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Submitted by:
P!"amme C!de #TS
C!u$e C!de PTS % & E'!(!"y) E*+i!*me*t
a*d T!ui$m
E*!((me*t Numbe
Re"i!*a( Ce*te
Study Ce*te
Tit(e !, t-e P!.e't
Environmental Issues In
Uttar Pradesh: Conservation
Of Taj Mahal & Forests
I hereby certify that the roosal for the roject entitled
Environmental Issues In Uttar Pradesh: Conservation Of Taj
Mahal & Forests! by """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""
has been reared after due consultation #ith me$ The
roosal has my aroval and has% to my &no#led'e% the
otential of develoin' into a comrehensive Project #or&$ I
also a'ree to suervise the above mentioned Project till its
()i'nature of )uervisor*
Uttar Pradesh is endo#ed #ith natural #ealth in abundance$
This #ealth lies hidden belo# a variety of roc&s of
different a'es found in lofty mountain ran'es of the
.imalayas in the +orth and /indhyan ran'es in the )outh$ The
diversity of flora and fauna dislayed here due to vast
area% bi' and small rivers% varieties of climatic
conditions% and different &inds of soil are hard to find
The flora of a re'ion includes all the varieties of lants%
#hich 'ro# there$ /e'etation is the 'eneral effect roduced
by the 'ro#th of some or all these lants$ The lains of
Uttar Pradesh have been very rich in natural ve'etation%
#hich has% ho#ever% diminished due to #ide0ran'in' needs of
the eole$ Only a fe# atches of natural forest are no#
found scattered here and there in the lains% #hile such
forests are e1tensively found on a very lar'e scale in sub0
mountain and mountain re'ions% #hich is in Uttranchal no#$
Troical Moist ,eciduous Forests are found in the moist
re'ion of Terai$ They 'ro# in re'ions% #hich record 233 to
243 cm$ of rainfall annually% have an avera'e temerature
bet#een 56057C and have considerable de'ree of humidity$
8o#er re'ions have several secies intersersed #ith
9amboo%Climbers% Cand and ever 'reen shrubs$ Main trees are
)al% 9er% :ular% ;hin'al% Palas% Mahua )emal% ,ha&% -mla%
;amun% etc$
Troical Thorny Forests are mostly found in south0#estern
arts of the )tate$ )uch forests are confined to the areas
#hich have lo# annual raunfall (43073 cms*% mean annual
temerature bet#een 54 de'reee to 57 de'ree cente'rade and
lo# humidity (less than <7 ercent*$ =idely scattered thorny
trees% mainly% 9abool%Thorny% le'umes and Euhorbias are
e1tensively found here$ ,urin' rains% short 'rasses also
'ro# here$ The trees are 'enerally small here formin' oen
dry forests$ Imortant trees of the re'ion are Phulai%
>hair% >o&&e% ,haman% ,anjha% +eem% etc$ /arious tyes of
resin and 'um are obtained from these trees$
-nimals deend on forest not only of food but also for
habitat$ The diversity of fauna livin' in #ater and land in
the air are found in the )tate$ )ome common secies found
here are Ti'er% Panther% )no# 8eoard% )ambhar% Cheetal%
>astura% Chin&ara% 9lac& ,eer% +il'ai% 9ac&0bro#n 9ear%
Mountain :oat% .yena% .ill ,o'% Elehant etc$ -mon' the
birds Fo#l% Pheasant% Partrid'e% Florican% ,uc&% :oose and
=ader are common$
Uttar Pradesh offers an endless array of attractions to the
tourist% by #ay of monuments% health resorts% mountain
ea&s% a #ealth of ancient temles and viharas% rich flora
and fauna% fascinatin' rivers and cativatin' valleys$ Thus
it becomes imerative to rotect the +atural and Cultural
.erita'e (monuments* of the )tate$
F!e$t ma*a"eme*t i* Utta Pade$-:
The 'ro#in' reali?ation of increasin' environmental
ollution and the role of forests in abatin' it led to
conservin' and e1tendin' forests on riority basis in the
state$ To rotect the hill areas% the /indhyan and
9undel&hand re'ions and the catchment areas of the Chambal
and the @amuna% to chec& soil erosion and deforestation% and
encoura'e afforestation% UP Protection of Trees in /illa'es
& .ill -reas -ct #as enacted in 2A76$ The )ocial Forestry
Pro'ramme #as launched in 2A7A in UP to meet the fuel0#ood%
fodder and small timber needs of the eole and to reduce
biotic ressure on forests$ Under this scheme% lantations
alon' roads% canals% rail#ay lines and on community lands
have been underta&en$
E*+i!*me*ta( P!((uti!* a*d Ta. Ma-a(
Environmental ollution surred by industry and automobiles
has lon' been observed to be ro'ressively destroyin' the
Taj MahalBs #hite marble surface$ The =orld .ealth
Or'ani?ation (=.O* has identified -'ra as a !ollution
intensive ?oneC$ It is estimated that the area around the
Taj contains five times the amount of susended articles
(such as sulfur dio1ide* that the Taj Mahal could handle
#ithout sustainin' everlastin' dama'e$
Petitions of Indian environmentalists have led to a series
of court challen'es in the Indian )ureme Court and lo#er
courts$ The conflict has often itted business and labor
interests a'ainst environmentalists and reservationists as
#ell as IndiaBs need to rotect its cultural herita'e versus
its need to rovide jobs for its citi?ens$
To study the role of U$P Pollution Control 9oard in
imlementin' Environmental 8a#s and rules #ithin the
jurisdiction of the state of Uttar Pradesh$
To study and identify the need for Forest mana'ement in
Uttar Pradesh$
To study the environmental measures roosed for the
rotection of the Taj Mahal$
Data S!u'e$
My roject #ill mainly comrises of secondary data sources
li&e leadin' dailies% Times of India% .industan Times and
boo&s on Environmental Conservation% etc$ 9esides these I
#ill ta&e references from different ma'a?ines li&e India
Today% Outloo&% The =ee& etc$ ,ifferent #ebsites #ill
constitute the most imortant source of data$
Primary ,ata #ill be 'athered by intervie#in' the officials
of Uttar Pradesh Pollution Control 9oard and )tate Tourism
Re$ea'- A22!a'-
The research #ill aim to first list do#n the various
environmental issues in Uttar Pradesh #ith secific
reference to forests and Taj Mahal and than #ill list the
initiatives and measures ta&en by various authorities to
rotect the forests and monument of the state$