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Basics of Reservoir Engineering Module I


I.1.A - Fundamentals of Reservoir Phase Behavior
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Understanding Phase Behavior
Naturally occurring hydrocarbon
mixtures found in petroleum
reservoirs are mixtures of organic
compounds and few non-
hydrocarbons that may exist in
gaseous or liquid states.
Differences in the phase behavior
of these mixtures over a wide
ranges of pressures and
temperature ultimately determine
the production characteristics of
hydrocarbon reservoirs.
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Why study Phase Behavior?
As oil and gas are produced from the reservoir, they are
subjected to a series of pressure, temperature, and compositional
changes.
Such changes affect the volumetric and transport behavior of
these reservoir fluids and, consequently, the produced oil and gas
volumes.
All reservoir performance equations (e.g., Darcys law, material
balances) require the knowledge of fluid properties. It is
impossible to correctly evaluate well productivity and reservoir
performance if fluid properties are not known.
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Phase Behavior - Pure Substance
Liquid
Solid
Gas
V
a
p
o
r
-
p
r
e
s
s
u
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e

l
i
n
e
M
e
l
t
i
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g
-
p
o
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t

l
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e
C
T
Temperature
T
c
p
c
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Phase Behavior - Pure Substance
Liquid
Solid
Gas
V
a
p
o
r
-
p
r
e
s
s
u
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e

l
i
n
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M
e
l
t
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g
-
p
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t

l
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e
C
T
Temperature
T
c
p
c
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Critical Point
Triple Point
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Phase Behavior - Pure Substance
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Phase Behavior - Pure Substance
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
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,

p
s
i
a
Specific volume, cu ft/lb
Two-phase region
60F
70F
80F
85F
90F=Tc
9
5
F
1
0
0

F
1
1
0

F
1
3
0

F
1
6
0

F
C
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Phase Behavior - Mixtures
D
e
w
p
o
i
n
t
3
0
0
o
F
3
5
0
o
F
4
0
0

o
F
4
2
5

o
F
4
5
0

o
F
4
5
4

o
F
Critical point
B
u
b
b
l
e
p
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t
400
300
200
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
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,

p
s
i
a
Volume, cu ft/lb
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Phase Behavior - Mixtures
MIXTURE
PURE SUBSTANCE
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Phase Behavior - Mixtures
Pressure,
p
Temp, T
CP
The less alike the
molecules,
the farther apart BP
and DP Curves!
BP Curve
DP Curve
L + V co-
existence
T > Tc
GAS
T < Tc
LIQUI
D
There is no real transition!
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Phase Diagrams of Mixtures
of Ethane and n-Heptane
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
No. Wt % ethane
1 100.00
2 90.22
3 70.22
4 50.25
5 29.91
6 9.78
7 6.14
8 3.27
9 1.25
10 n-Heptane
Composition
1000
400
600
800
200
0
200 300 400 500 100
P
r
e
s
s
u
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,

p
s
i
a
Pure nC7
Pure
C2
1400
1200
Temperature, F
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Phase Diagram of a Reservoir Fluid
Temperature, F
-200 -150 -100 -50 0 50
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
a
Critical
point
1
0
0
%

L
i
q
u
i
d
1
1
0
2
5
2
0
5
0
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The Five Reservoir Fluids
Black Oil
Critical
point
P
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s
s
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,

p
s
i
a
B
u
b
b
l
e
p
o
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t

l
i
n
e
Separator
Pressure path
in reservoir
Dewpoint line
9
0
8
0
9
0
7
0
6
0
5
0
4
0
1
0
3
0
2
0
% Liquid
Temperature, F
Black Oil
The Five
Reservoir Fluids
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Temperature
Separator
% Liquid
B
u
b
b
l
e
p
o
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t

l
i
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e
D
e
w
p
o
in
t lin
e
Dewpoint line
Volatile oil
Pressure path
in reservoir
3
2
1
5
1
0
3
0
2
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
8
0
9
0
Critical
point
Volatile Oil
The Five Reservoir
Fluids
3
3
0
2
0
1
5
1
0
4
0
Separator
% Liquid
Pressure path
in reservoir
1
2
Retrograde gas
Critical
point
B
u
b
b
l
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p
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t

l
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D
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w
p
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l
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5
0
P
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s
s
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e
Temperature
Retrograde Gas
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Temperature
% Liquid
2
1
Pressure path
in reservoir
Wet gas
Critical
point
B
u
b
b
l
e
p
o
i
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t
l
i
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e
Separator
1
5
2
5
3
0
D
e
w
p
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t

l
i
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e
Wet Gas
P
r
e
s
s
u
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e
Temperature
% Liquid
2
1
Pressure path
in reservoir
Dry gas
Separator
D
e
w
p
o
i
n
t

l
i
n
e
1
5
0
Dry Gas
2
5
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Phase Diagram of a Typical Black Oil
Black Oil
Critical
point
P
r
e
s
s
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,

p
s
i
a
B
u
b
b
l
e
-
p
o
i
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t

L
i
n
e
Separator
Pressure path
in reservoir
Dewpoint line
9
0
8
0
7
0
6
0
5
0
4
0
1
0
3
0
2
0
% Liquid
Temperature, F
An Oil Reservoir: Tr < Tc ( Bubblepoint Oil )
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Phase Diagram of a Typical Volatile Oil
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Temperature, F
Separator
% Liquid
B
u
b
b
l
e
p
o
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t

l
i
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e
D
e
w
p
o
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t

l
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Dewpoint line
Volatile oil
Pressure path
in reservoir
3
2
1
5
1
0
3
0
2
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
7
0
8
0
9
0
Critical
point
An Oil Reservoir: Tr < Tc ( Bubblepoint Oil )
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Phase Diagram of a Typical Retrograde Gas
A Gas Reservoir: Tr > Tc (dewpoint system)
3
3
0
2
0
1
5
1
0
4
0
Separator
% Liquid
Pressure path
in reservoir
1
2
Retrograde gas
Critical point
B
u
b
b
l
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p
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t

l
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D
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w
p
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t

l
i
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e
5
0
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Temperature
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Phase Diagram of Typical Wet Gas
A Gas Reservoir: Tr > Tc
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Temperature
% Liquid
2
1
Pressure path
in reservoir
Wet gas
Critical
point
B
u
b
b
l
e
p
o
i
n
t
l
i
n
e
Separator
1
5
2
5
3
0
D
e
w
p
o
i
n
t

l
i
n
e
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Phase Diagram of Typical Dry Gas
A Gas Reservoir: Tr > Tc
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
Temperature
% Liquid
2
1
Pressure path
in reservoir
Dry gas
Separator
D
e
w
p
o
i
n
t

l
i
n
e
1
5
0
2
5
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Field Identification of Reservoir Fluids
The Concept of GOR
Gas
res bbl
Oil
S
e
p
a
r
a
t
o
r
Stock
tank
scf
STB
GOR =
STB
scf
scf
res bbl
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Components of Naturally Occurring Petroleum Fluids
Component Composition,
mole percent
Hydrogen sulfide 4.91
Carbon dioxide 11.01
Nitrogen 0.51
Methane 57.70
Ethane 7.22
Propane 4.45
i-Butane 0.96
n-Butane 1.95
i-Pentane 0.78
n-Pentane 0.71
Hexanes 1.45
Heptanes plus 8.35
100.00
Properties of heptanes plus
Specific Gravity 0.807
Molecular Weight 142 lb/lb mole
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Initial Producing GOR Correlates With C
7+
0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
0 10 20 30 40 50
Heptanes plus in reservoir fluid, mole %
I
n
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t
i
a
l

p
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s
/
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q
u
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r
a
t
i
o
,

s
c
f
/
S
T
B
Dewpoint gas
Bubblepoint oil
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Initial Producing GLR Correlates With C
7+
100
1000
10000
100000
0.1 1 10 100
Heptanes plus in reservoir fluid, mole %
I
n
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i
a
l

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/
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r
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i
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,

s
c
f
/
S
T
B
Dew point gases
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Initial Producing GLR Correlates With C
7+
10
100
1000
10000
0 20 40 60 80 100
Heptanes plus in reservoir fluid, mole %
I
n
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i
a
l

p
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/
l
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r
a
t
i
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,

s
c
f
/
S
T
B
Bubblepoint oils
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Initial Producing GLR Correlates With C7+
0
50000
0 30
Heptanes plus in reservoir fluid, mole %
I
n
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t
i
a
l

p
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g
a
s
/
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r
a
t
i
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,

s
c
f
/
S
T
B
Retrograde
gas
Volatile
oil
Wet
gas
Dry
gas
Black
oil
Dewpoint gas
Bubblepoint oil
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Field Identification
Black
Oil
Volatile
Oil
Retrograde
Gas
Wet
Gas
Dry
Gas
Initial
Producing
Gas/Liquid
Ratio, scf/STB
<1750 1750 to
3200
> 3200 > 15,000* 100,000*
Initial Stock-
Tank Liquid
Gravity, API
< 45 > 40 > 40 Up to 70 No
Liquid
Color of Stock-
Tank Liquid
Dark Colored Lightly
Colored
Water
White
No
Liquid

*For Engineering Purposes
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Laboratory Analysis
Black
Oil
Volatile
Oil
Retrograde
Gas
Wet
Gas
Dry
Gas
Phase
Change in
Reservoir
Bubblepoint Bubblepoint Dewpoint No
Phase
Change
No
Phase
Change
Heptanes
Plus, Mole
Percent
> 20% 20 to 12.5 < 12.5 < 4* < 0.8*
Oil
Formation
Volume
Factor at
Bubblepoint
< 2.0 > 2.0 - - -
*For Engineering Purposes
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Primary Production Trends
G
O
R
G
O
R
G
O
R
G
O
R
G
O
R
Time Time
Time
Time Time Time
Time
Time
Time Time
No
liquid
No
liquid
Dry
Gas
Wet
Gas
Retrograde
Gas
Volatile
Oil
Black
Oil

A
P
I

A
P
I

A
P
I

A
P
I

A
P
I
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Exercise 1
Determine reservoir fluid type from field data
One of the wells in the Merit field, completed in December 1967
in the North Rodessa formation, originally produced 54API
stock-tank liquid at a gas/oil ratio of about 23,000 scf/STB.
During July 1969, the well produced 1987 STB of 58API liquid
and 78,946 Mscf of gas. By May 1972, the well was producing
liquid at a rate of about 30 STB/d of 59API liquid and gas at
about 2,000 Mscf/d.
What type of reservoir fluid is this well producing?
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Plot of Exercise 1 Data
0
0 12 24 36 48 60 72
50
51
52
53
54
55
60
59
58
57
56
100000
90000
80000
70000
60000
50000
40000
30000
10000
20000
Months since start of 1967
P
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u
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g

g
a
s
/
o
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l

r
a
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,

s
c
f
/
S
T
B
S
t
o
c
k
-
t
a
n
k
l
i
q
u
i
d

g
r
a
v
i
t
y
,

A
P
I
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Exercise 2
Determine reservoir fluid type from field data
A field in north Louisiana discovered in 1953 and developed by 1956 had an
initial producing gas/oil ratio of 2,000 scf/STB. The stock-tank liquid was
medium orange and had a gravity of 51.2API. Classify this reservoir fluid.
Laboratory analysis of a sample from this reservoir gave the following
composition:
Component Composition,
mole fraction
CO
2
0.0218
N
2
0.0167
C
1
0.6051
C
2
0.0752
C
3
0.0474
C
4s
0.0412
C
5
0.0297
C
6s
0.0138
C
7
0.1491
1.0000
Properties of heptanes plus
Specific Gravity 0.799
Molecular Weight 181 lb/lb mole
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Exercise 3
Determine reservoir fluid type from field data
The reported production from the discovery well of the Nancy
(Norphlet) field is given below. How would you classify this reservoir
fluid? Why?
Date
Stock-Tank
Liquid Gravity
API
Oil,
STB
Gas,
Mscf
9/86 29 4,276 1,165
10/86 28 16,108 5,270
11/86 28 15,232 4,800
12/86 28 15,585 4,960
1/87 28 15,226 4,650
2/87 28 14,147 4,335
3/87 28 15,720 4,707
4/87 28 15,885 4,904
5/87 28 15,434 4,979
6/87 28 12,862 4,339
7/87 28 14,879 4,814
8/87 28 15,192 4,270
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Plot of Exercise 3 Data
100
200
300
400
500
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Months since start of production
P
r
o
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u
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g
g
a
s
/
o
i
l

r
a
t
i
o
,

s
c
f
/
S
T
B
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Plot of Exercise 3 Data
Three-Month Running Average
Months since start of production
P
r
o
d
u
c
i
n
g
g
a
s
/
o
i
l

r
a
t
i
o
,

s
c
f
/
S
T
B
100
200
300
400
500
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Exercise 4
Determine reservoir fluid type from field data
The Crown Zellerbach No. 1 was the discovery well in the Hooker
(Rodessa) field. The reported production during the first year of production
is given below. How would you classify this reservoir fluid? Why?
Monthly Production
Date
Stock-Tank
Liquid Gravity
API
Oil, STB Water, STB Gas, Mscf
Apr 1984 - 112 - 3,362
May 1984 55 1,810 12,090 54,809
Jun 1984 55 2,519 180 64,104
Jul 1984 55 3,230 240 94,419
Aug 1984 55 3,722 279 119,151
Sep 1984 54 2,780 248 100,235
Oct 1984 55 3,137 270 113,359
Nov 1984 56 2,291 210 80,083
Dec 1984 56 2,108 217 71,412
Jan 1985 56 1,799 203 60,279
Feb 1985 56 1,422 196 57,626
Mar 1985 56 1,861 186 60,330
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Plot of Exercise 4 Data
Three-Month Running Average
28000
37000
0 13
Months since start of production
P
r
o
d
u
c
i
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g
g
a
s
/
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l

r
a
t
i
o
,

s
c
f
/
S
T
B
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Exercise 5
Determine reservoir fluid type from field data
Here we present the GOR plot based on three month
running average data for Exercise 4.
Annual Production
Date
Stock-Tank
Liquid Gravity
API
Oil, STB Water, STB Gas, Mscf
1982 46 4,646 1,484 462,265
1983 50 2,606 1,177 342,075
1984 47 1,350 1,215 241,048
1985 48 1,430 932 221,020
1986 50 1,662 1,122 267,106
*1987 51 1,110 665 178,951
*through August 1987
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Plot of Exercise 5 Data
50000
200000
1981 1988
Year
P
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g
g
a
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/
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,

s
c
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/
S
T
B
40
55
1981 1988
S
t
o
c
k
-
t
a
n
k
l
i
q
u
i
d

g
r
a
v
i
t
y
,

A
P
I
Year
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Exercise 6
Determine reservoir fluid type from field data
0
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
0 24 48 72 96 120
Months since start of 1966
Y
e
i
l
d
,

S
T
B
/
M
M
s
c
f
The following liquid yield production data is available for a given
reservoir. Can you identify the fluid?
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Basics of Reservoir Engineering
Natural Gas Properties
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Phase Behavior
Relationship between conditions (Pressure,
Temperature, Volume) and phases (liquid, gas, solid)
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Ideal Gas Equation Of State
The simplest PVT model: the ideal gas.
Assumptions of the ideal model:
Volume occupied by molecules
is insignificant compared to
volume of gas
No attractive or repulsive forces
between molecules
M
T R
pv
T R
M
m
pV
T R n pV
=
=
=
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Real Gas Equation of State
z is called compressibility factor:
Also called gas deviation factor,
supercompressibility, or z-factor.
M
RT z
v p
T R
M
m
z V p
T R n z V p
=
=
=
ideal
real
V
V
z =
ideal real
ideal
V z
p
T R n z
V
p
T R n
V
= =
=
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Typical Shape of z-Factor
Pressure, p
Actual V greater
than ideal V
Actual V less than ideal V
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y

f
a
c
t
o
r
,

z
1.0
z approaches 1.0
0
0
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

=

c
o
n
s
t
a
n
t

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
z-Factors For Methane
0
1000
Methane
1.1
0.9
0.1
0.7
0.3
0.5
2000
3000
4000
5000
10000 8000 6000
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
-84
-70
-54
-4
-22
-40
140
104
44
32
212
170
240
-84 -70-54 -4 -22 -40
32
140
104
44
212
170
240
262
342
320
404
262
320
404
342
RT
V p
Z
M
=
RT
V p
Z
M
=
Pressure, psia
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
z-Factors and Corresponding States
By defining reduced conditions Tr = T/Tc; Pr= P/Pc, z-factor isotherms
for different substances tend to collapse to a universal z-factor curve:
Reduced pressure, p
r
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y

f
a
c
t
o
r
,

z

=
p
V
R
T
3.0 1.8 0 1.2 2.4 0.6
0
1.0
0.6
0.8
0.4
0.2
Tr = 0.9
Tr = 1.0
Tr = 1.1
Tr = 1.2
Tr = 1.3
Tr = 1.5
C
5
H
1
2
C
6
H
1
4
C
3
H
8
C
H
4
C
6
H
14
C
5
H
12
C
5
H
12
C
5
H
12
C
5
H
12
CH
4
CH
4
CH
4
CH
4
C
3
H
8
C
3
H
8
C
3
H
8
C
3
H
8
C
5
H
12
CH
4
C
3
H
8
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
z-Factors for Naturally Occurring Gas Mixtures
0.9
1.1
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Pseudoreduced pressure, p
pr
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y

f
a
c
t
o
r
,

z
1.0
0.4
0.25
0.5
0.3
0.6
1.1
1.0
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.0
1.1
0 1 4 6 7 8 2 3 5
Pseudoreduced pressure, p
pr
1.05
1.1
1.15
1.2
1.25
1.3
1.35
1.4
1.45
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
Pseudoreduced Temperature
1
.
1
1
.
2
1
.
3
1
.
4
1
.5
1
.6
1
.7
1
.8
1
.9
2
.0
2
.2
2.4
2.6
3.0
1.05
1.1
1.2
1.4
1
.7
1
.8 1
.9
2
.0
2
.2
2
.4
3.0
2.6
1.6
1.3
1
.
0
5
2.8
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y

f
a
c
t
o
r
,

z
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Molecular Weight Calculation
The apparent molecular weight of a natural gas is
calculated as the weighted average of the molecular
weight of all its components:

=
j j a
M y M
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Physical Constants
Physical constants of single components are tabulated!
Critical Constants
Compound Formula Molar Mass,
molecular weight
Pressure,
psia
Temperature,
F
Methane CH
4
16.043 666.4 -116.67
Ethane C
2
H
6
30.070 706.5 89.92
Propane C
3
H
8
44.097 616.0 206.06
Isobutane C
4
H
10
58.123 527.9 274.46
n-Butane C
4
H
10
58.123 500.6 305.62
Isopentane C
5
H
12
72.150 490.4 369.10
n-Pentane C
5
H
12
72.150 488.6 385.8
Neopentane C
5
H
12
72.150 464.0 321.13
n-Hexane C
6
H
14
86.177 436.9 453.6
2-Methylpentane C
6
H
14
86.177 436.6 435.83
3-Methylepntane C
6
H
14
86.177 453.1 448.4
Neophexane C
6
H
14
86.177 446.8 420.13
2,3-Dimethylbutane C
6
H
14
86.177 453.5 440.29
Hydrogen sulfide H
2
S 34.08 1300. 212.45
Carbon Dioxide CO
2
44.010 1071. 87.91
Nitrogen N
2
28.0134 493.1 -232.51
Argon A 39.944 704.2 -188.53
Oxygen O
2
31.999 731.4 -181.43

Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Exercise 7
Calculate Apparent Molecular Weight of Gas Mixture
Dry air is a gas mixture consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, and small
amounts of other gases. Compute the apparent molecular weight
of air given its approximate composition.
Component Composition,
mole fraction
Nitrogen 0.7809
Oxygen 0.2095
Argon 0.0093
Carbon dioxide 0.0003
1.0000
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Specific Gravity Of Gas
29
g
air
g
air
g
g
M
T R
M p
T R
M p
= = =

Gas specific gravities are calculated as the ratio of gas density


to the density of air, both measured at the same temperature
and pressure, usually 60F and atmospheric pressure
air
g
g

=
, which becomes:
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Exercise 8
Calculate Specific Gravity of Gas Mixture
Component Composition, mole
percent
hydrogen sulfide 0.00
carbon dioxide 0.00
nitrogen 0.00
methane 96.13
ethane 1.50
propane 0.88
iso-butane 0.15
n-butane 0.16
iso-pentane 0.08
n-pentane 0.06
hexanes 0.10
heptanes plus 0.94
100.00
Properties of Heptanes Plus
Density, gm/cc @ 60F
0.798
Molecular weight 164
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Gas Density
Calculated as a function of Z:
Units - lb/cu ft
or
T R z
M p
g
=
ft
psi
ft sq in sq
ft cu lb
g
=
/ 144
/
0
0.15
0 10000

g
,

p
s
i
/
f
t
p, psia
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Gas Formation Volume Factor (Bg)
Definition - volume of gas at reservoir conditions required to
produce one standard volume of gas at the surface
Units - rcf/scf (res cu ft/scf)
res bbl/scf
res bbl/Mscf
Symbol - B
g
res bbl gas
Mscf
B
g
=
Gas
res bbl
S
e
p
a
r
a
t
o
r
Stock
tank
STB
scf
scf
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Gas Formation Volume Factor (Bg)
Equation:
or
sc
R
g
V
V
B =
scf
ft cu res
p
T z
T
p
B
sc
sc
g
=
Mscf
bbl res
p
T z
T
p
ft cu
bbl
M
B
sc
sc
g

=
615 . 5
1000
0
40
0 10000
B
g
,

r
e
s

b
b
l
/
M
s
c
f
p, psia
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Gas Viscosity
Definition - The resistance to flow exerted by a fluid, i.e., large
values = low flow rate. Units - centipoise or centistoke
0
0.05
0 10000

g
,

c
p
p, psia
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Gas Viscosity
Gas Viscosity Correlation Equation (Lee-Gonzalez)
where
A = f(M
a
, T)
B = f(M
a
, T)
C = f(M
a
, T)
Thus

g
= f(
g
, M
a
, T) or
g
= f(z, M
a
, T)
( ) ( )
C
g g
B EXP A
4
10

=
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility of Gas
(Gas Compressibility)
0
7000
0 10000
p
c
g
x

1
0
6
T
g
p
V
V
c

=
1
Definition
Ideal Gas
Real Gas
p
c
g
1
=
T
g
p
z
z p
c

=
1 1
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Gas Properties - Summary
g a
a
g
M
T R z
M P
29 , = =
p
T z
T
p
B
sc
sc
g
=
( ) T M f
g a g
, , =
( ) T p z f c
g g
, , , =
i.e., need z and M
a
i.e., need T
pc
, p
pc
i.e., need
g
Thus the only gas property required to enter all gas property
correlations is either gas composition or gas specific gravity.
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Basics of Reservoir Engineering
Oil Properties
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Specific Gravity of Oil
w
o
o

=
Specific gravity of a crude oil is defined as the ratio of the density of
the oil and the density of water at specified pressure and temperature
conditions:
Both densities measured at the same temperature and
pressure, usually 60F and atmospheric pressure
Sometimes called
o
(60/60)
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
API Gravity of Oil
Besides specific gravity, it is customary in the petroleum industry
to use another gravity scale known as API (American Petroleum
Institute), which has been defined as:
5 . 131
5 . 141
=
o
API

o
This definition gives hydrometers a linear scale for measurement.
Based on API of crude oils, a gross classification of crude oils as
light (high API), medium, heavy and extra heavy (low API) is used
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Phase Diagram - Typical Black Oil
Black Oil
Critical
point
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
a
B
u
b
b
l
e
p
o
i
n
t

L
i
n
e
Separator
Pressure path
in reservoir
Dewpoint line
9
0
8
0
7
0
6
0
5
0
4
0
1
0
3
0
2
0
% Liquid
Temperature, F
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Reservoir Pressure > Oil Bubblepoint Pressure
Oil
res bbl oil
STB
B
o
=
S
e
p
a
r
a
t
o
r
Stock
tank
p > p
b
res bbl
STB
scf
scf
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Oil Formation Volume Factor (Bo)
Definition - volume of reservoir oil at reservoir conditions
required to produce one standard volume of stock tank oil
Units - res bbl/STB
Symbol - B
o
Oil
res bbl oil
STB
B
o
=
S
e
p
a
r
a
t
o
r
Stock
tank
p > p
b
res bbl
STB
scf
scf
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Oil Formation Volume Factor
Three things happen to reservoir oil as it is produced to
surface
1. Loses mass - gas comes out of solution on trip to
surface
2. Contracts - temperature decrease from reservoir
temperature to 60F
3. Expands - pressure decreases from reservoir
pressure to atmospheric pressure
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Typical Shape -
Oil Formation Volume Factor
1
2
0 6000
p
B
o
p
b
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Solution Gas/Oil Ratio (Rs)
Another important property of oils is the amount of gas in
solution (Rs) available at every pressure level:
Definition - volume of gas which comes out of the oil as it
moves from reservoir temperature and pressure to standard
temperature and pressure
Units - cubic feet of total surface gas at standard conditions per
barrel of stock-tank oil at standard conditions, scf/STB
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Reservoir Pressure > Oil Bubblepoint Pressure
Oil
res bbl oil
STB
B
o
=
S
e
p
a
r
a
t
o
r
Stock
tank
p > p
b
scf
STB
R
sb
=
res bbl
STB
scf
scf
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Typical Shape -
Solution Gas/Oil Ratio
0
2000
0 6000
p, psig
R
s
,

s
c
f
/
S
T
B
p
b
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Reservoir Pressure < Oil Bubblepoint Pressure
res bbl gas
Mscf
B
g
=
Gas
res bbl
scf
Oil
res bbl oil
STB
B
o
=
S
e
p
a
r
a
t
o
r
Stock
tank
p < p
b
scf
STB
R
sb
=
STB
scf
scf
res bbl
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Typical Shape - Oil Formation Volume Factor
1
2
0 6000
p, psig
B
o
,

r
e
s

b
b
l
/
S
T
B
p
b
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Typical Shape - Solution Gas/Oil Ratio
0
2000
0 6000
p, psig
R
s
,

s
c
f
/
S
T
B
p
b
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility of Oil
p > p
b
T
o
o
o
p
B
B
c

=
1
Definition, or
o
V
c


=
1
T
p V



Oil
Hg
Oil
Hg
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility of Oil
p < p
b
Hg
Hg
Oil
Oil
Gas
T
s
o
g
T
o
o
o
p
R
B
B
p
B
B
c

=
1
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Typical Shape - Oil Compressibility
0
500
0 6000
p, psig
c
o
,

p
s
i
-
1
x

1
0
6
p
b
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Oil Density
Units - lb/cu ft or
ft
psi
ft sq / in sq 144
ft cu / lb
=
39
47
0 6000
p, psig

o
,

l
b
/
c
u

f
t
p
b
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Oil Viscosity
Definition - the resistance to flow exerted by a fluid, i.e., large
values = low flow rates. Units: centipoise.
0.3
1.1
0 6000
p, psig

o
,

c
p
p
b
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Production/Pressure History of Typical Black Oil
3000
6000
9000
100
75
50
25
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
1979 1978 1981 1980
Time
P
r
o
d
u
c
i
n
g
g
a
s
/
o
i
l

r
a
t
i
o
O
i
l

p
r
o
d
u
c
i
n
g
r
a
t
e
,

M
S
T
B
/
d
R
e
s
e
r
v
o
i
r
p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
a
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Field Data For Correlations
Field Data Needed:
Plot producing gas/oil ratio v. cumulative oil production
Plot measured average reservoir pressures v. cumulative oil
production
Get: R
sb
is initial producing gas/oil ratio
p
b
is pressure at which pressure curve flattens
- just before producing GOR starts to increase
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Production/Pressure History of Typical Black Oil
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Cumulative oil production, MMSTB
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
a
P
r
o
d
u
c
i
n
g

g
a
s
/
o
i
l

r
a
t
i
o
,

s
c
f
/
S
T
B
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Field Data For Correlations
If producing gas/oil ratios are calculated using sales gas (the
usual situation), an estimate of the quantity of stock tank vent
gas must be added to get R
sb
, i.e., R
sb
= R
SP
+ R
ST
Correlation
) , , , (
SP SP gSP ST
T p API f R
o
=
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Field Data for Correlations
Accurate value of p
b
will improve accuracy of results of all
correlations - otherwise use correlation for p
b
R
sb
required in all correlations - derive from production
data
API of stock tank oil required in all correlations - get from
oil sales data

gSP
of separator gas required in most correlations - get
from gas sales data
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Exercise 9
Determination of Black Oil Properties
The attached production graphs show stock tank oil sales and
separator gas sales for Niceoil field. The stock tank oil produced at
Niceoil field is 39.9 API and the sales gas has specific gravity of
0.787. Reservoir temperature is 246F. Separator conditions are
150 psig and 75 F.
Determine and list all variables needed for estimating properties of
the black oil.
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Pressure/Production History for Niceoil Field
AVAILABLE PRODUCTION DATA
Cumulative oil production, MMSTB
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

r
e
s
e
r
v
o
i
r

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
a
1750
2250
2750
3250
3750
4250
0 4 8 12
Cumulative oil production, MMSTB
P
r
o
d
u
c
i
n
g

g
a
s
/
o
i
l

r
a
t
i
o
(
3

m
o

r
u
n
n
i
n
g

s
c
f
/
S
T
B

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
)
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0 2 4 6 8 10
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Exercise 9 Solution
Cumulative oil production, MMSTB
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

r
e
s
e
r
v
o
i
r

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
,

p
s
i
a
1750
2250
2750
3250
3750
4250
0 4 8 12
Cumulative oil production, MMSTB
P
r
o
d
u
c
i
n
g

g
a
s
/
o
i
l

r
a
t
i
o
(
3

m
o

r
u
n
n
i
n
g

s
c
f
/
S
T
B

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
)
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0 2 4 6 8 10
R
sp
= 570 scf/STB
P
b
=2400 psia
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Exercise 9 Solution
R
sb
= 707 scf/STB
T
R
= 246F

STO
= 39.9API

g
= 0.787
p
b
= 2,400 psia
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Exercise 10
Estimation of black oil fluid properties.
Estimate values of oil properties for Niceoil field.
Required properties are oil formation volume factor,
solution gas/oil ratio, oil density, oil viscosity, and oil
compressibility. Create a table starting at 5,000 psia
with increments of 500 psi above the bubblepoint
pressure and increments of 200 psi below the
bubblepoint pressure to a final pressure of 100 psia.
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Exercise 11 Solution
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Pressure, psia
S
o
l
u
t
i
o
n

g
a
s
/
o
i
l

r
a
t
i
o
,

s
c
f
/
S
T
B
data
correlation
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Exercise 11 Solution
(continued)
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
1.40
1.45
1.50
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
Pressure, psia
O
i
l

f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

v
o
l
u
m
e

f
a
c
t
o
r
,

r
e
s
b
b
l
/
S
T
B
data
correlation
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Exercise 11 Solution
(continued)
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.29
0.3
0.31
0.32
0.33
0.34
0.35
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
Pressure, psia
O
i
l

d
e
n
s
i
t
y
,

p
s
i
/
f
t
data
correlation
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
Exercise 11 Solution
(continued)
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
Pressure, psia
O
i
l

v
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
,

c
p
data
correlation
Copyright 2008, NExT, All rights reserved
References and Further Reading
McCain, W., The Properties of Petroleum Fluids,
Pennwell, 1990.
Whitson, C. and Brule, M., Phase Behavior, SPE
Monograph Volume 20, Henry Doherty Series, 2000.
Danesh, A., PVT and Phase Behaviour of Petroleum
Reservoir Fluids, Developments in Petroleum Science v.
47, Elsevier, 1998.