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Landscape /Architecture

Infrastructure/ Urbanism

Seminar Arch. 209X
Th. 9am-12pm
Room 104

University of California
Fall 2008

Ren Davids

This seminar aims to explore how the physical, and conceptual understanding of landscape can enrich
current forms of architectural and urban design practice. We will introduce landscape and infrastructure
discourses that increasingly impinge on the fields of architecture and urban design today. At the junction of
landform, infrastructure, urban design and architecture lies a rich field of possibilities that is increasingly
superseding the narrower field of each of the disciplines by themselves. Increasingly, landscape is emerging
as a model for urbanism.

Wastelands, areas abandoned by industry, railways, ports, areas that have seen the withdrawal of
residential or commercial activity are emerging phenomena in the late XX century metropolis. Abandoned
infrastructure or spaces enabled by have come to life when used for purposes other than they were
originally conceived for: areas below freeways used for skating or dog-training lessons, dry concrete
riverbed channels used for play, abandoned building foundations used for motorcycle training, sleeping by
the homeless, sweepstakes or farmers markets. Concurrently a low intensity urban life has emerged in the
suburbs not just through office parks and malls designed in their midst, but also through yard-sales or street
parties organized on suburban streets.
Some of the activity which would have taken place in the spatially rich environment of the department store
in the nineteenth century has moved in this century to simple sheds, efficient containers of the sort the
Cosco's uses to sell its merchandise: Many of these non-traditional spaces are not dependent on architects.

This seminar will attempt to understand the meaning of urban/public landscapes and or so called empty
spaces under or around infrastructure to learn from non-conventional urban spaces or those that
conservative urban practice has left behind particularly those in which unintended occupation has occurred,
explore spatial opportunities to re-design, optimize and or promote activities that may be taking place or
could take place within them.

Theory, Social and Cultural Processes
This seminar fulfills both Theory and Social and Cultural Processes in Architecture and Urbanism criteria
outlined below:

To have a basic knowledge of the concepts in person-environment relations
To understand how these concepts vary by sub-culture and position- presenting multiple
perspectives on the environment.
To have the ability to use systematic methods needed to gain multiple perspectives, to have the ability to
collect and analyze data, including but not limited to statistical, observation-mapping, behavior traces,
questionnaires, participant observations, ethnographic studies, cognitive mapping, and so on.
To develop critical thinking about the values embedded in design and the consequences for people.
To critically understand the issues surrounding programming and post occupancy evaluations

Course Requirements
Note: Unless otherwise indicated, all course readings are in the course reader, available from Krishna
Copy Krishna Copy Center. 2111 University Ave. Readings listed below, as additional readings are not
required. They are intended as a research resource and as a supplement to weekly reading assignments.

Weekly reading response Attendance and Participation in Discussions and of one Seminars: 50%
You are required to prepare a brief response of three critical questions to all of the assigned readings of no
more than 150 words, which you may be asked to read aloud at the start of the class discussions each
week. Your response should not be a summary; rather it should present critical issues/questions the reading
has raised for you. You may also use it to suggest connections/conflicts with previous readings, or perhaps
establish a link with work you are doing in other courses. A copy of your response must be submitted at the
beginning of each class. These will form an integral part of the final grade you receive for class participation.
Attendance is mandatory. Regular, enthusiastic and informed participation in class discussions is an
important part of your contribution to the class.

Leading one or two Seminar Sessions:
In order to lead the discussion, you will need to:

a) Prepare three questions to help focus discussion in your session, and bring them to class,
b) Prepare an opening statement, with some critical observations to begin your session. Your goal should be
to create an interesting and provocative context for discussion of the questions you have identified. Your
opening presentation should be analytical and critical, and assume that everyone has completed the

c) You may include slides or other material to accompany discussion of your questions. You may choose to
examine one of the buildings or urban spaces mentioned in the readings in more detail; you may also
choose to introduce an example that is not included in the readings, but is a particularly appropriate
illustration of the question being addressed.

d) You will lead a seminar with two, possibly three other students. You must communicate with your partners
about how to divide responsibilities and how to co-ordinate the presentation of your examples.

e) Two weeks prior to your presentation you are required to meet with me briefly after class to discuss your

Research/ Mapping: 50%
You are required to produce field research mapping exercises in an area of your choice
(The chosen area is subject to approval by the instructor) that will inform and advance your basic knowledge
of- urban-suburban environments used by people and to understand how these concepts vary by
comparison in different contexts. For that end the seminar will be divided in a suburban and an urban group.
You will collect and analyze data, including but not limited to statistical, observation-mapping, behavior
traces, questionnaires and participant observations.
In the process you will develop critical thoughts about the values embedded in the space you will be
analyzing and the consequences for people and critically understand programming and the evaluation of the
existing places
You are required to produce a sketch design at the end of term in response to the analytical field research
you will be conducting throughout the term.

All weekly exercises are to be presented on 11X 17 sheets presented horizontally with a 2 margin to the
left . lettering should be with Aerial 9 type. Please consult Groat, Linda and Wang, David Architectural
Research Methods NA2000 .G76 2002

A) Survey
0- Photographic and historical survey. Arrange conceptually

B) Mapping :
1- Regional or city Map.
2- Performative map (zoning of activities)
3- Sketch proposal
4- Map of senses (smell, sound, views, touch)
5- Wheather map (based on data and tangible results on the ground such as the effects of sun, rain, dew,
6- Time activity map (dayly) (weekly)
7- Present case study places around the world that are designed in similar area, present comparable
conditions or are of interest to you by contrast.
8- Narrative map(Annotate events you have witnessed, interviews you have conducted )

C Storyboard
9-1-Establish an ergonomic storyboard study of the body performing activities on your site. You may do this
with activities you might want to encourage on your chosen area but that are not yet present on it.
10- Sectional J ourney through site

D Design:
11- Written essay (two pages). Contrast your chosen space with other conventional spaces
. Present historical precedents.
12- Project: A small urban design proposal sketch presentation
13- Presentation: digital model, section and elevation.
14- Pre- Final Presentation


1) Unless otherwise noted, all books are on reserve in the Environmental Design Library, 210 Wurster Hall.
2) Reserve listings and call numbers are available through GLADIS (telnet:// Type: f in
davids, rene
3) If you are having trouble locating an online journal, go to Find e_J ournals or check Pathfinder
4) Chapters and essays from books are listed under the TITLE of the BOOK, not the title of the essay.


Seminar 1: Topics of Discussion Urban Landscape/Urbanism/ Urban Landscape/Landscape
Urbanism/ Urban Practice
August 30

Set a framework for your mapping exercises and present a photographic and historical survey. Arrange

(jrl)Urban Design Now: A Discussion in Harvard Design Magazine.( Fall 2006/Winter 2007, N.25)1-13.

Corner, J ames. Terra Fluxus in The Landscape Urbanism Reader Charles Waldheim, editor. in The
Landscape Urbanism Reader. Princeton Architectural Press( 2006) 21-33, UCB:EnvDesign SB472.7 .L36

( j r l ) Shane, Graham. On Landscape. The Emergence of Landscape Urbanism in Harvard Design
Magazine. (Fall 2003/Winter 2004) 1-8.

Seminar 2: Defining Urban Landscape
September 6

Abstract a regional and or city Map high-lightening the most important relationships and connection the your
chosen analysis site makes to the transportation network, sewers lines and any other urban infrastructural
systems of interest to you.

(jrl) Angelil and Klingmann, Hybrid Morphologies: Infrastructure, Architecture, Landscape in (Daidalos 73,
1999. EnvDesign) 16-24 EnvDesign NA3 .D35 bd perl

(jrl) Frampton, K. Toward an Urban Landscape Columbia Documents Volume 4 Columbia Documents of
Architecture and Theory: D( 1995) 83-93 EnvDesign NA1 .C565 bd per

Corner, J ames. Representation and Landscape in Theory in Landscape Architecture.
edited by Simon Swaffield Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.( 2002)144-165
Env. Design SB472 .T44 2002


Seminar 3: Defining Urban Sites
September 13

Produce a performative map (zoning of activities) Analyze the activities that occur on your chosen site by
observing the area at different times of the day during different days. Map the activities separately

Kahn, Andrea. Defining Urban Sites in Burns, Carol, J ., Kahn Andrea Site Matters. Design Concepts,
Histories and Strategies. New York: Routledge (2005) 181-296.
Env Design NA2540.5 .B86 2005

Burns, J . Carol. High-Performance Sites in Burns, Carol, J ., Kahn Andrea Site Matters. Design Concepts,
Histories and Strategies. New York: Routledge (2005)297-310
EnvDesign NA2540.5 .B86 2005

Czerniak, J ulia. Looking back at Landscape Urbanism: Speculations on Site in the Landscape Urbanism
Reader, Charles Waldheim, editor. Princeton Architectural Press (2006) 125-139
EnvDesign SB472.7 .L36 2006

Seminar 4: Defining Public Space
September 20

Produce Sketch proposal. The idea can be presented digitally or in model form and is meant to activate your
imagination. It is also meant to re-enforce the idea that the analysis can be both an exploration of the
existing conditions and generative of design ideas.

Dijkstra, Lewis W. Public Spaces: A comparative discussion of the criteria for Public Space in Hutchinson,
Ray. Constructions of Urban Space .Stamford, Connecticut,( 2000) 1-22.
Environ Design HT151.C654 2000

Glass Ruth. Urban Images in Cliches of Urban Doom Basil Blackwell, 1989. HT119 .G63 1989

Kelly Shannon From Theory to Resistance: Landscape Urbanism in Europe in The Landscape Urbanism
Reader. Charles Waldheim, editor. Princeton Architectural Press, (2006) 125-139. UCB:EnvDesign SB472.7
.L36 2006

Contemporary Conditions

Seminar 5: The Contemporary City
September 27

Produce a map of senses (smell, sound, views, touch) Analyze these phenomena on your chosen site by
observing the area at different times of the day during different days. Map the activities separately.

Koolhaas, Rem. The Generic City in Small, Medium, Large, Extra-large / Office for Metropolitan
Architecture S,M,X,XL, The Monacelli Press(1996)1248-1994. Env. Design NA1153.K66 K66 1995

Hajer, Maarten, Reinjndorp, Arnold. Public Domain as Perspective in Search of New Public Domain.
Rotterdam: Nai Publishers( 2001) 7-17. Env. Design NA1153.K66 K66 1995

Whyte, William. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces Washington, D.C.: Conservation Foundation (1980)
Env. Design HT153 .W49


Seminar 6: Sub-Urban Landscapes
October 04

Produce a wheather map based on data and tangible results on the ground such as the effects of sun, rain,
dew, wind. Analyze the effect of weather on your chosen site by observing the area at different times of the
day during different days. Map the phenomena separately.

Garreau, J oel. Edge City, Life on the New Frontier. New York : Anchor Books,( 199) 3-15. Environ Design
HT334.U5.G37, 1991.

(jrl)Bruegmann, Robert. How Sprawl got a Bad Name in The American Enterprise (J une 2006) 16-21. Law
KJ 5 .A46 ( available online at

(jrl)Harvey, David New Urbanism and the Communitarian Trap in Harvard Design Magazine (Winter
/Spring 1997 Number 1) 1-3 ( available

(jrl) 15 Ways to Fix the Suburbs in Newsweek , (May 15, 1995) 46-53. Main AQ N74, available online
Charter of New Urbanism in


Seminar 7: Social Landscapes
October 11

Produce a Time activity map (dayly) (weekly) Analyze the effect of time on your chosen site by observing the
area at different times of the day and exploring through record and photographs how the place has changed
through history.

(jrl) Lipsitz, George. The Racialization of Space and the Spatialization of Race. Landscape J ournal(26:1-
07) 10-23.

Hayden, Dolores. Contested Terrain in The Power of Place. Urban Landscapes as Public History
Cambridge, Ma. : MIT Press, 1995)

Hayden, Dolores. Urban Landscape History: The sense of Place and the Politics of Space in The Power of
Place. Cambridge, Ma. : MIT Press( 1995) 7-43.

Rediscovering an African American Homestead in Hayden, Dolores. Urban Landscape History in The
Power of Place. Cambridge, Ma. : MIT Press (1995) 169-187Env. design F869.L857 H39

Seminar 8: Programming Urban Landscapes
October 18

Present places/ environments around the world ( case studies)that are designed in similar area to the one
you have chosen, present comparable conditions and or are of interest to you by contrast.

12. in Contemporary Landscape Architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press( 1999)233-249. Env.
Design SB472 .R385 1999.

Tschumi Bernard. Architecture and Disjunction. Cambridge: The MIT Press, CA, MA(1994) 121-135. Env.
Design NA2543.S6 T78 (1996) 121-135.

Tschumi, Bernard. Spaces and Events in Discourse of Events. (Themes 3). London U.K.: Architectural
Association, 1983. Environ Design NA2005.D5 ( 1983) 6-11.

Seminar 9: Memory and Urban Landscape
October 25

Produce a Narrative map. Annotate events you have witnessed, interviews you have conducted
In order to establish a questionnaire or conduct you interviews orally consult Groat, Linda and Wang , David
Architectural Research Methods NA2000 .G76 2002

Groat, Linda and Wang, David Architectural Research Methods NA2000 .G76 2002

J ackson, J .B. The Necessity of Ruins in The Necessity for Ruins, and other Topics. E. Amherst
: University of Massachusetts Press, (1980) 90-102 Env.Design GF91.U6 .J 32

Leach,Neal. Erasing Traces in Neal Leach, editor. Architecture and Revolution: Contemporary
Perspectives on Central and Eastern Europe. London; New York: Routledge, 1999. Environ Design
NA958.A745 1999

J ordan, J ennifer. Collective Memory and Locality in Global Cities in Linda Krause and Patrice Petro.
editorsGlobal Cities, Cinema, Architecture & Urbanism in a Digital Age, New Brunswick: Rutgers, University
Press. (2003) 31-48. Env. Design NX650.C66 G58 2003

Seminar 10: Climate Change, Biodiversity, and Natural Processes in the City
November 01

Produce an ergonomic storyboard study of the body performing activities that take place on your site. You
may also do this with activities you might want to encourage on your chosen area but that are not yet
present on it.

(jrl) Deborah Bright. The Machine in the Garden Revisited. in Art Journal Summer (vol. 52, 1992.) Env.
Design N81 .C6 Main , available online

(jrl) J arzombek, Mark; Sustainability and Architecture, between fuzzy systems and wicked problems.
Blueprints, (vol. 21, no 1, Winter 2003) 6-9. Env. Design fNA1 .B55

(jrl) Ingersoll, Richard. A Post-Apocalyptic View of Ecology and Design in
Harvard Design Magazine, (Spring Summer, 2003) available online

Hough Michael. Design with City Nature: An Overview of Some Issues in Platt, H Rutherford The
Ecological City. London: The University of Massasuchets Press, Amherst. (1994) 40-48
Env. Design HT243.U6 E26 1994

Seminar 11: Landscape of Networks and Exchange
November 08

Produce a Sectional J ourney through your site with at least 7 frames

Webber, Martin. The J oys of Automobility in Wachs Martin and Crawford, Margaret, The Car and the City
: the Automobile, the Built Environment, and Daily Urban Life Ann Arbor, Mi. : University of Michigan Press,
(1991). 274-284 Env. Design HE5623 .C33 1992

Brinckerhoff, J ohn J ackson. Roads belong in the Landscape in A Sense of Place , Sense of Time. New
Haven: Yale University Press,( 1994)189-205. Env. Design F796 .J 27 1994

Tatom, J acqueline Urban Highways and the Reluctant Public Realm in The Landscape Urbanism Reader
Charles Waldheim, editor. Princeton Architectural Press,(2006)179-193. EnvDesign SB472.7 .L36 2006

Clare Lyster: Landscapes of Exchange. The Landscape Urbanism Reader. Charles Waldheim, editor.
Princeton Architectural Press, (2006):219-235. EnvDesign SB472.7 .L36 2006

Seminar 12: Landscape Art
November 15

Produce a written essay (min one page up to two pages). Contrast your chosen space with other
conventional spaces. Compare with historical precedents.

(jrl) Hogue, Martin. The Site as Project. Lessons from Land Art and Conceptual Art. in JAE, (February
2004) 54-61. NA2000.A1 J 6 (available on line) )

Beardsley, J ohn. Monument and Environment: in Earthworks and Beyond : Contemporary Art in the
Landscape 1966-1976 from Probing the Earth: Contemporary Land Projects.New York:Abbeville Press:
(1984). Environ Dsgn N6494.E27 B4 (1984) 13-39

Kurt Hildegard, Aesthetics of Sustainability in Ecological Aesthetics : Art in Environmental Design : Theory
and Practice / initiated by Herman Prigann ; edited by Heike Strelow in co-operation with Vera David. Boston
: Birkhuser, (2004) 188-193. SB 472 E25 2004

Integration of Landscape, Architecture Art and Infrastructure

Seminar 13: Architecture Form as Landscape
November 22 (Thanksgiving) Recommended reading

Project: re-do maps during the holidays that have not reached a good resolution. Work on your proposal.

(jrl) Leatherbarrow, David. Topographical Premises in Journal of Architectural Education. Vol. 57, Issue 3,
February 2004. NA2000.A1J 6 (available on line) 171-
184 )

Frampton, K. Megaform as Urban Landscape. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, A. Alfred Taubman
College of Architecture +Urban Planning, (1999) Environ Design HT371 .F724 1999

Seminar 14: Intertwining Architecture and the Natural World
November 29

Present your proposal in the context of your mapping exercises
(jrl) Goldberger, Paul. Collaborating with Nature. in Metropolis, ( August/September 2002) 1-3. Env.
Design fN6535.N5.M47 bd perl

(jrl) J acobs, J ane. The Greening of the City. The New York Times Magazine.(May 16, 2004) 22-24
Electronic location:

Meyer, Elizabeth K. The Expanded Field of Landscape Architecture in Thompson George F and Steiner, R.
Frederick. Ecological Design and Planning. New York: J ohn Wiley and Sons, Inc.( 1997) 45-73. Env.Design
SB472.45 .E36 1997

Seminar 15: Integrating Site Region Infrastructure
December 06

Pre- Final Presentation of your proposal


Strang, Gary. Infrastructure as Landscape. in Simon Swaffield. Theory in Landscape Archietcture.
Philadephia: University of Pennsylvania Press.( 2002) 220-226.
EnvDesign SB472 .T44 2002

Somol, R.E. Urbanism without Architects in Allen, Stan Points + Lines, Diagrams and Projects for the
City. New York: Princeton Architectural Press( 1999)137-143 Env. Design NA737.A44 A4 1999

Marot, Sabastian Landscape As Altenative in Het Landschap : vier internationale Landschapsontwerpers =
The Landscape : Four International Landscape Designers : ...
Antwerpen : deSingel,( 1995)11-33 Env. Design SB472.45 .L27 1995

Seminar 16: Conclusion
December 13

Sketch design and mapping exercise presentation/review