VERTEBRAL VERTEBRAL

COLUMN COLUMN
THORACIC VERTEBRAE THORACIC VERTEBRAE
(Human Osteology) (Human Osteology)
Typical Typical
T2 T2- -R8 (T Coetzee) R8 (T Coetzee)
Body Body
–– Heart shaped Heart shaped
–– Demi Demi- -facets for heads of the ribs facets for heads of the ribs –– Demi Demi- -facets for heads of the ribs facets for heads of the ribs
–– Superior costal facet Superior costal facet- -for lower facet of head of for lower facet of head of
same no rib same no rib
–– Inferior costal facet Inferior costal facet- -for upper facet of head of for upper facet of head of
succeeding rib succeeding rib
Vertebral foramina Vertebral foramina
–– Are the smallest in entire v/c Are the smallest in entire v/c
Typical Typical
Pedicles Pedicles
––Flattened from side to side Flattened from side to side
Inferior vertebral notch Inferior vertebral notch
––Deeper than superior notch Deeper than superior notch ––Deeper than superior notch Deeper than superior notch
Laminae Laminae
––Short, broad, imbricated (overlap) Short, broad, imbricated (overlap)
Spinous processes Spinous processes
––Long, slopes inferiorly Long, slopes inferiorly
Typical Typical
Transverse processes Transverse processes
––Rounded extremities Rounded extremities
––Ant=small round costal facet for Ant=small round costal facet for
tubercle of same no rib tubercle of same no rib tubercle of same no rib tubercle of same no rib
––Superior facet Superior facet- -directed posteriorly directed posteriorly
––Inferior facet Inferior facet- -directed inferiorly directed inferiorly
AAtypical typical
T1,9,10,11,12 (T Coetzee) T1,9,10,11,12 (T Coetzee)
T1 T1
Whole facets sup: for head of R1 Whole facets sup: for head of R1
Demi Demi- -facets inf: for upper facet of R2 facets inf: for upper facet of R2 Demi Demi- -facets inf: for upper facet of R2 facets inf: for upper facet of R2
Rest is typical Rest is typical
T9 T9
Typical except for: Typical except for:
Has a large demi Has a large demi- -facet on the upper part of its facet on the upper part of its
body for R9 body for R9
AAtypical typical
T10,11,12 T10,11,12
Whole facets on each side of the body & pedicles for the Whole facets on each side of the body & pedicles for the
same no rib same no rib
T10 T10 also has a facet on its transverse process for the also has a facet on its transverse process for the
tubercles of R10 tubercles of R10
T11,T12 T11,T12 have no facets on transverse processes have no facets on transverse processes
–– Have sup, inf & lateral tubercles corresponding to the Have sup, inf & lateral tubercles corresponding to the –– Have sup, inf & lateral tubercles corresponding to the Have sup, inf & lateral tubercles corresponding to the
mamillary, accessory transverse procecesses of the lumbar mamillary, accessory transverse procecesses of the lumbar
vertebrae. vertebrae.
T11 compared to T12 T11 compared to T12
T11 T11 inferior articular process is thoracic and points inferior articular process is thoracic and points
inferiorly inferiorly
T12 T12 inferior articular process is lumbar in appearance inferior articular process is lumbar in appearance
VERTEBRAL VERTEBRAL
COLUMN COLUMN
LUMBAR VERTEBRAE LUMBAR VERTEBRAE
(Human Osteology) (Human Osteology)
Typical Typical
L1 L1- -44 (T Coetzee) (T Coetzee)
Body Body
––Largest in v/c Largest in v/c
––Kidney shaped Kidney shaped ––Kidney shaped Kidney shaped
––Wider side to side Wider side to side
Vertebral foramina Vertebral foramina
––Intermediate size i.e betw cx & tx Intermediate size i.e betw cx & tx
Typical Typical
Pedicles Pedicles
––Flattened from sup to inf Flattened from sup to inf
Inferior vertebral notch Inferior vertebral notch
––Not equal compared to thoracic Not equal compared to thoracic ––Not equal compared to thoracic Not equal compared to thoracic
Laminae Laminae
––Short, do not overlap Short, do not overlap
Spinous processes Spinous processes
––Massive, do not overlap Massive, do not overlap
Typical Typical
Transverse processes Transverse processes
––Flattened Flattened
––Accessory process Accessory process
––Mamillary process Mamillary process ––Mamillary process Mamillary process
AATypical Typical
L5 L5 (T Coetzee) (T Coetzee)
–– Deeper in front coinciding with the sacral angle Deeper in front coinciding with the sacral angle
–– Characteristic feature: wide separation of the Characteristic feature: wide separation of the
inferior articular processes to articulate with inferior articular processes to articulate with
the sacrum the sacrum the sacrum the sacrum
Transverse process Transverse process
–– Short Short
–– Pyramidal Pyramidal
Spinous process Spinous process
–– Small Small
–– Rounded Rounded