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# ' PROGRAM NAME: DESIGN.BAS (C:\CNCMOULD\F2C\ANALYSE\DESIGN.

BAS)
' *************************************************************
' Design a propeller entirely from blade element analysis algorithms.
' Chord distribution must satisfy constant slip.
' Blade angle-of-attack arbitrarily chosen, but somewhere near best L/D
' *************************************************************

' Method is based on work of the late E. Eugene Larrabee, published
' in the 1979 NFFS symposium record, under the title "Propeller
' Design and Analysis for Modelers"
' In particular, the equations are from the section "Arbitrary Propeller
' Performance". This section was intended to permit the performance
' analysis of a propeller of known geometry. That is to say, where the
' blade angle, chord and airfoil parameters are known radially.
' However, in the following code, an inverse treatment is used, which
' yields a propeller design of known parameters by an iterative process.
' The resulting propeller has a known power absorption and is of minimum
' induced loss.
' The present code makes no allowance for Reynolds number, compressibility
' effects of the formation of shock waves.
' The process is as follows:
' 1. Choose a constant-chord blade with width somewhere near that desired
' 2. Assign a value of angle of attack for each blade element which gives
' good L/D.
' 3. Calculate the power absorption and slip for each blade element of
' the constant-chord prop.
' 4. Adjust the blade width and chord to reduce slip variation and
' make the power absorption closer to that desired.
' 5. Iterate, using the new design.ie, go back to step 3 above
' 6. Keep iterating until the slip is constant and the power absorption
' as desired.
' Some aspects of the coding are novel. Airfoil parameters are generally
' derived from the chordline location. eg blade angle and camber.
' Pitch in particular is measured to chordline using a pitch gauge
' instrument. Regretably, such a pitch quantity has no fundamental value
' as it tells us nothing about the aerodynamic qualities of the section.
'
' A better quantity, which simplifies the appearance of the maths, is
' the zero-lift angle. Unfortunately this angle is tricky to find, unless
' perhaps you have recourse to a wind tunnel or airfoil data tables.
' Luckily there is a very simple relationship between the zero-lift angle
' Az0 and the airfoil camber M and camber-line high point location P.

' This relationship is Az0 = ATN(M/(1-P)) , radians
' The accuracy is quite good, at least as good as more complex methods
' given by Abbott and Von Doenhoff in the classic "Theory of Wing
' Sections" NACA derived text.
' Accordingly, in the following code I have changed Larrabee's definition
' of the blade angle "beta", from being measured from the plane of rotation
' to the chordline, to measurement to the zero lift angle. This also
' permits the use of lift slope data where the origin at zero-lift is also
' at zero blade angle, as measured to the zero-lift line.
' The code is heavily commented, so hope fully it can be followed more
' readily than Larabees text.
' The reader may not have come across the concept of "interference factors"
' previously. They arise naturally from the way airfoil lift-slope data
' are presented. The plots of lift coefficient versus angle-of-attack
' are for airfoils of infinite aspect ratio. Clearly that is not the case
' we have with propellers or even "real" wings. So a correction for
' aspect-ratio is necessary. But what is the aspect ratio of a propeller?
' With infinite aspect ratio wings, the lift vector is perpendicular to
' the direction of motion. However, as aspect ratio is reduced, the lift
' vector angles back, so that the vector has a component retarding the
' motion. This is the quantity referred to as "induced drag". The
' components of the angled vector are the "interference factors"
' The lift of the section results from downwash of the air by the section.
' The components of downwash are axial and tangential, the latter resulting
' in "swirl" of the slipstream about the rotation axis. These quantites
' are, somewhat surprisingly, amenable to calculation. The trick is to match
' the downwash momentum change to the aerodynamic forces. Thanks to some
' clever fellows, in particular Joukowski, Prandtl, Glauert, Goldstein
' and not least, Larrabee, this has all been done for us.
' Now read on.

' Arrays use din this code:
DIM Mach(25), beta(25), pitch(25), fpitch(25)
DIM Re(25), ch(25), F(25)
DIM phi1(450), phi2(450), Cl1(450), Cd1(450), Cy1(450), Cx1(450)
DIM aa1(450), a11(450), dCt(450), dCp(450)

DIM M2(25), P.p(25), yc(100), T(25)
DIM faceangle(25), BCl0(25), face(25)
DIM epitch(25), sol(25), slip(25), te(25)

DIM Wx(450), alpha(450), phi(25)
DIM xu(100), xl(100), yu(100), yl(100)
DIM xur(100), yur(100), xlr(100), ylr(100)
DIM yt(100), xord(100)
SCREEN 9, , 1, 1: pi = 4 * ATN(1): rtd = 180 / pi: dtr = pi / 180
' rtd converts radians to degrees, and dtr conversely.
'---------------------------------------------------------------------
' INPUT VARIABLES
spin = 1.2 ' spinner diameter in inches
P = .8: Pdes = P ' sea level Power (BHP) at 15 C, 101.325 kP
a
RPM = 26000: RPMdes = RPM ' RPM
vV = 130: VVVdes = vV ' Flight speed of aircraft (MPH)
Ddes = 6 ' Diameter of prop in inches
R = Ddes / 2 ' Propeller tip radius (inches)
R = R * .0254 ' " " " (metres)
B = 2 ' Number of propeller blades
' Calculate initial solidity.. amount of the prop disc shadowed by blades
FOR i = 1 TO 25 ' there are 25 equally spaced
zeta = i / 25 - .02 ' blade elements
ch(i) = 20 ' width of initial blade (mm)
z = 2 * pi * R * zeta
sol(i) = B * ch(i) * .001 / z ' solidity
NEXT i
Niterations = 6 ' Number of iterations
' ---------------------------------------------------------------------
GOSUB atmos ' air density correction
P = P * rhoratio ' Adjust engine power for air density
Mo = .594 * Taa + 325.56 ' Speed of sound (not used)
bbb = INT(spin / 2 / R * 25) ' Working part of blade, elements
' outside spinner

' ******************************************************************
' Select airfoil data
GOSUB nacafoil ' Choose camber, thickness and camberhigh-point
' ------------------------------------------------------------------

' UNIT CONVERSIONS TO MKS

spin = spin * .0254 ' spinner diameter, metres
P = P * 746 ' BHP to WATTS
om = RPM * 2 * pi / 60 ' RPM to radians/sec
v = vV * 2.54 * 12 * 5280 / 60 / 60 / 100 ' airspeed, MPH to m/sec
V
bbb = INT(spin / 2 / R * 25) ' Calculations outside spinner
FOR i = 1 TO 25
face(i) = ATN(1.1019 * T(i) ^ 2) ' angle between chordline and
faceangle(i) = face(i) ' and airfoil face (bottom)
NEXT i
'

' CALCULATION BEGINS
' POWER MATCHING LOOP
PPPq = Niterations ' Number of iterations on slip and power absorption
FOR PPP = 1 TO PPPq ' PPP is iteration counter
RPM = RPMdes: vV = VVVdes: COLOR 4
PRINT " "; prop\$: PRINT : COLOR 2
PRINT " RPM = ", RPM
PRINT " MPH = ", vV: COLOR 9: PRINT
PRINT " "; PPP, PPPq: PRINT : COLOR 6
' ADVANCE RATIO (lam)

v = vV * 2.54 * 12 * 5280 / 60 / 60 / 100 ' m.s-1
om = RPM * 2 * pi / 60
lam = v / (om * R) ' ADVANCE RATIO

'---------------------------------------------------------------
' CALCULATE AT EACH STATION, THRUST, SLIP AND POWER ABSORPTION
'---------------------------------------------------------------
' MOVE ALONG BLADE ELEMENTS
FOR J = bbb TO 25
Vr = v '
lamr = Vr / (om * R) ' advance ratio at element J
zet = J / 25 - .02 ' offset to blade element centre (bin)
bin = .04 ' fractional width of blade element
omR = om * zet * R ' VEL. AT POINT R IN PLANE OF ROTATION
dum = (B / 2 * (1 - zet) / lamr * SQR(lamr ^ 2 + 1))
F(J) = 2 / pi * ATN(SQR(EXP(2 * dum) - 1)) ' Prandtl correction
' set window for graphics plots
GOSUB plotnaca
CLS
' ------------------------------------------------------------------
' The following routine matches the radial and axial momentum change
' to the corresponding thrust and torque forces. To do this, an angle
' of attack is chosen (at zero lift), interference factors determined
' and balance with momentum change established
' ------------------------------------------------------------------

' Find zero lift angle Az0 at station J
Az0 = ATN(M2(J) / (1 - P.p(J))) ' zero-lift angle relative to chordline
' free-stream inflow angle is advance(J) in radians. Angle is unaffected
' by the approaching airfoil. Corresponds to infinite aspect ratio wing
advance(J) = ATN(Vr / omR)
' Now consider advance ratio at current blade station
' Set initial values
323
ll = 1 ' counter
AOA = 7 ' chosen angle of attack (degrees from
' zero-lift to advance)
alpha(ll) = .5 * dtr ' start just above zero lift
beta(J) = advance(J) + AOA * dtr ' Fixd value for beta
' NB: beta is blade angle measured
' to airfoil zero-lift line,NOT chordline
' Enter loop to get interference values
1930
phi1(ll) = beta(J) - alpha(ll) ' phi..angle to stream inflow for
' infinite aspect ratio data
' First guess (iteration)
Cl1 = .1 * alpha(ll) * rtd ' value .1 is lift slope
Cd1 = .02 ' for infinite aspect ratio lift-slop
e
Cp = COS(phi1(ll)): Sp = SIN(phi1(ll))
Cy1 = Cl1 * Cp - Cd1 * Sp ' Thrust load on blade element
Cx1 = Cl1 * Sp + Cd1 * Cp ' Torque " " " "
' axial interference .. axial downwash from airfoil
z = sol(J) * Cy1 / (4 * F(J) * Sp ^ 2)
aa1 = z / (1 - z)
' swirl interference .. tangemtial downwash from airfoil
z = sol(J) * Cx1 / (4 * F(J) * Sp * Cp)
a11 = z / (1 + z)
phi2(ll) = ATN(lamr / zet * (1 + aa1) / (1 - a11))
Wx(ll) = omR * (1 - a11) / COS(phi1(ll)) ' inflow velocity for
' infinite aspect ratio
IF ABS(phi1(ll) - phi2(ll)) < .0001 THEN GOTO 2390
ll = ll + 1
alpha(ll) = alpha(ll - 1) + .1 * (phi1(ll - 1) - phi2(ll - 1))

GOTO 1930 ' continue interference loop
' -------------------------------------------------------
2390 ' Calculate power, thrust, efficiency and plot vectors
phi(J) = phi2(ll)
GOSUB vectors
GOSUB delay
Cl1(J) = Cl1: Cd1(J) = Cd1
omR = om * zet * R ' VEL. AT POINT R IN PLANE OF ROTATION
aV = aa1 * Vr ' AXIAL INDUCED VELOCITY
aOMr = a11 * omR ' SWIRL INDUCED VELOCITY
slip(J) = aOMr * TAN(phi(J)) + aV
dum = ((1 - a11) / COS(phi(J))) ^ 2
dCt(J) = pi ^ 3 / 4 * dum * zet ^ 3 * sol(J) * Cy1 ' thrust coeff.
dCp(J) = pi ^ 4 / 4 * dum * zet ^ 4 * sol(J) * Cx1 ' power coeff.
NEXT J ' continue to next blade element

'------------------------------------------------------------
GOSUB chordplot ' plot chord distribution
GOSUB slipplot ' " slip "

' INTEGRATE TO GET THRUST AND POWER COEFFICIENT
s = 0: FOR J = bbb TO 25: s = s + dCt(J): NEXT J: Ct = bin * s
s = 0: FOR J = bbb TO 25: s = s + dCp(J): NEXT J: Cp = bin * s
' n is prop efficiency
n = pi * lam * Ct / Cp ' prop efficiency
' Power absorption

P = Cp * rho * (RPM / 60) ^ 3 * (2 * R) ^ 5 / 746 ' Horsepower
' Thrust

T = Ct * rho * (RPM / 60) ^ 2 * (2 * R) ^ 4 ' Newtons
Torq = 1 / (2 * pi) * rho * (RPM / 60) ^ 2 * (2 * R) ^ 5 * Cp'
Newton metres
THP = P * n ' Thrust-power: watts
PRINT
PRINT "POWER (HP)= ", P: PRINT "THRUST (lbs)=", T / 4.45
PRINT "THRUST POWER (lbs)=", P * n
PRINT "Ntotal =", n * 100

IF PPP = PPPq THEN 2345 ELSE 2346 ' exit power loop
' otherwise continue iteration for powe
r/slip
' ADJUST CHORD TO MATCH DESIGN POWER ABSORPTION AND SLIP
' The object is to set the radial chord disritbution to
' achieve the required power absorption, and get the slip radially
' constant for minimum induced loss
2346 FOR i = bbb TO 25
zeta = i / 25 - .02: z = 2 * pi * R * zeta
ch(i) = ch(i) * (Pdes / P) ^ .5 * slip(18) / slip(i) ' new chord
sol(i) = B * ch(i) * .001 / z ' new solidity
543 NEXT i
GOSUB plotchord2
NEXT PPP ' End power loop, display results
' ----------------------------------------------------------

2345 ' Calculate pitch to chordline
FOR i = bbb TO 25
zeta = i / 25 - .02
z = 2 * pi * R * zeta
pitch(i) = z / .0254 * TAN(beta(i) - Az0) ' pitch to chordline
fpitch(i) = z / .0254 * (TAN(beta(i) - Az0) - faceangle(i)) ' face
epitch(i) = z * TAN(beta(i)) / .0254 ' experimental pitch
NEXT i ' (measured to xero-lift)
CLS : LOCATE 1, 1
COLOR 12: BEEP: PRINT : PRINT : PRINT " ", prop\$;
PRINT " DESIGN.BAS (no correction for compressibilty)"
PRINT : COLOR 2
PRINT " RPM = "; : PRINT USING "#####"; RPMdes;
PRINT USING " V = ### MPH"; VVVdes;
PRINT USING " Diameter = ###.## inches"; Ddes
PRINT " Blade number = "; : PRINT USING "##"; B;
PRINT USING " No. of iterations ###"; Niterations

PRINT
PRINT " POWER (HP) = "; : PRINT USING "###.#"; P
PRINT " THRUST (lbs) = "; : PRINT USING "###.#"; T / 4.45
PRINT "THRUST POWER (hp) = "; : PRINT USING "###.#"; P * n
PRINT " Efficiency = "; : PRINT USING "####.#"; n * 100
PRINT
GOSUB delay
COLOR 10
PRINT "I Cl Cl/Cd PITCH ePITCH Ch BETA Advance zero-angle
AOA "
PRINT " (ins) (ins) mm deg deg deg
deg "
FOR i = bbb TO 25 STEP 2
COLOR 12: PRINT USING "##"; i;
PRINT USING " #.###"; Cl1(i); : PRINT " ";
PRINT USING "##.##"; Cl1(i) / Cd1(i); : PRINT " ";
PRINT USING "##.#"; pitch(i); : PRINT " ";
PRINT USING "##.#"; epitch(i); : PRINT " ";
PRINT USING "###.#"; ch(i); : PRINT " ";
PRINT USING "##.#"; (beta(i) - Az0) * rtd; : PRINT " ";
PRINT USING " ##.#"; advance(i) * rtd; : PRINT " ";
PRINT USING " ####.#"; -Az0 * rtd;
PRINT USING " ####.#"; AOA - Az0 * rtd
NEXT i
COLOR 0

INPUT vbv
CLS
GOSUB plotchord2
COLOR 12
LOCATE 2, 2: PRINT " Chord radial distribution adjusted to desired powe
r input"
LOCATE 3, 2: PRINT " and also adjusted to give constant slip"
COLOR 0
INPUT vbv
' Plot blade angle to chordline against advance
WINDOW (-5, -2)-(27, 80): CLS
LINE (0, 0)-(0, 10), 2
LINE (0, 0)-(25, 0), 2: COLOR 14
LOCATE 2, 2: PRINT "Radial distn of blade angle and advance"
FOR i = bbb + 1 TO 25
LINE (i - 1, (beta(i - 1) - Az0) * rtd)-(i, (beta(i) - Az0) * rtd)
, 14
LINE (i - 1, advance(i - 1) * rtd)-(i, advance(i) * rtd), 12
NEXT i
INPUT vbv
STOP
END
'
' SUBROUTINES AND DATA
'
nacafoil: ' Select airfoils for 25 stations along propeller blade
prop\$ = "F2C"
name\$ = " CNCMOULD\F2C\ANALYSE\DESF2C.BAS"

' t=thickness-chord ratio
' m=fractional camber
' p=fractional high point from L.E.
FOR i = 1 TO 25
T(i) = .1
M2(i) = .04
P.p(i) = .4 ' camber high point
Re(i) = 180000 ' guess, Reynolds number
NEXT i
RETURN
atmos:
' ATMOSPHERICS
RHO1 = 1.225 ' kg/m^3
Ps = 101.325 ' International standard pressure
Ts = 15 ' " " temperature
Rg = Ps / (RHO1 * (Ts + 273.16)) ' gas constant
CpCv = 1.4: q = 1: sig = 1
PRINT " ? Standard Atmosphere , enter 1": 'INPUT q: PRINT q
PRINT " Enter altitude (ft) for analysis": 'INPUT altitude
IF altitude = 0 THEN altitude = 0
PRINT " "; altitude
sig = (1 - 6.879E-06 * altitude) ^ 4.258
IF q = 1 THEN rho = RHO1 * sig
IF q = 1 THEN Ta = 15
IF q = 1 THEN 6
PRINT " Enter temp. (C) for analysis"': INPUT Ta
IF Ta = 0 THEN Ta = 15
PRINT " "; Ta
Pa1 = RHO1 * sig * Rg * (Ta + 273.16) ' Standard atmosphere adjust
PRINT " Enter pressure (kPa) for analysis": INPUT Pa: PRINT Pa
IF Pa = 0 THEN Pa = Pa1
PRINT Pa
rho = Pa / (Rg * (Ta + 273.16))
6 rhoratio = rho / RHO1
RETURN

plotnaca:
te(J) = ch(J) / 60 ' thicken trailing edge
' Thickness form distribution NACA 4-digit
FOR pp = 0 TO 100
xord(pp) = pp / 100
z = xord(pp)
yt(pp) = T(J) / .2 * (.2969 * z ^ .5 - .126 * z - .3516 * z ^ 2 +
.2843 * z ^ 3 - .1015 * z ^ 4)
NEXT pp
' modify forward part of thickness form to circle
startn = 1
stopn = 30
x1 = xord(startn): y1 = yt(startn)
x2 = xord(stopn): y2 = yt(stopn)
GOSUB rotate2
ax1 = x10: ay1 = y10
am1 = TAN(-betak + pi / 2)
b1 = ay1 - am1 * ax1

x1 = xord(startn): y1 = yt(startn)
x2 = xord(stopn + 1): y2 = yt(stopn + 1)
GOSUB rotate2
ax2 = x10: ay2 = y10
am2 = TAN(-betak + pi / 2)
b2 = ay2 - am2 * ax2
x1 = ax1: y1 = ay1: m1 = am1
x2 = ax2: y2 = ay2: M2 = am2
x = (b2 - b1) / (m1 - M2)
y = (M2 * b1 - m1 * b2) / (M2 - m1)
Rx = SQR((x - xord(startn)) ^ 2 + (y - yt(startn)) ^ 2)
FOR pp = startn TO stopn
yt(pp) = SQR(Rx ^ 2 - (xord(pp) - x) ^ 2) + y
NEXT pp

' Correct equation at trailing edge .. Abbott etc wrong
shift = yt(100) / 100
FOR pp = 0 TO 100
yt(pp) = (yt(pp) - shift * pp)
NEXT pp
' Correct thickness to chord ratio to true value "t" .. wrong again
max = 0 ' find max thickness normal to camber line
FOR pp = 1 TO 99
IF yt(pp) > yt(pp + 1) AND yt(pp) >= yt(pp - 1) THEN max = yt(pp)
NEXT pp
FOR pp = 0 TO 100 ' correct to desired thickness t
yt(pp) = yt(pp) * T(J) / (2 * max)
NEXT pp

' CAMBER MEAN LINE FOR NACA 4-DIGIT AIRFOIL
FOR pp = 1 TO 100
IF xord(pp) > P.p(J) THEN 55
NEXT pp
55 zs = pp - 1 ' high point location on camber line
FOR pp = 0 TO 100
z = xord(pp)
yc(pp) = M2(J) / P.p(J) ^ 2 * (2 * P.p(J) * z - z ^ 2)
IF pp > zs + 1 THEN yc(pp) = M2(J) / (1 - P.p(J)) ^ 2 * (1 - 2 * P.p
(J) + 2 * P.p(J) * z - z ^ 2)
NEXT pp
' DETERMINE forward ORDINATES NORMAL TO MEAN LINE
FOR pp = 0 TO zs
z = xord(pp)
th = ATN(2 * M2(J) / P.p(J) * (1 - z / P.p(J)))
xu(pp) = z - yt(pp) * SIN(th)
yu(pp) = yc(pp) + yt(pp) * COS(th)
xl(pp) = z + yt(pp) * SIN(th)
yl(pp) = yc(pp) - yt(pp) * COS(th)
NEXT pp
' DETERMINE rearward ORDINATES NORMAL TO MEAN LINE
FOR pp = zs + 1 TO 100
z = xord(pp)
th = ATN(2 * M2(J) / (1 - P.p(J)) ^ 2 * (P.p(J) - z))
xu(pp) = z - yt(pp) * SIN(th)
yu(pp) = yc(pp) + yt(pp) * COS(th)
xl(pp) = z + yt(pp) * SIN(th)
yl(pp) = yc(pp) - yt(pp) * COS(th)
NEXT pp
' Scale ordinates to true chord in mm
FOR pp = 0 TO 100
xu(pp) = xu(pp) * ch(J)
yu(pp) = yu(pp) * ch(J)
xl(pp) = xl(pp) * ch(J)
yl(pp) = yl(pp) * ch(J)
xord(pp) = xord(pp) * ch(J)
yc(pp) = yc(pp) * ch(J)
NEXT pp
' Rotate upper surface to thicken TE for flicking
FOR pp = 0 TO 100
theta = ATN(.5 * (-te(J)) / (xu(100) - xu(0)))
xur(pp) = xu(pp) * COS(theta) + yu(pp) * SIN(theta)
yur(pp) = -xu(pp) * SIN(theta) + yu(pp) * COS(theta)
xu(pp) = xur(pp)
yu(pp) = yur(pp)
NEXT pp
' Rotate lower surface to thicken TE for flicking
FOR pp = 0 TO 100
theta = ATN(.5 * te(J) / (xl(100) - xl(0)))
xlr(pp) = xl(pp) * COS(theta) + yl(pp) * SIN(theta)
ylr(pp) = -xl(pp) * SIN(theta) + yl(pp) * COS(theta)
xl(pp) = xlr(pp)
yl(pp) = ylr(pp)
NEXT pp
dum = xu(100): dum1 = xl(100)
FOR pp = 0 TO 100
xu(pp) = ABS(xu(pp) - dum)
xl(pp) = ABS(xl(pp) - dum1)
x1 = xu(pp): y1 = yu(pp)
x2 = xl(pp): y2 = yl(pp)
GOSUB rotate
NEXT pp

scl = 1
x1 = -10 * scl: y1 = -10 * scl
x2 = 140 * scl: y2 = 93 * scl
IF J > 15 THEN x1 = 110 * scl
IF J > 15 THEN x2 = 220 * scl
WINDOW (x1, y1)-(x2, y2)
FOR pp = 1 TO 100
LINE (xu(pp - 1), yu(pp - 1))-(xu(pp), yu(pp)), 14
LINE (xl(pp - 1), yl(pp - 1))-(xl(pp), yl(pp)), 14
NEXT pp
LINE (0, 0)-(240, 0), 10: LINE (0, 0)-(0, 100), 10
'LINE (0, 0)-(50, 0), 14: LINE (0, 0)-(0, 50), 14
'INPUT vbv
RETURN
rotate2:
betak = ATN((y2 - y1) / (x2 - x1))
x11 = x1 * COS(betak) + y1 * SIN(betak)
x21 = x2 * COS(betak) + y2 * SIN(betak)
y11 = -x1 * SIN(betak) + y1 * COS(betak)
y21 = -x2 * SIN(betak) + y2 * COS(betak)
y = 0
x = (x11 + x21) / 2
betak = -betak ' back transform
x10 = x * COS(betak) + y * SIN(betak)
y10 = -x * SIN(betak) + y * COS(betak)

RETURN
rotate:
xu(pp) = x1 * COS(betan) + y1 * SIN(betan)
xl(pp) = x2 * COS(betan) + y2 * SIN(betan)
yu(pp) = -x1 * SIN(betan) + y1 * COS(betan)
yl(pp) = -x2 * SIN(betan) + y2 * COS(betan)

RETURN
vectors: ' Plot vectors
CLS
betan = -(beta(J) - Az0): GOSUB plotnaca
x = Vr / TAN(advance(J)): y = Vr ' advance
x4 = ch(J) * 1.8: y4 = x4 * TAN(beta(J)) ' zero-lift line
x4 = 40: y4 = x4 * TAN(beta(J))
x1 = Wx(ll) * COS(phi2(ll)): y1 = Wx(ll) * SIN(phi2(ll))
LINE (0, 0)-(x4, y4), 13 ' zero-lift line
LINE (0, 0)-(x, y), 4 ' advance
LINE (x, 0)-(x, y), 2 ' Vr
LINE (0, 0)-(x1, y1), 3 ' W
LINE (x1, y1)-(x, y), 12 ' interference resultant
LINE (x1, y1)-(x1, y1 - aa1 * Vr), 12 ' vector a = aa1
LINE (x, y)-(x1, y1 - aa1 * Vr), 12 ' vector a'= a11
LINE (5, 86)-(15, 86), 4: LOCATE 2, 15: COLOR 4: PRINT "advance"
LINE (5, 82)-(15, 82), 2: LOCATE 3, 15: COLOR 2: PRINT "Vr"
LINE (5, 78)-(15, 78), 13: LOCATE 4, 15: COLOR 13: PRINT "Beta"
LINE (5, 74)-(15, 74), 3: LOCATE 5, 15: COLOR 3: PRINT "W"
LOCATE 2, 40: PRINT "Iteration vectors"
LOCATE 4, 30: PRINT USING " Blade element J = ## Iteration = ##";
J; PPP
CIRCLE (0, 0), 30, 13, 0, beta(J), .78
CIRCLE (0, 0), 32, 3, 0, ATN(y1 / x1), .78
CIRCLE (0, 0), 34, 4, 0, ATN(y / x), .78
RETURN
chordplot: ' PLOT CHORD DISTRIBUTION
x1 = -20: x2 = 35: y1 = -100: y2 = 348
WINDOW (x1, y1)-(x2, y2)
FOR th = bbb + 1 TO 25
LINE (th - 1, ch(th - 1) / 3)-(th, ch(th) / 3)
LINE (th - 1, -2 * ch(th - 1) / 3)-(th, -2 * ch(th) / 3)
NEXT th
RETURN
slipplot:
' PLOT SLIP DISTRIBUTION

x1 = -2: x2 = 27: y1 = -1: y2 = 15
WINDOW (x1, y1)-(x2, y2): CLS
LINE (0, 0)-(0, 10): LINE (0, 0)-(25, 0)
LOCATE 2, 5: PRINT "Radial distribution of slip "
LOCATE 3, 5: PRINT " Constant slip implies minimum induced loss"
LOCATE 8, 8: PRINT "Slip velocity"
LOCATE 23, 60: PRINT "station"
FOR th = bbb + 1 TO 25
LINE (th - 1, slip(th - 1))-(th, slip(th))
NEXT th
GOSUB delay
RETURN
':
' PLOT NEW CHORD DISTRIBUTION
x1 = -10: x2 = 35: y1 = -100: y2 = 348
WINDOW (x1, y1)-(x2, y2)
COLOR 12
FOR th = bbb + 1 TO 25
LINE (th - 1, ch(th - 1) * .42)-(th, ch(th) * .42)
LINE (th - 1, -.58 * ch(th - 1))-(th, -.58 * ch(th))
NEXT th
GOSUB delay
RETURN
delay: timex = .5
starttime = TIMER
WHILE (TIMER - starttime) < timex
WEND
RETURN
plotchord2: ' PLOT NEW CHORD DISTRIBUTION
x1 = -10: x2 = 35: y1 = -50: y2 = 100
WINDOW (x1, y1)-(x2, y2): COLOR 4
LINE (-2, 0)-(2, 0): LINE (0, -8)-(0, 8): COLOR 2
FOR th = bbb + 1 TO 25
LINE (th - 1, ch(th - 1) * .42)-(th, ch(th) * .42)
LINE (th - 1, -.58 * ch(th - 1))-(th, -.58 * ch(th))
NEXT th
LINE (25, ch(25) * .42)-(25, -ch(25) * .58)
GOSUB delay
RETURN
SUB prompt (x)
' The subprogram PROMPT displays "Press any key to continue" and loops until
' a key is pressed. X specifies the row on which the text appears.
LOCATE 23, 15: C = 15
DO
COLOR C: LOCATE x, 65
PRINT "Press any key";
FOR T = 1 TO 1000: NEXT
IF C = 15 THEN C = 2 ELSE C = 15
LOOP UNTIL INKEY\$ <> ""
CLS : COLOR 15
END SUB