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2.

Electric Potential Energy,


Potential and Capacitance
EPF 0024 PHY II 1
Outline Outline
2.1 Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential
2.2 Energy Conservation
2.3 The Electron Volt (eV)
2.4 Electric Potential of a Point Charge
2 5 E i t ti l Li d S f 2.5 Equipotential Lines and Surfaces
2.6 Capacitor
2 7 Dielectric 2.7 Dielectric
2.8 Storage of Electrical Energy
2.9 Electric Energy and Power in Current Electricity
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 2
gy y
Topics for today's lecture: Topics for todays lecture:
Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential.
Energy Conservation.
The Electron Volt (eV).
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 3
Objectives of this lecture: Objectives of this lecture:
Explain the concepts of Electric Potential Energy,
Electric Potential and Electric Potential Difference.
Discuss energy conservation in electric fields
Introduce a newunit of energy called the Electron Volt
(eV) and its relation to the joule (J ).
Solve Problems related to these concepts.
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 4
2.1 Electric Potential Energy and the
Electric Potential
In Physics I the concepts of work ,W, &energy,
U, have been introduced in a mechanical context.
In this section these concepts are used in the In this section these concepts are used in the
context of electric fields.
A charged particle moves in an electric field as
a result of the field doing work on it. A charged
particle in an electric field therefore has electric particle in an electric field therefore has electric
potential energy , U.
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 5
Fig. 2.1: Electric & Gravitational Potential Energy
Fi 2 1 h if A t t h i l d Fig. 2.1 shows a uniformE. A +ve test charge q
0
is placed
at A and experiences a downward electric force of
magnitude F = q
0
E which displaces it to point B.
Electric field
+ + + +
Gravitational field
m
A
+
q
0
A
y
A
A A
mgy U =
A A
Ey q U
0
=
y
x
B
E
B
y
B
y
A
B B
mgy U =
B B
Ey q U
0
=
g
F = mg
F = q
0
E
y
B

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 6
Ground level = zero potential
2.1.1 Electric Potential Energy
The work done W
AB
by the electric force F:
2.1.1 Electric Potential Energy
The work done W
AB
by the electric force F:
While the change in potential energy U is -ve:
( )( ) ( )( ) y E q y F y y F W
A B AB
= = =
0
(2.1)
While the change in potential energy U is ve:
y E q Ey q Ey q U U U
A B A B

0 0 0
= = =
(2.2)
Therefore
U W
AB
= (2.3)
Where U is set to zero is arbitrary. The absolute
U of a test charge q
0
is set to zero with respect to
h h th i fi it l f t
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 7
a charge q when they are infinitely far apart.
2.1.2 Electric Potential 2.1.2 Electric Potential
Electric potential energy U is associated with
electric potential that is known as voltage V in
electric circuits. The electric potential V is
defined as defined as
U
V =
or
0
q
(2.4)
V q U
0
=
qV U =
V is a scalar quantity and has the SI unit of the
j l / l b lt b l V
q
0
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 8
joule/coulomb =volt, symbol V.
2.1.3The Electron Volt (eV) 2.1.3 The Electron Volt (eV)
W i ti (2 4) th t th l t i We see in equation (2.4) that the electric
potential energy is given by . qV U =
This equation suggests, at the atomic level, a
convenient and commonly used unit of energy y gy
called the Electron Volt (eV) defined as
( )( ) ( )( ) J 10 60 1 V 1 C 10 60 1 V 1 e 1 eV 1
19 19
= = = (2 5) ( )( ) ( )( ) J 10 60 1 V 1 C 10 60 1 V 1 e 1 eV 1 = = = . . (2.5)
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 9
2.2 Electric potential difference (p.d.)
The electric p.d. V between the
2.2 Electric potential difference (p.d.)
p
two points y
A
and y
B
in Fig. 2.1 is:
E
y E q W U
V
AB

(2 5)
+ + + +
+
q
0
A
A A
Ey q U
0
=
From which we obtain the
y E
q
y q
q q
V
AB

0
0
0 0
= = = =
(2.5)
E
B
y
A
B B
Ey q U
0
=
From which we obtain the
important relation between E and
V, that is
V
F = q
0
E
y
B

y
V
E =
(2.6)
(The SI Unit for E can therefore

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 10
(The SI Unit for E can therefore
also be volts/meter, V/m).
2.3 Energy Conservation gy
Gravitational potential energy U of a mass m
dropped in gravitational field decreases while dropped in gravitational field decreases while
its kinetic energy K increases. The total energy,
however, remains the same (i.e. energy is however, remains the same (i.e. energy is
conserved).
The same applies to electric fields, i.e.:
B B A A
U K U K + = +
( )
B B A A
B B A A
V V q U U v v m
U mv U mv
U K U K
+ = +
+ +
) (
2 2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1 (2.7)
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 11
( )
B A B A A B
V V q U U v v m = = ) (
2
1
Example 1 Example 1
The work done by the electric force as a test
charge (q
0
= + 2.0 10
6
C) moves fromA to B is
W + 5 0 10
5
J ( ) Fi d U U U W
AB
= + 5.0 10
5
J. (a) Find U = U
B
U
A
between these points. (b) Determine V = V
B
V
A
.
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 12
Solution Solution
(a)
W U
(a)
J 10 0 . 5

5
=
=
AB
W U
(b)

=
U
V
V 25
J 10 0 . 5

5
0
=

=

q
V
V 25
C 10 2.0

6
=

=

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 13
Example 2 p
Find U as a charge of (a) +2.20 10
6
C or
(b) 1.10 10
6
C moves from a point A to B, (b) 1.10 10 C moves from a point A to B,
given that V = V
B
V
A
= +24.0 V (positive
implies B at higher potential compared to A).
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 14
Solution Solution
(a)
( )( ) V 0 . 24 10 2.20

6
=
=
C
V q U
J 10 5.28
5
=
(b)
( )( ) V 0 24 10 10 1

6
=
=
C
V q U
( )( )
J 10 64 . 2
V 0 . 24 10 10 . 1
5
=
= C
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 15
Example 3
y
Example 3
x
The work done by the electric
force as a test charge
(q =+2 0 10
6
C) moves fromA
+ + + +
A
+q
0
(q
0
=+2.0 10 C) moves fromA
to B is W
AB
=+5.0 10
5
J. (a)
Determine U =U
B
U
A
. (b) Find
( )
F = q
0
E
V = V
B
V
A
. (c) What is
magnitude of E if distance
between A and B is 0 25 m?
E
B
between A and B is 0.25 m?
_ _ _ _
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 16
Solution
(a)
J 10 0 . 5
5
= = =
AB A B
W U U U
Solution
(a)
J 10 0 . 5
AB A B
W U U U
(b)

= =
U
V V V
A B
( )
V 25
C 10 2 0
J 10 0 . 5

6
5
0
=

=

q
A B
C 10 2.0
6

(c)
( )
( )
V/m 100
V 25
=

= =
A B
V V V
E (c)
( )
V/m 100
m 25 . 0
A B
y y y
E
Magnitude of E is 100 V/mand the -ve
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 17
Magnitude of E is 100 V/m and the ve
indicates that E points in ve y direction
Example 4 Example 4
A uniform electric field with a magnitude of
6250 N/C points in the positive x direction. 6250 N/C points in the positive x direction.
Find the change in electric potential energy
when a +12.5 C charge is moved 5.50 cm
in (a) the positive x direction, (b) the negative
x direction, and (c) in the positive y direction.
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 18
Solution Solution
x qE V q U
V
E

= x qE U
(a)
x qE V q U
x
E = =

= ,
( )( )( ) mJ 30 . 4 m 0550 . 0 N/C 6250 C 10 5 . 12
6
= =

x qE U
(a)
( )( )( ) mJ 30 . 4 m 0550 . 0 N/C 6250 C 10 5 . 12
6
= =
=

x qE U
(c)
( )( )( )
(b)
( ) 0 0 = = = qE x qE U
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 19
(b)
( ) 0 0 = = = qE x qE U
Example 5 Example 5
When an ion accelerates through a potential
difference of + 2850 V the change in its difference of + 2850 V the change in its
electric potential energy is 1.37 10
15
J .
What is the sign and magnitude of the charge
on the ion?
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 20
Solution Solution
15
= V q U
C 10 81 4
V 2850
J 10 37 1
19
15

=
.
V
U
q
C 10 81 4
19
= .
It is a negative charge with magnitude of 4.81 10
19
C
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 21
Todays topics include: Todays topics include:
2.4 Electric Potential of a Point Charge
2.5 Equipotential Lines and Surfaces
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 22
Objectives of this lecture: Objectives of this lecture:
To determine an expression for the potential due
to a point charge. p g
To explain the meaning of equipotential lines. p g q p
To solve problems related to these concepts. To solve problems related to these concepts.
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 23
2 4 Electric Potential of a Point Charge 2.4 Electric Potential of a Point Charge
Fig 2.2 shows a point charge +q fixed at origin. g p g q g
A +ve test charge +q
0
is held at rest at A a
distance r
A
fromthe origin.
The test charge experiences
l i f f a repulsive force of
magnitude given by
r
A
2
0
A
r
qq
k F =
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 24
The work done by the electric field in moving the The work done by the electric field in moving the
test charge +q
0
fromposition r
A
to r
B
using integral
calculus is
1
( )
1
1
.
2
0
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
AB
q q q q q q q q
dr
r
q kq dr r F d W
B
B
A
B
A
B
A


= = =

r F
(2.9)
F th b i th h i l t i

1

0 0 0 0
0
B A A B r
r
q q
k
r
q q
k
r
q q
k
r
q q
k
r
q kq
A
=

+ =

=
Fromthe above expression the change in electric
potential energy of test charge is:
A B
A B B A
AB
U U
r
q q
k
r
q q
k
r
q q
k
r
q q
k W U = =

= =
0 0 0 0

(2.10)
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 25
Therefore U at any point for a point charge is
given by (dropping the subscripts):
A dV i i b
(2.11)
r
kqq
U
0
=
AndV is given by:
A B
kq kq U U U
V =

=
(2 12)
Finally, V at any point is given by (dropping the
A B
r r q q
V = = =
0 0

(2.12)
y y p g y ( pp g
subscripts:
kq
V =
(2.13)
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 26
r
The net potential at a point due to a group of The net potential at a point due to a group of
point charges can be calculated by summing
potentials. For n point charges, net potential is p p g , p

= = + + + + =
n
i
n
q
k V V V V V V
(2 14)

= =
= = + + + + =
i
i
i
i n
r
k V V V V V V
1 1
3 2 1
(2.14)
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 27
Example 1 Example 1
What minimumwork is required by an external
force to bring a charge q
1
=+3.0 10
6
C froma force to bring a charge q
1
3.0 10 C froma
great distance away (take r =infinity) to a point
0.5 mfroma charge q
2
=+20 10
6
C?
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 28
Solution Solution
The work W required is The work, W, required is
( ) = =
A A
U U U W ( )

2 1 2 1 2 1
=

=
A A
A A
r
q q
k
r
q q
r
q q
k
( )
( )( )
m 0 5
C 10 20 C 10 0 . 3
/C Nm 10 99 . 8
6 6
2 2 9

=


A A
r r r
J 08 . 1
m 0.5
=
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 29
Example 2 Example 2
Calculate the electric potential at points A and p p
B due to charges q
1
and q
2
as shown Fig.
yy
60 cm
A
B
30 cm
40 cm
40 cm
q =+50 C q =50 C
x
26 cm 26 cm
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 30
q
2
= +50 C q
1
= 50 C
Solution Solution
The potential at point A is The potential at point A is
1 2 1 2

q q kq kq
( )
C 10 0 5 C 10 0 5
5 5
A1
1
A2
2
A1
1
A2
2
A1 A2

+ = + = + =

r
q
r
q
k
r
kq
r
kq
V V V
A
( )
V 10 5 7 V 10 75 0 V 10 5 1
m 6 . 0
C 10 0 . 5
m 3 . 0
C 10 0 . 5
/C N.m 10 99 . 8
5 6 6
2 2 9
= =

=
V 10 5 . 7 V 10 75 . 0 V 10 5 . 1 = =
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 31
Solution (continued) Solution (continued)
At point B
B1
1
B2
2
B1
1
B2
2
B1 B2 B

+ = + = + =
r
q
r
q
k
r
kq
r
kq
V V V
( )
m 4 0
C 10 0 . 5
m 4 0
C 10 0 . 5
/C N.m 10 99 . 8
5 5
2 2 9
B1 B2 B1 B2

=


r r r r
V 0
m 4 . 0 m 4 . 0
=

the potential is zero everywhere on the plane
equidistant between the two charges. This plane
is called an equipotential surface with V = 0
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 32
is called an equipotential surface with V 0.
Example 3
A charge q =4.11 10
9
C is placed at the origin,
d d h 2 i l d th i and a second charge 2q is placed on the x-axis
at x =1.00 m. (a) Find V midway between the two
charges (b) V vanishes at some point P between charges. (b) V vanishes at some point P between
the charges; that is, for a value of x between 0
and 1.00 m. Find this value of x.
+q
2q
+y
P
0
1 00 m
q
x
q
+
x
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 33
1.00 m
Solution Solution
(a)
2 1

= kq V
(a)
( )( )
2 1
C 10 11 4 /C N m 10 99 8
9 2 2 9

B A
r r
kq V
( )( )
V 9 . 73
m 50 . 0 m 50 . 0
C 10 11 . 4 /C N.m 10 99 . 8
=

=
(b) Setting V = 0 we obtain
( )
0
3 m 00 . 1 2
+
x q k kq
V
( )
( ) ( )
1
0 3 00 1
0
m 00 . 1 m 00 . 1
=

+ =
x x x x
V
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 34
m
3
, 0 3 m 00 . 1 = = x x
2.5 Equipotential Lines and surfaces 2.5 Equipotential Lines and surfaces
The electric potential can be represented by
equipotential lines or surfaces as shown by the
green lines in Fig. 2.3.
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 35
Fig. 2.3: Equipotential lines (green lines)
By definition, an equipotential line/surface is
one in which all points on it are at the same
potential. That is to say, the potential difference
(V) between any two points on it is zero (V) between any two points on it is zero.
E i t ti l li / f l Equipotential lines/surfaces are always
perpendicular to the electric field. Note that a
conductor must be entirely at the same conductor must be entirely at the same
potential in static case. The surface of a
conductor is therefore an equipotential surface.
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 36
q p
Todays lecture include: Todays lecture include:
Capacitor
Dielectric
Storage of Electrical Energy
Electric Energy and Power in Current
Electricity
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 37
Objectives of this lecture: Objectives of this lecture:
To provide expressions for capacitance of a p p p
capacitor.
To explain dielectric.
To analyze energy stored in a capacitor and
electric energy in current electricity.
To solve problems related to these concepts.
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 38
p p
2 6 Capacitor 2.6 Capacitor
A capacitor consists of a pair of metal plates of area A
t d b ll di t h i Fi 2 5 f separated by a small distance as shown in Fig. 2.5 for a
parallel- plate capacitor.
Circuit symbol
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 39
Fig. 2.5: A Parallel-Plate Capacitor
2 6 1 Charging a Parallel-Plate Capacitor 2.6.1 Charging a Parallel-Plate Capacitor
When p d (voltage) V is When p.d. (voltage) V is
applied to a capacitor, it is
charged (Fig 2.6). Charge Q
i d b h l t i acquired by each plate is
directly proportional to V
Q
where C is proportionality
V
Q
C CV Q = = or
(2.15)
where C is proportionality
constant called capacitance
of the capacitor. SI unit C/V
f d(F)
Fig. 2.6: Charging a
Parallel-Plate Capacitor
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 40
or farad(F).
2.6.2 Calculating the Capacitance 2.6.2 Calculating the Capacitance
For a parallel-plate capacitor For a parallel plate capacitor
with area A and separation d
(Fig. 2.7), the capacitance is
l ti l t A d also proportional to A and
inversely proportional to d:
A
2 2 12
0
0
/N.m C 10 85 . 8

=
=

d
A
C
(2.15)
The proportionality constant
is found to have the value
0
,
th iti it f f
0
Fig. 2.7: A parallel-
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 41
the permitivity of free space.
plate capacitor
2.6.3 Calculating the E in a capacitor
Using equ. 2.6 and taking the
lt t l t t b V voltage at +ve plate to be V
and at ve plate to equal
zero (Fig. 2.8), we obtain an zero (Fig. 2.8), we obtain an
expression for E inside a
capacitor thus:
x
V
E

=
(2.16)
d
V
d
V
x x
V V
=

=
0
0

1 2
1 2
Fig 2 8: A parallel-
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 42
Fig. 2.8: A parallel-
plate capacitor
Example 1 Example 1
(a) Calculate the capacitance of a parallel-plate
capacitor whose plates are 20 cm by 3 cm and
are separated by a 1.0 mm air gap. (b) What is
the charge on each plate if the capacitor is
connected to a 12 V battery? (c) What is the connected to a 12 V battery? (c) What is the
electric field between the plates?
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 43
Solution Solution
A
C
(a)
m 10 0 6
2 3
2 2 12
0

d
A
C
(a)
pF 53
m 10 0 . 1
m 10 0 . 6
) /N.m C 10 85 . 8 (
3
2 2 12
=

( )( )
10 12
( )( ) C 10 4 . 6 V 12 F 10 53
10 12
= = = CV Q
(b)
V/m 10 2 . 1
m 10 0 . 1
V 12
4
3
=

= =

d
V
E
(c)
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 44
2 7 Dielectric 2.7 Dielectric
In most capacitors, an insulating sheet called a In most capacitors, an insulating sheet called a
dielectric is placed between the plates. This
increases the capacitance of the capacitor.
Consider a parallel-plate capacitor whose plates
t d b i If th it i are separated by an air gap. If the capacitor is
isolated (i.e. not connected to a battery) and
carries a charge Q and has voltage V across its carries a charge Q and has voltage V
0
across its
terminals, the capacitance will be given by
C
0
= Q/V
0
. Let the electric field be E
0
.
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 45
0
Q
0 0
A dielectric is placed in between the plates
becomes polarized as shown in Fig. 2.8.
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 46
Fig. 2.9: Dielectric effect on E inside a capacitor.
There will be net -ve charge on outer edge of the g g
dielectric facing +ve plate, and net +ve charge
facing the -ve plate. An electric field is set up
inside the dielectric opposite to original field E inside the dielectric opposite to original field E
0
and reduces it by a factor say. Net E inside the
dielectric is nowE = E
0
/ .
0
Hence the voltage must decreased by a factor Hence the voltage must decreased by a factor
also, i.e. V = V
0
/ , since V = Ed.
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 47
The charge Q on plates remain constant The charge Q on plates remain constant
(remember capacitor is isolated). Therefore from
V
V
Q
C
0
d V
V
Q
C
0
find we
and

= =
(2.17)
d
A
C
V
Q
C
0 0
0

= = =
Implies decrease in E by a factor will increase C
by the same factor .
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 48
Capacitance for parallel plate capacitor with
dielectric between plates is therefore given by
A A
C
(2 18)
where = is called the permittivity of the
d d
C = =
0
(2.18)

where = is called the permittivity of the


material.
0

is known as dielectric constant, a factor


indicating by how many fold capacitance is
increased Table 2 1 shows the dielectric
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 49
increased. Table 2.1 shows the dielectric
constants of some substances.
Table 2 1: at 20C for different substances Table 2.1: at 20 C for different substances
Material

Material

Vacuum 1.0000
Air (1 atm) 1.0006
P ffi 2 2 Paraffin 2.2
Rubber, hard 2.8
Vinyl (plastic) 2.8 4.5
Paper 3 7
Quartz 4.3
Glass 4 7
Porcelain 6 8
Mica 7
Ethyl alcohol 24
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 50
Ethyl alcohol 24
Water 80
Example Example
A parallel-plate capacitor has plates of area
0.0280 m
2
and separation 0.550 mm. The space
b t th l t i fill d ith di l t i f between the plates is filled with a dielectric of
dielectric constant . When the capacitor is
connected to a 12 0-V battery each of the plates connected to a 12.0-V battery, each of the plates
has a charge of magnitude 3.62 10
8
C. What is
the value of the dielectric constant ?
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 51
Solution Solution
First we determine C thus: First we determine C thus:
( )
F 10 02 3
C 10 62 . 3
9
8

= =
Q
C
N t fi d
F 10 02 . 3
V 0 . 12
= = =
V
C
Next we find :

0
=
d
A
C
( )( )
( )( )
70 . 6
0280 0 /N C 10 85 8
m 10 550 . 0 F 10 02 . 3
2 2 2 12
3 19
0
=

= =


A
Cd
d

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 52


( )( ) m 0280 . 0 /N.m C 10 85 . 8
2 2 2 12
0
A
2 8 Storage of Electric Energy 2.8 Storage of Electric Energy
A Charged capacitor stores electric energy equal to work
d t h it Th lt V th it i done to charge it. The voltage V across the capacitor is
directly proportional to the charge q already accumulated
and increases from0 to V
0
linearly .(Fig. 2.10).
V (V)
V
0
0 2
1
V
0 2
1
Q
Q (C)
0
Q
0
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 53
Fig. 2.10: Voltage across a capacitor vs. charge accumulated
V (V)
V
0
The average voltage
0 2
1
V
The average voltage
(fromFig. 2.10)
0 V +
0 2
1
Q
Q (C)
0
Q
0
0
2
1
0
2
0
V
V
V
av
=
+
=
(2.19)
The average energy
stored in a capacitor

0 0
2
1
0
0 0
2
V Q
V
Q V Q U
av av
=

= =
(2.20)
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 54
Dropping the subscript 0in eq.2.20 and using pp g p q g
f
and
2
1
C Q V QV U = =
we obtain alternative expressions for energy
stored in a capacitor as
2
or
(2.21)
C
Q
QV U
2
2
1
2
1
= =
or
2
2
1
2
1
CV QV U = =
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 55
Energy stored in a capacitor is stored in the
electric field between the plates. Using V=Ed
and C=
o
(A/d)
A

Ad is volume Therefore we may define the
( ) Ad E Ed
d
A
CV U
2
0
2
1
2
0
2
1
2
2
1
=

= =
(2.21)
Ad is volume. Therefore we may define the
energy density u as energy per unit volume:
2
1
E
U
u
(2 22)
and for a Capacitor with dielectric
0
2
1
E
Ad
u = =
(2.22)
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 56
2
0
2
1
2
2
1
E E u = = (2.23)
Example 1 Example 1
What is the potential difference between the
plates of a 3.3-F capacitor that stores
ffi i t t t 75 W li ht b lb sufficient energy to operate a 75-W light bulb
for one minute.
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 57
Solution Solution
2
1
2
= CV U
2 2
= =
=
C
Pt
C
U
V
Pt U
( )( )( )
V 52
F 3 3
s 60 W 75 2
= =
C C
F 3.3
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 58
Example 2
Stopped here
Example 2
A parallel-plate capacitor has plates with area of A parallel plate capacitor has plates with area of
1.2 cm
2
and separation 0.88 mm. The space
between the plates is filled with dielectric of
dielectric constant 2.0. (a) What is the potential
difference between the plates when the charge
l t i 4 7 C (b) Will t t on plates is 4.7C (b) Will your answer to part
(a) increase, decrease, or stay the same if the
dielectric constant is increased? Explain (c) dielectric constant is increased? Explain. (c)
Calculate the potential difference for the case
where the dielectric constant is 4.0.
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 59
Solution Solution
Qd Q
(a)
( )( )
V 10 9 1
m 10 88 . 0 C 10 7 . 4
6
3 6
0
=

=
= =

A
Qd
C
Q
V

(a)
( )( )
( )( )
V 10 9 . 1
m 10 .2 1 N.m C 10 8.85 2.0

2 4 2 2 12
=

=

(b) ill d b i i i l (b) V will decrease because it is inversely
proportional to .
(c)
( )( )
( )( )
V 10 7 . 9
m 10 2 1 /N m C 10 8 85 4 0
m 10 88 . 0 C 10 7 . 4
4
2 4 2 2 12
3 6
=


=


V
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 60
( )( ) m 10 .2 1 /N.m C 10 8.85 4.0
Example 3 Example 3
Find the electric energy density between the
plates of a 225-F parallel-plate capacitor. plates of a 225 F parallel plate capacitor.
The potential difference between the plates is
315 V, and the plate separation is 0.200 mm.
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 61
Solution Solution
2
0
2
1
= E u
( )
2
2
0
2
=
d
V
( )( )
( )
2
3
2
Nm
C
12
m 10 200 . 0 2
V 315 10 85 . 8

2
2

3
J/m 11.0 =
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 62
2.9 Energy and Power in Current Electricity gy y
Electric Energy can be easily transformed into Electric Energy can be easily transformed into
other forms of energy.
E.g. Electric motors transform electric energy
into mechanical energy, Heaters transform into mechanical energy, Heaters transform
electric energy into heat energy, while light
bulbs transformelectric energy into light energy.
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 63
For a small amount of charge Q moved across
a p. d. V, U changes by the amount
( )V Q U =
(2 24)
Power P is the time rate of change of energy,
and therefore
( ) Q
(2.24)
and therefore
( )
IV
t
V Q
t
U
P =

=
(2.25)
SI unit of power is the watt (W).
t t
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 64
Eq. 2.25 is power transformed by a device Eq. 2.25 is power transformed by a device
where I is the current passing through it and V
is the potential difference across it
and also gives the power delivered by a g p y
source such as a cell or battery.
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 65
2 9 1Alternative expressions for power

2.9.1 Alternative expressions for power


For conductors, using V = IR, alternative
expressions for power are obtained as follows:

( ) R I IR I IV P
2
= = =
(2.26)
or
V
V
V
IV P
2

(2 27)
R
V
R
IV P =

= =
(2.27)
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 66
2 9 2 Fire Hazard fromElectrical Appliances 2.9.2 Fire Hazard from Electrical Appliances
Electrical appliances have small resistance if Electrical appliances have small resistance. if
the current through electric wires is large, the
wire heats up and produce thermal energy at a p p gy
rate which equals to I
2
R and may start a fire.
To prevent overload, a fuse or circuit breaker is
used. These are switches that open the circuit
when current exceeds some particular value
(Fig 2.10).
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 67
Fig. 2.10: (a) fuse (b) circuit breaker Fig. 2.10: (a) fuse (b) circuit breaker
(a) Fuses
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 68
(b) Circuit breaker
Fig. 2.11: Connection of appliances to fuse g pp
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 69
Example Example
Calculate the resistance of 40 W automobile
head-light designed for 12 V.
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 70
Solution Solution
( ) V 12
2
2
V ( )
6 . 3
W 40
V 12
2
2
= = =
P
V
R
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 71
2 9 3 Paying Electrical Bills

2.9.3 Paying Electrical Bills


Electric bills are paid based on total electric
energy U used. From U = P t we find an
alternative unit for energy that is alternative unit for energy, that is,
1 joule (J) =1 watt second (Ws).
Larger units such a kilowatt-hour (kWh) may
be used for energy 1kWh =1000 W 3600 s be used for energy. 1kWh 1000 W 3600 s
=3.6 10
6
Ws =3.6 10
6
J.
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 72
Example 1 Example 1
An electric heater draws 15.0 A on a 240 V
line How much energy does it use and how line. How much energy does it use and how
much does it cost per month (30 days) if it
operates 3 hours per day and the rate is 10.5 p p y
cents per kWh. Assume the current flows
steadily in one direction.
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 73
Solution Solution
= IV P
( )( ) kWh 324 Wh 10 324 d 30 h/d 3 V 240 A 15
3
= = =
= = IVt Pt U
34.02 $ $/kWh 0.105 kWh 324 Cost = =
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 74
Example 2 Example 2
A 75-W light bulb operates on a p. d. of 95 V.
Find (a) the current in the bulb and (b) the
resistance of the bulb. (c) If this bulb is replaced
with one whose resistance is half the value
f d i t (b) i it ti t found in part (b), is its power rating greater or
less than 75-W? By what factor?
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 75
Solution Solution
75 W
0.79 A
95 V
P
I
V
= = =
(a)
2 2
(95 V)
120
V
R = = =
(b)
120
75 W
R
P
= = =
(b)
(c) greater by a factor of 2
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 76
Example 3 Example 3
Find the power dissipated in a 25- electric
h t t d t 120 V tl t heater connected to a 120-V outlet.
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 77
Solution Solution
2
=
R
V
P
( )
W 580
25
V 120

2
= =
R
25
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 78
Example 4 Example 4
The current in a 120-V reading lamp is 2.3 A.
If the cost of electrical energy is $ 0.075 per If the cost of electrical energy is $ 0.075 per
kilowatt-hour, how much does it cost to
operate the light for an hour?
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 79
Solution Solution
( )( )( ) hr 1 V 120 A 3 . 2 =
= = IVt Pt U
kWh 276 . 0 Wh 276 = =
( )( )
021 . 0 $
kWh $ 075 . 0 kWh 276 . 0 Cost
=
=
EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 80