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A NATIONAL LEVEL

PAPER

PRESENTATION

ON
EURO EMISSION
NORMS
FOR

AUTHORS:

*P.RAJ KUMAR,
**B.VAMSHEE KRISHNA
***LAXMI PRASANA
e-mail: janniraj@gmail.com,
vamsheebadhey@gmail.com.

*M.E (1) Sem Mech.Engg.Dept


VASAVI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, HYDERABAD,
**B.E PRODUCTION ENGINEERING PSASSED OUT.
VASAVI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, HYDERABAD,
***B.Tech 4th year Mech.Engg.Dept
GOKA RAJU RANGA RAJU ENGINEERING COLLEGE,
HYDERABAD.
ABSTRACT:

With increasing levels of urbanization in India, the problem of environmental


safety has assumed serious proportions. Increasing levels of urbanization has generally
meant higher number of vehicles plying on our god-forsaken roads. In the past decade or
so, since the time the liberalization policy was set in motion, more and more households
have graduated to higher income categories. Coupled with changing attitudes towards
taking debt, people no longer found it difficult to own their own personal car. A small
statistic tells us all. Sales of passenger cars jumped more than three times from 209,203
units 638,815 units all in a matter of seven years.

However, the rising number of vehicles on our roads has meant increased air
pollution. Blame it on the poor quality or adulteration of fuel or the bad conditions of our
roads, the problem was serious enough for the country's Supreme Court to sit up and take
notice. It went about setting time-bound guidelines for the automotive industry to follow.
The Court took special note of the deteriorating air quality in the National Capital Region
of Delhi (NCR) which has the dubious distinction of having the highest number of
vehicles in the country - more than Mumbai, Calcutta and Chennai put together. The
effect of Euro norms came into action in our country from;

• Euro I equivalent norms w.e.f. June 1, 1999.


• Euro II equivalent norms from April 1, 2000.

Initially, Euro I and Euro II norms were scheduled to commence from April 2000
and April 2005 respectively. But on the recommendation of the Society of Indian
Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM), they were preponed to June 99 and April 2000. It
also considered SIAM’s recommendation that stress should be laid on suitable norms that
could bring down the increasing level of air pollution rather than on the technology
applied for the purpose. The technology part could be left at the behest of the vehicle
manufacturers.

Recently, SIAM has come out with a blueprint on the next stage of emission
norms. The purpose is clear. SIAM has argued that the gap between the European and
Indian stages of implementing the higher grades of pollution norms should be reduced.
The Association feels that given the seriousness of the issue, it is better that this country
too tries to address the problem in the shortest possible time frame, which is feasible.

Key words:-Pollution under control, Norms, Society of Indian auto mobile


manufacturers.
THERE IS VAST INCREASE IN VECHULAR POPULATION IN INDIA:

Table:-1

ALL INDIA VECHILE POPULATION

YEARS 2-W 3-W CARS MUV’s CV’s TOTAL

Pre-1986 6,133,771 389,542 1,278,654 386,788 1,057,191 9,245,946

Pre-1991 14,046,764 763,513 2,281,569 731,726 1,744,211 19,567,783

Pre-1998 28,736,061 1,398,873 3,938,396 859,153 2,310,000 37,242,483


UPTO 38,770,000 2,510,000 4,715,809 1,104,191 2,386,992 49,486,992
2000

AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY CHARACTERISTICS:-

Fig:-1
What are Emission Norms?

Emission norms are prescribed CO (Carbon Monoxide), HC (Hydrocarbons) and NOX


(Nitrous oxide) levels set by the government which a vehicle would emit when running
on roads. All the manufacturers need to implement the same for vehicles being
manufactured from the date of implementation.

EURO NORMS:

Euro norms refer to the permissible emission levels from both petrol and Diesel vehicles,
which have been implemented in Europe. However in India, the government has adopted
the Euro norms for available fuel quality and the method of testing. Euro-1 norms in
India are known as INDIA 2000 since it will be implemented from 1/4/2000. The norms
equivalent to Euro-2 are called 2005 norms but these have not yet been specified by the
Indian Government.

LET US SEE WHAT ARE THE EMMISION LEVELS EURO NORMS I & II
FOLLOWS:

Table:-2

EXISTING 1998 EURO I EURO II


C.O. (carbon monoxide)(gm/km) 4.34 2.75 2.20
H.C + NO X (gm/km) 1.50 0.97 0.50
(Hydro Carbons & Nitrious Oxides)

The Euro norms I is implemented from 1st JUNE 1999 is applicable only in the
NCR (DELHI) as per the Supreme Court Ruling and the Government Regulations and the
EURO II norm will be applicable to NCR from 1st APRIL 2000. The EURO I norm will
be applicable to Mumbai from January 1, 2000 while the EURO II norm will be
applicable to MUMBAI from 1st APRIL 2000.

The following areas would require attention by manufacturers in order to


have a EURO I compliant car: -

 Carburetor retuning,
 Secondary air intake,
 Exhaust gas recirculation,
 Catalyser capacity increase,
 Trimetal coating in the catalyser.
Following changes are to be done for having a Euro II compliant vehicle:

(a)Carburetor is replaced by an MPFI system i.e. a Multi-point Fuel Injection System.

There are two basic types of engines, spark ignition and compression ignition
engines. In the former, fuel ignition is triggered by an electric spark from a spark plug,
while in the latter, atomized liquid fuel is injected with the help of a fuel pump and a
nozzle into a cylinder full of hot compressed air, which results in ignition taking place.
Larger cylinders which need more fuel require more than one injector, thus resulting in a
multi-point fuel injection system

WHO CERTIFIES THE MANUFACTURER?

Euro emission norms are certified by Automobile Research Institute (ARAI), Pune,
which is an independent third party assessor that issues a third party authenticity
certificate guaranteeing the euro norm compliance by the manufacturer.

PRESCRIBED LEVEL OF CARBON MONO OXIDE, HYDROCARBONS


AND NITRO OXIDES GASES FROM THE EXHAUSTION OF PETROL
VEHICLES ARE:

Table:-3
PRESCRIBED LEVEL OF CARBON MONO OXIDE, HYDROCARBONS AND
NITRO OXIDES GASES FROM THE EXHAUSTION OF DIESEL VEHICLES
ARE:

Table: 4

NORMS FOLLOWED IN INDIA:

Table:-5
THE FOLLOWING REDUCTION IN POLLUTION LEVEL HAVE BEEN
ACHIEVED BY USING EMISSION NORMS:-

Fig: 2
Fig:3
ACCORDING TO SIAM PROPOSED COMPUTERIZED PUC
(POLLUTION UNDER CONTROL) TESTING CENTER FOR PETROL
VEHICLES:-

The vehicles to be tested are brought to the PUC center where a tube with
sensors is placed into the tailpipe of the vehicle while the vehicle is idling. The tube
sends exhaust gases to gas analyzers which measure the physical mass of emission i.e.,
grams per kg. The levels of HC, CO, NOx are shown on the computer screen while the
vehicle is being tested a digital camera takes the photo of the vehicle showing its number
plate to prevent any manipulations.

The analyzed levels of gases with photo of vehicle is printed out in certificate form
which valid for six months with following data;
Vehicle registration number, engine type, data and time of test, percentage of gases,
grade of test and the next check up date .This entire data is also sent to RTO office
through WAN connection where entire data is stored analyzed statically.

Vehicle Certified for Pollution Norms


CONSLUSION:-

THROUGH THE PROPER USAGE OF VECHILES THE POLLUTION CAN BE REDUCED,

MAKE A HABIT TO KEEP YOUR VECHILE CLEAN.