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Internal Combustion Engines


Lecture-23
Ujjwal KSaha, Ph.D.
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
Prepared under
QIP-CD Cell Project
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Purpose of Lubrication
Reduce the frictional resistance of the
engine to a minimum to ensure maximum
mechanical efficiency.
Protect the engine against wear.
Remove all impurities from the
lubricated region.
Form a seal between piston rings and
the cylinder walls to preventblowby.
Serve as a cooling agent by picking
up heat.
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Lubrication Systems
Mist lubrication system
Wet sump lubrication system
Dry sump lubrication system
Four Stroke
Engines
Two Stroke Engines
Mist lubrication system is mainly employed in two-
stroke cycle engines, whereas wet and dry sump
systems are used in four-stroke cycle engines. The
wet sump system is employed in relatively small
engines, such as automobile engines, while the
dry sump system is used in large stationary,
marine and aircraft engines.
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Mist Lubrication Systems
In two-stroke engines, the charge is
compressed in the crankcase, and as such it is
not suitable to have the lubricating oil in the
sump. Therefore, such engines are lubricated by
adding 3 % to 6 % oil in the fuel tank itself. The
oil and fuel mixture is inducted through the
carburetor. The fuel gets vaporized and the oil,
in the form of mist, goes into the cylinder
through the crankcase. The oil that impinges the
crankcase walls lubricates the main and
connecting rod bearings, and the rest of the oil
lubricates the piston, piston rings and cylinder.
The main advantage with this system lies in the
simplicity and low cost as the system does not
require any oil pump, filter etc.
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Wet Sump Lubrication Systems
In the wet sump system, the bottom of the
crankcase contains an oil sump (or pan) that
serves as the oil supply reservoir. Oil dripping
from the cylinders and bearings flows by
gravity back into the wet sump where it is
picked up by a pump and re-circulated
through the engine lubricating system. The
types of wet sump systems used are:
the splash and circulating pump system
the splash and pressure system
the full force-feed system
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Splash and Circulating Pump System
C a ms ha ft
M a in be a ring
C o nne c tin g ro d
be a rings
ma in
be a ring
O il
tro u ghs
L o we r
o il pa n
O il S tra ine r
O il pump
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Splash and Pressure System
C ams haft
M ain be aring
C onnecting rod
be arings
main
be aring
O il S trainer
O il pump
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Full Force Feed System
Camshaft
Main bearing
main
bearing
Oil Strainer
Oil pump
Header
line
End leakage
from rod
connecting rod bearing
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Dry Sump Lubricating System
Oil
Cooler
P ressure
release
valve
Vent
Filter By-P ass
P resuure
relief valve
Filter
Scavenging pump
Strainer
Dry sump
Engine crankcase
Oil pump
To
Bearings
Supply
Tank
Dry sump
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Properties of Lubricating Oil
The oil used in an engine must serve as
a lubricant, a coolant and an agent for
removing impurities.
It must be able to withstand high
temperatures without breaking down. The
oil must operate over a good range of
temperature.
They must not oxidize on the chamber
walls, piston crown or at the piston rings.
Oil should have high film strength to
prevent metal-to-metal contact even
under extreme loads.
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Properties of Lubricating Oil
(a) Viscosity:
(a) Viscosity: The lubricating oil
should have the correct viscosity
so that it flows easily to all the
moving parts.
If oil viscosity is too high, more
work is required to pump it and
to shear it between the moving
parts. This results in greater
friction work, reduced brake
work and hence reduced power
output. Viscosity is highly
dependent on temperature,
increasing with decreasing
temperature.
The fuel consumption may
increase by as much as 15 %.
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Rating of Lubricating Oil
Lubricating oil is generally rated using a
viscosity scale established by the SAE.
Commonly used viscosity grades are:
SAE 5
SAE 10
SAE 20
SAE 30
SAE 40
SAE 45
SAE 50
The oil with lower viscosity grades is less viscous
and is used in cold-weather operation. Modern
high temperature, high speed, close tolerance
engines use high viscosity grades oil.
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Rating of Lubricating Oil
When certain polymers are added to oil, the
temperature dependency of oil viscosity is reduced.
These oils have low viscosity grades when they are
cold and higher as they become hot.
As for example, SAE 10W-30
means that the oil has a grade 10
when it is cold (W stands for winter)
and 30 when it is hot. Commonly
used oils in this category are:
SAE 5W-20 SAE 10W-40
SAE 5W-30 SAE 10W-50
SAE 5W-40 SAE 15W-40
SAE 5W-50 SAE 15W-50
SAE 10W-30 SAE 20W-50
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Rating of Lubricating Oil
(b) Specific Gravity:
(b) Specific Gravity: This property is of little
importance except as an indicator of weight
and volume. The specific gravity of oil varies
from 0.85 to 0.96.
(c) Pour Point:
(c) Pour Point: It indicates the temperature
below which the lubricating oil loses its fluidity
and will not flow or circulate in the system. This
characteristics of the oil is important at low
temperature Pour point must be at least 15
0
F
lower than the operating temperature to
ensure maximum circulation.
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Rating of Lubricating Oil
(d) Oxidation Stability:
(d) Oxidation Stability: Oxidation stability of an
oil is its resistance to oxidation. Due to
oxidation, oil forms deposits on the piston rings,
and thereby loses its lubricating property.
Some inhibitors are used to counteract these
tendencies.
(e) Acidity and Neutralization Number:
(e) Acidity and Neutralization Number: The
lubricating oil should have low acidity. The
neutralization number is a measure of acidic or
alkaline contents of oil.
(f) Oiliness:
(f) Oiliness: Oiliness is responsible for the
boundary layer of molecules that can adhere
or cling to a metal surface and provide
lubrication after most of the oil gets displaced
or squeezed out.
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Types of Lubricating Oil
Vegetable oils have been used in the
past, especially for racing car engines. The
main advantages of these oils are their
high film strength, and they have a good
lubricity.
Later, specially formulated mineral oils
have replaced their use in high
performance engines. Mineral oils are most
readily available and cost effective. They
readily respond to additives, and can be
produced in a wide range of viscosities.
The main disadvantage lies with its wax
content that affects cold performance and
can clog filters.
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Classification of Lubricants
Animal
Vegetable
Mineral
Synthetic
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Animal Lubricants
Lubricants with animal origin:
Tallow
Tallow oil
Lard oil
Neats foot oil
Sperm oil
Porpoise oil
These are highly stable at normal
temperatures
Animal lubricants may not be used for
internal combustion because they
produce fatty acids.
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Vegetable Lubricants
Examples of vegetable lubricants are:
Castor oil, Olive oil, Cottonseed oil
Animal and vegetable oils have a lower
coefficient of friction than most mineral oils
but they rapidly wear away steel.
These lubricants are used to a large extent
in the lubrication of aircraft internal
combustion engines.
There are three classifications of mineral
lubricants:
Solid, Semisolid, Fluid
Mineral Lubricants
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Synthetic Lubricants
Synthetic Lubricants
Because of the high operating
temperatures of gas-turbine engines,
it became necessary to develop
lubricants which would retain their
characteristics at temperatures that
cause petroleum lubricants to
evaporate and break down.
Synthetic lubricants do not break
down easily and do not produce
coke or other deposits.
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Additives
Corrosion and Rust Inhibitors
Anti-foam Agents
Pour Point Improvers
Oiliness and Film-strength Agents
Detergent-Dispersants
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Conclusions
In order to minimize friction between the
moving parts and hence wear, lubrication
system in an engine plays a significant
role. The lubrication system is designed to
deliver clean oil at the correct
temperature and pressure to every part of
the engine. Lubricating oil can be
supplied to the various engine
components by a splash system or by a
pressurized system or a by a combination
of both. In two-stroke engines, oil is mixed
with the fuel itself.
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