has not completed the exercise( and she
becomes upset that the instruction hasnFt been carried
K A human resource -D/. specialist intervie)s a Bob
applicant )hose resume con7
tains exactl! the *ualifications and experience
re*uired for an opening in the compan!# Ahen the
applicant refuses to elaborate or give details about
his ac7 complishments( the D/ specialist decides that
the resume is padded#
K A female executive is sent overseas to present a ne)
sales contract to a maBor
purchaser# The client 6eeps her )aiting and then
interrupts the meeting to ta6e numerous telephone
calls and handle in7person interruptions# The )oman
leaves( feeling that sheFs someho) mishandled the
>ach interaction contains the seeds of misunderstanding and
conflict# >ach can have an
effect on a personFs livelihood and leave all parties
be)ildered and defensive# And( in each case( the basis
of the difficult! is a simple miscommunication based on
differing cultural bac6grounds# Scenarios such as these )ill
become more common as international trade barriers fall
and the $#S# )or6force becomes increasingl! diverse#
,ulture has been defined as an IindividualFs patterned
)a!s of thin6ing( feeling( and
reactingJ and as the Isocial legac! an individual ac*uires
from his groupJ -M!ers %000.# Misunderstandings occur
)hen members of one cultureH)hether that of another
or a minorit! group )ithin the $nited StatesHare unable
to understand cultural differ7 ences in communication
practices( traditions( and thought processes#
8ne research team li6ens the difficulties in cross7cultural
communication to light pass7
ing through a stained7glass )indo)# ITo understand ho)
people from another culture perceive the message sent to
them(J )rite <orisoff and Cictor -%030.( Iit is first necessar!
to understand to )hat extent their culture has tinted the
)indo) of communication#J That )indo) is also tinted b!
peopleFs o)n( perhaps unconscious( perceptions#
Man! conflicts result )hen one or more parties in the
communication cling to an eth7
nocentric vie) of the )orld# <orisoff and Cictor -%030.
define ethnocentrism as the
Iunconscious tendenc! to interpret or Budge all other
groups and situations according
to the categories and values of our o)n culture#J
$nfortunatel!( ethnocentrism can be manifested b! the
Budgment that differences in communication techni*ues
are )rong rather than merel! different#
To reduce intercultural communication problems( trainers
and supervisors need to be
a)are of their o)n culturall! imbued )a!s of vie)ing the
)orld# To be effective( a trainer
or supervisor must understand ho) the perception of a
message changes( depending on the cultural vie)point of
those communicating# This is true )hether the communica7
tion is verbal or nonverbal# Several factors( covered in the
follo)ing sections( influence
,ultural Differences
intercultural communication( including language and
speech( environment( ps!cholog!( and nonverbal behavior#
Language and (!eech
>ven )hen both parties spea6 the same language(
differences and misunderstandings can occur# These are
among the most7often cited difficulties2
' Accent: An accent is the )a! a person pronounces(
enumerates( and articulates
)ords# Trainers and managers should understand )hat
an accent does or does not include about a personFs
education( degree of assimilation into the host
culture( and abilit! to understand the language#
>ven after !ears in the $nited States( some immigrants
ma! have heav! accents#
Their trainers or supervisors need to remember that
an accent doesnFt reflect the spea6erFs abilit! to
understand )hat is said and )ritten or the
spea6erFs 6no)ledge of >nglish grammar and
Cariations in accent are also tied to geograph! and
social class# These differences
are compounded b! dialectical differences in )ord
meanings# Aithin the $nited States( for example(
Americans ma! Budge a slo)7spea6ing Southerner
as being less )ell educated than a faster7spea6ing
'e) Oor6er#
' Linguistics: Some linguistic experts believe that
language shapes the )a! the
culture uses itHbasicall! influencing the )a! its
spea6ers thin6# ISince language shapes thought( those
spea6ing different languages understand the )orld
around themHincluding the message the!
communicateHin a )a! )hich is essentiall! lin6ed
to the language used(J <orisoff and Cictor -%030.
state# I+or an!one not using the language( the
message received )ill( b! nature( be onl!
9n addition to problems of language and linguistics(
translation presents difficulties( including these2
' Gr oss trans"ation err or s: Although gross
translation errors are relativel!
infre*uent( the! are usuall! the easiest to detect and
correct# Man! errors are simpl! ridiculous or sill!# The
?eneral Motors slogan I<od! b! +isher(J for example(
)as once translated into I,orpse b! +isher#J The
possibilit! of conflict arises )hen one part! attributes
the mistranslation as disrespect for the receiving
' Euance errors: Ahen t)o parties donFt have a similar
command of a language(
mild distinctions bet)een meanings can lead to
misunderstandings# The nuances bet)een
ImisunderstandJ and Imisinterpret(J for example(
illustrate the abilit! of
a person to grasp the meaning#
>nvironment in the intercultural sense has meanings
related to the cultureFs existing technological level and
ph!sical environment# IMan! environment7related
differences(J <orisoff and Cictor -%030. state( Iare based
primaril! on a lac6 of 4no+"edge rather than
,hapter 0
on culturall! intrinsic #a"ues#J >nvironment differences
manifest themselves in several )a!s( including these2
' -ersona" space: The )a! people use space varies
)idel! from culture to culture
and is often steeped )ith cultural associations#
?ermans( for example( generall! use space to
reinforce social distance# This increased social
distance b! $#S# stan7 dards might seem intentionall!
cold( isolating( and standoffish#
A ?erman manager ma! place great emphasis on the
ph!sical separation of his
or her office( but a =apanese manager usuall! has no
separate office# 9nstead( the =apanese managerFs status
is indicated b! the position of his or her des6 in
a large( open area filled )ith other des6s# The
managerFs des6 is usuall! farthest from the door( near
a )indo)( and placed so that the entire )or6 area is
visible# Danger lies in the possibilit! that a ?erman or
an American entering a =apanese environment might
misread the =apanese highl! structured seating
as egalitarian#
' Techno"ogy: Do) technologicall! advanced a culture is
directl! reflects the value the culture places on
technolog!# Technolog!( in turn( is the use a culture
of its available resources# A common mista6e is to
assume that a lo) level of technological use indicates
an inherentl! inferior culture#
Although technolog! can go a long )a! to)ard
brea6ing do)n cultural barriers(
that brea6do)n can cause intense resentment#
Americans and Aestern >uropeans must remember
that a lo) level of technological sophistication ma!
be a coun7 tr!Fs deliberate choice# Aesterners need to
recogni@e their bias that technological advancement is
beneficial# This bias often translates into a belief that
cultures not having an e*uall! sophisticated level of
technolog! +ant to ac*uire it but lac6 access to it or
the abilit! to achieve it#
Thought processingHthe )a! people vie) the )orld
around themHis also culturall! based# +our variables
have an effect on ho) members of a culture thin6 and
express themselves2
%# Socia" organi:ation: Social organi@ation is defined as
the Iindividuals and groups
in a societ! and the relationship bet)een these
individuals and groups#J The rela7 tionships that affect
communication are familial( religious( economic( and
as )ell as the status accorded to age( sex( and
minorities# These differences can be subtle and
reflect an unstated meaning that ever!one is
supposed to 6no)# 9ntercultural conflicts often arise
)hen a personFs vie)s of the social organi@ation
in )hich he or she operates are seen as universal#
/eactions to praise and motivation( for example( are
sociall! determined# Some7 thing thatFs motivating
and persuading in one culture ma! not be in
another# 9n >astern collectivistic cultures( for instance(
much emphasis is placed on maintain7
,ultural Differences
ing harmon! )ithin the group( )hereas the $nited
States is individualistic# A $#S#
supervisor )ho singles out an emplo!ee for praise is
being consistent )ith his
or her cultural training but ma! be vie)ed as
disruptive b! Asian subordinates because he or she
has dra)n attention to an individual achievement#
2# Conte0ting: ,ontexting is the )a! in )hich one
communicates and the circum7
stances surrounding the communication# The more
information a sender and receiver share( the higher
the context of the communication and the less neces7
sar! it is for the t)o to communicate in )ords or
gestures# 9n a highl! contexted situation( much of
)hat the sender doesnFt articulate is necessar! to
understand )hat is said# Dighl! contexted societies
determine meaning from ho) a mes7 sage is
delivered and under )hat circumstances# ;o)7context
societies are more literalHthat is( more dependent on
)hatFs said or )ritten# The $nited States is a lo)7
context societ!( )hereas man! >astern societies are
high context#
1# Authority: Ahether a person has the abilit! or
inclination to act on his or her o)n
initiative is also culturall! determined# The level of
respect for authorit! varies greatl!# 9n some >astern
cultures( for example( supervisors vie) a ne)
as *uestioning the supervisorFs authorit!M in the
egalitarian $nited States( this sug7 gestion )ould
normall! be )elcomed#
Another aspect of the authorit! issue is the extent to
)hich a culture accepts that
po)er is distributed une*uall!# Societies )ith strong
hierarchies( such as =apan( tend to have centrali@ed
flo)s of information# This often translates to a
commu7 nicationFs emphasis being placed on a
personFs position in the hierarch! rather than on the
5# Concept o% time: A cultural concept of time is the
importance a culture places
on time and its philosoph! to)ard the past( present(
and future# 9n intercultural communication( a personFs
concept of time influences communication behavior#
Most 'orth Americans and northern >uropeans see
time as a toolHsomething to
be divided( used( or )asted# Throughout ;atin
America( ,entral Africa( and the Arab states( time is
vie)ed as fluid# People from these areas put personal
involve7 ment and completion of proBects above
The )oman in the scenario at the start of this chapter
vie)ed her )ait and the
interruptions as a )aste of time and( therefore( an insult#
9f she )as meeting )ith
a 'igerian official( ho)ever( he paid her a compliment
b! completing the trans7 action( no matter ho) long
that transaction too6#
8onver1al 5ehavior
I8ne of the most mar6edl! var!ing dimensions of
intercultural communication is non7 verbal behavior(J
note <orisoff and Cictor -%030.# This area can cause
extreme difficult! because as much as 4 percent of a
messageFs meaning is conve!ed through nonverbal
,hapter 0
'onverbal behavior runs the gamut from giggling and
nodding to e!e contact# 'ot all
nonauditor! communication is nonverbal# Sign language used
b! hearing7impaired people( for example( is verbal# These
are some t!pes of nonverbal behaviors2
' Appearance: ,ontrar! to the popular sa!ing I!ou canFt
Budge a boo6 b! its cover(J
some research has sho)n that first impressions are
often *uite accurate# +irst impressions give
information about gender( age( profession( relative
economic position( race( and culture# Appearance
clues fall into t)o categories2 artifacts
-items of appearance over )hich a person has control(
such as Be)elr! and cloth7 ing. and ph!sical traits
-characteristics over )hich a person doesnFt have
control( including race( sex( bod! si@e( bone
structure( and baldness.#
' )ody "anguage: Differences in ho) people )al6( tal6(
bo)( stand( or sit occur not
onl! bet)een cultures but also bet)een genders and
subgroups )ithin a culture# The purposes of bod!
language fall into the categories outlined in table 07%#
' Touching: TouchingHor not touchingHcommunicates
intimac!# The more affec7
tionate people are( the more the! touch# 9n the $#S#
mainstream( touching usuall! follo)s a progressive
pattern2 functional( social( friendship( love( and sexual#
>ach step is delineated b! cultural norms#
9n addition to communicating intimac!( touching can
conve! dominance# Studies
have sho)n that people in po)er are more apt to
touch their subordinates than
to be touched b! their subordinates# 9n some status
situations( men tended to touch )omen more than
)omen touch men#
' $ye contact: >!es can conve! a number of meanings(
and those meanings also
var! from culture to culture# Among >nglish7spea6ing
Americans( four patterns have been defined( as
outlined in table 072#
Pro+e'ic Cones and Di))erences 5et3een Cultures
Pro&emics is the relationship of peopleFs positions in
space# +or example( anthropolo7 gist >d)ard T# Dall -%0&&.
defined four differences bet)een adults in the $nited States2
%# intimate: %3 inches around the bod! for famil! and
2# persona": %3 inches to four feet for famil! and friends
1# socia": four to %2 feet for co7)or6ers and social
5# pu("ic: more than %2 feet for platform spea6ers and
As Dall and others have explained( )hen people believe
someone is too close( the! feel threatenedM ho)ever( the!
donFt li6e the compan! of someone )ho seems standoffish#
People from the $nited States ma! encounter difficulties in
communicating )ith people
from other cultures because of this distance issue# The $#S#
armFs length approach ma! be uncomfortable in societies
)here friendl! or serious conversations are conducted
close enough to feel the otherFs breath on oneFs face#
,ultural Differences
Ta1le *61. Ty!es o) 5ody Language
T!pe Description
>mblems >mblems are nonverbal signals that can be translated directl! into
)ords# The $#S# 8E sign -ma6ing a ring )ith the forefinger and
thumb )hile holding the remaining three fingers up and
)ith the palm facing a)a! from the bod!.( for example( is an obscene
gesture in ?reece# The danger in using emblems lies in assuming the!
have universal meanings and unambiguous direct translations into )ords#
9llustrators 9llustrators are movements that complement verbal communication
b! describing( accenting( or reinforcing )hat
the spea6er sa!s# 9llustrators are generall! more universal than
emblems# The fre*uenc! of illustrators increases )hen the spea6er is
excited or senses a lac6 of understanding#
Affect displa!s carr! emotional meaningsHhate( love( disdain( fear( or
anger# 9n 'orth America( for example( smiling signifies
pleasure or happiness# Asians( ho)ever( ma! smile to save face# So in the
scenario at the beginning of this chapter( the trainer
might have )rongfull! assumed that an Asian understood the
instruction )hen he or she )as simpl! saving face#
/egulators /egulators also seem to have more universalit! across cultures than
emblems# /egulators are used to control conversation( although the
communicators ma! not be consciousl! a)are
of them# 'odding to indicate understanding( for example( is a
regulator! behavior#
Adaptors Adaptors are movements used to fulfill a personal need# People )ith
)hom a person interacts are often more a)are of the movement than the
user is# Adaptors can ta6e several forms(
from t)isting paper clips to scratching#
Studies of )or6place proxemics have sho)n that a
business leader ma! select a par7
ticipator! round table or ma! choose to head meetings
from the end of a rectangular table# Ahen given a choice(
friendl! co7)or6ers tend to sit beside each other at a table(
and mere ac*uaintances or enemies in office politics tend
to sit opposite one another#
5asic Co''unications
9nformation theor! gre) out of scientistsF interest in
electronic communication s!stems# As mathematicians and
engineers developed information theor! -also called
communica7 tion theor!.( it came to be applied to
nonelectronic s!stems( including those for human
information processing# ;istening is no) described as one
activit! in a relational processM
,hapter 0
Ta1le *62. Patterns o) &ye Contact
T!pe Description
,ognitive >!e movements are associated )ith thin6ing# <! loo6ing a)a! from
a spea6er( for example( a receiver indicates that no ne) information
is being processed#
Monitoring >!e movements are also associated )ith understanding# The spea6er( in
this case( monitors the degree of e!e contact from the listener#
/egulator! >!e movements are associated )ith a communicatorFs )illingness to
respond to )hatFs being said# The spea6er regulates the
communication flo) b! ma6ing e!e contact and allo)ing the
receiver to indicate )hether he or she is open to further
>xpressive >!e movements are associated )ith the emotional responses of the
people communicating# >!es and the surrounding facial area can
express disgust( anger( happiness( and sadness( among
other emotions#
spea6ing is the other# Together the! ma6e a d!adic -t)o7
part. s!stem# These are some
of the concepts and terms practitioners and researchers in
these areas use2
' en#ironment: conditions or circumstances in )hich a
s!stem operates
' in%ormation: something that reduces uncertaint!
' message: something that is communicated
' source: the sender of a message
' noise: something that hinders the flo) of information
bet)een a source and a receiver
' recei#er: a person or device that gets a message in
human communications and processes it through the
filter of the mind
' %eed(ac4: a communication that gives people
information about the effect of their behavior on others#
5arriers to Listening
;istening is tough and grinding )or6( often humbling(
and sometimes distasteful( sa!s /obert D# Aaterman =r#(
in The <ene+a" Factor: 6o+ to Get and =eep the
Competiti#e $dge -%03&.# Ahen good listeners are on the
receiving end of a message( the! might come up against
man! potential barriers to understanding# <eing a)are of
them is the first step in avoiding them#
,ultural Differences
The rate at )hich a t!pical spea6er tal6s -about %50 )ords
per minute. and the rate
a listener can understand -from about 230 to 40 )ords
per minute. is exploited b! TC and radio commercials(
using electronicall! altered speech to tell and sell
listeners more# Some spea6ers( such as auctioneers( tal6 at
a rate of speech much faster than the average listener can
comprehend# Aith practice( ho)ever( even this fast7
tal6ing st!le can be understood# Most people can thin6
three times faster than the person sending the message#
9f a t!pical spea6er Bust tal6s faster( ho)ever( the )ords
sound rushed or anxious# 9n
a training situation( itFs estimated that learners retain onl!
%4 percent of the spo6en or )ritten )ord# 8ther problems
ma! originate )ith the spea6er because he or she
K ma! be reluctant to conve! the message
K hasnFt thought through the message
K is misinformed or l!ing
K has speech difficulties
K has an accent different from that of the listener
K lac6s the vocabular! to explain the matter at hand or(
conversel!( uses highl! speciali@ed Bargon that the
listener canFt decode
K uses nonverbal communication that doesnFt support
his or her )ords
K fails to state earl! on )h! the message ma! be of
interest to the listener# Do)ever( a listener ma!
K be preoccupied and not shift from this internal dialogue
to the external conver7 sation
K be distracted b! reactions to the spea6erFs clothes( hair
st!le( and so forth
K feel superior to and disrespectful of the spea6er
K be impatient and interrupt because he or she has other
pressing business( believes the message is a )aste of
time( or suspects the message )ill be unpleasant
K lac6 the vocabular! or understanding of nonverbal
communication needed to interpret the message
K have impaired hearing -although a profoundl! deaf
person can be a good listener
in the sense of mental and emotional receptiveness to
messages from others.#
Culture Conce!ts
According to Eieran Mc<rien( author of IDeveloping
;ocali@ation +riendl! >7;earningJ
-2004.( )hen developing e7learning or classroom training
that )ill be used globall!( plan for cultural portabilit!#
,ulture involves the )a! people loo6 at the )orld( a
shared value s!stem# 9t includes language but man! other
things as )ell( such as the value a societ! puts on
,hapter 0
or group action( tolerance for uncertaint!( )illingness to
ta6e ris6s( the comfort level in
interacting )ith a teacher and peers( and so forth# These and
other factors have a direct effect on learning st!les and the
effectiveness of an e7learning product in a given locale#
9n countries such as the $nited States( ,anada( and
Australia( for example( learners are used to getting to the
point *uic6l!( )hereas man! >uropeans ma! expect a
more structured approach# Asians ma! prefer to master
theor! before digging into facts#
The ideal solution might be to create an entirel! ne) product
for each countr! or culture
that )ould ta6e into account all issues of language(
)orldvie)( learning st!le( and content# Do)ever( this
solution is rarel! feasible# 9nstead( training materials and
other soft)are applications need to be designed from the
start )ith multilingual and multicultural audi7 ences in
mind and 6ept reasonabl! neutral# Some aspects of a
course )ill probabl! have
to be adapted during the locali@ation process if the
instructor plans to use the product in multiple countries# An
instructor should start b! 6no)ing the target mar6ets and
include representatives from target locales on design
teams or as revie)ers#
9n general( an instructor should tr! to balance the engaging
use of ne) media )ith the
need to avoid highl! complex( graphicall! intensive e7
learning programs for countries )here t!pical processor
speeds are slo) and 9nternet connections are through
dial7up modems# 8r( offer t)o versions2 lo) and high
band)idth# S)eden and Singapore( for example( have
almost universal broadband access( so understanding the
target mar6etFs infrastructure is important#
Culture and Learning (tyles
As noted in The ASTD Competency Study -<ernthal et al# 2005.(
diversit! in the )or6place
is on the rise# A more diverse )or6force means ne)
attitudes( lifest!les( values( and lev7 els of motivation#
According to a $#S# ,ensus <ureau report published in
=une 2001( the Dispanic population increased b! 0#3
percent bet)een April %( 2000( and =ul! %( 2002( ma6ing it
the largest minorit! group in the $nited States -<ernstein
and <ergman 2001.#
9n that same time period( the Asian population in the $nited
States gre) b! about nine percent( and the ,aucasian
population gre) b! t)o percent#
The population is gro)ing at a high rate in developing
countries and remaining stable
or decreasing in the developed )orld# =apan is a perfect
exampleM its population is rap7 idl! aging( and its birthrate
is the lo)est among industriali@ed nations# =apanFs
shrin6ing )or6force )ill eventuall! lead it to accept large7
scale immigration#
Diversit! is displa!ed in other cultural differences( including
race( gender( ethnicit!( and
affiliations# Trainers need to select materials and media(
such as case studies and videos( that reflect a diverse
audience and eliminate gender7specific language# 9n
addition( as >laine <iech( author of Training %or
Dummies& -2004.( points out( ITrainers ma! need
to balance different pace preferences( different comfort
levels )ith technolog!( and different levels of self7
Trainers must ma6e an effort to learn about those from other
cultures( learn to pronounce names correctl!( and respect
personal preferences# 9f participants have )ritten Ms# or
,ultural Differences
Dr# on their table tents( the! have a strong preference to be
addressed in a more formal
context# /ecogni@ing that a highl! participative learning
approach ma! be uncomfortable for some cultures is
important# Some cultures donFt vie) direct e!e contact as
as those in the $nited States#
Diverse cultures re*uire additional effort# A diverse
audience re*uires that trainers spea6 clearl!( are careful
about giving feedbac6( chec6 fre*uentl! for understanding(
give instruc7 tions in the same se*uence the! are to be
follo)ed( avoid single7countr! references( ta6e care )ith
Bo6es or other offensive remar6s( and repeat information
)hen necessar!#
$ni*ue differences occur in an! language# +or example(
using the collo*uialism IAre !ou
pulling a fast oneNJ doesnFt ma6e much sense to someone
Bust learning the language# Sa! instead( IAre !ou tr!ing to
tric6 meNJ Similarl!( sarcasm ma! be misunderstood# ISure
it isUJ stated sarcasticall! )ill be better understood if !ou
sa! I9 donFt thin6 thatFs correct#J
Participants )ho have disabilities also add diversit! to a
training session# $sing the
)ord IdisabledJ or the specific disabilit! is preferable to the
)ord Ihandicapped#J Some disabilities( such as d!slexia or
diabetes( ma! not be visible but could still create learning
challenges# Trainers canFt learn ever!thing there is to 6no)
about disabilities# Do)ever( the! should tr! to
accommodate special needs b! attending to
environmental aspects( such as lighting( noise levels(
refreshments( and seating arrangements# Trainers must
never assume an!thing and get information about special
needs before the training session# The! must identif! )hat
can be done to maximi@e the learning experience for
Daving a diverse training group is a certaint!# >*uall! as
certain is that diversit! )ill
change the )a! organi@ations deliver training# Dealing
)ith diversit! in the classroom provides an opportunit!
to model appropriate behavior for participants#
Participants )ho see trainers )or6ing effectivel! )ith a
diverse group ma! see the benefit and learn s6ills through
&'erging Issues in Adult &ducation
The aging of the American )or6force means more retirees
and fe)er experienced )or67 ers# According to the $#S#
?eneral Accounting 8ffice -?A8.( b! 20%4 nearl! one in
five $#S# )or6ers )ill be 44 or older -$#S# ?A8 200%.#
/etirees no) often )ant to 6eep a foot in the )or6place
door# According to the American Association of /etired
Persons( nearl! eight of %0 bab! boomers envision
)or6ing at least part time during their retire7 ment -/oper
Starch Aorld)ide %000.# +ive percent anticipate )or6ing
full7time at a ne) Bob or career( but onl! % percent foresee
not )or6ing at all# >uropeFs population is even older than
that of the $nited States( and the age gap there is
)idening# 9n the $nited Eingdom( +rance( ?erman!( and
9tal!( %& to 25 percent of the population is age 0 or
olderM b! 2040 that percentage is proBected to rise to 12 to
54 percent#
As these demographics in the population shift( there are
man! implications for trainers#
As ;aura <ierema -2002. points out( IDespite this
demographic trend( a recent stud! conducted b! the
'ational ,ouncil of Aging found persisting ageist vie)s in
more than
40 percent of emplo!ers -/eio and Saunders7/eio %000.# +or
example( the Department of
,hapter 0
;abor reports that people age 44 to 5 )ere onl! one7third
as li6el! to receive training
as someone age 14 to 55( and older )or6ers attending
training )ere often mistreated and vie)ed as VuntrainableFJ
-Maurer and /afuse 200%.#
<ierema -2002. continues(
Training for older )or6ers is usuall! focused
on basic s6ill development rather than
exposure to ne) ideas or activities that lead to
promotion and pa! increase# The experience of
older )or6ers ma! be diminished or overloo6ed
in an educational program since erroneous( ageist
assumptions are )idespread about their interest
in and abilit! to learn# +urthermore( age
eventuall! gives those alread! marginali@ed a
double minorit! status and has the potential to
marginali@e even )hite men#
Despite these unsettling findings( research has
sho)n there is not
evidence of a pattern of superior performance or
productivit! in an! age group# Adult learners
perform )ell in their Bob( desire learning( are
able to learn as )ell as !ounger people( and often
help !ounger people learn# 9n fact( older )or6ers
outshine !ounger )or6ers in lo!alt!( satisfaction(
and attendance#
These are some other trends noted b! <ieremav -2002.2
' 3omen: Aomen ma6e up nearl! half of the $#S#
)or6force( !et the! experience discrimination on the
basis of position( pa!( and promotion# Although )hite
)omen do fare better than )omen of color( it seems
that )omen are at a disadvantage because the! lac6
developmental relationships and access to training
and other activities that aid in promotion of )hite
' <ace: Although race and ethnicit! categories have
increased to %3 according to
the 2000 ,ensus -$#S# ,ensus <ureau 200%.( these
minorities are the maBorit! in six of the eight largest
metropolitan areas -<iech 2004.#
' Language: 9n %000( approximatel! %5 million foreign7
born $#S# residents indicated
that the! had limited or no >nglish language
proficienc!# Despite this multilingual American realit!(
$#S# courts have consistentl! maintained that Title C99
does not protect )or6ersF abilit! to express their
cultural heritage -such as spea6ing a na7 tive
language. in the )or6place and that conversing on
the Bob in an! language
is allo)ed at the emplo!erFs discretion -Digh %003.#
Some organi@ations have adopted an >nglish7onl!
polic!( claiming business necessit!#
According to <ierema -2002.( if >nglish is not a learnerFs first
language( the learner ma! be
excluded from developmental programs and be forced to
suppress a cultural or religious heritage# >ven )hen >nglish
is a first language( these learners ma! be suppressed to 6eep
a Bob or receive a promotion# 'one of these d!namics fosters
learning and development
in the )or6place#
<ierema -2002. suggests that )ith the changing d!namics
of the $#S# )or6force( orga7 ni@ations and educators must
respond to these changes b! adopting a ne) )or6place
,ultural Differences
pedagogy that lin6s the individual and context(
reconceptuali@es )or6place develop7
ment as a lifelong process( formulates socioculturall!
sensitive polic!( provides e*ual opportunit!
development( acts to foster change( and adopts diversit!
and multiculturalism programs )ith a critical e!e and a
cautious heart#
,hapter 0
,ultural Differences
<ernstein( /#( and M# <ergman# - =une %3( 2001.# IDispanic
Population /eaches All7Time
Digh of 13#3 Million( 'e) ,ensus <ureau >stimates
Sho)#J $#S# ,ensus <ureau: $#S# Department of
,ommerce# -8ut of print#.
<ernthal( P#/#( et al# -2005.# The ASTD Competency Study:
Mapping the Future. Alexandria( CA2 ASTD Press#
<iech( ># -2004.# Training %or Dummies&# Dobo6en( '=2
Aile! Publishing#
<ierema( ;#;# -2002.# IThe Sociocultural ,ontexts of
;earning in the Aor6place#J Learning and
Sociocu"tura" Conte0ts: mp"ications %or Adu"ts!
Community! and 3or4p"ace $ducation! M#C# Alfred(
editor# San +rancisco2 =osse!7<ass( pp# 0G&3#
<orisoff( D#( and D#A# Cictor# -%030.# Con%"ict
Management: A Communication S4i""s
Approach. >ngle)ood ,liffs( '=2 Prentice7Dall#
<utruille( S#?# -%033.# I;istening to ;earnM ;earning to
;isten#J n%o"ine 'o# 24330# ,arliner( S# -2001.# Training
Design )asics&. Alexandria( CA2 ASTD Press#
Dearden( =# -%000.# I>valuating 8ff7the7Shelf ,<T
,ourse)are#J n%o"ine 'o# 240003#
Digh( P# -%003.# I/ace Matters#J Mosaics: Society o% 6uman
-er%ormance De#e"opment
5-4.( pp# %ff#
Dall( >#T# -%0&&.# )eyond Cu"ture. 'e) Oor62 Anchor
Mar*uardt( M# -%000.# ISuccessful ?lobal Training#J n%o"ine
'o# 2400%1.
Maurer( T#=#( and '#># /afuse# -200%.# I;earning( not
;itigating2 Managing >mplo!ee
Development and Avoiding ,laims of Age
Discrimination#J Academy o%
Management $0ecuti#e %4-5.( pp# %%0G%2%#
Mc<rien( E# -Ma! 2004.# IDeveloping ;ocali@ation +riendl! >7
;earning#J Learning Circuits#
M!ers( S# -%000.# I<asics of 9ntercultural ,ommunication#J
n%o"ine 'o# 240000# -8ut of print#.
Pis6urich( ?#M#( P# <ec6schi( and <# Dall( editors# -2000.# The
ASTD 6and(oo4 o% Train- ing Design and De"i#ery.
'e) Oor62 Mc?ra)7Dill#
/eio( T#?#( and =# Saunders7/eio# -%000.# I,ombating
Aor6place Ageism#J Adu"t
Learning %%-%.( pp# %0G%1#
/oper Starch Aorld)ide# -+ebruar! %000.# I<ab! <oomers
>nvision Their /etirement2 An AA/P Segmentation
Anal!sis#J American Association of /etired Persons#
%000:aresearch7import7200#html# /usso( ,#S# -2001.#
I<asic Training for Trainers#J n%o"ine 'o# 243303#
,hapter 0
$#S# ,ensus <ureau# -200%.# I200 Oears of $#S# ,ensus
Ta6ing2 Population and Dousing
Ruestions %&00G%000#J Aashington( D,2 <ureau of the
,ensus( Department of
$#S# ?eneral Accounting 8ffice# -200%.# I8lder Aor6ers2
Demographic Trends Pose ,hal7 lenges for >mplo!ers
and Aor6ers#J Aashington( D, Available at
Aaterman( /#D#( =r# -%03&.# The <ene+a" Factor: 6o+ to
Get and =eep the Competiti#e
$dge. Toronto( ,anada2 <antam#
Co''unicating Content
<eing prepared for training allo)s a )or6place learning
and performance -A;P. profes7 sional to present material
in a professional manner and 6eeps the focus of training
on the correct topic# Man! adult learners *uic6l! lose
interest if a A;P professional is un7 prepared for the
content he or she is teaching# After a learnerFs interest is
lost( regaining the personFs attention is difficult#
Preparation of the training content also helps ensure
effective communication# Ahen A;P professionals are
unprepared for training( rambling
to get a point across might be the conse*uence# Aith
preparation( a A;P professional
is more capable of creating an interactive training
9f trainers have a hand in designing or developing the
training content( the! have a head start# At this point( the!
should be some)hat familiar )ith the learning obBectives
and ma! have been involved )ith some of the anal!sis(
research( and discussions )ith sponsors
or subBect matter experts# To be an effective instructor(
ho)ever( a A;P professional still needs to prepare to
communicate information successfull!#
Learning 12ective,
Discuss the impor tance of ade*uate
preparation to ensure effective communication
during training deliver!#
,hapter %0
Pre!aring Content
<efore the session( a trainer should find out as much as
possible about the partici7 pants )ho )ill be attending
the training session# 9n addition( trainers should gather
bac6ground information about the course content( the
business or performance need that gave rise to the
session( and 6e! obBectives that should be accomplished
b! the end of the session#
9f possible( the trainer should find out )ho )ill be attending
the training session as )ell
as the follo)ing information2
K Ahat is the Bob role of each participant and Bob level
in the organi@ational hierarch!N
K Ah! is the participant attending the training session
Hfor example( to learn
ne) s6ills needed for the Bob or because itFs
mandator! and the person must attendN
K Das the participant had experience )ith the topic in
the past( or is the content ne)N
Presentation 8otes
>ven if trainers have prepared the presentation in ever!
respect( 6no) their participants and the ph!sical setup(
and have organi@ed the material( the! still must prepare
for something to go )rong# >as!7to7follo) notes can
help trainers overcome most of the anno!ing mishaps
the! are li6el! to encounter# ?ood trainers must be able to
see notes
in bright or dim lights and from different positions and
angles# These tips can help train7 ers prepare presentation
K $se large t!pe#
K Double7 or triple7space bet)een lines( and
double that space bet)een paragraphs#
K $se hanging indents for paragraphs so that the first line is
eas! to spot on the page#
K Eeep a complete sentence on one page( and( )hen
possible( 6eep an entire paragraph on one page#
K Put six periods at the end of a sentence( so as to not
run sentences together accidentall!#
K T!pe )ords the )a! the! )ill be said -for example(
Ione7and7a7half million dollars(J not IQ%(400(000J.#
K $se onl! one side of the sheet of paper( and donFt
fasten the sheets in an! )a!#
K 'umber the sheets of paper#
K Mar6 exactl! )here visual aids are used b! putting a
6e! )ord or s6etch in the margin#
,ommunicating ,ontent
Do) does a trainer become prepared to train a sessionN
Practice( practice( and more practice# Dalf the preparation
for a presentation is rehearsal( )ith the presenter acting
as both the pla!)right and the cast# Practicing in as man!
)a!s as possible helps )ith thorough preparation# Trainers
should consider these suggestions for rehearsing2
K /ehearse enough to learn the presentation and then
go through the entire pre7
sentation at each rehearsal# 9f a mista6e happens or
an item is omitted( trainers should proceed as
though the! )ere actuall! delivering the
presentation# This method helps trainers deal more
easil! )ith mista6es#
K /educe reliance on notes )ith each rehearsal# ;earning
to ma6e mental notes of
important points in the introduction and conclusion
facilitates maintaining continu7 ous e!e contact )ith
participants during those critical parts of the
K Practice )ith a tape recorder to achieve a pleasant(
livel!( and interesting voice#
,hec6 for variations in pace( inflection( and pitch to
avoid a monotonous tone( and be careful of volume
dropping off at the end of sentences#
K Cideotape a rehearsal as another )a! to chec6 voice
and to observe gestures(
e!e contact( bod! movement( and interaction )ith
visual aids# Pa! attention
to repeated mannerisms that could be anno!ing( such
as pushing hair bac6 or sa!ing I!ou 6no)#J
K /ehearse in front of people# Although trainers should
trust their o)n opinions(
pa!ing attention to the rehearsal audienceFs comments is
important( too# /ehearsing
in front of people increases self7confidence and
improves preparation for deliver!#
K Practice ad7libbing to avoid reading from a script during
the presentation# Practic7 ing this s6ill increases trainersF
comfort level during the actual deliver!#
K Dress for a rehearsal in the actual clothes planned for the
presentation to discover
ho) )ell attire )ill react to movements and gestures#
Dress comfortabl! and appropriatel!#
Trainer Personality
Trainers should strive to thin6 of training deliver! as an
opportunit! rather than a fright7 ening prospect# To help
)ith this mindset( trainers should use personalit!(
or enthusiasm to their advantage )ith these techni*ues2
K Pretend to be brave#
K +ocus attention on the subBect of the presentation(
and move their minds off themselves#
K ,onvert fear into positive nervousness b! accepting
rather than resisting fear#
K >nBo! themselves( and thin6 of fears as opportunities#
K Avoid stimulants or depressants( such as caffeine or
,hapter %0
K Do isometrics )hile )aiting to give the introduction#
K Pa! attention to breathing to ensure that the!Fre
breathing rh!thmicall!#
Much of training is preparing to pea6 at the moment of
performance# Athletes prepare ph!sicall! and mentall! for
Bust such moments( and a trainer can do the same# A
trainerFs attitude more than his or her abilit! can )in an
audience# >mplo!ers often select a more enthusiastic
candidate over a more *ualified one( and trainers can
ensure a success7 ful deliver! b! sharing their enthusiasm
)ith participants# >nthusiasm sho)s that the! believe in
themselves and in the subBect#
A trainer should be careful not to fa6e enthusiasm(
ho)ever# Participants can sense
immediatel! if a trainer isnFt being genuine# <! accepting
and understanding that a )arm and spontaneous deliver!
is better than a perfect one( the trainer can guarantee
being naturall! enthusiastic and appropriatel! dramatic#
>xaggeration is an important and nec7 essar! element of
oral communication#
,ommunicating ,ontent
,hapter %0
<iech( ># -2004.# Training %or Dummies&# Dobo6en( '=2
Aile! Publishing#
McArdle( ?#># -%000.# Training Design and De"i#ery.
Alexandria( CA2 ASTD Press#
Legal and &thical Issues
Training professionals must get permission and
give credit appropriatel! )hen using materials as
part of a classHand should also ensure that par7
ticipants are a)are of( and understand( these
guidelines# Materials shared during a training
session might be in print or electronic format
and ma!
be confidential#
The )or6place learning and performance -A;P.
professional must be a)are of legisla7 tive initiatives that
affect the organi@ationFs strategic vision and emplo!ees#
8ne of the most important la)s is cop!right# $sing a )or6
thatFs protected b! cop!right for training purposes re*uires
permission from the cop!right o)ner# Trainers must
understand ho) la)s and regulations ma! affect the
design( deliver!( and measurement of a learning or
performance initiative#
Title %&( ,ode of +ederal /egulations( Section %0&(
limitations on exclusive rights
states2 +air use provides that Ithe fair use of a cop!righted
)or6( including such use b! reproduction in copies or
phonorecords or b! an! other means specified b! that
section( for purposes such as criticism( comment( ne)s
reporting( teaching -including multiple cop7 ies for
classroom use.( scholarship( or research( is not an
infringement of cop!right#
I9n determining )hether the use made of a )or6 in an!
particular case is a fair use( the factors to be considered shall
I-%. the purpose and character of the use( including )hether
such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit
educational purposes
I-2. the nature of the cop!righted )or6
I-1. the amount and substantialit! of the portion used in
relation to the cop!righted )or6 as a )hole
I-5. the effect of the use upon the potential mar6et for or
value of the cop!righted )or6#J
IThe fact that a )or6 is unpublished shall not bar a finding of
fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the
above factorsJ -As amended %000.#
Title %& $S, Sec# 20% continues2 I-b. Aor6s Made +or DireH
9n the case of a )or6 made
for hire( the emplo!er or other person for )hom the )or6
made for hire( the emplo!er
or other person for )hom the )or6 )as prepared is
considered the author for Spurposes
of Title %&T( unless the parties have agreed expressl!
other)ise in a )ritten instrument signed b! them( o)ns all
of the rights comprised in the cop!rightJ -As amended %0&.#
Learning 12ective,
Summari@e ho) cop!right and fair use la)s relate
to the production of ma7 terials for training deliver!#
,hapter %%
.ey .no3ledge, Co!yright and 9air 7se
The cop!right la) protects the expression of ideas -but
not the idea itself . in some tangible form -boo6(
maga@ine( video or film( microfilm( cassette tape(
computer dis6( and so on.# Although the exact
)ords in a boo6 ma! be cop!righted( the ideas in
the boo6 are not#
The follo)ing canFt be cop!righted2 ideas( processes(
procedures( methods of
operation( concepts( principles( or discoveries#
Do)ever( a tangible description( explanation( or
illustration of these ma! be cop!righted#
A cop!right is secured immediatel! and automaticall!
)hen the )or6 is created(
and a )or6 is created )hen itFs fixed in some form of a
tangible expression -such
as a computer dis6 or print cop!.# /egistering the )or6
)ith the $#S# ,op!right
8ffice provides legal protection and redress in state and
federal courts#
A cop!right holder has the exclusive right to
K reproduce the cop!righted )or6
K prepare derivative )or6s -adaptation. based on the
cop!righted )or6
K distribute copies of the cop!righted )or6 to the public
b! sale or other transfer
of o)nership( or b! rental( lease( or lending
K perform the cop!righted )or6 publicl!( in the case of
motion pictures or other audiovisual )or6s
K displa! the cop!righted )or6 publicl!( in the case of
audiovisual )or6#
>xclusive rights are *ualified b! the fair use privilege(
)hich allo)s others to use cop!righted material in a
reasonable manner )ithout consent# Although legal
guidelines exist( fair use is a tric6! legal concept to
9n fair use( a A;P professional is free to cop! from a
protected )or6 for purposes
of criticism( ne)s reporting( teaching( or research as
long as the value of the cop!righted )or6 isnFt
diminished for the author# Proper citations should
al)a!s be used to avoid passing the )or6 off as
original -an act 6no)n as plagiarism.# The best
practice is to obtain )ritten consent from the
cop!right holder to use the materials( even for an
educational program# Do)ever( protection is
to use materials in a training contextM despite that(
ma6ing sure all citations or other attribution to
cop!righted )or6 are included is prudent#
+or more information( see Module ( Managing the
Learning Function! chapter
%4( I;egal( /egulator!( and >thical /e*uirements#J
A!!endi+ A
Accelerated Learning /AL0 results in long7term retention
b! the learner# 9tFs accomplished b! honoring the different
learning preferences of each learner and using
experiential learning exercises -such as role pla!s(
mnemonics( props( music( and so forth.#
ADDI& is an instructional s!stems development model
composed of five phases2 anal!sis( design( development(
implementation( and evaluation#
Andragogy -from the ?ree6 meaning Iadult learningJ. is
the adult learning theor!
populari@ed b! Malcolm Eno)les( based on five 6e!
principles that influence ho) adults learn2 self7concept(
prior experience( readiness to learn( orientation to
learning( and motivation to learn#
Asynchronous Training E Learning refers to a scenario
that doesnFt re*uire the trainer
and the trainee to participate at the same timeM email or
threaded discussions are t)o examples#
5lended Learning describes the practice of using
several media in one curriculum# 9t
t!picall! refers to the combination of classroom instruction
and an! t!pe of training that includes self7directed use of
online capabilities#
Chain o) :es!onse /C:0 is one of t)o conceptual
frame)or6s populari@ed b! Patricia
,ross# ,8/ pertains to adult participation in learning and
delineates some common ele7 ments of earlier participation
models for the ,8/ model2 Motivation to participate is the
result of a personFs perception of both positive and
negative forces( certain personalit! t!pes are difficult to
attract to education because of lo) self7esteem( there is
congru7 ence bet)een participation and anticipated
learning outcomes( higher7order needs for achievement
and self7actuali@ation canFt be fulfilled until lo)er7order
needs for securit! and safet! are met( and expectations of
re)ard are important to motivation#
Characteristics o) Adults as Learners /CAL0 is one of
t)o conceptual frame)or6s
populari@ed b! Patricia ,ross( in )hich she describes
some differences bet)een adults and children so that
alternative teaching strategies could be developed# She
incorporated some assumptions of andragog! into the ,A;
frame)or6 as a means for thin6ing about the ever7
changing adult in terms of developmental stages#
Co'!uter65ased Training /C5T0 encompasses the use
of computers in both instruc7
tion and management of the teaching and learning process#
,omputer7aided instruction and computer7managed
instruction are also included under the term ,<T#
Distance Learning is an educational situation in )hich
the instructor and students are
separated b! time( location( or both# >ducation or training
courses are delivered to remote locations via s!nchronous or
as!nchronous means of instruction#
Appendix A
&6Learning is a term covering a )ide set of applications
and processes( such as )eb7
based learning( computer7based learning( virtual
classrooms( and digital collaboration# Deliver! of content
ma! be via the 9nternet( intranet:extranet -;A':AA'.(
audiotape and videotape( satellite broadcast( interactive
television( and ,D7/8M#
&lectronic Per)or'ance (u!!ort (yste' /&P((0 is a
computer application thatFs
lin6ed directl! to another application to train or guide
)or6ers through completing a tas6 in the target
application# More generall!( itFs a computer or other
device that gives )or6ers information or resources to
help them accomplish a tas6 or achieve perfor7 mance
re*uirements# These s!stems deliver information on the
Bob( Bust in time( and )ith minimum staff support#
9acilitation in the training field refers to the role of the
person or trainer )ho guides
or ma6es learning easier( both in content and in application
of the content to the Bob#
-ardner; Bo3ard designed Multiple 9ntelligence Theor!(
an accelerated learning theor! that states thereFs no single
)a! in )hich ever!one thin6s and learns# ?ardner devised
a list of %0 intelligences2 linguistic:verbal(
logical:mathematical( spatial:visual( bodil!: 6inesthetic(
musical( interpersonal( intrapersonal( naturalistic(
existential( and emotional# These intelligences in different
combinations ma6e up a personFs learning st!le# -See
also Mu"tip"e nte""igence Theory#.
Berr'ann 5rain Do'inance Instru'ent is a method
of personalit! testing developed
b! A#># -'ed. Derrmann that classifies learners in terms
of preferences for thin6ing in the four modes based on
brain function2 left brain( cerebralM left brain( limbicM right
brain( limbicM and right brain( cerebral# -See also Learning
Ice1rea%ers are activities conducted at the beginning of
training programs that introduce
participants to one anotherM ma! introduce contentM and(
in general( help participants ease into the program#
Instructional (trategies( sometimes called presentation
strategies( are the mechanisms through )hich instruction is
Instructional (yste's Design /I(D0 -sometimes
referred to as instructional s!stems
development. is a s!stem approach to anal!@ing(
designing( developing( implementing( and evaluating an!
instructional experience based on the belief that training
is most effective )hen it gives learners a clear statement
of )hat the! must be able to do as a result of training
and ho) their performance )ill be evaluated# The program
is designed
to teach s6ills through hands7on practice or performance7
based instruction#
=o1 Aids provide guidance or assistance( either audio or
visual( to a performer about )hen to carr! out tas6s and
steps( thereb! reducing the amount of recall needed and
minimi@ing error# $suall! tas6s that are performed )ith
relativel! lo) fre*uenc!( are highl! complex( are li6el! to
change in the future( or involve a high probabilit! of error
are good candidates for Bob aids#
=ust6in6Ti'e Training provides learning )hen itFs actuall!
needed and used on the Bob#
.no3les; Malcol' is considered the father of adult
learning theor!# De defined six
assumptions about adult learning and published The Adu"t
Learner: A Eeg"ected Species
in %0&1#
.ol1?s Learning (tyle Inventory( developed b!
David Eolb( is an inventor! of four learning st!les or
modes -concrete experience( reflective observation(
abstract conceptu7 ali@ation( and active experimentation.
and peopleFs orientation to them# Eolb categori@es learners
as convergers( divergers( assimilators( or accommodators#
-See also Learning Sty"e#.
.(A is an abbreviation that has t)o definitions# Eno)ledge
-cognitive.( s6ills -ps!cho7
motor.( and attitudes -affective. are the three obBective
domains of learning defined b!
<enBamin <loomFs Taxonom! in the %040s# Eno)ledge(
s6ills( and abilit! are also referred
to as ESAs and are used b! federal and private hiring agencies
to determine the attributes
or *ualities an emplo!ee possesses for a particular Bob#
Learning is the process of gaining 6no)ledge(
understanding( or s6ill b! stud!( instruc7 tion( or experience#
Learning (tyle describes a personFs approach to
learning that involves the )a! he or
she behaves( feels( and processes information# -See also
Mu"tip"e nte""igence TheoryG 6errmann )rain Dominance
nstrumentG =o"(s Learning Sty"e n#entoryG and 2A= Mode"..
Multi!le Intelligence Theory( populari@ed b! Do)ard
?ardner in Frames o% Mind
-%031.( describes ho) intelligences reflect ho) people
prefer to process information# ?ardner believes that most
people are comfortable in three to four of these
intelligences and avoid the others# +or example( for
learners )ho arenFt comfortable )or6ing )ith others(
doing group case studies ma! interfere )ith their abilit! to
process ne) material#
-See also Gardner! 6o+ard#.
Myers65riggs Ty!e Indicator /M5TI0 consists of
categories that identif! % t!pes
of personalities based on extraversion or introversion(
intuiting or sensing( thin6ing or feeling( and Budging or
perceiving# 9tFs used in career development and team
8eurolinguistic Progra''ing /8LP0 is a st!le of
communication and behavior change
management based on observations and anal!ses of
unconscious ph!sical behaviors that identif! patterns of
feeling and thought#
12ective is a target or purpose that( )hen combined )ith
other obBectives( leads to a goal# The follo)ing are some
examples of t!pes of learning7related obBectives2
5ehavioral obBectives specif! the particular ne)
behavior that a person should be able to perform after
A))ective obBectives are learning obBectives that
specif! the ac*uisition of par7 ticular attitudes( values(
or feelings#
Learning obBectives are a clear( measurable statement
of behavior that a learner demonstrates )hen the
training is considered a success#
!ening &+ercises( also called openers( differ from
icebrea6ers in that the! introduce
or tie in to the subBect matter being taught# 8peners set the
stage to avoid abrupt starts
Appendix A
and generall! ma6e participants comfortable )ith the
formal program the!Fre about to
experience# 8peners ma! also energi@e the group after
coffee brea6s and luncheons and can be used to open
sessions that occur on the second or third da! of the
Pedagogy is an informal philosoph! of teaching that
focuses on )hat the instructor does rather than )hat
participants learn# 9t usuall! refers to teaching children#
Perce!tual Modality( a theor! developed b! A#<# =ames
and M#A# ?albraith( states that
a learnerFs primar! perceptual modalit! and the attendant
preferred mode of learning ma! be print( visual( aural(
interactive( tactile( 6inesthetic( or olfactor!#
Plug6in is a mini soft)are application that enables a
person to vie) or pla! audio or
video clips delivered via the )eb# The term is important in
the )orld of )eb7delivered multimedia audio and video
because all content delivered this )a! re*uires a plug7in#
Pro+e'ics is the relationship of peopleFs positions in
space# +or example( anthropolo7
gist >d)ard T# Dall defined four differences bet)een adults
in the $nited States2 intimate
-%3 inches.( personal -%3 inches to four feet.( social -four
to %2 feet.( and public -more than %2 feet.# As Dall and
others have explained( )hen people believe someone is
too close( the! feel threatenedM ho)ever( the! donFt li6e
the compan! of someone )ho seems standoffish#
:ole Play is an activit! in )hich participants act out
roles( attitudes( or behaviors that
are not their o)n to practice s6ills or appl! )hat the! have
learned# 8ften an observer provides feedbac6 to those in
(el)6Directed Learning /(DL0 is individuali@ed or self7
paced learning that generall!
refers to programs using a variet! of deliver! media(
ranging from print products to )eb7 based s!stems# 9t can
also refer to less formal t!pes of learning( such as team
learning( 6no)ledge management s!stems( and self7
development programs#
(u12ect Matter &+!ert /(M&0 is a person )ho has
extensive 6no)ledge and s6ills in
a particular subBect area#
(ilver and Banson?s Learning (tyle Inventory )as
developed b! =# /obert Danson and Darve! +# Silver -%030.#
This team adapted the M!ers7<riggs T!pe 9ndicator to create
a spectrum of four distinct learning st!les2 sensing7thin6ing
-ST.( intuitive7thin6ing -'T.( sensing7feeling -S+.( and
intuitive7feeling -'+.#
(ynchronous Training refers to a scenario that involves
the trainer and the learner participating at the same time# 9t
often refers to electronic or )eb7based training#
<A. Model is a model of the )a! people learn and
retain information# Some people
learn primaril! through one st!le( and others through a
combination of the three models
of learning st!les2 visual -need for pictures( diagrams( and
other visuals.( audio -need to hear information.( and
6inesthetic -preference for hands7on learning.# -See also
Learn- ing Sty"e#.
<irtual Classroo' is an online learning space )here
learners and instructors interact#
$e165ased Training /$5T0 is deliver! of educational
content via a )eb bro)ser over the public 9nternet( a private
intranet( or an extranet#
$or%!lace Learning and Per)or'ance /$LP0 refers
to the professions of training(
performance( improvement( learning( development( and
)or6place education# 9tFs often collo*uiall! referred to as
training or training and development#
A!!endi+ C
'ote2 % represents a figure and t
represents a table#
accelerated learning -A;.( 32G3
accents( 00
active listening( 41t
active training
techni*ues( 52
activities( facilitation
of( 40G44 adaptors(
ADD9> model( 5
adult education( emerging issues
in( %0&G0
adult learning theories( 2
affect displa!s( %01t
A; -accelerated learning.( 32G3
American )or6force
demographics( %0&G0
andragog! and learning
climates( 1 appearance of
trainers( %02
as!nchronous learning( %&( %0( 44
audio( %&( 20G2%
authorit!( %0%
behaviors( 5G40( %0%( %01t( %05t
<iech( >laine( 40( %0
;aura( %0&
learning( &G3
blogs( %&( 20
bod! language( 53G40( %02( %01t(
See a"so nonverbal
brainstorming( 52
bro)sers( %&( 2%G22
,anfield ;earning St!le 9nventor!(
case studies( 52
chain of response -,8/.( 3%G32
The Change Masters -Moss
Eanter.( &1 characteristics of
adults as learners -,A;.( 32
chat rooms( %&( %0
cheat sheets( 22G21
classroom training( 0G%%( 13G51( 44
closings( 50( 5
collaboration technolog!( %&( %0G20
n about(
%01G5 culture
and( 03G00
e7learning and( 43G%
e!e contact( 5&G53( %02( %05t
mannerisms( 53G40
nonverbal behaviors( %0%( %01t(
voice and( 5G5&( 00
communities of practice -,oPs.(
%&G%3( %0G20
preparation( %%
contexting( %0%
cop!right( %2%G
,8/ -chain of response.( 32
culture and diversit!( &1G&5( 0&G%0%(
curriculum development( 1G5
deliver! options( &
difficult participants( 5%G52
discussions( %3( 4%
distance learning( %4
distribution methods( %4G%( %t(
diversit! and culture( &1G&5( 0&G%0%(
about( 0
advantages of( %G%&
audio( video in(
20G2% classroom
training vs#( 0G%0 e7
learning 2#0( %3
engagement strategies for( 4&G2
$-Learning -/osenberg.( 22
electronic bulletin boards( %3( %0
electronic performance support
s!stems ->PSSs.(
%3( 21G24
text( %3
demographics( %0&G0
energ! levels( 52G51
engagement# See
environment( 00G%00
>PSSs -electronic performance
support s!stems.(
%3( 21G24
e*uipment and
materials( %1G%5
ethical and legal
issues( %2%G22
ethnicit!( %03
Appendix ,
expectations( setting( 10
e!e contact( 5&G53( %02( %05t
facilitation( 1&( 40G44( 42G41t
selection( %%G%4
fair use( %2%G22
feedbac6( %
flipcharts( 1G5( &t
Dall( >d)ard T#( %02G1
handouts( %1G%5
Derrmann <rain Dominance
9nstrument( &3
Dodell( ,huc6( 1
h!permnesia( 31
icebrea6ers( 51G54( 55t
illustrators( %01t
instructional development( 1G
about( 4
blended learning( &G3
e7learning( 0G%0( %G%3( 20G
2%( 4&G2
examples of( 11t
selection of( ( &( 1%G11(
11t instructional s!stems
design -9SD.( 1G5
interaction( 0G%
intercultural communication(
SD From the Ground Up
-Dodell.( 1
Bob aids( 22G21
6no)ledge( s6ills( and
attitudes -ESAs.(
Eno)les( Malcolm( 1
EolbFs learning st!le inventor!(
&G&3( &%
language and speech( 00( %03
learner demographics(
%0&G0 learning climates(
1G1& learning factors(
3&G33 learning groups(
%0G20 learning
obBectives( 13( 44
learning preferences( 33G
learning st!le inventories( &G
&3( &%( 3G3&( 30
learning st!le theories
Derrmann <rain
Dominance 9nstrument( &3
EolbFs learning st!le
inventor!( &G&3( &%
multiple intelligence
theor!( 30
programming -';P.(
learning st!les( 33G30( %0G&
;earning St!les
Ruestionnaire( 30G00
learning technologies( 1%G11(
See a"so blended learningM e7
legal and ethical issues( %2%G
Eurt( 2
cs( 00
( 41t(
;o@anovFs principles( 31
mannerisms( 53G40
See a"so bod!
materials and
e*uipment( %1G
M<T9 -M!ers7<riggs T!pe
9ndicator.( 3G3&
mobile learning( %3
Morita( A6io( 0&
Moss Eanter( /osabeth( &1
multimedia( %3
multiple intelligence theor!( 30
M!ers7<riggs T!pe 9ndicator
-M<T9.( 3G3&
needs assessment( 00
neurolinguistic programming
-';P.( &3G&0
nonverbal behaviors( %0%( %01t(
See a"so bod!
language nuance
errors( 00

obBectives( 13( 44
online communities( %0G20
online help( %3
overhead proBectors( &t
overhead screens( %%G%2
difficult participants
and( 5%G52 in e7
learning( 4&G2
encouragement of( 1&
holding attention and( 13
icebrea6ers and( 51G54( 55t
techni*ues for( 4G4&
P>PS -Productivit!
>nvironmental Preference
Surve!.( 30
perceptual modalities( 30G
3% performance support
s!stems( %3( 22G24
peripheral facilities( %2
personal appearance of
trainers( %02
personal space(
%00 plug7ins(
2%G22 podcasts(
%3 preparation(
1&G13( %%
presentation methods( %4G%(
%t( 11t
presentation tools
flipcharts( 1G5(
&t handouts(
%1G%5 overhead
proBectors( &t
overhead screens( %%G
%2 presentation
soft)are( 4G( &t
slides( 1( &t
visual aids( 40G0( 2G1
)hiteboards( 4( &t
behavior in(
elements of(
50 notes for(
for( %%&
Productivit! >nvironmental
Preference Surve!
( &t
s( %02
ps!cholog! and culture( %00G
*uestions( facilitation( 42G41t
race and ethnicit!( %03
50G5% regulators(
%01t rehearsals(
%%& restroom
facilities( %2
retention strategies( 4&G43
role pla!s( 52
/osenberg( Marc( 22
screens( %%G%2
seating arrangements( %2G%1(
self7directed learning -SD;.( 24G
Silver and DansonFs learning
st!le inventor!( 3&
simulations( %3
slides( 1( &t
social organi@ation( %00G%0%
soft)are( 4G( &t
speech and
language( 00(
s!nchronous learning( %3G%0
blogs( %&(
%&( 2%G22
%&( %0
collaboration technolog!( %&(
values of(
%00 plug7
ins( 2%G22
of( &
4G( &t
! in( %&G%0
%3 virtual
%3 virtual
)orlds( %0
Aeb 2#0( %0
)i6is( %0( 20
See a"so blended learningM
e7learningM learning
technolog!7based learning( %G%&
teleconferencing( %3
theories( 2
See a"so learning
st!le theories thought
processing( %00G%0%
threaded discussions(
time and culture( %0%
touching( %02
appearance of( %02
personalities of(
%%&G%3 preparation
of( 1&G13( %%
behavior of( 5
training deliver!( 1&G13
See a"so instructional methods
Training %or Dummies -<iech.(
40( %0
training st!les( 33G30
trainings( management of( 13G51
Appendix ,
transitions( 41t
translation errors( 00
CAE model( &3G&0
videos( %3( 20G
2% virtual
classrooms( %3
virtual )orlds(
visual aids( 40G0( 2G1
See a"so
presentation tools
voice( 5G5&( 00
Aeb 2#0( %0
)eb bro)sers(
%&( 2%G22
)eblogs( %&( 20
)hiteboards( 4(
&t )i6is( %0( 20
Aithers( <ill( 4%( 41G45
)omen and trends( %03
)or6force demographics( %0&G0
A(TD Learning (yste'
&ditorial (ta))
Director2 Anthon! Allen
Manager2 ;arr! +ox
>ditors2 Tora >step( Ashle!
>ditorial Assistant2
Stephanie ,astellano
Contri1uting &ditors
April Michelle Davis(
Stephanie Sussan
Eris Patenaude
-ra!hic Designer
Eathleen Schaner
April Michelle Davis
ASTD -American Societ!
for Training
" Development. is the
)orldFs largest association
dedicated to )or6place
learning and performance
professionals# ASTDFs
&0(000 members and
associates come from more
than %00 countries
and thousands of
multinational corporations(
medium7 si@ed and small
businesses( government(
academia( consulting
firms( and product and
service suppliers#
ASTD mar6s its beginning
in %055 )hen
the organi@ation held its
first annual conference# 9n
recent !ears( ASTD has
)idened the industr!Fs
focus to connect learning
and performance to
measurable results and is a
sought7after voice on
critical public polic!
Tho'son 8&Tg (ta))
Solutions Manager2 /ob!n
Director2 =ohn P!d!n
Contri1uting $riters
;!nn ;e)is( Da)n /ader
;isa ;ord( Eim ;indros( Earen
Thomson '>Tg( formerl!
b! the Thomson
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