Oluwadele Oluwaseun Deborah
University of Kwazulu-atal !estville
De$art#ent of %nfor#ation &yste#s
and 'ana(e#ent
&$e)ial *o$i)s in %nfor#ation &yste#s
+onours 2,14
*he world ri(ht now is a #ar-et
$la)e of %nfor#ation and
subse.uently/ its te)hnolo(y0
Unli-e in the 11
%nfor#ation is now a very vital $art
of an or(anization2s asset0 *he 21

)entury has witnessed the
evolution of %nfor#ation
te)hnolo(y and even now/ %* is still
witnessin( e3$onential (rowth0
4ro# the e#er(en)e of the #obile
)loud/ fro# internet of thin(s to
web of thin(s/ fro# bi( data to
e3tre#e data/ and 5-6overn#ent7
these (lobal %* trends )o#e with
their dar- shadows0 % a# (oin( to
be writin( about three #a8or (lobal
%* trends and their )urrent and
$otential ne(ative use0 *hese
trends are7
10 "loud "o#$utin(
20 5-6overn#ent
30 &#art and "onne)ted
1. Cloud Computing
Cloud computing is an internet-
based model of computing where
the shared information, software
and resources are provided to
computers and other devices upon
demand. This enables the end user
to access the cloud computing
resources anytime from any
platform such as a cell phone,
mobile computing platform or the
desktop. The data and the software
applications required by the users
are not stored on their own
computers; instead they are stored
on remote servers which are under
the control of other hosts. The
users are not necessarily aware
about which server running on
which host is providing the service.
The current major cloud service
providers are icrosoft, !ewlett
"ackard, #$, %alesforce, &ma'on
and (oogle.

The dark side of Cloud
& major disadvantage in cloud
computing is that it is under the
maintenance and supervision of a
third party. !ence the
con)dentiality and security
measures are less secured. The
state of preventing a system from
vulnerable attacks is considered as
the system*s security. %ecurity risks
involved with the governmental
use of cloud computing have
various risk factors. %even
important identity factors for risk in
a cloud computing model are+
&ccess, &vailability, and ,etwork
load, #ntegrity, -ata %ecurity, -ata
.ocation and -ata %egregation /01.
2f all these, # shall emphasis
!! Access
#n a private organi'ation only the
authenticated users are allowed
access to the data. $ut over the
cloud, data could be available over
the internet to unauthori'ed
persons. 3hen there is
access from an internal to e4ternal
source, the possibility of risk is
more in case of sensitive data.
%egregation of the data is very
important in cloud computing as
the data is distributed over a
network of physical devices. -ata
corruption arises if appropriate
segregation is not maintained.
Currently, there are no federal
policies addressing how
government information is
accessed. #n all organi'ation,
corporate data is a very valuable
asset and should be accorded due
con)dentiality, privacy and
security. & related concern is that
many nations have laws requiring
%aa% providers to keep customer
data and copyrighted material
within national boundaries.
%imilarly, there is the possibility of
a country getting access to the
data of some businesses via the
court system; for e4ample, a
5uropean customer might be
concerned about using %aa% in the
6nited %tates given the 6%&
"&T7#2T &ct.
The main drawback is the security
issues related to storing of
con)dential information in the
cloud. &s all information is
available via internet if taken to the
cloud, there may be concerns with
breach of con)dential information.
$esides, the following are
i. There is a tendency for some
)rms to lose their control
over the piled up information
in the cloud.
ii. The legal issues including
ownership of abstraction on
the location data of cloud
iii. Cloud computing also poses
problems in terms of
insurance, especially when a
company submits an
operating loss due to failure
of the supplier. 3here one
company covering a risk, the
insurance company o8ering
the cloud architecture takes
more, slowing sharply
iv. The customer service of
cloud computing becomes
dependent on the quality of
the network to access this
service. ,o cloud service
provider can guarantee 099:
"! E#$o%ernment
E#go%ernment ;electronic
government< also known as
#nternet government, digital
government, online government, or
connected government can be
de)ned as web-based services
from agencies of federal, state or
local government. #t involves the
government or its appointed
agencies making use of information
technology, especially the internet
to engage citi'ens, support
government operations and
provide government services /=1.
5ssentially, e-government delivery
models can be brie>y summed up
#. (=C ;government to citi'ens<
##. (=$ ;government to
###. (=5 ;government to
#?. (=( ;government to
?. C=( ;citi'ens to
This digital interaction consists of
governance, information and
communication technology,
business process re-engineering
and e-citi'en at all levels of
government ;city, state@province,
national, and international<.
The Dark Sides of E#
There are many considerations and
potential implications of
implementing and designing e-
government, including
disintermediation of the
government and its citi'ens,
impacts on economic, social, and
political factors, vulnerability to
cyber attacks and disturbances to
the status .uo in these areas /A1.
I! H&per#sur%eillance
#ncreased contact between
government and its citi'ens goes
both ways. 2nce e-government
begins to develop and become
more sophisticated, citi'ens will be
forced to interact electronically
with the government on a larger
scale. This could potentially lead to
a lack of privacy for civilians as
their government obtains more and
more information on them. #n a
worst-case scenario, with so much
information being passed
electronically between government
and civilians, a totalitarian-like
system could develop. 3hen the
government has easy access to
countless information of its
citi'ens, personal privacy is lost /B1
II! Cost
&lthough a prodigious amount of
money has been spent on the
development and implementation
of e-government it has yielded only
a mediocre product. The outcomes
and e8ects of trial #nternet-based
governments are often diDcult to
gauge or unsatisfactory /E1.

&ccording to (artner, 3orldwide #T
spending is estimated to total FA.E
trillion in =900 which is C.0:
increase from the year =909 ;FA.B
trillion< /G1.
III! Inaccessi'ilit&
&n e-government site that provides
web access and support often does
not o8er the Hpotential to reach
many users including those who
live in remote areas, are
homebound, have low literacy
levels, e4ist on poverty line
incomes /I1.
I(! )alse sense of
transparenc& and
2pponents of e-government argue
that online governmental
transparency is dubious because it
is maintained by the governments
themselves. #nformation can be
added or removed from the public
eye. To this day, very few
organi'ations monitor and provide
accountability for these
modi)cations. Those that do so,
like the 6nited %tates* 2$3atch
/J1 and (overnment &ccountability
"rojects are often nonpro)t
volunteers. 5ven the governments
themselves do not always keep
track of the information they insert
and delete /091.
A. Smart and Connected
%mart cards are plastic cards
with computer chips embedded
in them. #t could hold
information like personal
identity, medical history and
insurance information. This
information can only be
accessed by speciali'ed
readers. The goal of the %mart
and Connected !ealth ;%C!<
"rogram is to accelerate the
development and use of
innovative approaches that
would support the much needed
transformation of healthcare
from reactive and hospital-
centered to preventive,
proactive, evidence-based,
person-centered and focused on
well-being rather than disease.
The Dark Sides of Smart
and Connected
2ne unifying theme of these
visions involves technology
enabling optimi'ed care
decisions by bringing all
relevant evidence pertaining to
the particular patient to the
point of care anywhere and
anytime and in user-appropriate
forms for all members of the
care team, including the
patient. The technical
challenges include
normali'ation and
harmoni'ation of electronic
health records ;5!7s<;
e4traction and representation of
data, information, and
knowledge from diverse
unstructured sources; large-
scale data collection and
predictive modeling; and new
approaches for protecting
privacy and security. %ocio-
cultural, economic, legal,
political, and ethical challenges
can amplify or mitigate
technical challenges of
achieving this vision. $elow are
some of the dark sides of smart
and connected healthcare;
i! *ri%ac& Issues
The more hospitals and
physicians begin to settle in
for this new technology,
access to individual health
records will be made easier
and faster, a stranger who
has access to a portable
reader can scan a person*s
card and )nd out everything
about their health care and
insurance information, some
companies, for e4ample
insurance companies may
o8er monetary rewards for
information accessed from
smart cards. & health care
employee with access to
patient*s information may act
unethically by soliciting vital
health records about a
person of interest to
companies illegally in a bid to
made quick money. The
government may have
access to people*s
information and use it
unconstitutionally; the card
may for instance be used as
a tracking device for a person
with contagious disease, for
e4ample 5bola.
ii! Impact on personal
li%es and 'eha%ior
& family may do some
preliminary interview about a
prospective suitor*s medical
history, )nd out the suitor
has, for e4ample, epilepsy
and therefore cancel all ties
with such a man. This is just
a hilarious e4ample of how
some may not want to
engage in friendship or
serious relationship
cardholder because of the
information they have
discovered from their card.
0. ?2(5.%, 3. & !ead in the
CloudsKThe "ower of
#nfrastructure as a %ervice. #n
Lirst workshop on Cloud
Computing and in
&pplications ;CC& *9I<
;2ctober =99I<
=. Meong Chun !ai N#brahim.
;=99G<. 4unda#ental of
Develo$#ent 9d#inistration0
%elangor+ %cholar "ress.
A. &tkinson, 7obert -.; Castro,
-aniel ;=99I<. Di(ital :uality
of ;ife ;"-L<. The #nformation
Technology and #nnovation
Loundation. pp. 0AGO0BC.
B. .yman, May ;=99E-9=-90<.
H&TPT %ued for 7ole in &iding
6% (overnment
Tech,ews3orld. 7etrieved
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(overnment %i4 onths to
Turn #nternet and "hone
%ystems into "ermanent
%pying &rchitectureH. 3ired.
7etrieved =99I-9=-=I.
E. HThe pros and cons of e-
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7etrieved =99J-9A-9A.
J. Hombwatch.orgH. 7etrieved
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