Dillon Dodson

The University of Wyoming
Major: Earth System Science,
Atmospheric Science
Faculty Advisor: Dr. Timothy Bertram
Research Mentor: Steve Schill
The residual layer is a layer of pollution from the previous day that is
suspended above the stable boundary layer during the night and morning
hours.
The residual layer is a layer of pollution from the previous day that is
suspended above the stable boundary layer during the night and morning
hours.
= Potential Temperature
Potential Temp is the temperature a parcel of air at P would have if brought
adiabatically to the surface (Po)
The residual layer is a layer of pollution from the previous day that is
suspended above the stable boundary layer during the night and morning
hours.
= Potential Temperature
Potential Temp is the temperature a parcel of air at P would have if brought
adiabatically to the surface (Po)
The residual layer is a layer of pollution from the previous day that is
suspended above the stable boundary layer during the night and morning
hours.
= Potential Temperature
Potential Temp is the temperature a parcel of air at P would have if brought
adiabatically to the surface (Po)
The residual layer is a layer of pollution from the previous day that is
suspended above the stable boundary layer during the night and morning
hours.
= Potential Temperature
Potential Temp is the temperature a parcel of air at P would have if brought
adiabatically to the surface (Po)
Time= Mid-Afternoon
Mixed Layer
Free Atmosphere
Time= Just before sunrise
Residual Layer
Free Atmosphere
Nocturnal Boundary Layer
Time= Mid-morning
Residual layer
Free Atmosphere
Nocturnal Boundary Layer
Time= Mid-morning
Residual layer
Free Atmosphere
Nocturnal Boundary Layer
Time= Afternoon
Residual layer
Free Atmosphere
Nocturnal Boundary Layer
Mixing
Residual layer
Free Atmosphere
Nocturnal Boundary Layer
! Contribute to an increase in surface pollution
! Help better predict air quality for the next day
From UCLA Magazine
! Transport of ozone from the stratosphere to the troposphere
causes stratospheric ozone to decrease and tropospheric ozone to
increase.
" Stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) influences the observed high-surface
ozone levels in major cities by small extent (8%–16%) (Ganguly, 2012)
! Long range transport increases pollution rate,
" Two sources
! At home source (pollution emitted in the LA basin)
! Transported source (pollution emitted away from LA basin)
" Home +Away=More pollution
! Data obtained from June 25
th
, 2014 on the NASA
DC-8 (flight 5)
# NAV Data
# UHSAS (Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer)
" Measure particle count and size
# PTG (Photochemical Trace Gas)
" Measure concentration of Ozone
# Whole Air Samples
! HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian
Integrated Trajectory Model) from Air Resources
Laboratory (ARL)
! WRF (Weather Research & Forecasting Model)
from archived forecast data from FSU
• Identify parcels of high ozone concentration
Palmdale
Central Valley
Santa Barbara
• Identify parcels of high ozone concentration
• Over Santa Barbara Channel (SBC)
• Over the Southwest Central Valley (SW CV)
Central Valley
Palmdale
Santa Barbara
• Identify parcels of high ozone concentration
• Over Santa Barbara Channel
• Identify parcels of high ozone concentration
• Over Santa Barbara Channel
• Identify parcels of high ozone concentration
• Over the Southwest Central Valley
• Identify parcels of high ozone concentration
• Over the Southwest Central Valley
What we expect to see for:
! Residual Layer
" Dirty air (Polluted)
" Moist, relatively high relative humidity (RH)
" Large particle count
" Located at the top of the PBL Height
! Stratospheric Air (intrusion)
" Clean Air (No Pollution)
" Very dry, Extremely Low RH
" Small particle count
" Located relatively high (5+km (16000+ft))
! Long Range Transport
" Dirty air (if it came from an urban environment)
" Dry, relatively low RH
" Large/Medium particle count
" Located between PBL and tropopause
• Spike in Ozone
• Dip in Relative Humidity
• Spike in Ozone
• Dip in Relative Humidity
Santa Barbara Channel Southwest Central Valley
• Altitude
7115-10340 ft
• Relative Humidity
2.74-5.73%
• Altitude
8096-10770 ft
• Relative Humidity
2.74-7.69%
Santa Barbara Channel Southwest Central Valley
Planetary boundary layer heights from
June 24
th
(day before flight 5)
• PBL height over Santa Barbara Channel
• ~1312 ft (400m)
• PBL heights over Southwest Central
Valley
• ~3936-5248 ft (1200-1600m)
• High ozone base for SBC located at:
• 7115 ft
• High ozone base for SW CV located at:
• 8096 ft
# 7115 ft >>1312 ft
# 8096 ft >5248 ft
• Skew-T
• Glorified Vertical
profile
• Temperature shows
tropopause
• Beginning of
stratosphere
• Stratosphere location
• ~46379 ft
• 14140 m
• Skew-T
• Glorified Vertical
profile
• Temperature shows
tropopause
• Beginning of
stratosphere
• Stratosphere location
• ~46379 ft
• 14140 m
For SBC
• 10770<<46379 ft
FOR SW CV
• 10340<<46379 ft
• Overall particle concentration overlaid with ozone concentration
• High ozone values show layer we are concentrating on
• Over a 560 second span (9.33min)
• Over Santa Barbara
• Clear increase in particle
concentration
• Over Southwest Central Valley
• Medium/neutral particle
count
• Over Santa Barbara
• Clear increase in particle
concentration
• Over Southwest Central Valley
• Neutral particle count
• High [CO]/[CO2] hints at polluted air
• More CO from surface source, such as combustion.
• Combustion- hydrocarbon + O2 CO2 + H2O
• Incomplete combustion- hydrocarbon + O2 CO + H2O
• High [CO]/[CO2] hints at polluted air
• More CO from surface source, such as combustion.
• Combustion- hydrocarbon + O2 CO2 + H2O
• Incomplete combustion- hydrocarbon + O2 CO + H2O
Clear increase in Pollutants in high
ozone layers.
Ethyne-partial combustion of methane
Propane-natural gas processing and
petroleum refining
Benzene-petrochemical
Clear increase in Pollutants in high
ozone layers.
Ethyne-partial combustion of methane
Propane-natural gas processing and
petroleum refining
Benzene-petrochemical
! Requirements satisfied:
" Polluted Air
" Larger particle count in layer
! Requirements not satisfied:
" Moist Air
! Dry Air
" Located at boundary of Planetary Boundary Layer
! Above PBL
! Requirements satisfied:
" Dry Air
! Requirements not satisfied:
" Located somewhat high (above 16000 ft)
! Located below 16000 ft
" Clean Air
! Polluted Air
" Small Particle count
! Large particle count
! Requirements satisfied:
" Polluted Air
" Larger/medium particle count in layer
" Dry Air
" Located Between PBL and Stratosphere
•HYSPLIT back trajectories show parcels of air came from Asia
• For both the layer of high ozone in SBC and SW CV
Santa Barbara Channel Southwest Central Valley
! Parcels of high ozone are too high and too dry to be
residual
! Parcels of high ozone are too polluted and too low to be
stratospheric
! Parcels of high ozone are the results of long range
transport from Asia
" Confirmed by
! HYSPLIT back trajectory, pollution trace gas vertical profile, RH and Ozone vertical Profile,
and particle concentration.
! Established a method for identifying the origin of low
elevation ozone parcels by using vertical profiles of
different measured parameters
! Dr. Timothy Bertram
! Steve Schill
! Dr. Emily Schaller
! Rick Shetter
! NASA
! NSERC
UND
! DC-8 flight crew
! Bertram Group
" Abby, Allie, Harrison, Laith, Tori, Taia, Justin
! Dr. Barry Lefer
! Dr. Don Blake
! SARP 2014

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