87 views

Uploaded by Na Ru To

physics

- South Central Indiana Rural Electric - Ets Rates
- Charge Detection Methods for Dielectrics
- Motor cable size & rating
- Capacitors
- Mississippi-Power-Co-Large-General---TOU
- Electronic Syatem Design ppt- Live Insertion
- Physical Science Lesson 10 the Structure and Properties of Matter
- Electric fields - P2, week 2
- Central-Maine-Power-Co-PDF-
- lessons learned.ppt
- Kitchener Wilmot Hydro - Residential Jan 2017
- creative design1
- Untitled
- Lincoln Electric System - General (Jan2017)
- Sch 15_Jan 1 2016 - Final
- AMR.768.334
- Central-Maine-Power-Co-Small-General-Service
- General Service Schedule
- Superior Water, Light and Power Co - January 2017 Electric Rates
- Equation Sem 2

You are on page 1of 80

Potential and Capacitance

EPF 0024 PHY II 1

Outline Outline

2.1 Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential

2.2 Energy Conservation

2.3 The Electron Volt (eV)

2.4 Electric Potential of a Point Charge

2 5 E i t ti l Li d S f 2.5 Equipotential Lines and Surfaces

2.6 Capacitor

2 7 Dielectric 2.7 Dielectric

2.8 Storage of Electrical Energy

2.9 Electric Energy and Power in Current Electricity

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 2

gy y

Topics for today's lecture: Topics for todays lecture:

Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential.

Energy Conservation.

The Electron Volt (eV).

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 3

Objectives of this lecture: Objectives of this lecture:

Explain the concepts of Electric Potential Energy,

Electric Potential and Electric Potential Difference.

Discuss energy conservation in electric fields

Introduce a newunit of energy called the Electron Volt

(eV) and its relation to the joule (J ).

Solve Problems related to these concepts.

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 4

2.1 Electric Potential Energy and the

Electric Potential

In Physics I the concepts of work ,W, &energy,

U, have been introduced in a mechanical context.

In this section these concepts are used in the In this section these concepts are used in the

context of electric fields.

A charged particle moves in an electric field as

a result of the field doing work on it. A charged

particle in an electric field therefore has electric particle in an electric field therefore has electric

potential energy , U.

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 5

Fig. 2.1: Electric & Gravitational Potential Energy

Fi 2 1 h if A t t h i l d Fig. 2.1 shows a uniformE. A +ve test charge q

0

is placed

at A and experiences a downward electric force of

magnitude F = q

0

E which displaces it to point B.

Electric field

+ + + +

Gravitational field

m

A

+

q

0

A

y

A

A A

mgy U =

A A

Ey q U

0

=

y

x

B

E

B

y

B

y

A

B B

mgy U =

B B

Ey q U

0

=

g

F = mg

F = q

0

E

y

B

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 6

Ground level = zero potential

2.1.1 Electric Potential Energy

The work done W

AB

by the electric force F:

2.1.1 Electric Potential Energy

The work done W

AB

by the electric force F:

While the change in potential energy U is -ve:

( )( ) ( )( ) y E q y F y y F W

A B AB

= = =

0

(2.1)

While the change in potential energy U is ve:

y E q Ey q Ey q U U U

A B A B

0 0 0

= = =

(2.2)

Therefore

U W

AB

= (2.3)

Where U is set to zero is arbitrary. The absolute

U of a test charge q

0

is set to zero with respect to

h h th i fi it l f t

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 7

a charge q when they are infinitely far apart.

2.1.2 Electric Potential 2.1.2 Electric Potential

Electric potential energy U is associated with

electric potential that is known as voltage V in

electric circuits. The electric potential V is

defined as defined as

U

V =

or

0

q

(2.4)

V q U

0

=

qV U =

V is a scalar quantity and has the SI unit of the

j l / l b lt b l V

q

0

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 8

joule/coulomb =volt, symbol V.

2.1.3The Electron Volt (eV) 2.1.3 The Electron Volt (eV)

W i ti (2 4) th t th l t i We see in equation (2.4) that the electric

potential energy is given by . qV U =

This equation suggests, at the atomic level, a

convenient and commonly used unit of energy y gy

called the Electron Volt (eV) defined as

( )( ) ( )( ) J 10 60 1 V 1 C 10 60 1 V 1 e 1 eV 1

19 19

= = = (2 5) ( )( ) ( )( ) J 10 60 1 V 1 C 10 60 1 V 1 e 1 eV 1 = = = . . (2.5)

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 9

2.2 Electric potential difference (p.d.)

The electric p.d. V between the

2.2 Electric potential difference (p.d.)

p

two points y

A

and y

B

in Fig. 2.1 is:

E

y E q W U

V

AB

(2 5)

+ + + +

+

q

0

A

A A

Ey q U

0

=

From which we obtain the

y E

q

y q

q q

V

AB

0

0

0 0

= = = =

(2.5)

E

B

y

A

B B

Ey q U

0

=

From which we obtain the

important relation between E and

V, that is

V

F = q

0

E

y

B

y

V

E =

(2.6)

(The SI Unit for E can therefore

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 10

(The SI Unit for E can therefore

also be volts/meter, V/m).

2.3 Energy Conservation gy

Gravitational potential energy U of a mass m

dropped in gravitational field decreases while dropped in gravitational field decreases while

its kinetic energy K increases. The total energy,

however, remains the same (i.e. energy is however, remains the same (i.e. energy is

conserved).

The same applies to electric fields, i.e.:

B B A A

U K U K + = +

( )

B B A A

B B A A

V V q U U v v m

U mv U mv

U K U K

+ = +

+ +

) (

2 2

1

2

2

1

2

2

1 (2.7)

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 11

( )

B A B A A B

V V q U U v v m = = ) (

2

1

Example 1 Example 1

The work done by the electric force as a test

charge (q

0

= + 2.0 10

6

C) moves fromA to B is

W + 5 0 10

5

J ( ) Fi d U U U W

AB

= + 5.0 10

5

J. (a) Find U = U

B

U

A

between these points. (b) Determine V = V

B

V

A

.

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 12

Solution Solution

(a)

W U

(a)

J 10 0 . 5

5

=

=

AB

W U

(b)

=

U

V

V 25

J 10 0 . 5

5

0

=

=

q

V

V 25

C 10 2.0

6

=

=

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 13

Example 2 p

Find U as a charge of (a) +2.20 10

6

C or

(b) 1.10 10

6

C moves from a point A to B, (b) 1.10 10 C moves from a point A to B,

given that V = V

B

V

A

= +24.0 V (positive

implies B at higher potential compared to A).

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 14

Solution Solution

(a)

( )( ) V 0 . 24 10 2.20

6

=

=

C

V q U

J 10 5.28

5

=

(b)

( )( ) V 0 24 10 10 1

6

=

=

C

V q U

( )( )

J 10 64 . 2

V 0 . 24 10 10 . 1

5

=

= C

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 15

Example 3

y

Example 3

x

The work done by the electric

force as a test charge

(q =+2 0 10

6

C) moves fromA

+ + + +

A

+q

0

(q

0

=+2.0 10 C) moves fromA

to B is W

AB

=+5.0 10

5

J. (a)

Determine U =U

B

U

A

. (b) Find

( )

F = q

0

E

V = V

B

V

A

. (c) What is

magnitude of E if distance

between A and B is 0 25 m?

E

B

between A and B is 0.25 m?

_ _ _ _

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 16

Solution

(a)

J 10 0 . 5

5

= = =

AB A B

W U U U

Solution

(a)

J 10 0 . 5

AB A B

W U U U

(b)

= =

U

V V V

A B

( )

V 25

C 10 2 0

J 10 0 . 5

6

5

0

=

=

q

A B

C 10 2.0

6

(c)

( )

( )

V/m 100

V 25

=

= =

A B

V V V

E (c)

( )

V/m 100

m 25 . 0

A B

y y y

E

Magnitude of E is 100 V/mand the -ve

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 17

Magnitude of E is 100 V/m and the ve

indicates that E points in ve y direction

Example 4 Example 4

A uniform electric field with a magnitude of

6250 N/C points in the positive x direction. 6250 N/C points in the positive x direction.

Find the change in electric potential energy

when a +12.5 C charge is moved 5.50 cm

in (a) the positive x direction, (b) the negative

x direction, and (c) in the positive y direction.

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 18

Solution Solution

x qE V q U

V

E

= x qE U

(a)

x qE V q U

x

E = =

= ,

( )( )( ) mJ 30 . 4 m 0550 . 0 N/C 6250 C 10 5 . 12

6

= =

x qE U

(a)

( )( )( ) mJ 30 . 4 m 0550 . 0 N/C 6250 C 10 5 . 12

6

= =

=

x qE U

(c)

( )( )( )

(b)

( ) 0 0 = = = qE x qE U

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 19

(b)

( ) 0 0 = = = qE x qE U

Example 5 Example 5

When an ion accelerates through a potential

difference of + 2850 V the change in its difference of + 2850 V the change in its

electric potential energy is 1.37 10

15

J .

What is the sign and magnitude of the charge

on the ion?

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 20

Solution Solution

15

= V q U

C 10 81 4

V 2850

J 10 37 1

19

15

=

.

V

U

q

C 10 81 4

19

= .

It is a negative charge with magnitude of 4.81 10

19

C

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 21

Todays topics include: Todays topics include:

2.4 Electric Potential of a Point Charge

2.5 Equipotential Lines and Surfaces

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 22

Objectives of this lecture: Objectives of this lecture:

To determine an expression for the potential due

to a point charge. p g

To explain the meaning of equipotential lines. p g q p

To solve problems related to these concepts. To solve problems related to these concepts.

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 23

2 4 Electric Potential of a Point Charge 2.4 Electric Potential of a Point Charge

Fig 2.2 shows a point charge +q fixed at origin. g p g q g

A +ve test charge +q

0

is held at rest at A a

distance r

A

fromthe origin.

The test charge experiences

l i f f a repulsive force of

magnitude given by

r

A

2

0

A

r

qq

k F =

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 24

The work done by the electric field in moving the The work done by the electric field in moving the

test charge +q

0

fromposition r

A

to r

B

using integral

calculus is

1

( )

1

1

.

2

0

r

r

r

r

r

r

r

AB

q q q q q q q q

dr

r

q kq dr r F d W

B

B

A

B

A

B

A

= = =

r F

(2.9)

F th b i th h i l t i

1

0 0 0 0

0

B A A B r

r

q q

k

r

q q

k

r

q q

k

r

q q

k

r

q kq

A

=

+ =

=

Fromthe above expression the change in electric

potential energy of test charge is:

A B

A B B A

AB

U U

r

q q

k

r

q q

k

r

q q

k

r

q q

k W U = =

= =

0 0 0 0

(2.10)

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 25

Therefore U at any point for a point charge is

given by (dropping the subscripts):

A dV i i b

(2.11)

r

kqq

U

0

=

AndV is given by:

A B

kq kq U U U

V =

=

(2 12)

Finally, V at any point is given by (dropping the

A B

r r q q

V = = =

0 0

(2.12)

y y p g y ( pp g

subscripts:

kq

V =

(2.13)

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 26

r

The net potential at a point due to a group of The net potential at a point due to a group of

point charges can be calculated by summing

potentials. For n point charges, net potential is p p g , p

= = + + + + =

n

i

n

q

k V V V V V V

(2 14)

= =

= = + + + + =

i

i

i

i n

r

k V V V V V V

1 1

3 2 1

(2.14)

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 27

Example 1 Example 1

What minimumwork is required by an external

force to bring a charge q

1

=+3.0 10

6

C froma force to bring a charge q

1

3.0 10 C froma

great distance away (take r =infinity) to a point

0.5 mfroma charge q

2

=+20 10

6

C?

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 28

Solution Solution

The work W required is The work, W, required is

( ) = =

A A

U U U W ( )

2 1 2 1 2 1

=

=

A A

A A

r

q q

k

r

q q

r

q q

k

( )

( )( )

m 0 5

C 10 20 C 10 0 . 3

/C Nm 10 99 . 8

6 6

2 2 9

=

A A

r r r

J 08 . 1

m 0.5

=

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 29

Example 2 Example 2

Calculate the electric potential at points A and p p

B due to charges q

1

and q

2

as shown Fig.

yy

60 cm

A

B

30 cm

40 cm

40 cm

q =+50 C q =50 C

x

26 cm 26 cm

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 30

q

2

= +50 C q

1

= 50 C

Solution Solution

The potential at point A is The potential at point A is

1 2 1 2

q q kq kq

( )

C 10 0 5 C 10 0 5

5 5

A1

1

A2

2

A1

1

A2

2

A1 A2

+ = + = + =

r

q

r

q

k

r

kq

r

kq

V V V

A

( )

V 10 5 7 V 10 75 0 V 10 5 1

m 6 . 0

C 10 0 . 5

m 3 . 0

C 10 0 . 5

/C N.m 10 99 . 8

5 6 6

2 2 9

= =

=

V 10 5 . 7 V 10 75 . 0 V 10 5 . 1 = =

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 31

Solution (continued) Solution (continued)

At point B

B1

1

B2

2

B1

1

B2

2

B1 B2 B

+ = + = + =

r

q

r

q

k

r

kq

r

kq

V V V

( )

m 4 0

C 10 0 . 5

m 4 0

C 10 0 . 5

/C N.m 10 99 . 8

5 5

2 2 9

B1 B2 B1 B2

=

r r r r

V 0

m 4 . 0 m 4 . 0

=

the potential is zero everywhere on the plane

equidistant between the two charges. This plane

is called an equipotential surface with V = 0

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 32

is called an equipotential surface with V 0.

Example 3

A charge q =4.11 10

9

C is placed at the origin,

d d h 2 i l d th i and a second charge 2q is placed on the x-axis

at x =1.00 m. (a) Find V midway between the two

charges (b) V vanishes at some point P between charges. (b) V vanishes at some point P between

the charges; that is, for a value of x between 0

and 1.00 m. Find this value of x.

+q

2q

+y

P

0

1 00 m

q

x

q

+

x

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 33

1.00 m

Solution Solution

(a)

2 1

= kq V

(a)

( )( )

2 1

C 10 11 4 /C N m 10 99 8

9 2 2 9

B A

r r

kq V

( )( )

V 9 . 73

m 50 . 0 m 50 . 0

C 10 11 . 4 /C N.m 10 99 . 8

=

=

(b) Setting V = 0 we obtain

( )

0

3 m 00 . 1 2

+

x q k kq

V

( )

( ) ( )

1

0 3 00 1

0

m 00 . 1 m 00 . 1

=

+ =

x x x x

V

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 34

m

3

, 0 3 m 00 . 1 = = x x

2.5 Equipotential Lines and surfaces 2.5 Equipotential Lines and surfaces

The electric potential can be represented by

equipotential lines or surfaces as shown by the

green lines in Fig. 2.3.

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 35

Fig. 2.3: Equipotential lines (green lines)

By definition, an equipotential line/surface is

one in which all points on it are at the same

potential. That is to say, the potential difference

(V) between any two points on it is zero (V) between any two points on it is zero.

E i t ti l li / f l Equipotential lines/surfaces are always

perpendicular to the electric field. Note that a

conductor must be entirely at the same conductor must be entirely at the same

potential in static case. The surface of a

conductor is therefore an equipotential surface.

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 36

q p

Todays lecture include: Todays lecture include:

Capacitor

Dielectric

Storage of Electrical Energy

Electric Energy and Power in Current

Electricity

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 37

Objectives of this lecture: Objectives of this lecture:

To provide expressions for capacitance of a p p p

capacitor.

To explain dielectric.

To analyze energy stored in a capacitor and

electric energy in current electricity.

To solve problems related to these concepts.

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 38

p p

2 6 Capacitor 2.6 Capacitor

A capacitor consists of a pair of metal plates of area A

t d b ll di t h i Fi 2 5 f separated by a small distance as shown in Fig. 2.5 for a

parallel- plate capacitor.

Circuit symbol

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 39

Fig. 2.5: A Parallel-Plate Capacitor

2 6 1 Charging a Parallel-Plate Capacitor 2.6.1 Charging a Parallel-Plate Capacitor

When p d (voltage) V is When p.d. (voltage) V is

applied to a capacitor, it is

charged (Fig 2.6). Charge Q

i d b h l t i acquired by each plate is

directly proportional to V

Q

where C is proportionality

V

Q

C CV Q = = or

(2.15)

where C is proportionality

constant called capacitance

of the capacitor. SI unit C/V

f d(F)

Fig. 2.6: Charging a

Parallel-Plate Capacitor

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 40

or farad(F).

2.6.2 Calculating the Capacitance 2.6.2 Calculating the Capacitance

For a parallel-plate capacitor For a parallel plate capacitor

with area A and separation d

(Fig. 2.7), the capacitance is

l ti l t A d also proportional to A and

inversely proportional to d:

A

2 2 12

0

0

/N.m C 10 85 . 8

=

=

d

A

C

(2.15)

The proportionality constant

is found to have the value

0

,

th iti it f f

0

Fig. 2.7: A parallel-

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 41

the permitivity of free space.

plate capacitor

2.6.3 Calculating the E in a capacitor

Using equ. 2.6 and taking the

lt t l t t b V voltage at +ve plate to be V

and at ve plate to equal

zero (Fig. 2.8), we obtain an zero (Fig. 2.8), we obtain an

expression for E inside a

capacitor thus:

x

V

E

=

(2.16)

d

V

d

V

x x

V V

=

=

0

0

1 2

1 2

Fig 2 8: A parallel-

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 42

Fig. 2.8: A parallel-

plate capacitor

Example 1 Example 1

(a) Calculate the capacitance of a parallel-plate

capacitor whose plates are 20 cm by 3 cm and

are separated by a 1.0 mm air gap. (b) What is

the charge on each plate if the capacitor is

connected to a 12 V battery? (c) What is the connected to a 12 V battery? (c) What is the

electric field between the plates?

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 43

Solution Solution

A

C

(a)

m 10 0 6

2 3

2 2 12

0

d

A

C

(a)

pF 53

m 10 0 . 1

m 10 0 . 6

) /N.m C 10 85 . 8 (

3

2 2 12

=

( )( )

10 12

( )( ) C 10 4 . 6 V 12 F 10 53

10 12

= = = CV Q

(b)

V/m 10 2 . 1

m 10 0 . 1

V 12

4

3

=

= =

d

V

E

(c)

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 44

2 7 Dielectric 2.7 Dielectric

In most capacitors, an insulating sheet called a In most capacitors, an insulating sheet called a

dielectric is placed between the plates. This

increases the capacitance of the capacitor.

Consider a parallel-plate capacitor whose plates

t d b i If th it i are separated by an air gap. If the capacitor is

isolated (i.e. not connected to a battery) and

carries a charge Q and has voltage V across its carries a charge Q and has voltage V

0

across its

terminals, the capacitance will be given by

C

0

= Q/V

0

. Let the electric field be E

0

.

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 45

0

Q

0 0

A dielectric is placed in between the plates

becomes polarized as shown in Fig. 2.8.

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 46

Fig. 2.9: Dielectric effect on E inside a capacitor.

There will be net -ve charge on outer edge of the g g

dielectric facing +ve plate, and net +ve charge

facing the -ve plate. An electric field is set up

inside the dielectric opposite to original field E inside the dielectric opposite to original field E

0

and reduces it by a factor say. Net E inside the

dielectric is nowE = E

0

/ .

0

Hence the voltage must decreased by a factor Hence the voltage must decreased by a factor

also, i.e. V = V

0

/ , since V = Ed.

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 47

The charge Q on plates remain constant The charge Q on plates remain constant

(remember capacitor is isolated). Therefore from

V

V

Q

C

0

d V

V

Q

C

0

find we

and

= =

(2.17)

d

A

C

V

Q

C

0 0

0

= = =

Implies decrease in E by a factor will increase C

by the same factor .

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 48

Capacitance for parallel plate capacitor with

dielectric between plates is therefore given by

A A

C

(2 18)

where = is called the permittivity of the

d d

C = =

0

(2.18)

material.

0

indicating by how many fold capacitance is

increased Table 2 1 shows the dielectric

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 49

increased. Table 2.1 shows the dielectric

constants of some substances.

Table 2 1: at 20C for different substances Table 2.1: at 20 C for different substances

Material

Material

Vacuum 1.0000

Air (1 atm) 1.0006

P ffi 2 2 Paraffin 2.2

Rubber, hard 2.8

Vinyl (plastic) 2.8 4.5

Paper 3 7

Quartz 4.3

Glass 4 7

Porcelain 6 8

Mica 7

Ethyl alcohol 24

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 50

Ethyl alcohol 24

Water 80

Example Example

A parallel-plate capacitor has plates of area

0.0280 m

2

and separation 0.550 mm. The space

b t th l t i fill d ith di l t i f between the plates is filled with a dielectric of

dielectric constant . When the capacitor is

connected to a 12 0-V battery each of the plates connected to a 12.0-V battery, each of the plates

has a charge of magnitude 3.62 10

8

C. What is

the value of the dielectric constant ?

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 51

Solution Solution

First we determine C thus: First we determine C thus:

( )

F 10 02 3

C 10 62 . 3

9

8

= =

Q

C

N t fi d

F 10 02 . 3

V 0 . 12

= = =

V

C

Next we find :

0

=

d

A

C

( )( )

( )( )

70 . 6

0280 0 /N C 10 85 8

m 10 550 . 0 F 10 02 . 3

2 2 2 12

3 19

0

=

= =

A

Cd

d

( )( ) m 0280 . 0 /N.m C 10 85 . 8

2 2 2 12

0

A

2 8 Storage of Electric Energy 2.8 Storage of Electric Energy

A Charged capacitor stores electric energy equal to work

d t h it Th lt V th it i done to charge it. The voltage V across the capacitor is

directly proportional to the charge q already accumulated

and increases from0 to V

0

linearly .(Fig. 2.10).

V (V)

V

0

0 2

1

V

0 2

1

Q

Q (C)

0

Q

0

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 53

Fig. 2.10: Voltage across a capacitor vs. charge accumulated

V (V)

V

0

The average voltage

0 2

1

V

The average voltage

(fromFig. 2.10)

0 V +

0 2

1

Q

Q (C)

0

Q

0

0

2

1

0

2

0

V

V

V

av

=

+

=

(2.19)

The average energy

stored in a capacitor

0 0

2

1

0

0 0

2

V Q

V

Q V Q U

av av

=

= =

(2.20)

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 54

Dropping the subscript 0in eq.2.20 and using pp g p q g

f

and

2

1

C Q V QV U = =

we obtain alternative expressions for energy

stored in a capacitor as

2

or

(2.21)

C

Q

QV U

2

2

1

2

1

= =

or

2

2

1

2

1

CV QV U = =

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 55

Energy stored in a capacitor is stored in the

electric field between the plates. Using V=Ed

and C=

o

(A/d)

A

Ad is volume Therefore we may define the

( ) Ad E Ed

d

A

CV U

2

0

2

1

2

0

2

1

2

2

1

=

= =

(2.21)

Ad is volume. Therefore we may define the

energy density u as energy per unit volume:

2

1

E

U

u

(2 22)

and for a Capacitor with dielectric

0

2

1

E

Ad

u = =

(2.22)

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 56

2

0

2

1

2

2

1

E E u = = (2.23)

Example 1 Example 1

What is the potential difference between the

plates of a 3.3-F capacitor that stores

ffi i t t t 75 W li ht b lb sufficient energy to operate a 75-W light bulb

for one minute.

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 57

Solution Solution

2

1

2

= CV U

2 2

= =

=

C

Pt

C

U

V

Pt U

( )( )( )

V 52

F 3 3

s 60 W 75 2

= =

C C

F 3.3

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 58

Example 2

Stopped here

Example 2

A parallel-plate capacitor has plates with area of A parallel plate capacitor has plates with area of

1.2 cm

2

and separation 0.88 mm. The space

between the plates is filled with dielectric of

dielectric constant 2.0. (a) What is the potential

difference between the plates when the charge

l t i 4 7 C (b) Will t t on plates is 4.7C (b) Will your answer to part

(a) increase, decrease, or stay the same if the

dielectric constant is increased? Explain (c) dielectric constant is increased? Explain. (c)

Calculate the potential difference for the case

where the dielectric constant is 4.0.

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 59

Solution Solution

Qd Q

(a)

( )( )

V 10 9 1

m 10 88 . 0 C 10 7 . 4

6

3 6

0

=

=

= =

A

Qd

C

Q

V

(a)

( )( )

( )( )

V 10 9 . 1

m 10 .2 1 N.m C 10 8.85 2.0

2 4 2 2 12

=

=

(b) ill d b i i i l (b) V will decrease because it is inversely

proportional to .

(c)

( )( )

( )( )

V 10 7 . 9

m 10 2 1 /N m C 10 8 85 4 0

m 10 88 . 0 C 10 7 . 4

4

2 4 2 2 12

3 6

=

=

V

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 60

( )( ) m 10 .2 1 /N.m C 10 8.85 4.0

Example 3 Example 3

Find the electric energy density between the

plates of a 225-F parallel-plate capacitor. plates of a 225 F parallel plate capacitor.

The potential difference between the plates is

315 V, and the plate separation is 0.200 mm.

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 61

Solution Solution

2

0

2

1

= E u

( )

2

2

0

2

=

d

V

( )( )

( )

2

3

2

Nm

C

12

m 10 200 . 0 2

V 315 10 85 . 8

2

2

3

J/m 11.0 =

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 62

2.9 Energy and Power in Current Electricity gy y

Electric Energy can be easily transformed into Electric Energy can be easily transformed into

other forms of energy.

E.g. Electric motors transform electric energy

into mechanical energy, Heaters transform into mechanical energy, Heaters transform

electric energy into heat energy, while light

bulbs transformelectric energy into light energy.

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 63

For a small amount of charge Q moved across

a p. d. V, U changes by the amount

( )V Q U =

(2 24)

Power P is the time rate of change of energy,

and therefore

( ) Q

(2.24)

and therefore

( )

IV

t

V Q

t

U

P =

=

(2.25)

SI unit of power is the watt (W).

t t

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 64

Eq. 2.25 is power transformed by a device Eq. 2.25 is power transformed by a device

where I is the current passing through it and V

is the potential difference across it

and also gives the power delivered by a g p y

source such as a cell or battery.

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 65

2 9 1Alternative expressions for power

For conductors, using V = IR, alternative

expressions for power are obtained as follows:

( ) R I IR I IV P

2

= = =

(2.26)

or

V

V

V

IV P

2

(2 27)

R

V

R

IV P =

= =

(2.27)

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 66

2 9 2 Fire Hazard fromElectrical Appliances 2.9.2 Fire Hazard from Electrical Appliances

Electrical appliances have small resistance if Electrical appliances have small resistance. if

the current through electric wires is large, the

wire heats up and produce thermal energy at a p p gy

rate which equals to I

2

R and may start a fire.

To prevent overload, a fuse or circuit breaker is

used. These are switches that open the circuit

when current exceeds some particular value

(Fig 2.10).

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 67

Fig. 2.10: (a) fuse (b) circuit breaker Fig. 2.10: (a) fuse (b) circuit breaker

(a) Fuses

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 68

(b) Circuit breaker

Fig. 2.11: Connection of appliances to fuse g pp

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 69

Example Example

Calculate the resistance of 40 W automobile

head-light designed for 12 V.

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 70

Solution Solution

( ) V 12

2

2

V ( )

6 . 3

W 40

V 12

2

2

= = =

P

V

R

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 71

2 9 3 Paying Electrical Bills

Electric bills are paid based on total electric

energy U used. From U = P t we find an

alternative unit for energy that is alternative unit for energy, that is,

1 joule (J) =1 watt second (Ws).

Larger units such a kilowatt-hour (kWh) may

be used for energy 1kWh =1000 W 3600 s be used for energy. 1kWh 1000 W 3600 s

=3.6 10

6

Ws =3.6 10

6

J.

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 72

Example 1 Example 1

An electric heater draws 15.0 A on a 240 V

line How much energy does it use and how line. How much energy does it use and how

much does it cost per month (30 days) if it

operates 3 hours per day and the rate is 10.5 p p y

cents per kWh. Assume the current flows

steadily in one direction.

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 73

Solution Solution

= IV P

( )( ) kWh 324 Wh 10 324 d 30 h/d 3 V 240 A 15

3

= = =

= = IVt Pt U

34.02 $ $/kWh 0.105 kWh 324 Cost = =

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 74

Example 2 Example 2

A 75-W light bulb operates on a p. d. of 95 V.

Find (a) the current in the bulb and (b) the

resistance of the bulb. (c) If this bulb is replaced

with one whose resistance is half the value

f d i t (b) i it ti t found in part (b), is its power rating greater or

less than 75-W? By what factor?

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 75

Solution Solution

75 W

0.79 A

95 V

P

I

V

= = =

(a)

2 2

(95 V)

120

V

R = = =

(b)

120

75 W

R

P

= = =

(b)

(c) greater by a factor of 2

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 76

Example 3 Example 3

Find the power dissipated in a 25- electric

h t t d t 120 V tl t heater connected to a 120-V outlet.

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 77

Solution Solution

2

=

R

V

P

( )

W 580

25

V 120

2

= =

R

25

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 78

Example 4 Example 4

The current in a 120-V reading lamp is 2.3 A.

If the cost of electrical energy is $ 0.075 per If the cost of electrical energy is $ 0.075 per

kilowatt-hour, how much does it cost to

operate the light for an hour?

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 79

Solution Solution

( )( )( ) hr 1 V 120 A 3 . 2 =

= = IVt Pt U

kWh 276 . 0 Wh 276 = =

( )( )

021 . 0 $

kWh $ 075 . 0 kWh 276 . 0 Cost

=

=

EPF 0024 PHY II By Dr. J ohn Ojur Dennis 80

- South Central Indiana Rural Electric - Ets RatesUploaded byGenability
- Charge Detection Methods for DielectricsUploaded bykevimass
- Motor cable size & ratingUploaded byGAGAN
- CapacitorsUploaded byChennappa S Anantapur
- Mississippi-Power-Co-Large-General---TOUUploaded byGenability
- Electronic Syatem Design ppt- Live InsertionUploaded byAnoop Mathew
- Physical Science Lesson 10 the Structure and Properties of MatterUploaded byJustin Bird
- Electric fields - P2, week 2Uploaded byhooloovoo
- Central-Maine-Power-Co-PDF-Uploaded byGenability
- Kitchener Wilmot Hydro - Residential Jan 2017Uploaded byGenability
- creative design1Uploaded byapi-242285436
- lessons learned.pptUploaded bydovesnest_in
- UntitledUploaded byGenability
- Lincoln Electric System - General (Jan2017)Uploaded byGenability
- Sch 15_Jan 1 2016 - FinalUploaded byGenability
- AMR.768.334Uploaded byMd Maoyafikuddin
- General Service ScheduleUploaded byGenability
- Central-Maine-Power-Co-Small-General-ServiceUploaded byGenability
- Superior Water, Light and Power Co - January 2017 Electric RatesUploaded byGenability
- Equation Sem 2Uploaded byBestah Teo
- City-of-Longmont-Electric-Rates,-Commercial-and-Residential-Uploaded byGenability
- San-Diego-Gas-and-Electric-Co-Schedule-DR-TOU,-Domestic---Time-of-Use-ServiceUploaded byGenability
- Lecture 3-.pdfUploaded byIshan
- EnglezaUploaded byAna-Maria Vieru
- Pacific-Power-Large-General-Less-Than-1000-kW---WAUploaded byGenability
- SDGE - AY-TOU - 2011Uploaded byGenability
- Capacitor MotorUploaded byHaziq Shukor
- Idea of Capacitance & CapicitorUploaded byadimegha
- Methdology.. - CopyUploaded bySalma Taj
- Capacitors and InductorknbhmUploaded byShyam Thillainathan

- Chapter 11 Aldehydes and KetonesUploaded byNa Ru To
- Amp Come Than Ol Basic ProcessUploaded byNguyễn Nhật Sang
- Lab Manual CCB4423 - Copy.docUploaded byNa Ru To
- Jiang 2016Uploaded byNa Ru To
- Chapter 7.1 Alkyl Halides and Nucleophilic Substitution Chemistry 2 Universiti Teknologi PetronasUploaded byNa Ru To
- CCB3013 Lecture 03Uploaded byNa Ru To
- Lecture 1.1Uploaded byNa Ru To
- Oil and Gas FiresUploaded byhuntercapoeira
- Chapter 13 Introduction to PolymerUploaded byNa Ru To
- Assignment Two_chapter TwoUploaded byMuhd Hafetz
- Lecture Notes 1Uploaded byNa Ru To
- Chapter 4 - ElectrochemistryUploaded byNa Ru To
- Chapter 2 Chemical KineticsUploaded byNa Ru To
- Chapter 6.2 StereochemistryUploaded byNa Ru To

- Pauli-Jung Letters - Atom and ArchetypeUploaded byMiguelAngelBroc
- CFD Studies of Combustion in Direct Injection Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Using Non-Premixed Combustion ModelUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- 978-0-7503-1393-3.pdfUploaded byhecaicedo7408
- syvghl_3.pdfUploaded byzahir kh
- Quantum biologyUploaded byScott Mckay
- L-06-08Uploaded byAnonymous mXicTi8hB
- Generatori 280-560 Italiano-Inglese Rev 00Uploaded byRizkiFauzi
- 10 April 2015 JEE Main (1)Uploaded bypro7
- Sonometer_Laws of Stretched Strings_1Uploaded byDR.P.V.Kanaka Rao
- Thermodynamics an Engineering Approach 6th Ed. (Solution)-1240-1250Uploaded byLuis Felipe Martez
- Ultrasonic Cleaning_ Fundamental Theory and Application CTG Clean.pdfUploaded byMusnuri Ratnateja
- chapter 2 - matter change pptUploaded byapi-239855791
- Transformer PPTUploaded bychandrakanth0083396
- Ex2Uploaded byAnyak2014
- Entropy vs Temp.Uploaded byAyu
- Sudden Accelerated PlateUploaded byandifs27
- National Science Foundation: nsf9996Uploaded byNSF
- Active Pattern and Mutual ImpedanceUploaded byRidhwan Khalid Mirza
- SeminarUploaded byAman D Peace
- review handoutUploaded byapi-210262311
- Module5 Nonideal BehaviorUploaded byOpened Eyes
- Bearing DefectsUploaded byjoshibec
- Spontaneous Inflation and the Origin of the Arrow of Time.pdfUploaded byJuanpklllllllcamargo
- Missile Fin Planform Optimization for Improved PerformanceUploaded bymegustalazorra
- Chemistry Project - DiffusionUploaded byPankaj Gill
- Course NotesUploaded byNitsan Ofer
- Advanced Nuclear PhysicsUploaded byAyesh aldiri
- 8. Design of Torsion MemberUploaded byFuad
- TransformersUploaded byogom30e
- Final Compilation of Assing 3 - Vignes ShanmuganathanUploaded bylibbissujessy