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AMPLITUDE MODULATION

Time domain description, Frequency domain


description, Single tone modulation, Generation of AM
wave, Square law modulator, Switching Modulator,
Detection of AM waves, Square law detector, Envelope
detector. detector.
DSB-SC Modulation, Time-domain and frequency
domain descriptions of DSB-SC, Generation of DSB-SC:
Balanced modulator, Coherent detection of DSBSC
modulated waves, Costas loop, Quadrature-Carrier
multiplexing.
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Types o Communication
Simplex A can talk to B
Radio, T! "roadcasting, C#$#!# R%&
Sim'l(st t)'(, r(*uir(s on( transmitt(r and on( r(c(iv(r
Duplex - A and B "ot+ can talk to (ac+ ot+(r simultan(ousl)
A
B
A
B
Duplex - A and B "ot+ can talk to (ac+ ot+(r simultan(ousl)
T(l('+on(, T(l(gra'+
Com'l(,, r(*uir(s t-o transmitt(r and t-o r(c(iv(r at "ot+ (nds
.((ds t-o di//(r(nt c+ann(ls /or simultan(ous transmission
Half-Duplex A and B can "ot+ talk to (ac+ ot+(r "ut not simultan(ousl)
0a,, C#$#!# R1, .((ds on( singl( c+ann(l /or transmission
Com'romis( "(t-((n t-o, don2t r(*uir( s('arat( transmitt(r and r(c(iv(r
Sam( ant(nna and circuitr) ma) "( us(d /or "ot+ transmission and r(c('tion
A transceiver is a small unit that combines a transmitter and a receiver.
A
B
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Mo!ulation
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Communication systems
Digital
T+( "lock diagram on t+( to' s+o-s t+( "locks common to all communication
s)st(ms
Analog
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Types o Analog Mo!ulation
Amplitude Modulation (AM)
Amplitude modulation is the process of varying the
amplitude of a carrier wave in proportion to the amplitude
of a baseband signal. The frequency of the carrier remains
constant
Frequency Modulation (FM)
Frequency modulation is the process of varying the
frequency of a carrier wave in proportion to the amplitude
of a baseband signal. The amplitude of the carrier remains
constant
Phase Modulation (PM)
Another form of analog modulation technique.
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Amplitu!e Mo!ulation
9s(s a +ig+(r /r(*u(nc) carri(r
&ost (//ici(nt us( o/ /r(*u(nc)
Tim( and 0r(*u(nc) #omain
Susc('ti"l( to .ois( Susc('ti"l( to .ois(
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#ine $a%e
:(ak Am'litud( (A)
ma,imum str(ngt+ o/ signal
volts
0r(*u(nc) (/)
Rat( o/ c+ang( o/ signal Rat( o/ c+ang( o/ signal
;(rt< (;<) or c)cl(s '(r s(cond
:(riod = tim( /or on( r('(tition (T)
T = 1$/
:+as( ()
R(lativ( 'osition in tim(, /rom 8-2>
?(n(ral Sin( -av(
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#&t' ( A
c
&1 ) *
a
m&t''cos&+>
c
t'
1+(r(
K
a
is a constant.
m(t) is the baseband message. For an audio signal, the spectrum of m(t) is the baseband message. For an audio signal, the spectrum of
m(t) would typically be in the range of 300 Hz 3.4 kHz.
f
c
is the carrier frequency
m&t' ( A
m
cos&+>
m
t'
and
f
c
>> f
m

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,a-ying #ine $a%es
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.ig/e- 0-e1uency Ca--ie-
Signal
time
Carrier
time
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Signal
Carrier
watts
.ig/e- 0-e1uency Ca--ie-
frequency
Baseband
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Frequency shifting (Modulation)
( )
{ }
( )
0
0
j t
f t e F

=
Therefore multiplying a time function by causes its
spectral density to be translated in frequency by
0
.
0
j t
e

Example
#ome p-ope-ties o t/e 0ou-ie- t-anso-m
Example
( )
{ }
( ) ( )
0 0 0
1
cos
2
f t t F F = + +

( )
F

( )
0
1
2
F +
( )
0
1
2
F
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#pect-um 2ep-esentation o AM
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Time Domain
Signal
time
Carrier
time
T Srinivasa Rao 17 Analog Communications (EC-314)
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Time Domain Continue!
time
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Amplitu!e Mo!ulation
Carrier wave
Baseband signal
Modulated wave
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T/e AM $a%eo-m
T+( t+r(( com'on(nts t+at /orm t+( A& -av(/orm
ar( list(d "(lo-@
1. he lower-side frequency (fc - fi)
!. he carrier frequency (fc)
". he upper-side frequency (fc + fi) ". he upper-side frequency (fc + fi)
A/ a radio signal o/ /r(*u(nc) -it+1888B;< is mi,(d -it+
an audio signal o/ 1 B;< t+( out'ut -ill "(
A signal at 1888 B;< (Carri(r -av()
A signal at 1881 B;< (u''(r sid("and)
A signal at 777 B;< (lo-(r sid("and)
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#pper and $o%er Sidebands
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Uppe- an! Lo3e- #i!e4an!s
An most s)st(ms t+( int(llig(nc( signal is a com'l(,
-av(/orm containing com'on(nts /rom roug+l)
288;< to 3B;<
A/ t+is com'l(, -av(/orm is us(d to modulat( t+(
carri(r t+(r( -ould "( a -+ol( "and o/ sid(
/r(*u(nci(s /r(*u(nci(s
T+( "and o/ /r(*u(nci(s a"ov( t+( carri(r is t(rm
t+( u''(r sid("and
T+( "and o/ /r(*u(nci(s "(lo- t+( carri(r is call(d
t+( lo-(r sid("and
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E5ample
A 14&;< carri(r is modulat(d ") a music
signal t+at +as /r(*u(nc) com'on(nts /rom
28;< to 18k;< #(t(rmin( t+( rang( o/
/r(*u(nci(s g(n(rat(d /or t+( u''(r and /r(*u(nci(s g(n(rat(d /or t+( u''(r and
lo-(r sid("ands
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Ans-(r
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Time !omain 6 0-e1uency !omain
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Mo!ulation 0acto-
T+( modulation /actor is t+( ratio "(t-((n
t+( modulat(d and unmodulat(d carri(r -av(/orm
At can "( (,'r(ss(d in various -a)sC
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Po3e- -elation in AM
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T-ansmission Eiciency o AM
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Ca--ie- Po3e- ,s #i!e4an! Po3e-
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Square law modulator.
Utilizing the non linear characteristic of any
square law device ( like Diode, Transistor etc.)
Switching Modulator.
Utilizing the Switching characteristic or
7ene-ation an! Detection o AM 3a%es
Utilizing the Switching characteristic or
time varying characteristic of a diode.
Square law detector.
Envelope detector.
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#1ua-e La3 Mo!ulato-
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#3itc/ing Mo!ulato-
T Srinivasa Rao Analog Communications (EC-314) 36
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#3itc/ing Mo!ulato-
Assum( t+at
D(t
T+( diod( -ill turn on i/ and -ill turn o// i/
T+( out'ut across t+( load r(sistor is
) (t m A
c
>>
0 ) ( > t c 0 ) ( t c
) 2 cos( ) ( t f A t c
c c
=
0 ) ( ) ( t c t v

>
Sinc( g(t) is a '(riodic r(ctangular /unction, t+( 0ouri(r s(ri(s is
) ( )] 2 cos( ) ( [
) ( ) (
0 ) ( 0
0 ) ( ) (
) (
0
t g t f A t m
t g t v
t c
t c t v
t v
c c
i
i
+ =
=

>
=
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#1ua-e La3 Demo!ulato-
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En%elope Detecto-
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T+( o'(rations o/ t+( circuit r(*uir(s
car(/ul s(l(ction o/ &RC
A/ RC is too larg(, disc+arging -ill "(
slo- and t+( circuit cannot /ollo- a
d(cr(asing (nv(lo'(
En%elope Detecto-
d(cr(asing (nv(lo'(
1+(n RC is too small t+( ri''l(s -ill
"( +ig+
T+( ri''l(s ar( /inall) r(mov(d ")
D:0
T+( #C valu( is "lock(d ") a
ca'acitor
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En%elope Detecto-
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Points to 4e 2emem4e-e!
Amplitude modulation is the process of varying the amplitude of a
carrier wave in proportion to the amplitude of a baseband signal. The
frequency of the carrier remains constant
The function of the carrier in AM is simply to provide a signal to
heterodyne (mix) with the modulated audio, to convert all the AF
components to a higher frequency.
The bandwidth of an AM signal is equal to twice the highest freq.
[In commercial AM broadcast txs the freq of the modulating audio is
permitted to be as high as 4.5 KHz, and since a double side system is
used , commercial stations therefore have a bandwidth of 9 KHz]
The bandwidth does not depend on the power of the modulating
signal.
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