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Propeller analysis code

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BAS)

' *************************************************************

' Design a propeller entirely from blade element analysis algorithms.

' Chord distribution must satisfy constant slip.

' Blade angle-of-attack arbitrarily chosen, but somewhere near best L/D

' *************************************************************

' Method is based on work of the late E. Eugene Larrabee, published

' in the 1979 NFFS symposium record, under the title "Propeller

' Design and Analysis for Modelers"

' In particular, the equations are from the section "Arbitrary Propeller

' Performance". This section was intended to permit the performance

' analysis of a propeller of known geometry. That is to say, where the

' blade angle, chord and airfoil parameters are known radially.

' However, in the following code, an inverse treatment is used, which

' yields a propeller design of known parameters by an iterative process.

' The resulting propeller has a known power absorption and is of minimum

' induced loss.

' The present code makes no allowance for Reynolds number, compressibility

' effects of the formation of shock waves.

' The process is as follows:

' 1. Choose a constant-chord blade with width somewhere near that desired

' 2. Assign a value of angle of attack for each blade element which gives

' good L/D.

' 3. Calculate the power absorption and slip for each blade element of

' the constant-chord prop.

' 4. Adjust the blade width and chord to reduce slip variation and

' make the power absorption closer to that desired.

' 5. Iterate, using the new design.ie, go back to step 3 above

' 6. Keep iterating until the slip is constant and the power absorption

' as desired.

' Some aspects of the coding are novel. Airfoil parameters are generally

' derived from the chordline location. eg blade angle and camber.

' Pitch in particular is measured to chordline using a pitch gauge

' instrument. Regretably, such a pitch quantity has no fundamental value

' as it tells us nothing about the aerodynamic qualities of the section.

'

' A better quantity, which simplifies the appearance of the maths, is

' the zero-lift angle. Unfortunately this angle is tricky to find, unless

' perhaps you have recourse to a wind tunnel or airfoil data tables.

' Luckily there is a very simple relationship between the zero-lift angle

' Az0 and the airfoil camber M and camber-line high point location P.

' This relationship is Az0 = ATN(M/(1-P)) , radians

' The accuracy is quite good, at least as good as more complex methods

' given by Abbott and Von Doenhoff in the classic "Theory of Wing

' Sections" NACA derived text.

' Accordingly, in the following code I have changed Larrabee's definition

' of the blade angle "beta", from being measured from the plane of rotation

' to the chordline, to measurement to the zero lift angle. This also

' permits the use of lift slope data where the origin at zero-lift is also

' at zero blade angle, as measured to the zero-lift line.

' The code is heavily commented, so hope fully it can be followed more

' readily than Larabees text.

' The reader may not have come across the concept of "interference factors"

' previously. They arise naturally from the way airfoil lift-slope data

' are presented. The plots of lift coefficient versus angle-of-attack

' are for airfoils of infinite aspect ratio. Clearly that is not the case

' we have with propellers or even "real" wings. So a correction for

' aspect-ratio is necessary. But what is the aspect ratio of a propeller?

' With infinite aspect ratio wings, the lift vector is perpendicular to

' the direction of motion. However, as aspect ratio is reduced, the lift

' vector angles back, so that the vector has a component retarding the

' motion. This is the quantity referred to as "induced drag". The

' components of the angled vector are the "interference factors"

' The lift of the section results from downwash of the air by the section.

' The components of downwash are axial and tangential, the latter resulting

' in "swirl" of the slipstream about the rotation axis. These quantites

' are, somewhat surprisingly, amenable to calculation. The trick is to match

' the downwash momentum change to the aerodynamic forces. Thanks to some

' clever fellows, in particular Joukowski, Prandtl, Glauert, Goldstein

' and not least, Larrabee, this has all been done for us.

' Now read on.

' Arrays use din this code:

DIM Mach(25), beta(25), pitch(25), fpitch(25)

DIM Re(25), ch(25), F(25)

DIM phi1(450), phi2(450), Cl1(450), Cd1(450), Cy1(450), Cx1(450)

DIM aa1(450), a11(450), dCt(450), dCp(450)

DIM M2(25), P.p(25), yc(100), T(25)

DIM faceangle(25), BCl0(25), face(25)

DIM epitch(25), sol(25), slip(25), te(25)

DIM Wx(450), alpha(450), phi(25)

DIM advance(25), GP(25)

DIM xu(100), xl(100), yu(100), yl(100)

DIM xur(100), yur(100), xlr(100), ylr(100)

DIM yt(100), xord(100)

SCREEN 9, , 1, 1: pi = 4 * ATN(1): rtd = 180 / pi: dtr = pi / 180

' rtd converts radians to degrees, and dtr conversely.

'---------------------------------------------------------------------

' INPUT VARIABLES

spin = 1.2 ' spinner diameter in inches

P = .8: Pdes = P ' sea level Power (BHP) at 15 C, 101.325 kP

a

RPM = 26000: RPMdes = RPM ' RPM

vV = 130: VVVdes = vV ' Flight speed of aircraft (MPH)

Ddes = 6 ' Diameter of prop in inches

R = Ddes / 2 ' Propeller tip radius (inches)

R = R * .0254 ' " " " (metres)

B = 2 ' Number of propeller blades

' Calculate initial solidity.. amount of the prop disc shadowed by blades

FOR i = 1 TO 25 ' there are 25 equally spaced

zeta = i / 25 - .02 ' blade elements

ch(i) = 20 ' width of initial blade (mm)

z = 2 * pi * R * zeta

sol(i) = B * ch(i) * .001 / z ' solidity

NEXT i

Niterations = 6 ' Number of iterations

' ---------------------------------------------------------------------

GOSUB atmos ' air density correction

P = P * rhoratio ' Adjust engine power for air density

Mo = .594 * Taa + 325.56 ' Speed of sound (not used)

bbb = INT(spin / 2 / R * 25) ' Working part of blade, elements

' outside spinner

' ******************************************************************

' Select airfoil data

GOSUB nacafoil ' Choose camber, thickness and camberhigh-point

' ------------------------------------------------------------------

' UNIT CONVERSIONS TO MKS

spin = spin * .0254 ' spinner diameter, metres

P = P * 746 ' BHP to WATTS

om = RPM * 2 * pi / 60 ' RPM to radians/sec

v = vV * 2.54 * 12 * 5280 / 60 / 60 / 100 ' airspeed, MPH to m/sec

V

bbb = INT(spin / 2 / R * 25) ' Calculations outside spinner

FOR i = 1 TO 25

face(i) = ATN(1.1019 * T(i) ^ 2) ' angle between chordline and

faceangle(i) = face(i) ' and airfoil face (bottom)

NEXT i

'

' CALCULATION BEGINS

' POWER MATCHING LOOP

PPPq = Niterations ' Number of iterations on slip and power absorption

FOR PPP = 1 TO PPPq ' PPP is iteration counter

RPM = RPMdes: vV = VVVdes: COLOR 4

PRINT " "; prop$: PRINT : COLOR 2

PRINT " RPM = ", RPM

PRINT " MPH = ", vV: COLOR 9: PRINT

PRINT " "; PPP, PPPq: PRINT : COLOR 6

' ADVANCE RATIO (lam)

v = vV * 2.54 * 12 * 5280 / 60 / 60 / 100 ' m.s-1

om = RPM * 2 * pi / 60

lam = v / (om * R) ' ADVANCE RATIO

'---------------------------------------------------------------

' CALCULATE AT EACH STATION, THRUST, SLIP AND POWER ABSORPTION

'---------------------------------------------------------------

' MOVE ALONG BLADE ELEMENTS

FOR J = bbb TO 25

Vr = v '

lamr = Vr / (om * R) ' advance ratio at element J

zet = J / 25 - .02 ' offset to blade element centre (bin)

bin = .04 ' fractional width of blade element

omR = om * zet * R ' VEL. AT POINT R IN PLANE OF ROTATION

dum = (B / 2 * (1 - zet) / lamr * SQR(lamr ^ 2 + 1))

F(J) = 2 / pi * ATN(SQR(EXP(2 * dum) - 1)) ' Prandtl correction

' set window for graphics plots

GOSUB plotnaca

CLS

' ------------------------------------------------------------------

' The following routine matches the radial and axial momentum change

' to the corresponding thrust and torque forces. To do this, an angle

' of attack is chosen (at zero lift), interference factors determined

' and balance with momentum change established

' ------------------------------------------------------------------

' Find zero lift angle Az0 at station J

Az0 = ATN(M2(J) / (1 - P.p(J))) ' zero-lift angle relative to chordline

' free-stream inflow angle is advance(J) in radians. Angle is unaffected

' by the approaching airfoil. Corresponds to infinite aspect ratio wing

advance(J) = ATN(Vr / omR)

' Now consider advance ratio at current blade station

' Set initial values

323

ll = 1 ' counter

AOA = 7 ' chosen angle of attack (degrees from

' zero-lift to advance)

alpha(ll) = .5 * dtr ' start just above zero lift

beta(J) = advance(J) + AOA * dtr ' Fixd value for beta

' NB: beta is blade angle measured

' to airfoil zero-lift line,NOT chordline

' Enter loop to get interference values

1930

phi1(ll) = beta(J) - alpha(ll) ' phi..angle to stream inflow for

' infinite aspect ratio data

' First guess (iteration)

Cl1 = .1 * alpha(ll) * rtd ' value .1 is lift slope

Cd1 = .02 ' for infinite aspect ratio lift-slop

e

Cp = COS(phi1(ll)): Sp = SIN(phi1(ll))

Cy1 = Cl1 * Cp - Cd1 * Sp ' Thrust load on blade element

Cx1 = Cl1 * Sp + Cd1 * Cp ' Torque " " " "

' axial interference .. axial downwash from airfoil

z = sol(J) * Cy1 / (4 * F(J) * Sp ^ 2)

aa1 = z / (1 - z)

' swirl interference .. tangemtial downwash from airfoil

z = sol(J) * Cx1 / (4 * F(J) * Sp * Cp)

a11 = z / (1 + z)

phi2(ll) = ATN(lamr / zet * (1 + aa1) / (1 - a11))

Wx(ll) = omR * (1 - a11) / COS(phi1(ll)) ' inflow velocity for

' infinite aspect ratio

IF ABS(phi1(ll) - phi2(ll)) < .0001 THEN GOTO 2390

ll = ll + 1

alpha(ll) = alpha(ll - 1) + .1 * (phi1(ll - 1) - phi2(ll - 1))

GOTO 1930 ' continue interference loop

' -------------------------------------------------------

2390 ' Calculate power, thrust, efficiency and plot vectors

phi(J) = phi2(ll)

GOSUB vectors

GOSUB delay

Cl1(J) = Cl1: Cd1(J) = Cd1

omR = om * zet * R ' VEL. AT POINT R IN PLANE OF ROTATION

aV = aa1 * Vr ' AXIAL INDUCED VELOCITY

aOMr = a11 * omR ' SWIRL INDUCED VELOCITY

slip(J) = aOMr * TAN(phi(J)) + aV

dum = ((1 - a11) / COS(phi(J))) ^ 2

dCt(J) = pi ^ 3 / 4 * dum * zet ^ 3 * sol(J) * Cy1 ' thrust coeff.

dCp(J) = pi ^ 4 / 4 * dum * zet ^ 4 * sol(J) * Cx1 ' power coeff.

NEXT J ' continue to next blade element

'------------------------------------------------------------

GOSUB chordplot ' plot chord distribution

GOSUB slipplot ' " slip "

' INTEGRATE TO GET THRUST AND POWER COEFFICIENT

s = 0: FOR J = bbb TO 25: s = s + dCt(J): NEXT J: Ct = bin * s

s = 0: FOR J = bbb TO 25: s = s + dCp(J): NEXT J: Cp = bin * s

' n is prop efficiency

n = pi * lam * Ct / Cp ' prop efficiency

' Power absorption

P = Cp * rho * (RPM / 60) ^ 3 * (2 * R) ^ 5 / 746 ' Horsepower

' Thrust

T = Ct * rho * (RPM / 60) ^ 2 * (2 * R) ^ 4 ' Newtons

Torq = 1 / (2 * pi) * rho * (RPM / 60) ^ 2 * (2 * R) ^ 5 * Cp'

Newton metres

THP = P * n ' Thrust-power: watts

PRINT

PRINT "POWER (HP)= ", P: PRINT "THRUST (lbs)=", T / 4.45

PRINT "THRUST POWER (lbs)=", P * n

PRINT "Ntotal =", n * 100

IF PPP = PPPq THEN 2345 ELSE 2346 ' exit power loop

' otherwise continue iteration for powe

r/slip

' ADJUST CHORD TO MATCH DESIGN POWER ABSORPTION AND SLIP

' The object is to set the radial chord disritbution to

' achieve the required power absorption, and get the slip radially

' constant for minimum induced loss

2346 FOR i = bbb TO 25

zeta = i / 25 - .02: z = 2 * pi * R * zeta

ch(i) = ch(i) * (Pdes / P) ^ .5 * slip(18) / slip(i) ' new chord

sol(i) = B * ch(i) * .001 / z ' new solidity

543 NEXT i

GOSUB plotchord2

NEXT PPP ' End power loop, display results

' ----------------------------------------------------------

2345 ' Calculate pitch to chordline

FOR i = bbb TO 25

zeta = i / 25 - .02

z = 2 * pi * R * zeta

pitch(i) = z / .0254 * TAN(beta(i) - Az0) ' pitch to chordline

fpitch(i) = z / .0254 * (TAN(beta(i) - Az0) - faceangle(i)) ' face

epitch(i) = z * TAN(beta(i)) / .0254 ' experimental pitch

NEXT i ' (measured to xero-lift)

CLS : LOCATE 1, 1

COLOR 12: BEEP: PRINT : PRINT : PRINT " ", prop$;

PRINT " DESIGN.BAS (no correction for compressibilty)"

PRINT : COLOR 2

PRINT " RPM = "; : PRINT USING "#####"; RPMdes;

PRINT USING " V = ### MPH"; VVVdes;

PRINT USING " Diameter = ###.## inches"; Ddes

PRINT " Blade number = "; : PRINT USING "##"; B;

PRINT USING " No. of iterations ###"; Niterations

PRINT

PRINT " POWER (HP) = "; : PRINT USING "###.#"; P

PRINT " THRUST (lbs) = "; : PRINT USING "###.#"; T / 4.45

PRINT "THRUST POWER (hp) = "; : PRINT USING "###.#"; P * n

PRINT " Efficiency = "; : PRINT USING "####.#"; n * 100

PRINT

GOSUB delay

COLOR 10

PRINT "I Cl Cl/Cd PITCH ePITCH Ch BETA Advance zero-angle

AOA "

PRINT " (ins) (ins) mm deg deg deg

deg "

FOR i = bbb TO 25 STEP 2

COLOR 12: PRINT USING "##"; i;

PRINT USING " #.###"; Cl1(i); : PRINT " ";

PRINT USING "##.##"; Cl1(i) / Cd1(i); : PRINT " ";

PRINT USING "##.#"; pitch(i); : PRINT " ";

PRINT USING "##.#"; epitch(i); : PRINT " ";

PRINT USING "###.#"; ch(i); : PRINT " ";

PRINT USING "##.#"; (beta(i) - Az0) * rtd; : PRINT " ";

PRINT USING " ##.#"; advance(i) * rtd; : PRINT " ";

PRINT USING " ####.#"; -Az0 * rtd;

PRINT USING " ####.#"; AOA - Az0 * rtd

NEXT i

COLOR 0

INPUT vbv

CLS

GOSUB plotchord2

COLOR 12

LOCATE 2, 2: PRINT " Chord radial distribution adjusted to desired powe

r input"

LOCATE 3, 2: PRINT " and also adjusted to give constant slip"

COLOR 0

INPUT vbv

' Plot blade angle to chordline against advance

WINDOW (-5, -2)-(27, 80): CLS

LINE (0, 0)-(0, 10), 2

LINE (0, 0)-(25, 0), 2: COLOR 14

LOCATE 2, 2: PRINT "Radial distn of blade angle and advance"

FOR i = bbb + 1 TO 25

LINE (i - 1, (beta(i - 1) - Az0) * rtd)-(i, (beta(i) - Az0) * rtd)

, 14

LINE (i - 1, advance(i - 1) * rtd)-(i, advance(i) * rtd), 12

NEXT i

INPUT vbv

STOP

END

'

' SUBROUTINES AND DATA

'

nacafoil: ' Select airfoils for 25 stations along propeller blade

prop$ = "F2C"

name$ = " CNCMOULD\F2C\ANALYSE\DESF2C.BAS"

' t=thickness-chord ratio

' m=fractional camber

' p=fractional high point from L.E.

FOR i = 1 TO 25

T(i) = .1

M2(i) = .04

P.p(i) = .4 ' camber high point

Re(i) = 180000 ' guess, Reynolds number

NEXT i

RETURN

atmos:

' ATMOSPHERICS

RHO1 = 1.225 ' kg/m^3

Ps = 101.325 ' International standard pressure

Ts = 15 ' " " temperature

Rg = Ps / (RHO1 * (Ts + 273.16)) ' gas constant

CpCv = 1.4: q = 1: sig = 1

PRINT " ? Standard Atmosphere , enter 1": 'INPUT q: PRINT q

PRINT " Enter altitude (ft) for analysis": 'INPUT altitude

IF altitude = 0 THEN altitude = 0

PRINT " "; altitude

sig = (1 - 6.879E-06 * altitude) ^ 4.258

IF q = 1 THEN rho = RHO1 * sig

IF q = 1 THEN Ta = 15

IF q = 1 THEN 6

PRINT " Enter temp. (C) for analysis"': INPUT Ta

IF Ta = 0 THEN Ta = 15

PRINT " "; Ta

Pa1 = RHO1 * sig * Rg * (Ta + 273.16) ' Standard atmosphere adjust

PRINT " Enter pressure (kPa) for analysis": INPUT Pa: PRINT Pa

IF Pa = 0 THEN Pa = Pa1

PRINT Pa

rho = Pa / (Rg * (Ta + 273.16))

6 rhoratio = rho / RHO1

RETURN

plotnaca:

te(J) = ch(J) / 60 ' thicken trailing edge

' Thickness form distribution NACA 4-digit

FOR pp = 0 TO 100

xord(pp) = pp / 100

z = xord(pp)

yt(pp) = T(J) / .2 * (.2969 * z ^ .5 - .126 * z - .3516 * z ^ 2 +

.2843 * z ^ 3 - .1015 * z ^ 4)

NEXT pp

' modify forward part of thickness form to circle

startn = 1

stopn = 30

x1 = xord(startn): y1 = yt(startn)

x2 = xord(stopn): y2 = yt(stopn)

GOSUB rotate2

ax1 = x10: ay1 = y10

am1 = TAN(-betak + pi / 2)

b1 = ay1 - am1 * ax1

x1 = xord(startn): y1 = yt(startn)

x2 = xord(stopn + 1): y2 = yt(stopn + 1)

GOSUB rotate2

ax2 = x10: ay2 = y10

am2 = TAN(-betak + pi / 2)

b2 = ay2 - am2 * ax2

x1 = ax1: y1 = ay1: m1 = am1

x2 = ax2: y2 = ay2: M2 = am2

x = (b2 - b1) / (m1 - M2)

y = (M2 * b1 - m1 * b2) / (M2 - m1)

Rx = SQR((x - xord(startn)) ^ 2 + (y - yt(startn)) ^ 2)

FOR pp = startn TO stopn

yt(pp) = SQR(Rx ^ 2 - (xord(pp) - x) ^ 2) + y

NEXT pp

' Correct equation at trailing edge .. Abbott etc wrong

shift = yt(100) / 100

FOR pp = 0 TO 100

yt(pp) = (yt(pp) - shift * pp)

NEXT pp

' Correct thickness to chord ratio to true value "t" .. wrong again

max = 0 ' find max thickness normal to camber line

FOR pp = 1 TO 99

IF yt(pp) > yt(pp + 1) AND yt(pp) >= yt(pp - 1) THEN max = yt(pp)

NEXT pp

FOR pp = 0 TO 100 ' correct to desired thickness t

yt(pp) = yt(pp) * T(J) / (2 * max)

NEXT pp

' CAMBER MEAN LINE FOR NACA 4-DIGIT AIRFOIL

FOR pp = 1 TO 100

IF xord(pp) > P.p(J) THEN 55

NEXT pp

55 zs = pp - 1 ' high point location on camber line

FOR pp = 0 TO 100

z = xord(pp)

yc(pp) = M2(J) / P.p(J) ^ 2 * (2 * P.p(J) * z - z ^ 2)

IF pp > zs + 1 THEN yc(pp) = M2(J) / (1 - P.p(J)) ^ 2 * (1 - 2 * P.p

(J) + 2 * P.p(J) * z - z ^ 2)

NEXT pp

' DETERMINE forward ORDINATES NORMAL TO MEAN LINE

FOR pp = 0 TO zs

z = xord(pp)

th = ATN(2 * M2(J) / P.p(J) * (1 - z / P.p(J)))

xu(pp) = z - yt(pp) * SIN(th)

yu(pp) = yc(pp) + yt(pp) * COS(th)

xl(pp) = z + yt(pp) * SIN(th)

yl(pp) = yc(pp) - yt(pp) * COS(th)

NEXT pp

' DETERMINE rearward ORDINATES NORMAL TO MEAN LINE

FOR pp = zs + 1 TO 100

z = xord(pp)

th = ATN(2 * M2(J) / (1 - P.p(J)) ^ 2 * (P.p(J) - z))

xu(pp) = z - yt(pp) * SIN(th)

yu(pp) = yc(pp) + yt(pp) * COS(th)

xl(pp) = z + yt(pp) * SIN(th)

yl(pp) = yc(pp) - yt(pp) * COS(th)

NEXT pp

' Scale ordinates to true chord in mm

FOR pp = 0 TO 100

xu(pp) = xu(pp) * ch(J)

yu(pp) = yu(pp) * ch(J)

xl(pp) = xl(pp) * ch(J)

yl(pp) = yl(pp) * ch(J)

xord(pp) = xord(pp) * ch(J)

yc(pp) = yc(pp) * ch(J)

NEXT pp

' Rotate upper surface to thicken TE for flicking

FOR pp = 0 TO 100

theta = ATN(.5 * (-te(J)) / (xu(100) - xu(0)))

xur(pp) = xu(pp) * COS(theta) + yu(pp) * SIN(theta)

yur(pp) = -xu(pp) * SIN(theta) + yu(pp) * COS(theta)

xu(pp) = xur(pp)

yu(pp) = yur(pp)

NEXT pp

' Rotate lower surface to thicken TE for flicking

FOR pp = 0 TO 100

theta = ATN(.5 * te(J) / (xl(100) - xl(0)))

xlr(pp) = xl(pp) * COS(theta) + yl(pp) * SIN(theta)

ylr(pp) = -xl(pp) * SIN(theta) + yl(pp) * COS(theta)

xl(pp) = xlr(pp)

yl(pp) = ylr(pp)

NEXT pp

dum = xu(100): dum1 = xl(100)

FOR pp = 0 TO 100

xu(pp) = ABS(xu(pp) - dum)

xl(pp) = ABS(xl(pp) - dum1)

x1 = xu(pp): y1 = yu(pp)

x2 = xl(pp): y2 = yl(pp)

GOSUB rotate

NEXT pp

scl = 1

x1 = -10 * scl: y1 = -10 * scl

x2 = 140 * scl: y2 = 93 * scl

IF J > 15 THEN x1 = 110 * scl

IF J > 15 THEN x2 = 220 * scl

WINDOW (x1, y1)-(x2, y2)

FOR pp = 1 TO 100

LINE (xu(pp - 1), yu(pp - 1))-(xu(pp), yu(pp)), 14

LINE (xl(pp - 1), yl(pp - 1))-(xl(pp), yl(pp)), 14

NEXT pp

LINE (0, 0)-(240, 0), 10: LINE (0, 0)-(0, 100), 10

'LINE (0, 0)-(50, 0), 14: LINE (0, 0)-(0, 50), 14

'INPUT vbv

RETURN

rotate2:

betak = ATN((y2 - y1) / (x2 - x1))

x11 = x1 * COS(betak) + y1 * SIN(betak)

x21 = x2 * COS(betak) + y2 * SIN(betak)

y11 = -x1 * SIN(betak) + y1 * COS(betak)

y21 = -x2 * SIN(betak) + y2 * COS(betak)

y = 0

x = (x11 + x21) / 2

betak = -betak ' back transform

x10 = x * COS(betak) + y * SIN(betak)

y10 = -x * SIN(betak) + y * COS(betak)

RETURN

rotate:

xu(pp) = x1 * COS(betan) + y1 * SIN(betan)

xl(pp) = x2 * COS(betan) + y2 * SIN(betan)

yu(pp) = -x1 * SIN(betan) + y1 * COS(betan)

yl(pp) = -x2 * SIN(betan) + y2 * COS(betan)

RETURN

vectors: ' Plot vectors

CLS

betan = -(beta(J) - Az0): GOSUB plotnaca

x = Vr / TAN(advance(J)): y = Vr ' advance

x4 = ch(J) * 1.8: y4 = x4 * TAN(beta(J)) ' zero-lift line

x4 = 40: y4 = x4 * TAN(beta(J))

x1 = Wx(ll) * COS(phi2(ll)): y1 = Wx(ll) * SIN(phi2(ll))

LINE (0, 0)-(x4, y4), 13 ' zero-lift line

LINE (0, 0)-(x, y), 4 ' advance

LINE (x, 0)-(x, y), 2 ' Vr

LINE (0, 0)-(x1, y1), 3 ' W

LINE (x1, y1)-(x, y), 12 ' interference resultant

LINE (x1, y1)-(x1, y1 - aa1 * Vr), 12 ' vector a = aa1

LINE (x, y)-(x1, y1 - aa1 * Vr), 12 ' vector a'= a11

LINE (5, 86)-(15, 86), 4: LOCATE 2, 15: COLOR 4: PRINT "advance"

LINE (5, 82)-(15, 82), 2: LOCATE 3, 15: COLOR 2: PRINT "Vr"

LINE (5, 78)-(15, 78), 13: LOCATE 4, 15: COLOR 13: PRINT "Beta"

LINE (5, 74)-(15, 74), 3: LOCATE 5, 15: COLOR 3: PRINT "W"

LOCATE 2, 40: PRINT "Iteration vectors"

LOCATE 4, 30: PRINT USING " Blade element J = ## Iteration = ##";

J; PPP

CIRCLE (0, 0), 30, 13, 0, beta(J), .78

CIRCLE (0, 0), 32, 3, 0, ATN(y1 / x1), .78

CIRCLE (0, 0), 34, 4, 0, ATN(y / x), .78

RETURN

chordplot: ' PLOT CHORD DISTRIBUTION

x1 = -20: x2 = 35: y1 = -100: y2 = 348

WINDOW (x1, y1)-(x2, y2)

FOR th = bbb + 1 TO 25

LINE (th - 1, ch(th - 1) / 3)-(th, ch(th) / 3)

LINE (th - 1, -2 * ch(th - 1) / 3)-(th, -2 * ch(th) / 3)

NEXT th

RETURN

slipplot:

' PLOT SLIP DISTRIBUTION

x1 = -2: x2 = 27: y1 = -1: y2 = 15

WINDOW (x1, y1)-(x2, y2): CLS

LINE (0, 0)-(0, 10): LINE (0, 0)-(25, 0)

LOCATE 2, 5: PRINT "Radial distribution of slip "

LOCATE 3, 5: PRINT " Constant slip implies minimum induced loss"

LOCATE 8, 8: PRINT "Slip velocity"

LOCATE 23, 60: PRINT "station"

FOR th = bbb + 1 TO 25

LINE (th - 1, slip(th - 1))-(th, slip(th))

NEXT th

GOSUB delay

RETURN

':

' PLOT NEW CHORD DISTRIBUTION

x1 = -10: x2 = 35: y1 = -100: y2 = 348

WINDOW (x1, y1)-(x2, y2)

COLOR 12

FOR th = bbb + 1 TO 25

LINE (th - 1, ch(th - 1) * .42)-(th, ch(th) * .42)

LINE (th - 1, -.58 * ch(th - 1))-(th, -.58 * ch(th))

NEXT th

GOSUB delay

RETURN

delay: timex = .5

starttime = TIMER

WHILE (TIMER - starttime) < timex

WEND

RETURN

plotchord2: ' PLOT NEW CHORD DISTRIBUTION

x1 = -10: x2 = 35: y1 = -50: y2 = 100

WINDOW (x1, y1)-(x2, y2): COLOR 4

LINE (-2, 0)-(2, 0): LINE (0, -8)-(0, 8): COLOR 2

FOR th = bbb + 1 TO 25

LINE (th - 1, ch(th - 1) * .42)-(th, ch(th) * .42)

LINE (th - 1, -.58 * ch(th - 1))-(th, -.58 * ch(th))

NEXT th

LINE (25, ch(25) * .42)-(25, -ch(25) * .58)

GOSUB delay

RETURN

SUB prompt (x)

' The subprogram PROMPT displays "Press any key to continue" and loops until

' a key is pressed. X specifies the row on which the text appears.

LOCATE 23, 15: C = 15

DO

COLOR C: LOCATE x, 65

PRINT "Press any key";

FOR T = 1 TO 1000: NEXT

IF C = 15 THEN C = 2 ELSE C = 15

LOOP UNTIL INKEY$ <> ""

CLS : COLOR 15

END SUB

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