You are on page 1of 10

24/03/14 20.14.48 https.//!

1. Why use the command-IIne?
2. StartIng a TermInaI
1. ¡n !nIty
2. ¡n Gnome
3. ¡n XIce (Xubuntu)
4. ¡n KУ (Kubuntu)
5. ¡n IXУ (Iubuntu)
3. Commands
1. sudo. £xecutIng Commands
wIth £Ievated IrIvIIeges
2. IIIe S ÐIrectory Commands
3. IunnIng a IIIe WIthIn a
4. System ¡nIormatIon
5. AddIng A Þew !ser
4. OptIons
5. "Man" and gettIng heIp
1. SearchIng Ior man IIIes
6. Other !seIuI ThIngs
1. IrettIer ManuaI Iages
2. IastIng In commands
3. Save on typIng
4. Change the text
7. More ways to run a termInaI
8. An extremeIy handy tooI ..
¡ncrementaI hIstory searchIng
9. Iow to create upsIdedown and/or
reverse text wIth your termInaI
10. More ¡nIormatIon
IogIn to edIt

Whг use the command-
"!nder IInux there are G!¡s (graphIcaI user InterIaces),
where you can poInt and cIIck and drag, and hopeIuIIy
get work done wIthout IIrst readIng Iots oI
documentatIon. The tradItIonaI !nIx envIronment Is a
CI¡ (command IIne InterIace), where you type commands
to teII the computer what to do. That Is Iaster and more
powerIuI , but requIres IIndIng out what the commands
-- Irom man I ntro(1 )
There are many varIetIes oI IInux, but aImost aII oI them
use sImIIar commands that can be entered Irom a
command-IIne InterIace termInaI.
There are aIso many graphIcaI user InterIaces (G!¡s),
but each oI them works dIIIerentIy and there Is IIttIe
standardIzatIon between them. £xperIenced users who
work wIth many dIIIerent IInux dIstrIbutIons thereIore
IInd It easIer to Iearn commands that can be used In aII
varIetIes oI !buntu and, Indeed, In other IInux
dIstrIbutIons as weII .
Ior the novIce, commands-IIne InterIace commands can
appear dauntIng.
sudo gobbìedegook bìah_bìah гw г1 гh ггìohgгsw11ch
Iowever, It Is Important to note that even experIenced
users oIten cut and paste commands (Irom a guIde or manuaI ) Into the command-IIne termInaI,
they do not memorIze them.
¡t Is Important, oI course, to know how to use the command-IIne termInaI - and anyone who can
manage typIng, backspacIng, and cuttIng and pastIng can manage the command-IIne termInaI (It
Is not more dIIIIcuIt than that).
ThIs page wIII outIIne a Iew craIty shortcuts whIch can make usIng a command-IIne InterIace
Start¡ng a Term¡naI
24/03/14 20.14.48 https.//!sIngTheTermInaI
1n 1n¡tг
!nIty Is the deIauIt Ðesktop £nvIronment used as oI 11.04. Where systems are not ready Ior !nIty
they revert to Gnome whIch Is aIso used In prevIous reIeases such as !buntu 10.04 ITS (IucId),
see next sub-sectIon.
The easIest way to open the TermInaI Is to use the 'search' IunctIon on the dash. Or you can cIIck
on the 'More Apps' button, cIIck on the 'See more resuIts' by the InstaIIed sectIon, and IInd It In
that IIst oI appIIcatIons. A thIrd way, avaIIabIe aIter you cIIck on the 'More Apps' button, Is to go to
the search bar, and see that the Iar rIght end oI It says 'AII AppIIcatIons'. You then cIIck on that,
and you'II see the IuII IIst. Then you can go to AccessorIes > TermInaI aIter that. So, the methods
In !nIty are.
Dash -> Search for Term¡naI
Dash -> More Apps -> 'See More BesuIts' -> Term¡naI
Dash -> More Apps -> Accessor¡es -> Term¡naI
Keгboard Shortcut: CtrI + AIt + T
1n Gnome
Gnome Is the CIassIc Ðesktop £nvIronment Ior !buntu 11.04 (Þatty) and Is the deIauIt У In
earIIer reIeases, such as !buntu 10.04 ITS (IucId).
AppI¡cat¡ons menu -> Accessor¡es -> Term¡naI.
Keгboard Shortcut: CtrI + AIt + T
1n Xfce {Xubuntu)
AppI¡cat¡ons menu -> Sгstem -> Term¡naI .
Keгboard Shortcut: Super + T
1n KDE {Kubuntu)
KMenu -> Sгstem -> Term¡naI Program {KonsoIe).
1n 1XDE {1ubuntu)
Menu -> Accessor¡es -> 1XTerm¡naI .
sudo: Execut¡ng Commands w¡th EIevated Pr¡v¡Ieges
Most oI the IoIIowIng commands wIII need to be preIaced wIth the sudo command. ThIs
eIevates prIvIIeges to the root-user admInIstratIve IeveI temporarIIy, whIch Is necessary when
workIng wIth dIrectorIes or IIIes not owned by your user account. When usIng sudo you wIII
be prompted Ior your password. OnIy users wIth sudo (admInIstratIve) prIvIIeges wIII be abIe
to use thIs command. You shouId never use normaI sudo to start graphIcaI appIIcatIons as
Ioot (IIease see IootSudo Ior more InIormatIon on usIng sudo correctIy.)
1¡Ie & D¡rectorг Commands
24/03/14 20.14.48 https.//!sIngTheTermInaI
The tIIde (-) symboI stands Ior your home dIrectory. ¡I you are user, then the tIIde (-) stands
Ior /home/user
pwd. The pwd command wIII aIIow you to know In whIch dIrectory you're Iocated (pwd stands
Ior "prInt workIng dIrectory"). £xampIe. "pwd" In the Ðesktop dIrectory wIII show "-/
Ðesktop". Þote that the Gnome TermInaI aIso dIspIays thIs InIormatIon In the tItIe bar oI Its
wIndow. A useIuI gnemonIc Is "present workIng dIrectory."
Is. The Is command wIII show you ('IIst') the IIIes In your current dIrectory. !sed wIth certaIn
optIons, you can see sIzes oI IIIes, when IIIes were made, and permIssIons oI IIIes. £xampIe.
"Is -" wIII show you the IIIes that are In your home dIrectory.
cd. The cd command wIII aIIow you to change dIrectorIes. When you open a termInaI you wIII
be In your home dIrectory. To move around the IIIe system you wIII use cd. £xampIes.
To navIgate Into the root dIrectory, use "cd }"
To navIgate to your home dIrectory, use "cd" or "cd -"
To navIgate up one dIrectory IeveI , use "cd .."
To navIgate to the prevIous dIrectory (or back), use "cd -"
To navIgate through muItIpIe IeveIs oI dIrectory at once, specIIy the IuII dIrectory path
that you want to go to. Ior exampIe, use, "cd }var}www" to go dIrectIy to the /www
subdIrectory oI /var/. As another exampIe, "cd -}Desktop" wIII move you to the Ðesktop
subdIrectory InsIde your home dIrectory.
cp. The cp command wIII make a copy oI a IIIe Ior you. £xampIe. "cp f¡Ie foo" wIII make an
exact copy oI "IIIe" and name It "Ioo", but the IIIe "IIIe" wIII stIII be there. ¡I you are copyIng
a dIrectory, you must use "cp -r d¡rectorг foo" (copy recursIveIy). (To understand what
"recursIveIy" means, thInk oI It thIs way. to copy the dIrectory and aII Its IIIes and
subdIrectorIes and aII theIr IIIes and subdIrectorIes oI the subdIrectorIes and aII theIr IIIes,
and on and on, "recursIveIy")
mv. The mv command wIII move a IIIe to a dIIIerent IocatIon or wIII rename a IIIe. £xampIes
are as IoIIows. "mv f¡Ie foo" wIII rename the IIIe "IIIe" to "Ioo". "mv foo -}Desktop" wIII
move the IIIe "Ioo" to your Ðesktop dIrectory but wIII not rename It. You must specIIy a new
IIIe name to rename a IIIe.
To save on typIng, you can substItute '-' In pIace oI the home dIrectory.
Þote that II you are usIng mv wIth sudo you can use the - shortcut, because the
termInaI expands the - to your home dIrectory. Iowever, when you open a root sheII
wIth sudo -¡ or sudo -s, - wIII reIer to the root account's home dIrectory, not your
rm. !se thIs command to remove or deIete a IIIe In your dIrectory.
rmd¡r. The rmd¡r command wIII deIete an empty dIrectory. To deIete a dIrectory and aII oI
Its contents recursIveIy, use rm -r Instead.
mkd¡r. The mkd¡r command wIII aIIow you to create dIrectorIes. £xampIe. "mkd¡r mus¡c"
wIII create a dIrectory caIIed "musIc".
man. The man command Is used to show you the manuaI oI other commands. Try "man
man" to get the man page Ior man ItseII. See the "Man S GettIng IeIp" sectIon down the
page Ior more InIormatIon.
sudo. The sudo command Is used to perIorm IIIe operatIons on IIIes that the Boot 1ser
wouId onIy be aIIowed to change. An exampIe wouId be tryIng to move one oI your documents
that another user accIdentaIIy moved to } back to your documents dIrectory. ÞormaIIy, to
move the IIIe, you wouId type mv }mгdoc.odt -}Documents}mгdoc.odt, but you are not
aIIowed to modIIy IIIes outsIde oI your home dIrectory. To get around thIs, you wouId type
sudo mv }mгdoc.odt -}Documents}mгdoc.odt. ThIs wIII successIuIIy move the IIIe back to
Its correct IocatIon, provIded that you are not a standard user, who has Iess (admInIstratIve)
24/03/14 20.14.48 https.//!sIngTheTermInaI
abIIIty than an adm¡n¡strator. Ðe aware, though, that by usIng the sudo command, you
need to be extra careIuI. ¡t Is easIer to damage your system by usIng the sudo command.
Ior more InIormatIon about the sudo command, cIIck here.
Bunn¡ng a 1¡Ie W¡th¡n a D¡rectorг
So you've decIded to run a IIIe usIng the command-IIne? WeII... there's a command Ior that too!
AIter navIgatIng to the IIIe's parent dIrectory, thIs command wIII enabIe any !buntu user to parse
IIIes compIIed vIa gcc or any other programmIng Ianguage. Keep ¡n m¡nd that the 'extens¡on'
w¡II varг depend¡ng upon the Ianguage the source code ¡s wr¡tten ¡n. Ior exampIe. ".c" Ior
C source, ".cpp" Ior C++, ".rb" Ior Iuby, ".py" Ior python, etc. AIso, remember that (In the case
oI Interpreted Ianguages IIke Iuby S Iython) you must have a versI on oI that I anguage I nstaI I ed
on !buntu beIore tryI ng to run II I es wrI tten wI th I t.
Sгstem 1nformat¡on Commands
df. The df command dIspIays IIIesystem dIsk space usage Ior aII mounted partItIons. "df -h"
Is probabIy the most useIuI - It uses megabytes (M) and gIgabytes (G) Instead oI bIocks to
report. (-h means "human-readabIe")
du. The du command dIspIays the dIsk usage Ior a dIrectory. ¡t can eIther dIspIay the space
used Ior aII subdIrectorIes or the totaI Ior the dIrectory you run It on. £xampIe.
useJ_useJsгdesk1op.-$ du /med1a/1ìoppy
1032 /med1a/1ìoppy/11ìes
1036 /med1a/1ìoppy/
useJ_useJsгdesk1op.-$ du гsh /med1a/1ìoppy
1.1h /med1a/1ìoppy/
-s means "Summary" and -h means "Iuman IeadabIe"
free. The free command dIspIays the amount oI Iree and used memory In the system. "free -
m" wIII gIve the InIormatIon usIng megabytes, whIch Is probabIy most useIuI Ior current
top. The top ('tabIe oI processes') command dIspIays InIormatIon on your IInux system,
runnIng processes and system resources, IncIudIng CI!, IAM S swap usage and totaI
number oI tasks beIng run. To exIt top, press "q".
uname -a. The uname command wIth the -a optIon prInts aII system InIormatIon, IncIudIng
machIne name, kerneI name S versIon, and a Iew other detaIIs. Most useIuI Ior checkIng
whIch kerneI you're usIng.
Isb_reIease -a. The Isb_reIease command wIth the -a optIon prInts versIon InIormatIon Ior
the IInux reIease you're runnIng, Ior exampIe.
useJ_compu1eJ.-$ ìsb_Jeìease гa
ho LSB moduìes aJe ava1ìabìe.
01s1J1bu1oJ T0. bbuh1u
0escJ1p11oh. bbuh1u 11.10
Reìease. 11.10
Codehame. ohe1J1c
¡p addr reports on your system's network InterIaces.
Add¡ng A New 1ser
"adduser newuser" command wIII create a new generaI user caIIed "newuser" on your
system, and to assIgn a password Ior the newuser account use "passwd newuser".
24/03/14 20.14.48 https.//!sIngTheTermInaI
The deIauIt behavIour Ior a command may usuaIIy be modIIIed by addIng a --optI on to the
command. The Is command Ior exampIe has an -s optIon so that "Is -s" wIII IncIude IIIe sIzes In
the IIstIng. There Is aIso a -h optIon to get those sIzes In a "human readabIe" Iormat.
OptIons can be grouped In cIusters so "Is -sh" Is exactIy the same command as "Is -s -h". Most
optIons have a Iong versIon, preIIxed wIth two dashes Instead oI one, so even "Is --s¡ze --human-
readabIe" Is the same command.
"Man" and gett¡ng heIp
man command, ¡nfo command and command --heIp are the most Important tooIs at the
command IIne.
ÞearIy every command and appIIcatIon In IInux wIII have a man (manuaI ) IIIe, so IIndIng them Is
as sImpIe as typIng "man "command"" to brIng up a Ionger manuaI entry Ior the specIIIed
command. Ior exampIe, "man mv" wIII brIng up the mv (Move) manuaI .
Move up and down the man IIIe wIth the arrow keys, and quIt back to the command prompt wIth
"man man" wIII brIng up the manuaI entry Ior the man command, whIch Is a good pIace to start!
"man ¡ntro" Is especIaIIy useIuI - It dIspIays the "¡ntroductIon to user commands" whIch Is a weII-
wrItten, IaIrIy brIeI IntroductIon to the IInux command IIne.
There are aIso ¡nfo pages, whIch are generaIIy more In-depth than man pages. Try "¡nfo ¡nfo" Ior
the IntroductIon to InIo pages.
Some soItware deveIopers preIer ¡nfo to man (Ior Instance, GÞ! deveIopers), so II you IInd a very
wIdeIy used command or app that doesn't have a man page, It's worth checkIng Ior an ¡nfo page.
VIrtuaIIy aII commands understand the -h (or --heIp) optIon whIch wIII produce a short usage
descrIptIon oI the command and It's optIons, then exIt back to the command prompt. Try "man -
h" or "man --heIp" to see thIs In actIon.
Caveat. ¡t's possIbIe (but rare) that a program doesn't understand the -h optIon to mean heIp. Ior
thIs reason, check Ior a man or I nIo page IIrst, and try the Iong optIon --heIp beIore -h.
Search¡ng for man f¡Ies
¡I you aren't sure whIch command or appIIcatIon you need to use, you can try searchIng the man
man -k Ioo wIII search the man IIIes Ior Ioo. Try "man -k naut¡Ius" to see how thIs works.
Þote that thIs Is the same as doIng apropos command.
man -f Ioo searches onIy the tItIes oI your system's man IIIes. Try "man -f gnome", Ior
Þote that thIs Is the same as doIng what¡s command.
Other 1sefuI Th¡ngs
Prett¡er ManuaI Pages
!sers who have Konqueror InstaIIed wIII be pIeased to IInd they can read and search man pages In
a web browser context, prettIIIed wIth theIr chosen desktop Ionts and a IIttIe coIour, by vIsItIng
24/03/14 20.14.48 https.//!sIngTheTermInaI
man:}command In Konqueror's address bar. Some peopIe mIght IInd thIs IIghtens the Ioad II
there's Iots oI documentatIon to read/search.
Past¡ng ¡n commands
OIten, you wIII be reIerred to InstructIons that requIre commands to be pasted Into the termInaI.
You mIght be wonderIng why the text you've copIed Irom a web page usIng ctrI+C won't paste In
wIth ctrI+V. SureIy you don't have to type In aII those nasty commands and IIIenames? IeIax. ctrI
+sh¡ft+V pastes Into a Gnome termInaI, you can aIso do MIddIe Ðutton CIIck on your mouse (both
buttons sImuItaneousIy on a two-button mouse) or IIght CIIck and seIect Iaste Irom the menu.
Iowever, II you want to avoId the mouse and yet paste It, use "ShIIt+¡nsert", to paste the
command. ¡I you have to copy It Irom another termInaI / webpage, you can use "CtrI+¡nsert" to
Save on tгp¡ng
1p Arrow
or ctrI+p
ScroIIs through the commands you've entered prevIousIy.
Arrow or
Takes you back to a more recent command.
Enter When you have the command you want.
A very useIuI Ieature. ¡t autocompIetes any commands or IIIenames, II there's onIy
one optIon, or eIse gIves you a IIst oI optIons.
Searches Ior commands you've aIready typed. When you have entered a very Iong,
compIex command and need to repeat It, usIng thIs key combInatIon and then typIng
a portIon oI the command wIII search through your command hIstory. When you IInd
It, sImpIy press Enter.
The h¡storг command shows a very Iong IIst oI commands that you have typed. £ach
command Is dIspIayed next to a number. You can type Ix to execute a prevIousIy
typed command Irom the IIst (repIace the X wIth a number). ¡I you h¡storг output Is
too Iong, then use h¡storг ] Iess Ior a scroIIabIe IIst.
£xampIe. you ran h¡storг and Iound you want to use command 1967 . SImpIy enter
Change the text
The mouse won't work. !se the IeIt/IIght arrow keys to move around the IIne.
When the cursor Is where you want It In the IIne, typIng Inserts text - Ie It doesn't overtype what's
aIready there.
ctrI+a or Home Moves the cursor to the start oI a IIne.
ctrI+e or End Moves the cursor to the end oI a IIne.
24/03/14 20.14.48 https.//!sIngTheTermInaI
esc+b Moves to the begInnIng oI the prevIous or current word.
ctrI+k ÐeIetes Irom the current cursor posItIon to the end oI the IIne.
ctrI+u ÐeIetes Irom the start oI the IIne to the current cursor posItIon.
ctrI+w ÐeIetes the word beIore the cursor.
aIt+b Goes back one word at a tIme.
aIt+f Moves Iorward one word at a tIme.
aIt+c CapItaIIzes Ietter where cursor Is and moves to end oI word.
More waгs to run a term¡naI
You can aIso get It wIth a IunctIon key
You can run more than one - In tabs or separate wIndows
You can aIso InstaII guake (Gnome), tIIda (XIC£ / IXУ) or yakuake (KУ) and have a termInaI
whIch appears and hIdes on shortcut key. ThIs can be partIcuIarIy useIuI II you use termInaI a Iot
An extremeIг handг tooI :: 1ncrementaI
h¡storг search¡ng
In termInaI enter.
ged11 -/.1hpu1Jc
then copy paste and save
"\e|A". h1s1oJyгseaJchгbackwaJd
"\e|B". h1s1oJyгseaJchг1oJwaJd
"\e|C". 1oJwaJdгchaJ
"\e|0". backwaJdгchaJ
IIOM now on and manг agree th¡s ¡s the most usefuI term¡naI tooI saves you a Iot oI
wrItIng/memorIzIng... aII you need to do to IInd a prevIous command Is to enter say the IIrst 2
or 3 Ietters and upward arrow wIII take you there quIckIy say I want.
1oJ 1 1h *.m1d , do 11m1d11y "$1", dohe
aII I need to do Is enter
and hIt upward arrow command wIII soon appear
How to create ups¡dedown and}or reverse
text w¡th гour term¡naI
24/03/14 20.14.48 https.//!sIngTheTermInaI
II you wIsh or need to ever IIIp text upsIde down |vertIcaI IIIp| "umop opIsdn )xo) dIj¡" or/and
create reverse text here Is a termInaI way to achIeve thIs
Copy Iaste and Save as IIIp.pI In your home IoIder the IoIIowIng |Thanx to Iars Þooden Ior scrIpt|
use s1J1c1,
use waJh1hgs,
use u118,
b1hmode{ST00bT, ".u118"),
my º1ì1pTabìe = {
"a" => "\x{0250}",
"b" => "q",
"c" => "\x{0254}",
"d" => "p",
"e" => "\x{0100}",
"1" => "\x{025F}",
"g" => "\x{0183}",
"h" => "\x{0265}",
"1" => "\x{0131}",
"¸" => "\x{027E}",
"k" => "\x{029E}",
"ì" => "]",
"m" => "\x{026F}",
"h" => "u",
"o" => "o",
"p" => "d",
"q" => "b",
"J" => "\x{0279}",
"s" => "s",
"1" => "\x{0287}",
"u" => "h",
"v" => "\x{028C}",
"w" => "\x{0280}",
"x" => "x",
"y" => "\x{028E}",
"z" => "z",
"A" => "\x{0250}",
"B" => "q",
"C" => "\x{0254}",
"0" => "p",
"E" => "\x{0100}",
"F" => "\x{025F}",
"C" => "\x{0183}",
"h" => "\x{0265}",
"T" => "\x{0131}",
"J" => "\x{027E}",
"K" => "\x{029E}",
"L" => "]",
"h" => "\x{026F}",
"h" => "u",
"0" => "o",
"P" => "d",
"0" => "b",
"R" => "\x{0279}",
"S" => "s",
"T" => "\x{0287}",
"b" => "h",
"v" => "\x{028C}",
"W" => "\x{0280}",
"X" => "x",
"Y" => "\x{028E}",
"Z" => "z",
"." => "\x{0209}",
"|" => "]",
"`" => ",",
"," => "`",
"{" => ")",
"{" => "}",
"?" => "\x{00BF}",
24/03/14 20.14.48 https.//!sIngTheTermInaI
"!" => "\x{00A1}",
"\"" => ",",
"<" => ">",
"_" => "\x{203E}",
"," => "\x{061B}",
"\x{203F}" => "\x{2040}",
"\x{2045}" => "\x{2046}",
"\x{2234}" => "\x{2235}",
"\J" => "\h",
" " => " "
wh1ìe { <> ) {
my $s1J1hg = JeveJse{ $_ ),
wh1ìe {$s1J1hg =- /{.)/g) {
pJ1h1 $1ì1pTabìe{$1},
pJ1h1 qq{\h),
Then to set It up
sudo mv 1ì1p.pì /b1h/
cd /b1h/
sudo chowh youJuseJhame 1ì1p.pì && sudo chmod +x 1ì1p.pì
then open termInaI enter
peJì /b1h/1ì1p.pì
wrIte what you want and hIt return
Copy and paste wherever you want text document or Internet Iorum etc...
±o)uo pu¤ )u¤m non )¤qm o)I±m o)o un±o¡ )ou±o)uI ±o )uounoop )xo) )u¤m non ±ono±oqm
o)s¤d pu¤ ndoo
II you want to reverse back to Iront wrIte your text In text edItor save as mytext to home
IoIder then enter
Jev my1ex1
copy and paste the resuIt tIuser eht etsap dna ypoc and oI course you can combIne both Ior
truIy cryptIc resuIts oodn ¤up d¤s)o )qo ±osnj)
More 1nformat¡on
AptGetIowto - usIng apt-get to InstaII packages Irom the command IIne.
CommandIIne IeposItory £dItIng - addIng the !nIverse/MuItIverse reposItorIes through the
command IIne.
grep Iowto - grep Is a powerIuI command IIne search tooI.
IInd Iowto - Iocate IIIes on the command IIne.
CommandIIneIowto - Ionger and more compIete than thIs basIc guIde, but stIII unIInIshed.
IowToIeadIIne - InIormatIon on some more advanced customIzatIon Ior the command IIne.
Ior more detaIIed tutorIaIs on the IInux command IIne, pIease see.
24/03/14 20.14.48 https.//!sIngTheTermInaI
http.// - A begInners guIde to eIIectIve use oI the command IIne.
http.//ÐashGuIde - Ðash guIde suItabIe Ior begInners. One oI the Iew to
aIso teach good practIce.
http.// - basIc ÐASI tutorIaIs, IncIudIng ÐASI scrIptIng
http.// - java-based tutorIaIs
http.// - a massIve onIIne book about system admInIstratIon,
aImost aII Irom the command IIne.
http.// - a good IIst a commands.
http.// - IIstIng oI 3 heIpIuI sItes Irom begInner to advanced scrIptIng
!buntuguIde -- concIse and up-to-date InIormatIon Ior both command-IIne and G!¡ users oI
KubuntuguIde -- concIse and up-to-date InIormatIon Ior both command-IIne and G!¡ users oI
Iead back to !serÐocumentatIon
!sIngTheTermInaI (Iast edIted 2013-10-27 04.57.19 by p-ryan @ IocaIhost||.p-ryan)